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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, January 14, 1961, Image 4

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With Sunday Morning Edition
Published by
THE EVENING STAR NEWSPAPER COMPANY
WASHINGTON 3, 0. C.
Samuel H. KauHmann
Prtiidtnt
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A-4
SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 1961
Jn Lyndon's Hands
It Is fitting that the President’s
Committee on Government Contracts
.has chosen this particular time to sum
..up its seven years of experience under
the Eisenhower administration, and to
make a number of quite drastic pro
posals for increasing its authority.
Currently, the committee’s function
as an anti-discrimination watchdog
extends only to the employment prac
tices of companies Involved in Federal
contracts. As a future step, the com
..mittee suggests that this scope be
"broadened to cover companies involved
;in State or local programs to which the
Government contributes money, to
grant-in-aid programs of various kinds,
and to housing programs involving
..Federal subsidy. Secondly, the commlt-
J tee feels, it should be given statutory
; authority by Congress in ordfr to deal
; more directly and forcefully with dls
• criminatory employment practices.
Politically, the prospects for the
flatter suggestion are virtually non
" existent. Similar proposals by Mr.
- Elsenhower all have gone to hasty
‘ graves on Capitol Hill, the most recent
I during debate on the 1960 civil rights
» bill, when the committee proposal was
-one of several provisions sacrificed on
>the Senate floor in order to assure pas
j: sage of the remainder. Rightly or
■ wrongly, Southerners view the commit
tee as a form of F. E. P. C., and no amount
persuasion is likely to lead them to
•Svote to expand its powers.
Since the committee is an executive
agency, the possibility of White House
action toward its expansion Is another
■ matter. Mr. Kennedy several times has
i urged a strengthening of the eommlttee,
and in naming Lyndon Johnson as its
new chairman, he expressed confidence
that his running mate would pursue
the problem with alacrity. The extent
to which Mr. Johnson will agree with
the views of the outgoing committee
members, however, remains to be seen.
To Insure Good Judges
Those who are concerned with im
proving the administration of justice
will be gratified to learn that Robert
Kennedy, when he becomes Attorney
General, will continue Attorney General
Rogers’ policy of seeking the advice of
the far in selecting new Federal judges.
The policy has worked out well, helping
the Department of Justice to find men
qualified for the bench and thus
strengthening public confidence in the
courts.
Prior to the Eisenhower administra
tion the advice of bar associations was
not sought and sometimes, when sug
gestions were volunteered, the bar rec
ommendations were completely ignored.
Not surprisingly, some of the appoint
ments turned sour. Mr. Rogers, however,
welcomed the aid of the American Bar
Association and the District Bar Associ
ation in choosing bench nominees. He
not only considered candidates pro
posed by the bar but submitted lists of
other prospective nominees for bar
association checking and report. The
record of local appointments shows
that no judge not approved by the bar
was appointed to any of the courts here
during the past eight years.
The Attorney General-designate
disclosed his intention of continuing
the consultation practice, after a con
ference in New York City with Whitney
North Seymour, the Ameri
can Bar Association, and Bernard Segal,
chairman of the ABA Committee on the
Federal Judiciary. “We are going to
have a working relationship,” Mr. Ken
nedy is quoted as stating after the con
ference. If qarried out as faithfully as
in the past, the policy will insure the
elevation to the Federal bench of judges
picked primarily for their fitness, with
politics a subordinate consideration.
Right to Object
In ordering the District Court to
hear a citizens’ suit against the 5-cent
bus fare increase approved by the
District Public Utilities Commission
last summer, the Court of Appeals has
upheld a right of more than passing
Importance and one which too seldom
is exercised.
The suit, which was brought by two
Washingtonians, Leonard N. Bebchick
and Leonard S. Goodman, was thrown
out of the lower court solely on grounds
that the formal court record did not
clearly show they were "riders of transit
vehicles” who were affected by the fare
raise.
-x- But as the appellate court pointed
out, Mr. Goodman had submitted sworn
statements to the P. U, C. that he if a
regular transit commuter, and Mr. Beb
chick had submitted a similar affidavit
to the District Court. These documents,
as the Court of Appeals said in effect,
should have satisfied the requirements
of both the law and common sense Bn
this narrow point.
We do not know whether there is
any merit to the suit, which raises some
19 protests against the P. U. C. action.
