Newspaper Page Text
Joenhtg |H as
With Sunday Mamina Mltlnn Published bp THI EVENING STfJI NIWSPAMR COMPANY WASHINGTON }, D. C Samuel H. KsuHmann Rrtudmt Banjamin M. McKslway . Hit* ] MAIN OtFICEi 2nd Si. and VUgrnta Avonug S I (3) NEW YO*K: 343 Modi ton A.a 117) CHICAGO. 331 N la Soda Si ll) DttSOIT, Now Cental SwHdina 12) SAN FRANCISCO* Sum SulMina (4) IOS ANOCIESi 3243 Wail SNi Si. IS) EUROPEAN SUREAU' PARIS. PRANCE: 2) Rua Da tain Da lira rad by Carriar Evening and Sunday Sunday Evsnine Monthly . I*s Pa. li.ua JO Monthly 1.30 Weakly .43 Weakly M Night Pinal and Sunday 200 Nlgtil Pinal Only 1.40 Rates bp Mail—Payable la Advance Anywhoro in tho Unirod Stata* fvoning and Sunday Sunday Ivoning 1 yaar 28 00 I yaar 12.00 I voar 18 00 4 months ~..14 50 A month* ... 650 A month* t. 25 8 month* 750 3 months .. 350 3 month* ... 473 1 month .... 2AO 1 month 130 1 month .... 200 Toloohonat Lincoln 3-3000 Kntorod at tho Post Offico. Washington 0 C. _ a* socond rigs* moil mottor Member of the Associated Pratt The Associated Pros, a entitled exclusively ta iha use ter republicotion at all the locol newt printed In this newspaper as wall os A, P newt dispatches A-14 * TUESDAY, MARCH 24, 1959 "Assault' on Treasury House Republicans have charged that Representative Spence’s bill pro viding low-interest loans to municipal ities is a “new, needless blllion-dollar budget-busting assault on the Treasury.” We suppose that the normal partisan discount rate should be applied to this accusation. Nevertheless, there is some thing to be said for the Republican claim. Mr. Spence, a Kentucky Democrat, Is chairman of the House Banking Com mittee and is a responsible legislator. He thinks the Federal Government should lend up to $1 billion to munici palities, chiefly for such things as water and sewage systems, at a maximum in terest rate of two and % per cent. Mr. Spence argues that the need for these programs is real, but that without Fed eral loans they probably cannot be built since “many of our cities already are in serious financial straits.” There is no doubt that this is true, as far as it goes. But it overlooks the fact that the Federal Government also is in serious financial straits. Repub lican Representative Kilbum points out that the Treasury now is offering $2 billion in 10-year bonds and four-year notes at 4 per cent interest. “To bor row at 4 per cent,” he says, “and then to relend at two and % per cent is a sure way to go broke.” If this 1$ a fair summary, there is but one answer. Municipalities which may borrow from the Federal Govern ment to finance essential needs should be required to pay a rate of interest at least equal to that which the Treasury has to pay when it goes into the money market as a borrower. If it be said that the municipalities cannot afford to pay such an interest rate, the obvious con clusion is that the Federal Government cannot afford it either. 'Saby' A-Weapons At one time, back in 1945 and for a while thereafter, it was popularly be lieved that no atomic weapon could be made that would be less powerful than the A-bomb that shattered Hiroshima with a force equivalent to 20,000 tons of exploding TNT. This belief, however, has long since been disproved by the fact that much smaller, as well as much bigger, nuclear detonations have been set off in tests conducted by our scien tists. Indeed, as the Atomic Energy Com mission recently revealed, one of these tests—staged in Nevada last fall—has involved a nuclear shot equal in explo sive force to only a ton of TNT, or a mere 1/20,000th of the Hiroshima bomb's power. This does not mean, of course, that we now possess “baby” A-weapons so light and so small that several of them could be carried Into battle hang ing from the belt, or stuffed in the pockets, of each of our infantrymen. Nevertheless, although a great deal of further work and testing must be .done to bring them into practical being, we can be reasonably sure that the day is coming, sooner or later, when such things will be available in our arsenal, and in the arsenals of other lands. We thus have before us a future in which foot soldiers are likely to ,be indi vidually armed with tremendous fire power of an altogether unprecedented kind. As a result, one can envision a time when relatively small bands of in fantrymen, carrying their own A-weap ons and dispersed over wide areas, would be enough to carry out a devastating defense against vastly larger attacking ground forces. But this is not the only significance implicit in the AEC’s one ton nuclear detonation. For the detona tion has served also as further vindi cation of those experts—such as Dr. Edward Teller—who have long been arguing for continued testing as some thing essential to the development of atomic armaments not of the mass destruction type, but of far less fearsome kinds tailored to unleash comparatively moderate or “humane” amounts of force for limited, discriminating uses. To a certain extent, moreover, this same argument can be related to ther monuclear weapons. Not very long ago the