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WMi luwdoy Morning Milie* Publishod by TNI IVININO STAR NEWSPAPER COMPANY WASHINGTON I, 0. C Samuel N. KauHmami Pras#rf#nf Baniamm M. McKtlway Editor MAIN OfflCli 2na M. ana Virginia Avanua 1.1. (!) NEW YORK, 143 Modi tan A«a (17) CHICAGO 331 N U laNaM |l) DETROIT N»„ Con for tuildlng 17) SAN FRANCISCO. Run Suilding 14) IOS ANGELES 3343 Wool Ith St IS) EUIOREAN RURCAU RARIS. ERANCt 3) two Do Swr. DaHvaraß b» Comer Evgnlng and lundejr Sunday Evening Monday . . 1.95 fer Ueue .30 Monthly 1.30 Weekly 45 Weekly X NI»Im Nnel and Sunday 100 Night final Only 140 Rata* By Mail—Payable in Advance Anywhere In die United Stotei Vuenmn H nd Si wee Saw 9 1— fimnina a• a*11" 1 a pemaay avnvVy e™nin^ 1 yoor WOO I yser 12 00 I yoar 18 00 4 months .... 14 *M> A months ... 630 6 month* ... 923 3 months .... 7 50 3 month* ... 3 50 3 months .... 4.73 1 month ..... 1.40 1 month 13D 1 month .... 200 Ulgphonoi Lincoln 3-5000 Entered of tho Post Oftics Washington 0 C as socud mass mo 4 mattor Member g| the Associated Press Tho Associated Pros* Is ontitlod sxclusivsly to tho use for ropublication of oil tho local now* printed In this newspaper as well as A. P nows dispatches A-22 Double Jeopardy The Supreme Court’s rulings this week In two double-jeopardy cases reveal a conflict of views among the justices which cannot be treated in any detail In this space. The arguments on each side of the proposition are too complex to permit of such oversimplification. From the point of view of the lay man, however, it may be said that there does not appear to have been any “mis carriage of Justice” in the rulings. In one case the court majority upheld the conviction of a bank robber in a State court after he had been acquitted on essentially the same charge in a Federal court. In the second case a dynamiter was convicted in a State court and then convicted in'a Federal court on charges growing out of substantially the same • offense. In both cases the trials were fairly conducted and the evidence in dicates that the accused were guilty, despite the one Federal acquittal. In this sense, there was no miscarriage of Justice. Constitutional considerations, as dis tinguished from factual evidence, con trolled the double-jeopardy aspects of the cases. And on this score six Justices, with Justice Brennan dissenting on a different ground in one case, approved the convictions. The double-jeopardy dissenters were Chief Justice Warren and Justices Douglas and Black, with the latter writing the dissenting opinions. Justice Black’s dissents were couched in strong and often eloquent language. In some respects, however, it seems to us that he overstated his case. For ex ample, he suggested an analogy, which seems quite far-fetched, between these trials and trial procedures in Russia. He also said this: “The power to try a sec ond time will be used, as have all similar procedures, to make scapegoats of help less political, religious or racial minor ities and those who differ, who do not conform and who resist tyranny.” Whatever the merits of this as a general, or rhetorical, statement, it has no conceivable application to the two decisions in question. That is, it has no application unless one is willing to be lieve, which we are not, that Justices Frankfurter, Clark, Harlan, Brennan, Whittaker and Stewart would sanction the potential abuses which Justice Black envisions. Churchill Robbed Sir Winston Churchill, who is vaca tioning at the moment in Southern France, probably is not too much dis turbed by the news that his London home has been robbed of jewels worth about $12,000. Actually, however, the burglars have committed a crime far more heinous than that. For they have run off with an undetermined number of his world-famous and cherished cigars, which in themselves are works of art universally celebrated for their thinking man’s size and their extra-special flavor and fragrance. One can only imagine how Britain’s great wartime Prime Min ister has reacted to this. Scotland Yard, which has been called into the case, must be sparing no effort to track down the culprits, who conceivably may have been even dastardly enough to pilfer some of Sir Winston’s brandy. If that proves to be the case, he will surely say things about them—to himself, if not publicly—that will be as magnificently powerful and as much to the point as some of his past comments on black guards like Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin. Oh, to hear him! The Homemaker Service Everyone knows what can happen to a family when the woman of the house falls ill and cannot cope with her regular round of duties. If there are no relatives to take the children in. the family may be split up. The children may be sent to institutions. Often the distraught father spends his little lei sure unhappily visiting in turn his sick wife in the hospital and his homesick children in the orphanage. To prevent just that kind of nuiran disaster, which, however shortlived, can be fearfully disrupting of the fabric of family life, there is an