Perhaps there is not. But the right of
citizens to contest such governmental
actions in the courts is amply provided
by law, and it is not one which should
be brushed lightly aside on picayune
technicalities.
Needed Tax Reform
At this time of keen interest in
governmental action which might
stimulate economic growth, the Treas
ury Department has available an infor
mative cross-section of business opinion
on the current impact of tax-deprecia
tion allowances and the possibilities of
constructive reform—either by statute
or by regulation—in this area. The
information is contained in approxi
mately 3,500 answers to department
questionnaires sent out last summer,
both to large corporations and small
business firms. Additional answers are
expected and all the material is subject
to further analysis before specific recom
mendations are made by the department.
Among the large concerns particu
larly, accounting for more than $2OO
- worth of depreciable property,
there was a heavy response that the
alternative methods currently per
mitted for estimating depreciation
allowances are unsatisfactory. For the
most part, their objections centered on
two points, namely, insufficient allowance
during the early years of service of
plant or equipment and inadequate
total allowance to cover the rising costs
of replacement. Other studies have
provided support for these same com
plaints. The great and rapid techno
logical developments of the postwar
period, for example, have quickened the
pace of obsolescence. At the same time,
compensating modernization carries a
price tag that has moved steadily and
sharply higher.
Not surprisingly, among eight
alternatives o» which the Treasury asked
for reaction, the solution favored by
most companies, large and small, was to
permit the exercise of their own judg
ment in calculating the useful life of
equipment and how much of its cost
should be written off each year. In
exchange for greater flexibility in this
respect, most respondents Indicated a
willingness to pay a higher tax rate on
the sale of old equipment—treating such
proceeds as Income, for example, rather
than capital gain. The second most
popular choice was some form of
depreciation adjustment to reflect
increased replacement costs.
Suggestions for liberalization of
depreciation allowances Inevitably be
come subject to political considerations
as well as economic ones. During his
campaign, Senator Kennedy indicated
an Interest in some changes in deprecia
tion rules but did not spell out his
specific views. It is generally argued,
however, that capital Investment would
be stimulated by liberalization in some
degree and that the end effect would
be expanded employment and higher
net tax revenues. The subject is one that
the incoming administration and the
new Congress should consider carefully.
Soft for Racketeers
The Maryland General Assembly
will receive evidence at its current ses
sion that racketeers regard the State’s
lack of control over savings and loan
associations as an Invitation to set up
fly-by-night businesses on a free-for
all basis. Studies by legislative groups
have shown that the influx of unethical
operators has been steadily increasing,
as a result of State Inaction with respect
to regulatory legislation. This is a chal
lenge that should be met at this session
by adoption of effective laws to rid
Maryland’s legitimate and honest sav
ings and loan industry of the blight of
fraudulent self-styled “financiers” who
have muscled in on an important in
vestment field.
The 1960 Legislature attempted to
establish controls in a bill passed by
both houses, but Governor Tawes vetoed
it on the ground that it was so broad
as to hurt a number of honest firms,
including Baltimore’s unique “neighbor
hood associations.” The latter are small
companies, often associated with partic
ular groups of residents, that offer aid
and encouragement to small home
builders. A Tawes commission, headed
by Baltimore Attorney Richard W. Case,
will propose legislation designed to hit
the fly-by-nlghters without affecting
operations of the “neighborhoods.” The
Case group is expected to urge State
regulation of all associations, with a
requirement for periodic financial re
ports to show Investors what is being
done with their money. Under the
present system a firm can hide its finan
cial operations behind a screen of secre
cy. A second study group, headed by
Delegate Joseph D. Tydings of Harford
County, will seek to impose a require
ment for insured savings on all of the
associations. Although most of the
larger associations are regulated and
insured under Federal laws, there are
many others which carry no insurance
on deposits, or which carry insurance
of dubious worth.
It is not surprising that the well
managed associations, through their
organizations, are strongly supporting
control legislation. So are organizations
dedicated to protecting the investing
public from undue risk and outright chi
canery. It has been estimated that
thousands of small investors already
have been mulcted of their life savings
by the racketeers. It is too late to do
anything for them, but it is not too late
to save others from being victimized.
W/
■ ■ S' I
HIS AHLLION£sHhB|
BONDS
* J jjW*'
Js Tap ,
'I Told Ike We'd Balance the Budget Somehow!'