hydrogen bomb was regarded as a thing whose minimum power would always amount to not less than a million tons of exploding TNT. But now some models of it have been cut down from the megaton to the kiloton range, and scientists are confident that further experimentation eventually could reduce it to a destructive magnitude of less than 1,000 tons of TNT. Certainly, taken to gether with the AEC’s “baby” nuclear shot and the high-altitude detonations of Project Argus, figures of this sort lend strong support to those who argue against any International agreement that would Impose a total ban on all types of testing. t The Jackson Murders With the finding In Anne Arundel County, Maryland, of the bodies of Mrs. Mildred Jackson and her 5-year-old daughter, Susan Ann, the Jackson fam ily quadruple killings have assumed an interstate aspect justifying the all-out joint investigation being conducted by Federal, District, Virginia and Maryland authorities. The transporting of kid naped persons across a State line is a crime within the jurisdiction of the FBI. Until discovery of the bodies of the mother and the little girl in Maryland lag Saturday the federal agents had been restricted to co-operating with State police. This horrible kldnap murder case calls for the most Intensive, comprehensive and. relentless sort of investigation by the best minds and techniques available. There are many mysterious angles to'the crime which began last January 11 when Carroll Jackson, his wife and thelf two daughters disappeared while en route by automobile to their home at Apple Grove, in Louisa County, Vir ginia. Their car later was found parked on the roadside, with evidence of hasty abandonment. On the night they van ished there were reports of efforts by a wild-driving motorist to force other cars from the; road In the same general vicinity, although these incidents have not been definitely linked with the murders. No eyewitnesses to the ab duction or slayings have been found. Medical officials believe that the parents and girls were killed within a few hours of one another—probably on the night they were kidnaped. Clues to the killer Or killers, have been sparse—if, indeed, they are clues at all. A vague note to police indicating that the bodies might be found in Vir ginia, Maryland or West Virginia has been discounted as a hoax. There was little of significance v at the scene near Fredericksburg wher» the bodies of the father and his 1%-year-old daughter were found. In a sawdust pile. He had been shot through the head, while the little girl presumably died from suffoca tion or exposure. At the improvised grave of the mother and the older daughter some hair that might have been from the murderer was retrieved by the FBI and is being examined In its laboratory. Some tire tracks also are being studied. These are meager clues, at best. But sometimes seemingly unimportant evidence from one place can be dove tailed into evidence from another source, to produce a tangible lead. It is well, therefore, that the full resources of the FBI and of local authorities in three Jurisdictions are being thrown into the investigation of this atrocity. Blasting a Dream Representative Lankford of Mary land made a commendable but futile ef fort to save from destruction In the House the “30-year dream” (as he aptly called it) of an extension through Prince Georges County of the George Wash ington Memorial Parkway. He correctly described the banning of funds for the parkway as “a tragic loss for the people of the United States.” . Yet the House voted against the appropriation apparently under the mis taken belief that this parkway is a local project that the State of Maryland was trying to put over in the guise of a Fed eral highway. The vote came after Rep resentative Kirwan of Ohio, chairman of a subcommittee which recommended against the parkway item, declared on the floor that Maryland, “one of the wealthiest States in the Union, wants an almost bankrupt Nation to build a road that will cost millions of dollars.” But the facts are that the chief advocate of the “road” is the Federal Government (through the National Park Service and the National Capital Planning Commission), that the exten sion is needed to complete a national parkway in memory of George Wash ington authorized by Congress some 30 years ago and that Maryland has agreed to co-operate by putting up $1 million as its share of the cost. It is the whole Nation, not Maryland, which will be hurt If the dream of completing the parkway as a tribute to the first President is wrecked by hasty and misguided action by Congress at this late stage of the parkway program. Fa*+ Work on a Bnd Bill The secrecy shrouding introduction at Annapolis of a bill to restore gam bling casinos on the Potomac River is indicative of the misgivings which even its sponsors must have about the meas ure. This is bad legislation and it ought to be decisively defeated. The bill was dropped into the hop per under a suspension of the rules voted Jjv manv delegates who had no knowledge of