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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, February 04, 1962, Image 29

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THI national SCLNI THE WEEK IN p ER Sp ECTIVE
Inquiry Unleashed . ~ j
On a New Subject Cuba as an Outlawed Nation
President Kennedy last week
asked for an inquiry into the
circumstances surrounding the
war-emergency stock-piling pro
gram and a Senate committee
immediately took up the chal
enge.
The idea of accumulating stra
tegic and critical materials for use
in case of war was advanced after
World War II and was the out
growth of scarcities encountered
then. The items ranged from the
easily guessable such as aluminum,
asbestos, bauxite, diamond dies,
nickel, rubber and platinum to the
unexpected such as castor oil,
down feathers, opium and sike
waste.
The build-up of this variety of
items was accelerated greatly by
expanded defense production at
the time of the Korean war. And
after that, the buying was further
increased by pressure from indus
try and from Congress itself for
subsidy aid for certain items.
The pressure consisted in
stretching the defense use of cer
tain items to help ailing indus
tries, notably minerals. It is easy
to see how almost anything could
be considered of use or even ne
cessity for defense purposes if it
were presented in the light of the
over-all economy.
Up to Congress
Thus it was easy to accumulate.
Disposal of the materials was
more difficult. The laws which
created the system specified that
only Congress could get rid of
anything in the stock-pile. And
Congress showed no desire to dis
pose of anything; no industry
would want the Government to
disrupt the market by flooding it
with surplus materials.
By last week—when stockpiling
became an issue as well as a
precaution—the value of the ac
cumulated material had reached
the total of $7.7 billion.
Calmly near the beginning of
his press conference on Wednesday
afternoon President Kennedy said:
“Thirdly, I have an important
announcement to make about the
national stockpiling program . . .”
A survey of the program, he said,
indicated to him that it was over
grown and a “potential source of
excessive and unconscionable prof
its.” He revealed that he was
appointing a commission to make
a detailed review of our stock
piling policies and, more Impor
tantly, that he had talked with
Senator Symington of Missouri
about the complete exploration by
a Senate committee of the whole
program and how the great excess
($3.4 billion) of materials could
have been created.
Unusual Move
The news in the President’s
move was two-fold:
1. It was highly unusual for the
impetus for a congressional in
vestigation of anything to come
from the executive department of
the Government. Usually Con
gressmen think of these things
themselves.
2. The technical nature of the
stockpiling program together
with secret security classification
—has kept the facts about such
a huge accumulation out of the
public’s eye.
The President referred to Sen
ator Symington’s Stockpiling Sub
committee of the Senate Aimed
Services Committee as making the
investigation and the Senator con
firmed it with announcement that
the hearings would get underway
without delay.
Mr. Kennedy phrased his re
marks on what’s going on very
carefully. Although he said he
was “convinced that a thorough
investigation” was warranted he
said he was not making any im
plication and refrained from sug
gesting “wrong-doing by an in
dividual.” But the question which
arose , immediately was where
blame might be placed if it should
turn out that the program had
been mishandled.
The Maze
In delving into it Congress will
run into a Washington bureau
cratic maze deeper than the
average. The over-all agency
responsible is the Office of Emer
gency Planning in the President’s
executive offices. Under it there
are several big sub-divisions:
The strategic stockpile which
accumulates supplies of 76 stra
tegic commodities such as alumi-
—AP Photo
GEN. SHOUP
.. some common sense ..
EDITORIAL
—AP Photo
SENATOR SYMINGTON
To head inquiry
num and tungsten. This is the
largest.
The Defense Production Act
Inventory, an accumulation of
about one-third of the 76 items
in the strategic stockpile started
in 1950 not as a stockpile of
needed material but for the over
flow production from industry
that was being expanded for the
Korean war effort.
Commodity Credit and Sup
plemental stockpiles created by
various farm subsidy programs.
The Federal Facilities Corpora
tion stockpile of tin, a hold-over
from the old Reconstruction Fi
nance Corporation.
Although the idea of any sensa
tional revelations in the inquiry
has been played down by every
body who has commented on it
the most intriguing angle re
mained, after all, the political
one. This is an election year and
anything might turn up. Lots of
people were ready to wade through
the entire inventory of $7 billion
worth of goods for a few usable
campaign issues.