Vetters to Vhe star
Unquiet Potomac
I compliment The Star for
its January 7 editorial, “Park
Proviso Necessary,” com
menting on recent activities
of those nature. preserva
tionists who seek to prevent,
at any cost, impoundment of
the Potomac River for water
supply or for any other pur
pose. I refer, of course, to a
proposed proclamation which,
if signed by President Elsen
hower, would designate all
of the Chesapeake and Ohio
Canal lying between Seneca
and Cumberland, Maryland,
as a National Monument,
and thereby forever preclude
any other utilization of that
stretch of the Potomac River,
in my opinion. Experience
elsewhere has proven that
legislators and Government
officials are powerless to
bring about multipurpose de
velopment a river, which
our organization proposes for
the Potomac, when they are
put in the position of dese
crating a national park or a
national monument.
Conrad Wirth, director of
the National Park Service,
from whom such a procla
mation would originate, has
repeatedly expressed his op
position to impoundment of
the Potomac River for water
supply, silt control, recrea
tion, flood control or power
development. He and his sup
porters have for the past
four years attempted to pass
through Congress a bill set
ting aside the above men
tioned stretch of canal as a
national park; knowing full
well that once the canal and
adjacent river are surround
ed with national park status,
it is, as a practical matter,
politically impossible to au
thorize the construction of
a dam therein. But Congress
has declined to enact the
C&O canal park bill, wisely
awaiting completion of the
current study of the Corps
of Engineers. Recent infor
mation indicates the study
will be ready for inspection
this fall.
But. C&O canal park en
thusiasts are well aware that
the President may, by his
proclamation alone, desig
nate historic land areas as
national monuments. In the
case of C&O canal park,
this maneuver, if successful,
would indeed be an effective
way of preventing major im
poundment of the Potomac
River at the best point to
secure a good water supply
for Washington; also, the
best point to trap the moun
tain of silt flowing down the
river each year, which is now
permanently jeopardizing the
Potomac’s usefulness in the
Washington area. No act of
Congress would be necessary
to support such a proclama
tion.
Such a proclamation has
been recommended by the
Secretary of the Interior,
and the Director of the Bu
reau of the Budget is now
soliciting comment on it
from the Corps of Engineers
and from the District Com
missioners. We urge you to
continue opposition to the
proposed proclamation, at
least until the Corps of En
gineers completes its present
study.
John W. Asher, jr.
Vice Chairman,
Potomac River
Development Association.
Autocratic Detroit
Mr. Berryman, on the front
of your Auto Show Section,
portrayed a bewildered Mr.
Auto Industry displaying all
his wares of varying sizes and
asking the public to please
make up its mind. Although
the industry would like John
Q. to think of himself in this
light. I feel it is all mere
wishful thinking.
Detroit has been making
up our minds for us ever
since I can remember.
Whether it be the horsepower
race, forced depreciation
through drastic styling
changes or the addition of
those all-important fins, we
have been told —not asked.
The auto industry may be
undergoing a temporary res
pite while adjusting to the
Pen names may be used if
letters carry writers’ correct
names and addresses. AU let
ters are subject to condensa
tion. Those not used will be
returned only when accom
panied by self - addressed,
stamped envelopes.
public's acceptance of the
compacts, but I am sorry to
say it is doubtful if Mr. Berry
man's message will be appro
priate again for a long time.
Samuel R. Saks.
Oppose Office Tax
As members of the Board
of Trade and as owners of a
business which has operated
in the District for the past
13 years, we protest strongly
the newest recommendation
of the District Democratic
Central Committee's Fiscal
Advisory Board—namely a 10
per cent tax on office oc
cupancy and on parking.
We have no quarrel with
the proposed parking tax,
though it would seem this
would contribute further to
the “death” of downtown
business. We do protest
strongly the office occupancy
tax as being unfair and a
double taxation on the many
businesses which pay a per
sonal property and an in
come or unincorporated busi
ness tax to the District. Un
less there is some provision
for taxing only those offices
which do not pay the prop
erty and Income taxes, we
feel this is not an equitable
tax distribution.
