Newspaper Page Text
With Sunday Morning Edition Published by THE EVENING STAR NEWSPAPER COMPANY WASHINGTON 3. D. C. Samuel H. Kauffmann President Benjamin M. McKalway Editor MAIN OFFICE: 2nd SI. and Virginia A<o. S.E. (3) EUROPEAN BUREAU— PARIS. FRANCE: 21 Rue Do Borrl ADVERTISING OFFICES— NEW YORK. 529 fifth Ave. (17) CHICAGO: 333 N. Michigan Ave. (1) DETRO'T: New Center Building (2) SAN FRANCISCO: 111 Sutter St. IOS ANGELES: 3540 Wilshire Blvd. (5) MIAMI BEACH: Suite 205. 311 Lincoln Rd. PARIS. FRANCE: 21 Rue De Berri Delivered by Carrier Evanlng end Sunday Sunday Evening Monthly 225 Per Issue .20 Monthly 1.60 Weakly .52 Weakly .37 Rotes by Mail—Payable in Advance Anywhere in the United States Evening and Sunday Sunday Evening 1 year .... 28 00 1 year ..12 00 1 year 18 00 6 months 14 50 6 months 650 6 months 925 3 months 7.50 3 months 350 3 months 475 1 month 260 1 month 1.50 1 month 200 Telephone: Lincoln 3-5000 Entered at the Post Office, Washington, D. C. as second-class mail matter. Member of the Associated Press The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper as well as A. P. news dispatches. SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1962 A-4 Riverside Route It is both interesting and encourag ing that the Highway Department—so often accused of rigidity in Its plan ning—has initiated suggestions that the inner loop freeway be moved to the west bank of the Anacostia River. For while this approach poses new problems, it appears to be clearly superior to the original location. As currently planned along Elev enth street S.E., the east leg of the loop freeway would rip through hundreds of homes—an impact which so split the District Commissioners that Congress had no alternative but to withhold con struction funds. On the Anacostia banks, the highway would cut through park areas, conflicting with the ultimate de velopment plans of the National Park Service. These, quite simply, are the basic effects which must be weighed and balanced against one another before the matter is resolved. Conrad L. Wirth, the Park Service director, says he will keep an open mind on the question until he sees precisely what is proposed. We hope that is the case. The highway officials contend that the freeway construction can be accom panied by land-fills in portions of King man Lake which would substantially Increase usable park land. Apart from the park issue, they are confident that •the riverside route would serve the es sential traffic functions of the inner loop nearly as well as the Eleventh street location—and certainly better than an expansion of the Anacostia freeway on the east side of the river, as proposed by the National Capital Transportation Agency. They argue that the alternate route would provide valuable and much needed highway relief to the D. C. Sta dium. As a whole, the river route would disrupt far fewer homes. If the supporting facts (which are yet to be fully presented) bear them out, these are positive and significant gains. The danger is, however, that the orderly construction of this vital por tion of the inner loop could very easily bog down in endless delay unless analy ses of the new proposal are conducted expeditiously and in good faith by the various agencies concerned. There are relatively few questions which need to be answered in order to determine whether the old route should be aban doned and whether detailed planning should proceed on the new. They should be answered quickly. Shameful Spectacle -» Most of the 50,033 persons who at tended the high school championship football game in D. C. Stadium Thanks giving Day were left with a feeling of frustration, anxiety and shame by the series of fights that broke out during and after the contest. Their day had been ruined and their very lives threat ened by the barbarian antics of a rela tively few—but still a frightening pro portion—of the record crowd. No good purpose is to be served by trying to gloss over the seriousness of ■what happened. Judging by the num ber of crude weapons involved, it ap peared some rowdies may have come prepared for planned action. But offi cials agree that the initial heat was generated by one of those incidents that occur so often in contact sports—a flare up between the players. Usually, that is ■about as far as it goes. In this case a player ejected from the game for fight ing became hysterical, and dashing back onto the field, precipitated a brief free for-all between the teams. Up to that point, however, the game for more than three quarters had been singularly free of roughness. As the game ended, a horde of spec tators from the Eastern High School side swarmed toward the St. John’s High School side of the field, and only determined effort by policemen prevent •ed something much worse. At that point, 'the clashes assumed ugly and ominous racial overtones, which later were ac cented in the heaviest fighting that injured many innocent people outside the stadium. Under the circumstances, it is not surprising