organization called the Homemaker Service. The agency arranges for a mature and kindly woman to come into the house and take over its management until such time as the mother is back on her feet. These women are specially trained in housekeeping skills—in cooking, mend ing, cleaning and nutrition. They under stand the problems of children without their mother. The purpose of the Home maker Service is a lofty one: “To pre serve family life-.” Obviously it is a much-needed WEDNESDAY, APRIL 1, 1959 service— not Just for the temporarily motherless home—but also for overbur dened mothers bowed down under the care of a handicapped child or families where parental care is Inadequate. Although the Homemaker Service is new in Washington (It began in Sep tember of last year) it has already com plied an admirable record of services rendered. In its first three months of Operation, homemakers went Into 23 homes, and looked after a total of 60 children. Now, In order to pay the modest salaries homemakers receive and to pro vide funds for recruiting and training more of these women, the Homemaker Service has applied for financial mem bership in the United Givers Fund. In order to qualify, the Homemaker Service must show “broad community support.” One manifestation of this support is funds raised. The service is initiating a private fund drive today, which, if suc cessful, would insure its membership in the UGF, and eventually the broaden ing of Its much-needed humanitarian activities. NATO at the Age of 10 Ten years ago this week the North Atlantic Treaty Organization came into being for one reason, and one reason only—namely, to serve the cause of peace with a great and unprecedented new defensive alliance designed solely and simply to deter the Soviet Union from further aggression against the free Western world. Today, a decade later, the foreign ministers of NATO’s 15 member nations are convening here to counsel with each other on many formidable and complex issues of grave mutual concern, includ ing particularly Berlin and the prospec tive negotiations with the Russians. At the same time, since this portentous gathering coincides with the tenth anniversary of the alliance, the partici pating statesmen will have reason to review the past even as they make plans for the future. Certainly, as far as the past, is concerned, only the blind would claim that NATO has lived up to all the hopes reposed in it when the treaty was signed here on April 4, 1949. But let us look back for a moment. The Atlantic Com munity was then a relatively weak coali tion, politically, economically and mili tarily. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, loomed very large as a menace to freedom everywhere. Playing the role of a rapacious lone wolf under Stalin, sabotaging every peace-promoting move in the United Nations, it had subverted and virtually absorbed nearly a dozen once-independent lands, and there was no doubt in those days that it intended to go on from there to take over the whole of Europe. Nor can there be any present doubt that it would have moved in that direction, with all deliberate speed, if the West had failed to unite against the threat. To that extent, therefore, it may be said that NATO, with greatly out numbered ground forces, but backed by our strategic air power, has succeeded in its primary mission during the past ten years. By merely existing, by serv ing as a constant reminder of the West’s readiness to strike back against aggression with enormously destructive air-borne nuclear weapons, it unques tionably has deterred the Kremlin. Surely, had there been no such alli ance, had there been only irresolution, division and go-it-alone policies instead, today’s world would be quite different from what it is, and our own country might be completely isolated in it— a rather lonely, friendless and desperate nation sandwiched between a Europe and an Asia dominated by the Commu nists. This is not an overdrawn picture; this is the way things would have drifted without the warning presence of the Atlantic treaty. So much for the past. Now, what of the future? As to that, the thing we must keep in mind is that the world’s overshadowing reality continues to be the fact that Soviet policy still adds up to a dark, dominance-seeking con spiracy threatening the security, peace and liberty of the whole of mankind. Stalin’s death has not changed it. The prospect of another summit conference has not changed it. We have only to remember the pitiless repression of Hun gary and the Kremlin’s incendiary in trigues in the Middle East to realize that Red Russia just keeps rolling on as a menace of the first magnitude to all that free men hold dear. In such circumstances, NATO obvi ously must remain alert and strong. Above everything, it must leave no room for doubt about its resolve to stand firm for freedom even if the fight along this line takes not merely all summer, but the next half century. Given that, the Kremlin may be persuaded in time to start co-operating for the establish ment of a just and enduring world peace. Fore!