We urge that another look
be taken at the discrimina
tory status of lawyers, doc
tors, etc., who go "tax-free”
under the present structure
while owners of unincorpo
rated businesses get a tax
free "salary” allowance that
in most cases would not pay
for a clerk. People who op
erate a business in the Dis
trict of Columbia and live in
the suburbs already pay two
income taxes at the local
level. Do we have to be fur
ther penalized because the
Federal Government will not
meet its obligations in the
District?
Helga Meyer.
Grace Meier.
14th Amendment
The recommendation of
Gordon Tiffany, recently re
tired staff director of the
Civil Rights Commission,
that Congress enforce the
second section of the Four
teenth Amendment merits
favorable consideration by
this Congress. The consti
tutional authority for such
action is clear. The Amend
ment itself provides that
“Congress shall have power
to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of
this article.”
The need for Such legisla
tion is evident. The hearings
conducted by the Civil Rights
Commission show that the
vote is still denied for reasons
other than "participation in
rebellion or other crime.” The
sight of citizens of the United
States living in tents in a
Tennessee county because
they sought to vote demon
strates the»ineffectiveness of
the 1957 and 1960 civil rights
acts to cope with this prob
lem.
There is ample historical
precedent for such Congres
sional action. The amend
ments offered by Representa
tive Edgar D. Crumpacker,
Republican of Indiana and
William S. Bennet, Demo
crat of New York, in 1901
and 1911, respectively, to the
reapportionment bills are
examples. All such proposals
have failed to pass Congress.
Since 1890, when “the Mis
sissippi plan" commenced the
movement to disfranchise the
Negro, the South has devised
means to maintain white
domination either by the re
pression of his right to vote
or the limitation of it. For
that many years the South
has been overrepresented in
Congress. If Congress accepts
Tiffany's recommendation, it
should not be with the idea
of “punishing” any State, but
of establishing a democratic
and constitutional basis of
representation.
Sidney S. Tobin.
Starlings Take Over
Numerous suggestions via
TV, radio and the press have
encouraged people to feed
and water birds, especially
during heavy snows when
food is not readily accessible
to them. About a month ago
I bought a feeding box and
10 pounds of bird food and
immediately started feeding
our feathered friends. I was
simply amazed to see so
many lovely birds, some of
which I have never seen be
fore. There were blue jays,
bluebirds, cardinals, sparrows,
wrens and many others. I
took great pride in showing
my friends all the contented
birds in my back yard; I felt
like I was doing something
good for the community.
Then it happened. About
two weeks ago the starlings
started to come, just four or
five at first. Now they come
in flocks, as many as 50 or
so. They have run all the
song birds away and have
taken over the feeding post
completely. I have given up
all hope of feeding any other
birds except starlings, so I
have quit.
Having read the stories
about starlings cluttering up
the downtown buildings and
inaugural accommodations,
I wondered just what was
going to be done. I am sure
the spray they are using is
working because most of the
starlings are in the suburbs.
I appreciate the desires of
our downtown friends in
wanting to get rid of these
pests but I don’t see how
they are helping the com
munity by making them
change their roost to a dif
ferent part of town. Some
thing should be done soon
to rid our city of not only
the starlings but the filthy
pigeons which clutter up our
beautiful parks end recrea
tion areas. Then maybe we
can again see some fine song
birds return. Birds yes,
feathered scavengers—no!
Song Bird Lover,
Revised Bible
Charles W. Carter charges
the Revised Standard Version
of the Bible is “doctored,
altered by clever rewriting, a
clever propaganda job, (for)
mistaken or malicious pur
poses.”
Mr. Carter implies falsifi
cation in the change of Luke
13:29 from “. . . and shall sit
down in the kingdom of God”
to "sit at table in the King
dom of God." This, Mr.
Carter reasons, is a sneaky
"liberal element” trick to
subvert the Bible to approve
the sit-in movement. The
doctrinaire members of the
political, social, and philo
sophical left have perpetrated
some grandiose goofs over the
years but Mr. Carter, as
standard-bearer of the far
right, has more than evened
the score.
The sit-in movement began
less than three years ago. The
Revised Standard Version
was published in 1946.
Chronologically, Mr. Carter
has put the cart before the
horse. Or does Mr. Carter
contend that this was all a
“liberal element” plot the
has been a-hatching for over
ten years?
