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Evening star. [volume] (Washington, D.C.) 1854-1972, November 24, 1962, Image 4

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W Jnening
With Sunday Morning Edition
Published by
Samuel H. Kauffmann
Benjamin M. McKalway
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Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is entitled exclusively to the use for
republication of all the local news printed in this newspaper
as well as A. P. news dispatches.
Riverside Route
It is both interesting and encourag
ing that the Highway Department—so
often accused of rigidity in Its plan
ning—has initiated suggestions that the
inner loop freeway be moved to the west
bank of the Anacostia River. For while
this approach poses new problems, it
appears to be clearly superior to the
original location.
As currently planned along Elev
enth street S.E., the east leg of the loop
freeway would rip through hundreds of
homes—an impact which so split the
District Commissioners that Congress
had no alternative but to withhold con
struction funds. On the Anacostia banks,
the highway would cut through park
areas, conflicting with the ultimate de
velopment plans of the National Park
Service. These, quite simply, are the
basic effects which must be weighed
and balanced against one another before
the matter is resolved.
Conrad L. Wirth, the Park Service
director, says he will keep an open mind
on the question until he sees precisely
what is proposed. We hope that is the
case. The highway officials contend that
the freeway construction can be accom
panied by land-fills in portions of King
man Lake which would substantially
Increase usable park land. Apart from
the park issue, they are confident that
•the riverside route would serve the es
sential traffic functions of the inner
loop nearly as well as the Eleventh street
location—and certainly better than an
expansion of the Anacostia freeway on
the east side of the river, as proposed by
the National Capital Transportation
Agency. They argue that the alternate
route would provide valuable and much
needed highway relief to the D. C. Sta
dium. As a whole, the river route would
disrupt far fewer homes.
If the supporting facts (which are
yet to be fully presented) bear them
out, these are positive and significant
gains. The danger is, however, that the
orderly construction of this vital por
tion of the inner loop could very easily
bog down in endless delay unless analy
ses of the new proposal are conducted
expeditiously and in good faith by the
various agencies concerned. There are
relatively few questions which need to
be answered in order to determine
whether the old route should be aban
doned and whether detailed planning
should proceed on the new. They should
be answered quickly.
Shameful Spectacle
-» Most of the 50,033 persons who at
tended the high school championship
football game in D. C. Stadium Thanks
giving Day were left with a feeling of
frustration, anxiety and shame by the
series of fights that broke out during
and after the contest. Their day had
been ruined and their very lives threat
ened by the barbarian antics of a rela
tively few—but still a frightening pro
portion—of the record crowd.
No good purpose is to be served by
trying to gloss over the seriousness of
■what happened. Judging by the num
ber of crude weapons involved, it ap
peared some rowdies may have come
prepared for planned action. But offi
cials agree that the initial heat was
generated by one of those incidents that
occur so often in contact sports—a flare
up between the players. Usually, that is
■about as far as it goes. In this case a
player ejected from the game for fight
ing became hysterical, and dashing back
onto the field, precipitated a brief free
for-all between the teams. Up to that
point, however, the game for more than
three quarters had been singularly free
of roughness.
As the game ended, a horde of spec
tators from the Eastern High School
side swarmed toward the St. John’s
High School side of the field, and only
determined effort by policemen prevent
•ed something much worse. At that point,
'the clashes assumed ugly and ominous
racial overtones, which later were ac
cented in the heaviest fighting that
injured many innocent people outside
the stadium.
Under the circumstances, it is not
surprising that the Archdiocese of
Washington has decided against partici
pation in the annual championship
game next year—a conclusion with
which District government officials also
are in general agreement. Thus a group
of irresponsible rowdies, acting out of
thoughtless and uncontrolled emotion,
have at least temporarily ended the
enjoyment which many thousands of
others have taken in a worthwhile ath-
letlc event—an event which cannot now
be resumed until there are assurances
that there will be no repetition of the
shameful performance on Thanksgiving
Day. The discouraging thing is that
when that assurance will come, no one
Hard Times in Algeria
Hard economic realities appear to
be having a moderating influence on
Premier Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria.
Not so long ago he gave the Impression
of being determined to convert his newly
independent country into a thoroughly
socialized “neutralist” state. But now
he has been at pains to declare (1) that
his nationalization program will apply
only to such major industries as power
and mining, (2) that it will not affect
the European oil companies in the Sa
hara (from which his government gets
50 per cent of the royalties), and (3)
that most Algerian businesses will re
main under private control. Moreover,
he has asserted that one of his key pol
icies is to strive for “healthy co-opera
tion” with France.