—Plus 20 Yards Somehow or other, every silver lin ing seems*to have a cloud. At first glance, for example, one would suppose that the golfball-making industry’s plan to market a ball that will carry 20 yards longer off the tee would be hailed with uniform delight. Even our friends who specialize in zig-zagging down the fair ways might be happy to slice or hook 20 yards farther. So what happens? A spokesman of the United States Golf Association steps up to voice “great concern” about seeing that the game “isn’t distorted.” Longer shots, he moans, would tend, in effect, “to shorten golf courses.” And then he worries about clubs having to buy more land to make longer courses and “thus increasing the price of a round of golf.” Well, the USGA may do its worst to dis courage a “rabbit ball,” but our bet is that when these things hit the market the USGA “policemen” had better be standing 20 yards farther away or learn to duck fast. NASR/HtrTaN swa. 'No Use Wishing We Didn't Need It—Because We Do!' LETTERS TO THJ STAR 'Tired Old Milk' Many thanks for your March 20 article concerning my remarks about “tired old milk" and New Jersey cows. • Now that I’ve raised my voice in defense of Garden State cows. I might as well raise it in defense of myself. Your article said I was a Republican. I am Democratic. And the last line in the story said: “But he (meaning Senator Williams) overlooked one thing—the conflict has resulted in milk being im ported only from Pennsyl vania.” Perhaps you’re right, but one of my staff members checked with Sealtest just be- t fore I made my comments. He was assured that milk was being imported from the Camden, N. J., area, as had been stated earlier in press accounts. Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (Editor’s note: Democratic Senator Williams’ eloquent defense of New Jersey cows was based on the belief that the milk processed at Seal test’s Camden, N. J., plant and shipped here for nearby Maryland customers was ac tually produced by New Jer sey cows. It was not. All of the milk, according to Seal test, actually was produced by Pennsylvania cows. Only processing and packaging was done in Camden.) Medical Costs I would like to make what could be the lone dissent to an open letter to Senator Wayne Morse appearing in our Medical Annals. Speak ing editorially for the more than 2,000 members of or ganized medicine in our local medical society. Dr. Wallace M. Yater, one of our Nation’s most distinguished medical scientists, urges Senator Morse to accept our good in tentions and past perform ance re solving the snowball ing cost of medical care. He would discourage Senator Morse in pushing his new bill. S.BBI, which like the Fo rand bill proposes to insure the cost of hospital, surgical and nursing home care for people eligible for social se curity benefits. Dr. Yater’s position Is Iden tical with the present policy of our American Medical Association: Both believe that the medically indigent are the direct concern of the community and not the Fed eral Government. Both hold that social legislation like S.BBI will be the entering wedge of socialized medicine. Surely, this is a let-’em-eat cake solution. Both Dr. Yater and I were defendants in the historic medical antitrust trials two decades ago. The basic issue was whether a learned profession in oppos ing social experimentation purposed to provide low-cost, prepaid medical coverage of health risks, was subject to the restraints and prohibi tions of the antitrust laws. It was ruled that doctors using even the mild and nonviolent restraints of moral coercion and disciplines were guilty of a conspiracy in restraint of trade. We were given a stern warning that social experi ments purposed to alleviate the mounting insolvency of the healing arts would have the protection and encour agement of Federsil leader ship. Dr. Yater and our AMA insist voluntary health insur ance plans for the aged show satisfactory gains. Our AMA News quotes a staff report of Health Insurance Association of America re coverage of our senior citizens: 60 per cent of all senior citizens who deem themselves in need of coverage will have it by 1960. This figure will rise to 63 per cent in 1961; 75 per cent in 1965 and 90 per cent by 1970. As perhaps the lone dis senter, I ask Dr. Yater and the AMA: Since when has our profession boasted of or been satisfied with what has been done for the curable? TYaditionally our challenge has been the unsolved and difficult problems of our heal ing ministry. At least, Sen ator Morse is trying to force our hand to assume leader - Pen names may be used if letters carry writer’s correct names and addresses. All letters are subject to conden sation. ship in meeting the social challenge of pitiful, unmet medical ministry. His method may be wrong but it is at least honest political respon sibility, facing tragic reality. And I for one would like to say: Good luck and God bless you for an honest try. That is far better than AMA “on order” do-nothingism. Thomas E. Mattingly, M.D. 