The key to the phrase
which so agitates Mr. Carter
is the Greek word for "re
cline,” which the translators
of the edition of 1611 (King
James Version) wrote as
“sit.” Perhaps their Greek
was a little weak or possibly
their knowledge of Greek life
was lacking in some particu
lars. Historians (liberal ele
ment members all appar
ently) report that the Greeks
reclined on couches when
they ate. To compound the
heresy of the historians, the
Roman Catholic Church, in
its authorized Confraternity
edition, goes even further
and uses the word “Feast.”
Scholars have for cen
turies been studying the his
tory and sources of the Bible.
The Revised Standard Ver
sion and the Confraternity
edition are the culmination
of these studies by thousands
of dedicated and learned
searchers for the truth.
Thomas E. Lodge, jr.
THE POLITICAL MILL
By GOULD LINCOLN
Progress and Preparedness
President Eisenhower’s
message to Congress on the
state of the Union gives the
lie to those who assert the
United States has stood still
during the last eight years.
With chapter and verse the
message sets forth the great
advances made in this coun
try by industry, labor and the
whole economy, and by the
national defenses, during this
period of peace—no' shooting
wars. It is, in fact, a record
of which the whole American
people cAn be proud. Ours is
not a weak, second-class Na
tion as some of the Eisen
hower critics not so long ago
were claiming in their des
perate efforts to take control
of the Government.
Dwight D. Eisenhower will
leave the White House next
Friday in the full knowledge
he has given his country
magnificent service both
in war.and in peace. He has
been criticized for not play
ing politics. He has not yield
ed to the many pressure
groups who put their own
desires above the interests of
all the rest of the American
people. He has not yielded to
those who have demanded
that the Federal Government
take over virtually all the
affairs which have been left
to the people or to their
State and local governments.
He has never denied the
problems which confronted
the country, economic and
military. He has proposed and
stood for remedies, with the
people to be aided by the
Government only so far as
they were unable to do for
themselves, or to accomplish
the ends desired through
their local governments. He
has turned his back on big
ger and bigger government
just for the sake of big gov
ernment. At the same time
he has recognized that be
cause of the tremendous in
creases in population the
Federal Government has had
to expand.
Continuing Problems
The picture the President
has given Congress and the
people of the Union and
its 50 States quite frank
ly contains areas of serious
importance and problems
that require attention. As he
has properly pointed out,
such problems do not term
inate as do governmental
terms of office in this coun
try. They are problems with
which he has wrestled dur
ing his two terms in the
White House. He does not
regard either the problems
or the situations they cre
ate as hopeless, and he
wishes the Kennedy adminis
tration well.
He does not refer to or
complain of the bitter cam
paign waged by his political
opponents during the last
year to convince the Ameri
can people that this Nation,
under the Eisenhower Ad
ministration, has constantly
lost ground; that we are sec
ond best to the Soviet Union.
VISTAS IN SCIENCE
By THOMAS R. HENRY
Biologists Explore Clipperton Islands
An uninhabited desert is
land—an “almost atoll,” or
ring of consolidated coral
rubble surrounding a slightly
brackish lake at times
washed over by sea surf in
low areas, constantly pounded
by turbulent seas so that
both landing and leaving are
difficult and dangerous, and
swept constantly by gentle
trade winds or storm winds.
Such is Clipperton Island,
tiny French possession in the
eastern Pacific, whose biology
has just been explored by an
expedition of the Scripps In
stitution of Oceanography of
the University of California.
One member of the party
was a Washington woman
biologist. Miss Marie-Helene
Sachet of the Pacific Science
Board of the National Acad
emy of Sciences. She was,
so far as known, the only
woman of French origin who
ever has set foot on this
lonely spot. She remained
there collecting plant, rock
and soil specimens for 18
days.
Miss Sachet has published
a historical account of Clip
perton in the French Cahiers
du Paclfique of Paris and
has deposited her collections
in the United States National
Museum and the Museum
National d'Histoire Naturelle
in France.
Covered by Vegetation
The Scripps party was
made up of 13 members who
thoroughly scoured the iso
lated island for invertebrates,
fishes, insects, plants and
birds.
"Despite earlier descrip
tions,” Miss Sachet says, “the
island has an almost con
tinuous vegetation cover.
Some of the older gravel and
boulder ridges, some areas of
exposed rock and the places
that recently have been
scoured by ocean waves and
are overlain by sand and
gravel are the only large
areas devoid of vegetation.