In giving voice to these remarks,
Mr. Ben Bella undoubtedly has had in
mind the fact that his foreign minister
will soon be in Paris for talks with lead
ers of the French government, which is
supporting Algeria’s administrative
budget with a subsidy amounting to
about $2 million a day. This aid, how
ever, is scheduled to come to an end on
January 1, and so some new arrange
ments will have to be sought for con
tinuing help from France, not to men
tion the United States. Otherwise the
Algerian economy will face the prospect
of steady and grave deterioration to the
point of bankruptcy and collapse. The
situation is already bad enough, of
course, as a result of policies that have
led upwards of 700,000 Europeans to quit
the country, liquidating their enterprises
there and taking with them close to $1
billion of working capital.
Faced with these conditions, and
also with riotous demonstrations by
many thousands of hungry and unem
ployed Algerians, Mr. Ben Bella has good
reason to feel a sense of urgency in seek
ing to Improve relations with France,
persuade Europeans to stay in his coun
try and encourage a return of the invest
ment capital that has fled. His latest
words on the subject are designed to
reassure those who have been alarmed
by some of his past actions. If he really
means what he now says, then Algeria—
which is rich in natural resources—
should be able to overcome its present
difficulties and advance and prosper,
economically, socially and politically,
as a free land co-operating with the free.
Abstruse, but —
This year’s Nobel Prizes in physics
and chemistry have been awarded to
men whose accomplishments are rather
too abstruse for most of us to compre
hend with any real precision. Indeed,
even scientists working In the same
fields are not altogether sure of where
these accomplishments are likely to
lead. However, there is no doubt that
they are going to lead somewhere, and
significantly, in terms of advancing
man’s knowledge of himself and his
Thus in the case of the physics
award which has gone to Dr. Lev
D. Landau of the Soviet Union the
achievement involved has to do with
his “pioneering theories for condensed
matter, especially liquid helium” and its
extraordinary properties at temperatures
near absolute zero. At the moment these
theories seem to belong to the world
of pure abstraction, but they offer new
“insights,” according to scientific au
thorities, that promise to be of major
importance in the development of such
things as electronic computers and
spacecraft equipment.
As for the Nobel Prize in chemistry,
it has been awarded jointly to Drs. Max
F. Perutz and John C. Kendrew, both of
Cambridge University, for their achieve
ment in throwing new light on the vastly
complicated molecular structure and
functioning of the human body. Their
findings, like Dr. Landau’s, are so scien
tifically complex that they cannot be
translated into simple or singing prose
making everything clear to everybody.
After all, who can dramatize or popu
larize X-ray diffraction studies involv
ing what are called “globular proteins”
and the ability of living things to
Still, these studies and experiments
that win the Nobel awards from year
to year undoubtedly increase human
knowledge in away that promotes the
progress of mankind —and also in away
that multiplies the hazards of existence.
That is one fact that all of us have
come to understand about science re
gardless of its abstruseness.
U. S. District Attorney
As a candidate for Governor of New
York, Robert M. Morgenthau was earn
est but unexciting. He was, in advance,
almost a sure loser against Incumbent
Nelson Rockefeller, who went into the
campaign with the advantages of an
experienced organization, a relatively
unified party, a four-year record in
office that was not seriously vulnerable
to attack, and an energetic kind of
charm of his own. Even against this
background, Mr. Morgenthau did very
well—though not nearly well enough to
As United States District Attorney
for the Southern District of New York,
Mr. Morgenthau had demonstrated com
petence, integrity and a high sense of
respect for public office. He resigned
this job to run in his “lost cause,” but
he did not surrender the qualities so well
fitted to the legal post. President Ken
nedy has recognized and rewarded these
qualifications in re-appointing Mr. Mor
genthau as District Attorney. It is a
good appointment now, as it proved to
be earlier.
I '
'This Is Not the Way I Planned Thanksgiving Celebrating!'
'Mocking Justice'
Regarding your editorial,
“Mocking Justice,” one of the
most precious principles of
our heritage of Anglo-Amer
ican criminal jurisprudence
is the requirement that the
state prove its case against
the accused, not only "beyond
a reasonable doubt” of the
jury, but that such proof
must be within the confines
of the applicable rules of law.