the nature of the measure. They contended that the House was con fused when It voted to accent the bill, desoite passage of the deadline for in troduction of new legislation. However, parliamentary maneuvers to block the measure failed. * But this Is a proposal that ought to be given wide publicity and careful de liberation, rather than llth-hour treat ment. It would repeal a law passed only last year to end friction with Vir ginia over operation, on wharves jutting out from the Virginia shore, of gambling joints that would be Illegal on the shore itself. The over-the-water casinos were licensed in Maryland, which “owns” the river as far as the high-water mark on the Virginia side. To repeal the ban on such establishments now would be an affront to Virginia that would open old wounds at a time when relations between the two States are beginning to improve most encouragingly. VMtSMMMTtxM SfARu 'Wish I Knew Which One Will Still Be in Styls Next Year' LETTERS TO THE STAR PTA Budgeting At a recent meeting of the Key School PTA (a school with about 145 families > it was the unanimous decision of the members present that public officials particularly concerned with setting up the District school budget should be kept informed con cerning the items In our PTA budget which we feel rightly belong In the District budget. The following are expendi tures which belong in that category: Twenty-five dollars for such elementary playground equipment as balls and jump ropes. This has-been a recur ring budget item for at least ten years and has often been a larger amount. Fifty dollars for library books. This also has been a ’recurring item and in recent years has included materials for repairing and rebinding books as well, work which wa» done by parent volunteers. This money is in addition to personal donations of books, or money for books, by indi vidual parents and is supple mented by time given by parents in library duty. Fifteen dollars cash fund to each of our seven teachers, totaling $lO5. This is another long-standing item to prevent the teachers from spending money of their own for the so-called “extras" which they feel are necessary and for which there is no school budget money. We are also financing a child guidance program this year, a new project, but one we feel is greatly needed. This consists of paying for the service of a clinical psychologist one-half day every other week, and will cost between S7OO and SBOO for the year. We hope the request for elementary coun selors will eventually be kept In the school budget so that the time can come when such programs will not have to be financed by parent groups. Loree D. Bernard. War—ls Necessary If fog prevails m White House thinking about what David Lawrence so aptly calls a “surrender” conference, there is certainly clarity in the thinking of our military leaders. Admiral Arlptgh Burke is one of them. If the Russians want to make war over Berlin, they will start a war. If not they can make the point at any time. In other words, the powerful free Western world leaves war or peace up to the Soviet blackmailers 1 What a sorry state of affairs! People everywhere ask: Why let the Russian gangsters prey upon the civilized world? Moreover. Admiral Burke says the West has the power to destroy the Soviets "at this moment.” Why wait, appease and placate the Rus sians until they have the power to destroy us the free world asks. What has hap pened to our leaders .' In his broadcast, President Eisenhower admitted we shall have to live for years amid Soviet • made tensions and crises. What a defeatist type of admission! No doubt it inflates Khrushchev’s ego to hear the world, by the Ameri can President’s own admis sion, must dance to his tune, or else. In America the great un organized maiority cf people ask: Why must the free world knuckle to the Soviet de mands, blandishments and blackmail? If we’re strong, why not put an end to Soviet threats? Why tolerate crises in Berlin, in Iraq, Iran, the Par East, the Caribbean? And why stage a “publicity carnival" or summit confer ence to further inflate the Soviet ego? It is high time the Western world, the United States In particular, Issued an ultima tum to the Soviets It should demand evacuation of the satellite countries—the Baltic states, Poland. Hungary, Czechoslovakia. Romania. Bulgaria total withdrawal from these countries, with a guarantee of a “demil’tarized zone.” and abandonment of Interference In the Middle Pen names may De used 11 letters carry writers' correct names and addresses All letters art sutrtect to conden sation. East, Africa and elsewhere. If they want "disengage ment," that is the way to get it. Furthermore, we should put the Soviets on notice, from Khrushchev down, that we’ll tolerate no more bullying, no more blackmail Any de viation will mean we ll go after them and lick them to a frazzle. We have the power to de stroy the Soviets, say our military leaders, and it is high time we used it to re store peace, tranquility in the world, and release millions now enslaved under the