The areas scoured by waves
are being colonized by plants
from adjacent surviving vege
tation patches.
“The cover is uneven in
density. In places much of
the ground is exposed while
in others the cover is com
plete. The general height of
the cover varies from a few
centimeters to a few deci
meters, with scattered, denser,
slightly taller clumps of
scrubby plants and small
groups of coconut palms.
"The most obvious char
acter of the vegetation is its
Nor does he suggest that this
country will not be able to
continue strong and to gain
in strength. But the Presi
dent does issue warnings that
the economy of the country
be not shattered by reckless
spending of so-called Feder
al funds all of which come
out of the pockets of the
people. He does say that the
fight against inflation and
the attendant drop in the
value of the American dollar
must be continued relent
lessly.
Prepared in Peace
The country, as the Presi
dent points out in his mes
sage, for the first time in
history is prepared to defend
itself if attacked militarily
—while the Nation is still at
peace. This country was not
so prepared when it was
plunged into World War I,
World War II or the war in
Korea. Again and again the
United States, a peace-lov
ing nation, has won a war
and then permitted its de
fenses to shrink to the van
ishing point. But not during
the last eight years. The
huge expenditures required to
maintain and constantly im
prove the defenses have been
proposed by the President
and provided for by the Con
gress. The strides made, too,
in the missile field ne
glected in the earlier admin
istration have been great.
In this field the country
failed to keep pace with So
viet Russia. But tremendous
steps have been taken to
lessen the gap. The proof that
the Nation is prepared and
ready to meet any aggres
sion from any source is
found in the fact that the
Communist bloc has failed
to move militarily to defeat
the United States and its al
lies of the free world.
These have been the days
of high taxes and heavy gov
ernment expenditures. But
President Eisenhower has
wisely declined to be pushed
into many so-called social
programs which would place
still heavier burdens on the
people. In consequence, the
value of the dollar has been
virtually stabilized, and while
the cost of living has ad
vanced, the advance has been
far less than during the four
years previous to Eisenhow
er's first entry into the White
House.
No man can hold the office
of President of the United
States without arousing crit
icism of his political oppo
nents and of those who failed
to receive the favors for
which they ask, or to which
they believe they are entitled.
The American people as a
whole, however, have had
great confidence In Dwight
D. Eisenhower. Had he been
younger, had there been no
two-term amendment to the
Constitution, and had he
been willing, he might have
been renominated by his par
ty last July. There is small
doubt he would have won a
third term.
striking pioneer nature. Few
stable plant communities can
be recognized and the flora
consists entirely of pioneer
species and weeds. Prior to
our visit only five species of
higher plants had been re
corded. A few more could be
recognized from casual men
tion in published descrip
tions of the atoll and speci
mens of 16 species had been
received from visitors to the
island. To this record, nine
new records of higher plants
have been added, and at
least three mosses, a lichen,
several fungi and an unde
termined number of algae.
“An effort was made to
survey the surface features
and soils of the island and
to establish some correlation
between these and vegeta
tion. The soil and rock
samples will have to be
analyzed before any very
general conclusions can be
drawn.”
Tiger Beetles Found
Several orders of insects
were collected for the first
time on the island, according
to Dr. Charles F. Harbison
of the San Diego Natural
History Museum and the
Scripps party. “We arrived.”
he reports, "during the wet
season and had to collect be
tween showers. Some of the
collecting was accomplished
during a downpour when it
was possible to collect adult
tiger beetles. These would not
leave their stretch of sandy
beach. As the collector
walked along the shore
sweeping his net back and
forth the beetles would take
to flight and thus were
caught. The entomologists
turned over rocks, logs and
other litter to collect centi
pedes, isopods and land
crabs. One of the choice col
lecting spots was the coco
nut in its husk, as found on
the ground in the shade of
palms. These, if the husk at
the stem end had stalled to
rot, contained many in
teresting invertebrates.”
The number of identified
bird forms known on the
island previously was doubled
by this expedition, according
to Dr. Kenneth E. Stager of
the Los Angeles County Mu
seum. Attention was given to
the serious predation problem
for nesting birds which rose
from the number of wild pigs.
These were killed off and
perhaps eliminated entirely
by expedition members.

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