that the Archdiocese of Washington has decided against partici pation in the annual championship game next year—a conclusion with which District government officials also are in general agreement. Thus a group of irresponsible rowdies, acting out of thoughtless and uncontrolled emotion, have at least temporarily ended the enjoyment which many thousands of others have taken in a worthwhile ath- letlc event—an event which cannot now be resumed until there are assurances that there will be no repetition of the shameful performance on Thanksgiving Day. The discouraging thing is that when that assurance will come, no one knows. Hard Times in Algeria Hard economic realities appear to be having a moderating influence on Premier Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria. Not so long ago he gave the Impression of being determined to convert his newly independent country into a thoroughly socialized “neutralist” state. But now he has been at pains to declare (1) that his nationalization program will apply only to such major industries as power and mining, (2) that it will not affect the European oil companies in the Sa hara (from which his government gets 50 per cent of the royalties), and (3) that most Algerian businesses will re main under private control. Moreover, he has asserted that one of his key pol icies is to strive for “healthy co-opera tion” with France. In giving voice to these remarks, Mr. Ben Bella undoubtedly has had in mind the fact that his foreign minister will soon be in Paris for talks with lead ers of the French government, which is supporting Algeria’s administrative budget with a subsidy amounting to about $2 million a day. This aid, how ever, is scheduled to come to an end on January 1, and so some new arrange ments will have to be sought for con tinuing help from France, not to men tion the United States. Otherwise the Algerian economy will face the prospect of steady and grave deterioration to the point of bankruptcy and collapse. The situation is already bad enough, of course, as a result of policies that have led upwards of 700,000 Europeans to quit the country, liquidating their enterprises there and taking with them close to $1 billion of working capital. Faced with these conditions, and also with riotous demonstrations by many thousands of hungry and unem ployed Algerians, Mr. Ben Bella has good reason to feel a sense of urgency in seek ing to Improve relations with France, persuade Europeans to stay in his coun try and encourage a return of the invest ment capital that has fled. His latest words on the subject are designed to reassure those who have been alarmed by some of his past actions. If he really means what he now says, then Algeria— which is rich in natural resources— should be able to overcome its present difficulties and advance and prosper, economically, socially and politically, as a free land co-operating with the free. Abstruse, but — This year’s Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry have been awarded to men whose accomplishments are rather too abstruse for most of us to compre hend with any real precision. Indeed, even scientists working In the same fields are not altogether sure of where these accomplishments are likely to lead. However, there is no doubt that they are going to lead somewhere, and significantly, in terms of advancing man’s knowledge of himself and his environment. Thus in the case of the physics award which has gone to Dr. Lev D. Landau of the Soviet Union the achievement involved has to do with his “pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium” and its extraordinary properties at temperatures near absolute zero. At the moment these theories seem to belong to the world of pure abstraction, but they offer new “insights,” according to scientific au thorities, that promise to be of major importance in the development of such things as electronic computers and spacecraft equipment. As for the Nobel Prize in chemistry, it has been awarded jointly to Drs. Max F. Perutz and John C. Kendrew, both of Cambridge University, for their achieve ment in throwing new light on the vastly complicated molecular structure and functioning of the human body. Their findings, like Dr. Landau’s, are so scien tifically complex that they cannot be translated into simple or singing prose making everything clear to everybody. After all, who can dramatize or popu larize X-ray diffraction studies involv ing what are called “globular proteins” and the ability of living things to breathe? Still, these studies and experiments that win the Nobel awards from year to year undoubtedly increase human knowledge in away that promotes the progress of mankind —and also in away that multiplies the hazards of existence. That is one fact that all of us have come to understand about science re gardless of its abstruseness. U. S. District Attorney As a candidate for Governor of New York, Robert M. Morgenthau was earn est but unexciting. He was, in advance, almost a