'Difficult Assignment ' The clear, concise and rel atively short account of the Jackson burial by Michael Mok deserves to be offered and considered for some kind of a reportorial reward. A difficult assignment well done. Let us hope Justice will be as well done. H. Gilbert. County Costs While there might be justifi cation for bringing additional Industry to Montgomery County from the point of view of convenience, there Is no such justification from a rev enue standpoint, even though Stanley R. Green presents a plausible case. Apart from the fact that such industry de preciates the value of nearby residential property and so tends to cut revenue from that source, it also involves expenditures for utilities, water mains, sidewalks and wider access roads and high ways. How are rising county costs to be met? About 2,000 years ago the Latin poet Horace advised that the best way to live within one’s means is to cut desires. Montgomery County has been unwilling to do so, especially in regard to the largest item, education. In recent years the county has acquiesced in and, in the last election, voted for pro gressive education, which Is the costliest type of educa tion. In practice, progressive education means school build ings in which less than 50 per cent of the floor space is used for classrooms. It means many supervisors, overlooking the teachers and loading them with- paperwork. It means a multitude of course offerings and counsellors ever testing and trying to direct students In ways the counsel lors think best. Not only is progressive edu cation costly, it is the worst type of education from the point of view of sharpening the student's mind so that he will be able to face and solve problems for himself. Instead of demanding hard work and concentrated effort, progres sive education helps stimulate the student’s desires for ma terial goods and costly sur roundings. By allowing stu dents to drop difficult subjects for such courses as art appre ciation and driver training, it handicaps the student In try ing to satisfy his desires through his own efforts. The result, visible on every side, is a generation of youngsters who want the world on a sil ver platter but are not trained to earn a living. James Watson. Pets at Large I. tor one am getting a little bored with people who let their pets run free as they choose and then moan and groan when some driver, probably in an effort to save his own or his passenger's life, hits an animal. We, too, have two wonderful dogs, and like all people who love animals, they are part of the family. Our dogs will never be hit and killed by a vehicle. We obey the law of our State (Virginia). Our dogs do not go off our prop erty unless they are on a leash. It these would-be animal lovers would take the respon sibility and care necessary in having a pet they would not lose them to a vehicle. Faye F. Wright. 'Foreign Aid Follies' The annual edition of the “Foreign Aid Follies” is In rehearsal. It has the same tired cast and exhausted theme song: "Billions to Buy Brothers” or “I’m Forever Blowing Bubbles.” They’ve added a new tune, “Mutual Security Blues” or “They Can’t Help Lovin’ Dat Money of Mine.” Americans have spent S7O billion for this operetta, “World Brotherhood.” $2.25 billion going to “comrades” in Albania, Russia, Czecho slovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Yugo slavia. While Americans shell out for this “extravaganza,” Rus sia has annexed one-fourth of the globe. Elisabeth Lippitt. San Francisco, Calif. Help for Farmers ’ln addition to your edi torial, "Helping Those Farm ers,” and the facts pointed out by H. L. Mitchell In The Star of March 20, another aspect of Government aid to farmers should receive more publicity. In El Paso County, Colo., some school-land leasers pay about a dollar an acre for their leases and then put the land in the soil bank and re ceive from the Government $5 to $6 an acre, according to the Colorado Springs Ga zette-Telegraph of March 8. The Government. also pays the leasers a dollar an acre for sowing grass seed on that land and pays 80 per cent of the cost of the seed. Are they trying to start another gold rush to the Rockies? George Frederick Miller. Tolerant Youth Two unrelated Incidents concerning young people's reaction to bigotry recently occurred In Virginia that substantiate the claim that this younger generation Is less likely to become prey to racial hatemongers than the passing generation. In Williamsburg, prosegre gationists picketed a hall at William and Mary College, where former United States Representative Brooks Hays was making a speech against Faubusism. It Is reported that the students, some 200 to 300 strong, picketed the pickets, jeered the imported pickets, captured their plac ards, attempted to sell them Mr. Hays’ book, “Southern Moderate Speaks,” and told the intruders to go home. In Arlington one extremist displays in public view the Nazi swastika emblem and passes out literature in imical to Jews and Negroes. The children of the local high schools are enticed to witness his display and se cure literature. Because of the crowds and