Com munist yoke. Charles P. Beazley. The 'Doubly Inferior ' Our military “Inferior Re tired” i those retired before last June) are now "doubly inferior.” They are not merely inferior to the “Elites” (those retiring after last June 1> in retired pay percentages, but to Nationalist Chinese retired personnel as well! A recent Associated Press dispatch from Taipei, For mosa. reports that the United States has given 848 million for retirement programs ,for the Nationalist military. Pres ident Chiang’s son. Lt. Oen. Chiang Chingkuo. reportedly said that lack of a proper military' retirement program would handicap Nationalist forces. In like vein, a Satur day Evening Post editorial of March 21 points to the effect of the “Inferior” category upon prospective careerists in our services. On March 11. Represent ative Kilday of Texas advised the House that the annual cost of restoring full retired pay percentages to the “in feriors” would be $26 million or less. This $26 million, how ever, will be mbre than counterbalanced by the "in creased training costs for the greater active personnel turn over, if the “inferior” cate gory is retained. Thus, the "Inferior Retired” category constitutes not only a body blow to the future caliber of our military personnel, but also a net additional cost (not a saving) to our tax payers—this on top of the S4B million to Chiang's re tirees. Whether or not the Penta gon reverses its negative recommendation of last year, it is hoped that this session of the Congress will promptly enact rectification of the anomaly of our “Doubly Inferior Retired." T. G. W. Settle, Vice Admiral, U. S. Navy, Retired. Negotiating Peace It was a welcome experi ence to read the editorial In your paper < Wednesday, March 18) urging "the diffi cult process of negotiation” in the present Berlin crisis. Far too many people in re sponsible places, both in gov ernment and in the press, seem to be playing “follow the leader.” In this instance, however, it is not the harm less child’s game of climbing steep fences and jumpin'’ ditches. It is saber-rattling: flexing of muscle: and as you stated in your editorial, the use of tough "words and slogans.” Unfortunately, it is the tradition of most peoples to equate patriotism with mili tarism, forgetting that lt is a far greater patriotism to explore all the various angles that will enable negotiation in such a manner that a peaceful solution may be found. What freedom would there be. and who, let us ask our selves. would survive to en joy it, should there be a nu clear war? Indeed, in a situ ation where both sides would be reduced to a radioac tive crematorium, where the “victor" would have on his hands a shambles in which it is doubtful that either peo ple or animals could exist. the real patriot will leave no stone unturned to find away which will "compose differ ences without sacrifice of principle." This takes cour age. patience aand insight. It is also the greater wisdom, ‘ by far. Janet N. Neuman, Chairman. Public Rela tions, Women’s Interna tional League for Peace and Freedom. Indignant at Proxmire I was amused when Senator Proxmire first made his at tack on Majority Leader Lyn don Johnson and could not help wondering what his mo tive really was. Now I feel very indignant about lt. Per haps he felt this would get him more votes back in his home State, or perhaps Mr Proxmire Is such a "radical” he wants to hurt Senator Johnson's chances for the presidential nomination In 1960. I notice the only Sen ators to side with Proxmire are from the “radical group ” With the country demand ing leadership, and with Sen ator Johnson providing that leadership so magnificently, it seems to me that what Sen ator Proxmire has donq is en tirely uncalled for. J. F. Anderson Dress Modesty I wish to stimulate the women of Washington to create an awareness for ac ceptable street attire. This concept is desirable because many foreigners see America by visiting our city only, and for that reason the local citizens have inherited a special responsibility. It ap pears that some of the foreign people cannot under stand the liberal street clothing of some of the women A few years ago an eminent surgeon from Europe visited Washington during August. As we walked along Connect icut avenue we observed wom en of various ages who were dressed in bathing suits or shorts. The visitor stated, “My. I had no idea that Washington was so filled with prostitutes.” I attempted to explain to him that these women were indeed respect able and that some were mothers of big families and that such attire might not represent good judgment but did not denote a classification of the wearer. A few hours later as he was leaving Wash ington he shrugged his shoulders and stated, "I do admire your gallantry for those undeserving women.” Subsequently I encountered this same surgeon in Europe who commented on the schizo phrenic i split i personality of Americans, who are noble in their expressions but who are blind to anything that they do not want to see. He men tioned the numerous half