sure loser against Incumbent Nelson Rockefeller, who went into the campaign with the advantages of an experienced organization, a relatively unified party, a four-year record in office that was not seriously vulnerable to attack, and an energetic kind of charm of his own. Even against this background, Mr. Morgenthau did very well—though not nearly well enough to win. As United States District Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Mr. Morgenthau had demonstrated com petence, integrity and a high sense of respect for public office. He resigned this job to run in his “lost cause,” but he did not surrender the qualities so well fitted to the legal post. President Ken nedy has recognized and rewarded these qualifications in re-appointing Mr. Mor genthau as District Attorney. It is a good appointment now, as it proved to be earlier. lit I ' 'This Is Not the Way I Planned Thanksgiving Celebrating!' LETTERS TO THE STAR 'Mocking Justice' Regarding your editorial, “Mocking Justice,” one of the most precious principles of our heritage of Anglo-Amer ican criminal jurisprudence is the requirement that the state prove its case against the accused, not only "beyond a reasonable doubt” of the jury, but that such proof must be within the confines of the applicable rules of law. This requirement is not a means to absolute justice, as is shown by the maxim aris ing from it: “better that 10 guilty go free than one in nocent suffer.” Rather, it is a wise rule formulated in rec ognition of the errors into which human judgment is apt to fall in its quest for ab solute justice. It is a rule which precludes courts and juries from finding verdicts on the basis of editorial spec ulation and constrains them to base decisions on law and fact. Since you, sitting as the thirteenth juror, have found all the facts in the case of Willie Lee Stewart, you are convinced of his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. But was such proof presented to you within the applicable rules of law? This is beyond your ken. The task of answering this question has been en trusted to our courts, and the final arbiter of the answers is the Supreme Court. The fact that the trials and appeals of Willie Lee Stewart have carried his case over a span of nine years, whatever other Ills of the system It may suggest, is not an indicium that justice has been mocked. On the con trary, it suggests that the state has been put to the task of establishing its case against the accused, as re quired by the valued principle of criminal law mentioned above. Limitations of space, time, and the human mind prevent courts from applying absolute justice, but they do not pre vent the attempt. Within the existing framework of our laws such an attempt can only be made through the medium of trial and appeal. Willie Lee Stewart has been tried and has appealed re peatedly, not in order that courts might mock justice, but that they might come as near as possible to achieving it. The Supreme Court did not remand the case of Willie Lee Stewart in order to mock justice, but to ensure that it be more closely approached through the observation of the rule of law. To demand the punishment of Willie Lee Stewart, even if he is admittedly guilty of the crime alleged, without at the same time demanding that the state establish its case, both in law and in fact, is to surrender one of the great bulwarks erected by the common law against the en croachment of tyranny. It was with considerable wisdom that our forefathers placed the administration of justice in the hands of judges and not of editors. It is you who have mocked Justice, not our courts. Patrick C. McKeever, Student. Georgetown University Law Center. Late Delivery Our postoffice seems to be getting behinder and be hinder in delivering the mail. I did not complain last sum mer when it took four days for a post card to reach me from Atlantic City, but when they do this to a whole citi zens’ association I have to holler. In reporting the meeting of our Kalorama Citizens As sociation last Tuesday night your reporter stated that there were only 22 members present. He failed to mention that only 10 or 12 out of the 22 had received the usual no tices of the meeting. About 200 notices were mailed the preceding Thursday and about 150 on Friday, all of which should have been de livered by Saturday morning. Instead of which many of our members had not received them by Tuesday. Is this what Pen names may be used if letters carry writers’ correct names and addresses. All let ters are subject to condensa tion. Those not used will be returned only when accom panied by self - addressed, stamped envelopes. automation has brought us to? G. M. Koockogey, President, Kalorama Citizens Association. Domestic Peace Corps In his recent article in The Star, George Sherman ex plained that the main task of a proposed domestic, peace corps-type force “would be to help States and local com munities tackle social prob lems." Although I realize that there are