Inquiry:
Naming Names
A Senate Armed Services
Subcommittee continued taking
testimony in its effort to find
out if undue restraints have
been put upon defense leaders
in their speeches about com
munism.
In lower level Washington it’s
always hard to match men with
decisions. When “the Defense De- ,
partment decided today” appears
in print it could be Secretary
McNamara (possibly acting for the
President) or it could be an assist
ant or an undersecretary or any
high ranking officer who has
actually done the writing on the
yellow legal pad.
In the system of things it is
perhaps unfair but it is all too
often true that decisions which
reflect credit on the departments
are attributed to the highest rank
ing officials. It is considered
neither unethical nor impolite for
them to take the bows.
Last week came the spectacle of
a department head taking the
brickbats. He was Secretary of
Defense McNamara and the cases
involved censorshop of high-rank
ing military men. The Senate
Armed Service Subcommittee look
ing into “muzzling" of officers for
criticizing communism had turned
up examples where apparently
harmless words had been removed.
Names Refused
The committee members asked
a witness the identity of individ
uals who had made certain exci
sions. Acting upon instructions
from Secretary McNamara, the
witness refused to answer. Mr.
McNamara wrote the committee
that his decision was based on
belief that it is "absolutely essen
tial to maintain sound principles
of management of an executive
department... not thrusting upon
subordinate officials burdens
which are properly chargeable to
me and my senior associates.”
He raised the question of execu
tive privilege one which has
arisen during congressional hear
ings for many years. The Sec
retary did not invoke the doctrine
of executive privilege and he ex
pressed the hope that a friendly
agreement could be reached. The
committee members were restive
but agreed to talk it over.
The inquiry, which has been
the liveliest in town for several
weeks, continued with testimony
which involved some inter-service
disagreement. Gen. David M.
Shoup, commandant, said the
Marine Corps mission did not in
clude educating the public about
the Communist menace. Admiral
George W. Anderson, Chief of
Naval Operations, said the Navy
should contribute its knowledge
of oommunism toward the goal
of seeing that all Americans un
derstand the peril. Gen. Frederic
H. Smith, jr., Vice Chief of Staff
as the Air Force, took a middle
ground by saying that although
the military should not be the
primary agency for informing the
public along this line, the Air
Continued on Page C-2
W Sunday
The Organization of Ameri
can States on Wednesday voted,
14 to 1, with six abstentions, to
oust Castro’s Communist Cuba
from the inter-American sys
tem. President Kennedy and
Secretary of State Rusk hailed
the action; Cuba saw failure of
OAS to vote sanctions a diplo
matic defeat for the United
States.
The influence of the Castro rev
olution in Cuba on the rest of very
rich, very-poor Latin America
has been substantial. Particularly
among the more numerous poorer
people, the bearded dictator has
won many sympathizers.
His leftist regime, tied as it is
to the Sino-Soviet bloc, doubtless
accelerated support in the United
States for some kind of positive
steps to. meet the threat of ex
ported and native Castroism. Wit
ness the vote of approval in Con
gress last year for the Kennedy
Alliance for Progress aid program.
When. Castro a few months ago
confounded the free world and,
perhaps, the Kremlin as well, by
admitting that he has long been
and still is a Marxist-Leninist, the
demand grew in the United States
that something be done to contain
or destroy his regime.
Colombia, strongly backed by
Washington, requested a meeting
of the foreign ministers of the
OAS to consider the problem of
Communist Cuba and Latin Amer
ica's economic development, two
matters closely tied together.
Ministers' Meeting
This led to the meeting of OAS
foreign ministers which opened in
Punta del Este, Uruguay, about
two weeks ago, a meeting which
ended on Wednesday.
The United States delegation,
headed by Secretary of State Rusk
and aided by a bipartisan con
gressional delegation, set its sights
on economic sanctions against the
Havana regime and its ouster from
the OAS.
Unanimity has long been the
hallmark of the OAS delibera
tions. This has been both a
strength and weakness of the al
liance. After long days and nights
of debate and argument, during
which both the carrot and the
stick were employed, the United
States decided it was better to
settle for something less than
unanimity rather than water down
ultimate action by further com
promise.