nude women on the streets of Washington who did not of fend us. Therefore, it might be possible for the women lead ers to work through the local citizens organizations to de velop a program of instruc tion for the naive but inno cent girls of this city that they may develop a sense of responsibility for the impres sions which they make on foreigners. Perhaps the street attire for local women could conform to standards that would be acceptable to people of all countries? A Physician. Special Tax for D. C. Why should the District government have need to tax nonresidents of Washington because they happen to be employed within the city? The answer is plain: Due to the District School Board and our do-gooders that pro moted such living conditions in this city, it became im possible for many tax-pay ing residents to live here, and they were forced to move out into Maryland and Virginia Why do not our brain trus ters on Capitol Hill set up a special tax (such as a luxury taxi throughout the United States of America and call it the "Welfare Tax Fund for the District of Columbia”? Mrs. S. P. Fitzpatrick. THE POLITICAL MILL By GOULD LINCOLN Wisconsin Primary May Be Clincher Wisconsin, whose presiden tial preference primaries In the past' have had their im pact on the candidacies of both Republican and Demo cratic presidential hopefuls, may play—and Is expected to play—an Important part in the preconVentlon races next year. As of today, lt appears that the Democratic presiden tial primary will be wide open—that the Wisconsin Democrats will not put Tor ward a favorite-son candi date. And. also as of today, the two most likely entrants among the Democrats are Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts and Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minne sota. Gov. Nelson, the first Dem ocrat to hold that office in years, .has been dabbling in the political pool as a poten tial favorite son. And Sena tor Proxmire, who led the parade of Democrats into Im portant office in the Badger Btate, has suggested that If there Is to be a favorite 6on. he might make a bid for the role. Recently, however, the Democratic State chairman Issued invitations to Senators Kennedy and Humphrey, Gov. Meyner of New Jersey and Senator Symington of Missouri to enter the presi dential primary—which seems to close the door to a favor ite-son candidate, unless the Democratic Party in the a State is to engage in a major ’row. Senator Kennedy has a lot of friends in Wisconsin, where he has spoken often. He is going to Milwaukee to speak at the Milwaukee Press Club's annual "Gridiron Dinner." imd the next day he will speak at the Univer sity of Wisconsin in Madison. He may. indeed, make other public appearances on this trip. Senator Humphrey, too, has a considerable backing in the State. It is reported the UAW already is moving in his interest there—and, for that matter, he may be come a favorite candidate of the auto workers, headed by Walter Reuther. for the Presidency of the United States. If both these gentle men enter Wisconsin’s pref erence primary, it may be a numdinger. Other candidates might possibly be entered, but none are likely to run ahead of either Senator Kennedy or Senator Hum phrey. The 1956 Primaries Seven years ago. the Wis consin primary on the Demo cratic side went strongly tot Senator Kefauver of Tennes see. There was a battle royal, however, in the G. O. P. primary that year—with the late Senator Bob Taft of Ohio pitted against the then Gov. Warren of California, now Chief Justice, and Harold E. Stassen. former Gov ernor of Minnesota. Senator THIS AND THAT By CHARLES E. TRACEWELL CHEVY CHASE. Md. "Dear Sir: *‘l hope I get catbirds this year. "When we moved out here, about 20 years ago. the place was famoi/s for its birdlife. but in recent years the city has overtaken us and the birds have begun to dwindle. "The catbird is the first to go. “All last spring and sum mer we waited patiently for the queer unbirdlike sound that is his vocal trademark, but not even once did we hear it. “Instead the squawk of blue jays was as loud as ever, and the incessant chatter of the tiny wren went on all day long. ** * * "Being a cat friend, the real thing. I like anything that reminds me of a cat, and the catbird, so appropriately named, did just that. “So I was sorry to have them no more, and wonder what has happened to them “I suppose there Is a tide in the affairs of catbirds as well as among men. and they suffer, too, from the ills flesh is heir to; the moving finger writes, as you say, and all our piety and wit cannot blot out a word of it. "This moving of the divine finger is life, let us say. and in life’s ways the cat bird family occupies a very small part, but nevertheless there is something tragic about the disappearance of such a fine species. * * * • "I have asked of my neigh bors. and none of them has seen a catbird for two years. "What has happened? "Is it our fault? Nobody wants to accept blame, nowa days. that is one of the major signs of the times, but I am willing to mend my