many social prob lems within the United States that need to be solved, I can not see any reason for the Federal Government assum ing control of the treatment for such State and local prob lems. If the Federal Govern ment is allowed to partici pate in such activities, the area of State control will be diminished to a point where it will be undetectable. Local social problems should be treated on the local level. The Federal Government could, however, be of great service to the States and local communities as a source of Information on treatment of social problems. Detailed re ports of successful programs could be made available to States and communities re questing them. Such an ad visory position on the part of the Federal Government would be far better than let ting the national Govern ment take control over areas of State and local responsibil ity. J. William Brimacombe 'Key' to Cuba Crisis In your editorials on Cuba you have omitted the Ant arctic situation, which is per haps the key to the Cuban situation. So little official at tention has been paid to the real meaning of the 1959 Ant arctic Treaty that it is not surprising to see assertions that Communist imperialism shall never be fortified in this hemisphere. Fortified means to be strengthened, to be confirmed. The Ant arctic Treaty fortified Com munist imperialism in this hemisphere. Even during negotiations on the treaty and shortly aft er ratification by our Senate, President Eisenhower and other officials kept saying we must keep the free world free, which is exactly the opposite of the policy under which the Antarctic Treaty was finally drawn. Thus, it is believed that the full dangers of this treaty were not recognized by higher echelons. This treaty brings the slaveholding, athe istic Communists into the Southern Hemisphere where they never were before and into the Western Hemi sphere which (except for a tiny peninsula of Siberia) they left in 1867. Thus, the penetration of Cuba starts with the Ant artic Treaty, wherein, as Senator Russell reminded us, the Monroe Doctrine was modified. Indeed that doc trine was modified and the Rio Pact was nullified. So, naturally, the Soviets felt free to enter Latin America. Moreover, the Senate was given a mistaken concept of the inspection provision in the Antarctic Treaty. The Soviets knew what it meant —that no Iron Curtain area needed to be inspected under the standards set up, inas much as there is and was no Soviet territory in Antarc tica. Thus, the Soviets today feel themselves on firm foun dation in refusing inspection of satellite Cuba or the homeland. So the Monroe Doctrine has fallen before the Antarctic Doctrine which is to the effect that where ever the Communists wish to remain they may remain. This doctrine needs to be overturned. E. A. Kendall. Aquarium Design I propose a different ap proach to the construction of our new aquarium, one in which the fish would be placed over and around the visitor rather than in pools and wall cases as presently planned. We could then walk the floor of the oceans— albeit in glass or plastic tunnels and could see the fish from the diver’s point of view in ecologically unified groupings, from Bermuda corals to the under-ice Arctic sea. To my mind, this would be a far more stimulating and instructive display than the •customary divisions by genus and species. Museums and zoos have long since moved to the re-creation of natural settings in which the visitor participates. Why not a simi lar immersion figuratively speaking—for the visitor to the marine world? I believe that if this con cept could be made a reality our new aquarium would quickly become a municipal attraction of national or even world interest. Geo. S. Leonard. Spies in U. N. _ “Crackpots” have been clamoring for some time to “Get us out of the U. N. and get the U. N. out of the United States” Your No vember 17 story about a U. N. delegate being among the group of Cubans arrested as saboteurs illustrates one of the weaknesses of this world government body, and vindi cates the “crackpots." Much has been said and written by experts concern ing Red agents who work with impunity to subvert this country’s citizenry and who conspire to overthrow our Government under the aegis of the U. N. There is over whelming evidence that It is being used by Communist agents to Infiltrate the United States. Not long ago. two Soviet agents were arrested in con nection with a sailor of the United States Navy who had been passing them naval se crets. These Red agents were employed at the U. N. And now a Cuban U. N. at tache has violated his diplo matic privilege by setting up his own potent armory in this country, no doubt with “defensive” weapons fur nished him by Russia or Czechoslovakia. J. Edgar Hoover pointed out recently that Soviet dele gations In the U. N. are nests of espionage. He estimates that 70 per cent of the So viet officials at the U. N. are carrying on spying activi ties against us. The U. N. stands as a Tro jan