traffic hazards, the prosecut ing attorney of Arlington ad vised the parents to keep their children away. He wrote in the Arlington Daily Sun that “It is indeed heartening to listen to some of those young Americans talk after they have left the premises. . . . The literature is tom and thrown In the streets.” He urges parents to keep away from the hatemongers “so that our community can continue its peaceful, quiet life in accordance with those basic fundamental principles of Americanism in which we all believe.” One teacher of social studies permitted the pupils to comment on bigotry and this episode. Almost 100 per cent of the pupils opposed his views. There is every reason to believe that young people are more inclined to be tolerant and are less influenced by tradition than most of their elders. Where there has been disturbance to law and order and rebellion to the mandate of desegregation only a few students are responsible and most of them have been egged on by older people. E. B. Henderson, Public Relations Commit tee Chairman. Virginia State NAACP. VISTAS IN SCIENCE By THOMAS R. HENRY Where Oysters Grow on Trees LA PAROUERA, Puerto Rico.—Here oysters grow on trees and exotic white birds come by thousands to roost at dusk around unearthly seas of blue fire. It seems like a landscape on another planet. The seas, almost unknown to the rest of the world, ap parently are unique among earth’s far-scattered lumi nescent waters in that they persist with undlminlshed brilliance every night of the year. Solution of their mechanism, especially that of the largest, known as Baya Posforlacente, now Is a major project of the University of Puerto Rico's Institute of Marine Biology, headed by Dr. Juan Rivero. The bay is a hidden arm of the Carib bean. walled by mangrove swamps and usually invisi ble shoals, which can be found at night only by skilled pilots. Weird Blue Light The light of the water on a moonless night is so bright that it is possible to read a newspaper and even to take photographs with no other illumination. It is, however, only about a 50th as bright as the light of a full moon and Is hardly detectable on a cloudless, moonlit night. The color of the blue flame Is unique and unduplicable, say Institute biologists. It seems as if the entire surface of the water were entirely covered by a very tenuous garment of blue-white fire. The organisms responsible, the biologists have deter mined, are countless billions of microscopic plant-animals, the dinoflagellata. Whether they are plants or animals is a matter of continual debate. The majority of them contain the essential Ingredient of plant life, chlo rophyll, the green coloring matter in foliage by which carbohydrates, basic chem ical building stones of life, are produced out of hydro gen from water and carbon from the carbon dioxide In the air through the medium of trapped sunlight. It is customary to regard any thing containing chlorophyll as on the plant side of liv ing things. The organisms usually multiply by splitting, another plant characteristic. On the other hand, all move about freely—a characteristic of animals. Some have no chlorophyll. All at certain times of the year reproduce sexually another animal characteristic. They are believed to rep resent a stage in evolution at about the point where plant and animal kingdoms sepa rated, says Dr. Ramon Mar garlef of the University of Barcelona. Spain, who now Is carrying out a special in vestigation of them. The chemistry of their luminescence also is un known. despite long efforts to solve It. Apparently they light up, says Dr. Donald Erdman. United States fisheries expert stationed here, only when THIS AND THAT By CHARLES E. TRACEWELL “BARNABY STREET. “Dear Sir: “May I intrude to offer my ‘two cents’ worth’ about Mrs. H. L.’s lament concern ing lack of acknowledgment of greeting cards? “Our Lord has told us that even a cup of water given in His name will be rewarded one hundredfold. The per son who accepts the cup of water from us is our oppor tunity and is the most minor character in the considera tion as to payoff. “It is a distinct tribute to her personality and faithful ness in carrying out an as signment that she was cho sen for this duty by her or ganization. “She should keep ever in mind that the cards sent and visitations made are—not for acknowledgment but solely to benefit the recipient. ** * * “Now, humanly, I can un derstand how she feels, though my reactions to the situation would not be hers. “I do stme constantly to give myselrto others (and having given I rest my case) by getting off expressions to assure others that I have seen ‘by the paper’ or heard that some honor has been accorded to a member of that family, whom, in most cases, I do not know, that I heard indirectly of an illness in an other direction, etc. Many, of course, who must be surprised, never respond; others ‘don’t see how you do it’: but the sad tinge to me is. that more of suph recipients aren't im pressed to the point of carry ing on the apostolate: but David Dunn, in his ‘Living Ourselves,’ says: ‘One thing is certain: when we set out to give ourselves, fully and freely, our hearts make direct connection with that great actual source of light and power. God. the giver of all good things.’ “Respectfully. B P ” ** * * “SOMERSET PLACE. “Dear Sir: "Here’s a word of cheer for poor Mrs. L who expects people to burst into tears of gratitude for a printed birth day card. I’ll bet she sends them unsealed with only her name inscribed thereon. What a laugh! “Third class mail does not call for a reply. “Does she sit down and write a four-page letter to the soap company that sends her a strip of coupons w orth they strike against each other, so the light of the bay Is somewhat more brilliant on a windy night. A bucket of water dipped from the bay and shaken, even In day light. glitters with points of light like a pail of diamonds. Dr. Erdman has found that when certain spots on the rocky bottom, both here and elsewhere In the neighbor hood. are tamped with the end of a pole an apparent electrical Impulse Is sent through the water and an immediate train of the blue white fire Is set up. as If by a current of electricity. This Is due. he believes, to some particular kind of disturb ance set up in the water. Among Dr. Margarlef's projects is that of determin ing the abundance of the organisms. This, he says, is a baffling job. They cannot be counted. The best method he has hit upon Is chemical determination of the chloro phyll which can be extracted from given amounts of the bay waters. This Is excep tionally large, but leaves out of consideration the millions of animals which have none of this plant pigment. As for oysters that grow on trees around the luminous waters—for confirmation see Dr. Donald S. Erdman, Gov ernment fisheries expert here. Picking the crop is a small industry among local fisher men, for tree-growing oys ters are a delicacy of bon vivants. They are small—less than half the size of the average rock oyster of the north—with an exceptionally fine flavor and quite salty. They naturally are entirely free from any sand or grit, with which they never come in contact. Those Treed Bivalves They are found high on the long, branchlike roots of the mangrove trees which extend deep into the water. Mangrove swamps cut this quiet little gulf of the Carib bean into an intricate pat tern of Venice-like channels through which only skilled boatmen can find their way at night. The oysters sometimes en crust a foot or so of such roots, always in the zone be tween high and low tides. They cling very tightly, so that. they usually are har vested with a cleaver, and opening them is quite labo rious, which may account for the fact that the' rest of the world is not familiar with them. The mollusks feed on the detritus of the bacteria lich bay waters, perhaps ac counting for their excep tional flavor. Despite their different size and taste they hardly rep resent a new variety, Dr. Erdman believes, because the same species also are found in more conventional oyster habitats such as the piers of boat landings and beach rocks. Being oysters, he says, obviously they cannot climb to higher branches of the mangroves. 10 cents each on a purchase of three cakes of their amaz ing soap? Or two large economy bath size? Well, why not? Isn’t the soap as important to them as her birthday cards are to her? “For her information, penny postcards are first class mail. I get lots of re plies from people I send them to—sometimes months afterward, when they go places themselves; some times right away, from their houses. “I like to receive picture cards and I like to send them. “Printed greeting cards are no better than advertising circulars, unless the sender covers the white space with personal, handwritten notes. When I receive a printed or engraved greeting card I look all over it for a written note, inside and out. If I can't find a note, I chuck it quite as I would an empty candy bag—a whole lot of nothing. What did it say? I wouldn’t know. I didn't bother reading it. “Wedding presents are dif ferent. Brides get so many that they get careless. In the big rush, it takes a pretty ambitious and industrious bride to keep abreast of the thank-you notes. We have had wedding presents go un acknowledged for too long. Most everybody has. “When this happens, my wife and I both agree, ‘Well, we won’t send any more wedding presents to them.' "Sincerely, J. R. H.” ** * * Modem etiquette, we be lieve. is notably less strict about such matters. You can even put an elbow on the table without being regarded as out of line. Temp Jones says »>-> re gards this as a great step forward. He says he always did like to put his elbow on the table. It is so natural! Tables are usually just elbow height for the best resting. The thing appeals to the practical side of people, Jones says. One still shouldn’t keep the elbow on the table while eating, but between times, it is regarded as OK. A cup of coffee in the hand is worth two on the table, and what is more natural than that the elbow, a mar velous joint, take part in the proceeding? The elbow has rights, too.