The idea of economic sanctions
was dropped rather early in the
game. As for the move to oust
Cuba from the organization, it
carried, finally, with the barest
two-thirds margin, 14 to 1, with
six abstentions.
The Abstainers
What could not be overlooked in
the subsequent declarations of a
“great victory” by Secretary Rusk
and “my satisfaction" by Mr. Ken
nedy. was the fact that the three
largest Latin states, Brazil, Ar
gentina and Mexico were joined
by three others in refusing to vote
for Cuba's ouster. The combined
population of these six abstaining
countries was 150 million. The 13
Nations voting with the United
States have a population of only
50 million.
Although there were legal ques
tions Involved—does the OAS
have the authority to expel a sov
ereign member?—it was clear that
domestic political considerations
(that is, the popularity of the
Cuban revolution among the pau
perized peasantry), weighed heav
ily.
But this was not the whole
story. While the United States,
despite Secretary Rusk”s hercu
lean efforts, did not get all it
wanted, it and its like-minded
allies accomplished much—in the
way of resolutions. Unanimously,
minus Cuba, the 20 nations of the
Americas voted:
• To affirm that the Alliance for
Progress is the free man’s answer
to the problem of economic and
social development, rather than
the Castro Communist solution.
• To declare that Marxism-Lenin
ism is incompatible with that
system.
• To oust Cuba from the Inter-
American Defense Board. (This
was a formality, however, since
Cuba had been effectively barred
from the board"s deliberations for
some time.)
Extending Ban
In addition, 15 other nations
joined the United States in voting
for an immediate suspension of
trade with Cuba in arms and im
plements of war and called for a
study by the OAS Council on
the possibility of extending the ban
to other items, particularly stra
tegic materials.
Mr. Rusk upon his return home
from the 12-day meeting made it
clear that the United States would
move swiftly to implement the
OAS resolution.
He indicated that the United
States Navy already had been
alerted to halt any arms shipments
from Cuba to subversive groups in
other hemisphere nations. And it
was reported that he would direct
prompt and strong appeals to
NATO and other allied countries
to co-operate with the OAS in
its efforts to isloate the Castro
regime.
Then, on Saturday. Mr. Ken
nedy announced an embargo on
trade between the United States
and Cuba, effective on Wednes
day. Exceptions: Food and medi
cal supplies may still be shipped
to Cuba. Hardest hit: Tobacco
imports, currently totaling $35
million a year, will be cut off.
But while Castro has definitely
been branded an "outlaw” by his
WASHINGTON, D. C., FEBRUARY 4,1962
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At the OAS conference in Uruguay Secretary of State Rusk listening to a denunciation of the United States
by Cuban President Dorticos. The foreign ministers voted to oust Castro's regime from the organization.
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The Cuban leader driving home a point in his three-hour speech.—AP Wirephotos.
hemispheric neighbors it remained
to be seen what practical effect
the OAS decisions at Punta del
Este will have on the welfare and
durability of his regime.
The question arises because Cu
ba’s foreign trade with the rest of
the Americas, including the United
States, is less than 10 per cent
of its total and it already has
more and better arms than per
haps any other Latin American
country.
Some Questions
There are other questions, too,
which have cropped up and for
which no immediate answers are
available:
• Will the United States Con
gress penalize those nations who
abstained from voting to oust Cuba
when the appropriations for the
Alliance for Progress are decided?
• Will the big Latin American
countries, the abstainers, follow
the lead of the United States
and others in breaking diplomatic
relations with Havana? (Here
there are pressures both ways. In
Argentina, the military has issued
a virtual ultimatum to President
Arturo Frondizi to do so. In Brazil,
the ghost of Janio Quadros, the
former President who resigned
after a few months in office ap
pears to be working to keep that
giant nation on a path of “peaceful
co-existence” and “neutrality”.)
Algeria:
Decision Near
The French government last
week moved tanks and addi
tional troops into Paris as
President de Gaulle prepared an
address to the nation tomor
row on Algerian peace talks.
Violence mounted in North
African colony.
“For now sits Expectation in
the air and hides a sword. . . .”