horse and it Is tragic In deed to think that we have built It and that we are sup porting Its activities. Virginia F. Chabot. Railroad Fares A story in The Star of November 15, headed “Travel Tax Ends at Midnight; To Cut Cost by $l5O Million,” stated: “Millions of American travelers will begin saving nearly $l5O million a year on their combined travel ex penses when wartime trans portation taxes are wiped off the books at midnight to night.” Was it the late W. C. Fields who often remarked “Never give a sucker a break’’? Well, apparently rail travelers on Eastern roads will be the suckers and the only beneficiary will be the railroads. Some of the East ern railroads have already is sued their new schedule for Fall-Winter 1962-3 in which the fares are increased, now that the tax has been re moved. So was the action of Con gress supposed to be for the benefit of the public or was it a grant to indirectly increase passenger rates for Eastern railroads? George J. Burger. THE POLITICAL MILL By GOULD LINCOLN Kennedy Woos Voting Blocs Bloc-voting racial, reli gious. economic, urban and rural—is not new in this country. It is, however, dom inating the political picture more and more. Both major political parties strive for support in these blocs. The Republicans, for example, are continuing their drive for greater support in urban areas, the great industrial cities where their political rivals have been supreme. They made dents in demo cratic majorities in these big cities in the 1962 congress ional and gubernatorial elec tions. especially in the guber natorial contests, enabling their candidates to win. Their high command is aiming its campaign in six States where big city voting is tremendous ly important New York, California, Pennsylvania, Il linois, Ohio and Michigan. Pick Their Blocs The Kennedys, who will be Intensely interested in the national elections of 1964, are past masters at playing up to this Find that bloc. And they seek the support partic ularly of those blocs which have the greatest number of voters. Some blocs necessarily overlap, particularly when it comes to economic Interests. The Democrats, for example, have had great support from labor, organized and unor ganized. The day when the Republican Party was able to count on such support went out with the old slogan of the “Full Dinner Pail” and high tariffs to protect American industries and their workers. Another bloc, the Negro vote, which for years had been Re publican, turned to the Demo crats under Franklin D. Roosevelt when he fed them in the days of the great de pression. Their belief that they can look to a Democratic administration for more help than from the Republican has kept the majority voting for Democratic candidates ever since. President Kennedy has just gone a step further. His new executive order barring racial discrimination in all housing in any way drawing financial support from the Federal Government—while it applies to all races and to members of all religious faiths—is de signed particularly to prevent any discrimination in hous ing (home owning and rent ing) against Negros. Al ready Democrats are praising Mr. Kennedy for issuing this order and criticizing the last Republican President, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, for having failed to issue such an order. What the total ef fect this new order will have on voting is not yet entirely clear. But one effect is al ready obvious; it will strengthen the President with the Negroes. Religious faith—church— should not be either a bar or a boost to any candidate VISTAS IN SCIENCE B y THOMAS R. HENRY Electronic Man Awaits Creation Eventually there may be an electronic man. "Machines’’ that may du plicate human sense organs artificial noses, artificial ears, artificial touch sense are objectives of the new sci ence of bioelectronics now being developed at Massachu setts Institute of Technology in co - operation with the Navy. The development is de scribed in a Navy report by Dr. A. Shostak, chief of the electronics branch of the Of fice of Naval Research, and Miss Elizabeth Appleton of the same office. It involves co-ordination of mathemat ics, biology, chemistry, nu clear and mechanical engi neering. neurophysiology and several other branches of medicine. The studies begin with ef forts to learn as much as possible about how the hu man brain and sense organs perform. Later attempts will be made to duplicate this mechanically as far as possi ble. The possibilities at pres ent seem quite intriguing but the further the brain studies go, the more complicated na ture’s sensory mechanism ap pears. Frog’s Eye Examined A present study, for exam ple, is of the frog’s eye. When the eye is stimulated electri cal impulses go from it to the visual area of the brain where the image—what the frog sees is formed. The studies have shown that five kinds of impulses go to the brain over five different kinds of nerve fibers. Some carry color, others shape, others size. etc. All must be co-ordinated