ways, if I have driven the catbirds away. “I would appreciate it if you would tell how to lure the catbird back, or, if that is impossible, what has happened to them. “Sincerely yours. T. A.” ** * * The catbird mystery may be solved. The happiest solution, of course, will be the returi. of these beauties. The next best thing would be for us to be able to un derstand what has happened to them. Their comparative disap pearance from former haunts may be no more than the very bad weather of recent years. Taft won. but by a plurality only, over Gov. Warren who ran second, and Mr. Stassea who was third. Mr. Elsen hower was not entered. The result gave the Taft can didacy a boom. Wisconsin, four years ear lier, had gone for Mr. Stas see over Oov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York in the Republican presidential pri mary and Gov. Dewey’s chances appeared on the to boggan. He revived them a little later when he defeated Mr. Stassen In the Oregon primary after a man-to-man campaign. In 1944. when the late Wendell L. Wlllkle was seeking a second Republican presidential nomination. Gov. Dewey beat him badly in Wisconsin and the Indianan- New Yorker promptly gave up the race. G.O.P. Role Not Set What the Republicans will do about the 1960 presiden tial primary still is very much in the making. No favorite son candidate is available— except Senator Wiley, whom the G.O.P. organization fought the last time he ran. Vice President Nixon has friends in the State. It would seem essential for the Vice President to enter this pri mary The only other poten tial candidate who has been mentioned in opposition to Mr. Nixon is Gov. Nelson A Rockefeller of New York, and. Informed sources say, there has been mention of the New Yorker in the State. In 1956, an Eisenhower slate of delegates to the Re publican National Conven tion won hands down. Since the President cannot run again, this is out for next year. The primary could be a terrific test for Gov. Rocke feller, if the New Yorker de cides to go into the race— and should he win that pri mary, it would be almost a clincher. Vice President Nix on. however, is strong there and would be a very difficult man to defeat. The Demo cratic primary in 1956 was a breeze-in for Senator Ke fauver. The Stevenson people stayed out of it. Wisconsin always has been an Interesting State in poli tics. State and national. That it can be again next year is obvious. Under its primary law. voters can cross party lines at will. Democrats vot ing in the Republican pri maries, and Republicans in the Democratic primaries. It has been done on occasion, when one party or the other believed it could give a boost to an opposing candidate they considered weaker. But with the new growth of the Dem ocratic Party in the State, and especially if two strong candidates like Senator Hum phrey and Senator Kennedy are entered in the primary, it is predicted the Democrats will stick close to their own prim: ry. and let the Repub licans pick whom they will. This may have restricted their range. Range is closely ailied to migration, and no humans really understand migration. It is one of the birds' secrets. But we do know enough to be aware of the fact that when food becomes scarce, the birds tend to change their ways of flight, and often go east instead of west, or vice versa, and if the migration bounds are cut down, then the birds simply do not go as far north as usual. *** * J Something of this kind may have happened to our 1 catbirds. These interesting and ; friendly birds are in direct competition with cardinals, jays, and mockingbirds, in particular, all of them more belligerent and better able to take care of themselves. But this is just one idea. Another, and more per plexing. is that something has happened to our catbirds, gentle and kind as they are. ' It might be fall-out of some sort, or the end results of the widespread use of dras tic poisons as sprays. At this date, there is really no telling what might Hap pen to our birds. They prob ably are more sensitive in many ways than four-legged animals, and may show the inimical work of poisons long before other creatures do. Among the birds, some may reveal sad results long before other species do. Just as the canary birds were used in the trenches of World War I to detect poi sonous gases, so our catbirds may be thought of as super sensitive machines to reveal to us what we are doing to ourselves and to other forms of life by our determined ef fort to refuse to admit that anything is wrong. It is not the poison, so much as this determination of America to refuse to ad mit wrong. It is not the spray, so much as the mental refusal to look into things. The basic wrong is indiffer ence, before which the an gels shudder. Answers to Questions' By THE HASKIN SERVICE, Q When were automobiles first allowed to enter the Kruger National Park in South Africa?—P.F. A. The first three cars ven tured into this great wild animal preserve in 1927. The following year 180 came, and by 1950 the number had in creased to over 16,000.