This was France and this was
its tormented Algerian colony last
week and Shakespeare had the
words to describe it centuries ago.
For more than seven years war
and terrorism has racked the big
French North African land as
Moslem natives pressed for an
independence the European
“colons” could not abide.
But since Charles de Gaulle
came to power, the government
has recognized that to prepare the
day for granting independence to
Algeria was the only realistic
course. Most of Metropolitan
France agrees with him.
Still, the way has been rough
and dangerous. The French Army
is split, with the sympathy of a
large section of the officer corps
leaning toward the “colons” and
the anti-Gaullist OAS, a secret
military organization.
Optimism Now
Now, once again, there is opti
mism over the area of agreement
that Paris and Algerian rebel
leaders reportedly have reached in
theii- latest closed-door talks. This
hopeful feeling has been increased
by the announcement that Presi
dent de Gaulle will make a special
address to the nation tomorrow.
There is an expectation that he
will disclose new progress, perhaps
even reveal concrete new steps
toward a cease fire in Algeria.
This expectation was heightened
last week by the decision to move
into Paris 32 tanks and 100 more
military vehicles to bolster gov
ernment forces whose job it will
be to crush any attempted coup
by the extremist OAS.
The Transition
Despite progress already made.
French officials said privately late
last week that final agreement still
has to be reached on guarantees
for the 1.1 million Europeans who
live in Algeria and on the compo
sition of the transition French-
Algerian executive group which
will rule the country until it be
comes fully independent.
Meanwhile, the secret army,
headed by fugitive Gen. Raoul
Salan. is readying itself for what
could be a rebellion within a
rebellion—civil war against loyal
French government ' forces in Al
geria in a last-ditch effort to
“keep Algeria French.”
Sadly, it must be realized that
much more French and Moslem
blood is likely to spill before there
is real peace.
Cold War:
Matter of Hope
President Kennedy last week
entertained Premier Khrush
chev's daughter and son-in-law
and later expressed hope that
the Thompson-Gromyko talks
on Berlin will produce an agree
ment.
Are the United States and the
Soviet Union heading toward a
genuine spring thaw in the Cold
War which will lead to a settle-
Books, C-5
Obituaries, C-6 and C-7
ment of some of the major issues
dividing them?
Both sides seem to be talking
and acting like just such a possi
bility exists although, to be sure,
it was more a matter of hope than
cold optimism on our part.
Mr. Kennedy, who believes the
international “atmosphere can be
very important”, wants the chan
nels of communication kept “very
widely open”. He elaborated on
his feelings on the matter at his
news conference on Wednesday
when he said:
“We hope that as communica
tions improve, that the problems
which cause tension and danger
to the world will lessen. ... I be
lieve that any exchange of infor
mation of any kind in these very
hazardous times, is very useful. So
we’re very glad to welcome them.”
Pravda Plea
The day before, in Moscow. Rus
sians officials marking the birth
day of Franklin Roosevelt, called
for a return to the Soviet-Ameri
can friendship of his day. Prior
to that Pravda made a plea for
"effective cooperation” to ease the
tensions between the East and
West.
The President and his official
family did their part last week to
improve communications. He was
host to a White House luncheon
for Aleksei I. Adzhubei, editor of
Izvestia, and his wife who is the
daughter of Mr. Khrushchev. At
torney General Kennedy, who left
Thursday on a world-wide trip
which may take him to Moscow,
also entertained the Soviet visitor.
And so did Pierre Salinger, White
House press secretary, who will
visit the Soviet capital in the
spring.
Mr. Adzhubei. who was treated
like no ordinary editor, made up
somewhat for his astonishing ad
vice to the Mexicans to fight to
regain Texas, when he offered
this optimistic note on the ex
plosive and complex situation in
Laos to reporters:
“There may be a solution soon
in Laos—sooner than you think.
And it will be a good beginning.”
Mr. Kennedy had earlier voiced
at his news conference a note of
wary optimism on a solution to
the crisis in that Southeast Asian
Kingdom. Fighting was still going
on there, however, between Gov
ernment and Red-led rebel forces.
Berlin Remains
But the biggest problem of all,
perhaps, along with nuclear test
ing and disarmament, is Berlin. On
that one both the President and
Mr. Adzhubei were quite cautious.