in the final im age-before the frog really sees anything. Somewhat similar studies are under way with the human eye, but for the present are much re stricted in scope because of possible pain involved. Very complicated is the sense of smell. Because the majority of the elements of the nervous system consist of very small cells and fibers with very small diameters it has been necessary to design and construct new types of microelectrodes to obtain ac curate measurements. Since the larger neurons probably carry different smell infor- for high or low office. For the first time in its history, the country elected a Catho lic President in 1960. This election was widely hailed as having taken religion out of politics. But skepticism is being voiced in many quar ters today. A prominent so ciologist, Prof. Gerhard Len ski of the University of Michigan, making an analy sis for the First National In stitute on Religious Freedom and Public Affairs, sponsored here by the National Con ference of Christians and Jews, reported that religion “is a real and important fac tor in American voting be havior.” He added that “the influence of religion can no longer be ignored or explained away.” He gave this esti mate of the situation: “Prot estants are more likely to vote Republican than are either Catholics or Jews. Northern white Protestants form the bulwark of the Re publican Party, while Catho lics, Jews, Southern white Protestants and Negro Prot estants provide the major basis of the Democratic Party.” His estimate that religion plays its part in elections was confirmed by a leading poll ster, Oliver A. Quayles 111, vice president of Louis Harris and Associates, the firm which conducted polls for President Kennedy in his 1960 campaign. Mr. Quayles said the Jews had swung heavily toward Mr. Kennedy in the last days of the campaign be cause he was a Catholic and deserved support as a mem ber of a minority group, even though another minority group. Outlook for 1964 If these estimates are cor rect, what do they hold for the 1964 presidential cam paign and election? Demo cratic thinking probably was indicated when Robert M. Morgenthau, member of a prominent Jewish family in New York was picked—large ly on the recommendation of the Kennedys, it is reported —to run for Governor against Nelson A. Rockefeller in the recent election. A union of the Jewish and Catholic vot ers in the Empire State was desirable and desirable for 1964. Undoubtedly, tu similar effort for such a union will be made when Mr. Kennedy is up for re-election—prob ably against Gov. Rockefeller, a Republican candidate. Pres ident Kennedy has just re appointed Mr. Morgenthau to the office of United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which is only fair when it is mea sured against his sudden se lection to run for Governor. On the racial side, Presi dent Kennedy’s appointment of former Mayor A. J. Celeb rezze of Cleveland, of Italian descent, as HEW Secretary, gave recognition to a huge bloc of voters. mation than the larger neu rons definite measurements of small fibers and cells is of the utmost importance. Electrodes are being used to record, from single cells in the frog’s nose, the ani ‘mal's response to different chemical stimuli. Some cells, it has been found, respond to one chemical but not to an other that is very similar to it. Some respond to only one particular chemical. The electrodes tell, by the signals they put out. what chemical is nearby. Once the pattern of responses to different odors has been deciphered the next step will be to de vise a chemical theory of odor—an extremely difficult problem. Sensation originating in the skin is of particular in terest. Because of the preva lence of such conditions as headaches and facial neural gia, special consideration is being given to responses to stimulation of skin of the face. Under study is the fifth pair of cranial nerves of the cat. These nerves receive the sensory news from the face. Responses to heat and cold were measured. Except in the nasal cavities cells that re sponded to pressure did not respond to heat but cells that responded to cooling also re sponded to pressure. No pain cells, per se, could be found. Sensory Systems Studied Sensory systems of both skin and muscle are being studied to determine how the sensory parts of the central nervous system are connect ed. In experiments with tad poles an attempt has been made to determine the change of central nerve path ways which occurs during change of behavior. Certain areas of the tadpole’s skin that respond to a particular stimulus are transplanted to the abdominal area. The transplanted area still re sponds to the stimulus to which it responded originally, rather than to some other stimulus, the experimenters have found. Development of nerve cell tissue cultures is making pos sible study of the interaction between nerve cells and oth er cells. Also under study is the mechanism by which re lay stations in sensory path ways act as filters.