There was diplomatic activity in
Moscow on the question of the old
German capital last week. United
States Ambassador Llewellyn E.
Thompson and Soviet Foreign
Minister Andrei A. Gromyko met
for nearly three hours on Thurs
day.
Neither would disclose how the
talks went, but Mr. Thompson
said another meeting had been
scheduled. It was the third in a
series of talks between the two
men, the first of which was held
on January 2.
Mr. Salinger’s forthcoming trip
to the Soviet Union stirred some
speculation that the President'
may follow later In the year. But
Mr. Kennedy made it clear on
Wednesday that any such journey
would not be considered useful by
either country unless there were
"significant breakthroughs” on
the diplomatic front toward major
agreements. i
Meanwhile, as Russia and China
grow apart, the prospects for a
thaw in United States-USSR rela
tions appear, at the moment,
somewhat brighter. There is al
ways, of course, the danger of a
spring freeze.
Italy:
Move to Left
Italy’s ruling Christian Demo
crat Party overwhelmingly ap
proved on Thursday a working
relationship with the Nennl
Socialists. Prime Minister Fan
fani resigned on Friday, but is
expected to be asked to form a
new government
In 1954, at the Naples conven
tion of the Christian Democrat
Party, which has ruled Italy since
World War n, Amintore Fanfani
led a movement for "democratic
initiative” with the alm of attack
ing more vigorously his country’s
critical economic and social prob
lems. But he failed to convince a
majority of his party.
This followed his abortive at
tempt to form a government in
January of that year.
Pour years later, in July, 1958,
upon the request of President
Gronchl, he formed a government
and tried to translate his "demo
cratic initiative” ideas which
meant an "opening to the left”—
into action. He fell after seven
months when parties of the left
and right combined in a no
confidence vote. He resigned as
Prime Minister and then as sec
retary-general of the CDP.
Toward Progress
Mr. Fanfani, who is a history
professor as well as a politician,
was on the sidelines, but not for
long. He had not given up his con
viction that Italy must have more
rapid economic and social prog
ress. including enforcement of an
equitable tax system.
In July, 1960. he was for the
third time called on to form a
government and did so with the
help of three small parties, the
Social Democrats, Liberals and
Republicans.
He had had another chance. He
was determined not to miss it
He wanted to broaden the base
of his government, as well as speed
reforms. The Socialist Party of
Pietro Nennl, which had worked
with the Communists until the
break brought on by the Soviet
Union’s brutal repression of the
Hungarian Revolution in 1956,
was the target.
Mr. Fanfani approved local
coalitions of Christian Democrats
and Nenni Socialists in Genoa,
Milan and Florence last year. Ali
this was a prelude to the Christ
ian Democrat convention in Naples
last week where the "opening to
the left” matter was finally de
cided.
The Surprise
The Prime Minister, who will be
54 on Tuesday, was expected to
win approval for his plan for a
move to the left, domestically,
while maintaining firmly Italy’s
pro-Western foreign policy, mem
bership in NATO and in the Com
mon Market. But the size of his
victory—Bo per cent of the votes
—was something of a surprise.
There was one clue, which
escaped most observers, and it
may have been highly important.
The Christian Democrat Party,
which has a variety of factions
from left to right, is a Roman
Catholic organization. If the
Church had opposed the Fanfani
plan to do business with the
Socialists, it is doubtful the
Christian Democrats would have
approved it.
In this regard, an editorial in
the Vatican’s newspaper, Osserva
tore Romano, of January 25
should be noted. The editorial
did not condemn the "opening to
the left,” but observed that cer
tain maneuvering was often nec
essary to preserve unity. And. it
continued, party unity must be
maintained. This was interpreted
as meaning that Pope John, a
man of the soil who has an out
spoken interest in social justice,
and the Church were willing to go
along with the Fanfani plan. Its
success was thus assured.
False Appeal
The question arises as to why
Italy, which is booming with an
economic growth rate of 6.5 per
cent—double that of the United
States—should be moving to the
left. The answer appears to be
that, as we have a hard-core
unemployment, it has a hard-core
depressed area—its South—which
Continued on Page C-2
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