This requirement is not a
means to absolute justice, as
is shown by the maxim aris
ing from it: “better that 10
guilty go free than one in
nocent suffer.” Rather, it is
a wise rule formulated in rec
ognition of the errors into
which human judgment is apt
to fall in its quest for ab
solute justice. It is a rule
which precludes courts and
juries from finding verdicts
on the basis of editorial spec
ulation and constrains them
to base decisions on law and
Since you, sitting as the
thirteenth juror, have found
all the facts in the case of
Willie Lee Stewart, you are
convinced of his guilt beyond
a reasonable doubt. But was
such proof presented to you
within the applicable rules
of law? This is beyond your
ken. The task of answering
this question has been en
trusted to our courts, and the
final arbiter of the answers
is the Supreme Court.
The fact that the trials
and appeals of Willie Lee
Stewart have carried his case
over a span of nine years,
whatever other Ills of the
system It may suggest, is not
an indicium that justice has
been mocked. On the con
trary, it suggests that the
state has been put to the
task of establishing its case
against the accused, as re
quired by the valued principle
of criminal law mentioned
Limitations of space, time,
and the human mind prevent
courts from applying absolute
justice, but they do not pre
vent the attempt. Within the
existing framework of our
laws such an attempt can
only be made through the
medium of trial and appeal.
Willie Lee Stewart has been
tried and has appealed re
peatedly, not in order that
courts might mock justice,
but that they might come as
near as possible to achieving
it. The Supreme Court did
not remand the case of Willie
Lee Stewart in order to mock
justice, but to ensure that it
be more closely approached
through the observation of
the rule of law.
To demand the punishment
of Willie Lee Stewart, even
if he is admittedly guilty of
the crime alleged, without at
the same time demanding
that the state establish its
case, both in law and in fact,
is to surrender one of the
great bulwarks erected by the
common law against the en
croachment of tyranny.
It was with considerable
wisdom that our forefathers
placed the administration of
justice in the hands of
judges and not of editors.
It is you who have mocked
Justice, not our courts.
Patrick C. McKeever,
Student. Georgetown
University Law Center.
Late Delivery
Our postoffice seems to be
getting behinder and be
hinder in delivering the mail.
I did not complain last sum
mer when it took four days
for a post card to reach me
from Atlantic City, but when
they do this to a whole citi
zens’ association I have to
In reporting the meeting of
our Kalorama Citizens As
sociation last Tuesday night
your reporter stated that
there were only 22 members
present. He failed to mention
that only 10 or 12 out of the
22 had received the usual no
tices of the meeting. About
200 notices were mailed the
preceding Thursday and
about 150 on Friday, all of
which should have been de
livered by Saturday morning.
Instead of which many of our
members had not received
them by Tuesday. Is this what
Pen names may be used if
letters carry writers’ correct
names and addresses. All let
ters are subject to condensa
tion. Those not used will be
returned only when accom
panied by self - addressed,
stamped envelopes.
automation has brought us
G. M. Koockogey,
President, Kalorama Citizens
Domestic Peace Corps
In his recent article in The
Star, George Sherman ex
plained that the main task of
a proposed domestic, peace
corps-type force “would be to
help States and local com
munities tackle social prob
lems." Although I realize that
there are many social prob
lems within the United States
that need to be solved, I can
not see any reason for the
Federal Government assum
ing control of the treatment
for such State and local prob
lems. If the Federal Govern
ment is allowed to partici
pate in such activities, the
area of State control will be
diminished to a point where
it will be undetectable. Local
social problems should be
treated on the local level.
The Federal Government
could, however, be of great
service to the States and local
communities as a source of
Information on treatment of
social problems. Detailed re
ports of successful programs
could be made available to
States and communities re
questing them. Such an ad
visory position on the part of
the Federal Government
would be far better than let
ting the national Govern
ment take control over areas
of State and local responsibil
J. William Brimacombe
'Key' to Cuba Crisis
In your editorials on Cuba
you have omitted the Ant
arctic situation, which is per
haps the key to the Cuban
situation. So little official at
tention has been paid to the
real meaning of the 1959 Ant
arctic Treaty that it is not
surprising to see assertions
that Communist imperialism
shall never be fortified in
this hemisphere. Fortified
means to be strengthened,
to be confirmed. The Ant
arctic Treaty fortified Com
munist imperialism in this
Even during negotiations
on the treaty and shortly aft
er ratification by our Senate,
President Eisenhower and
other officials kept saying we
must keep the free world free,
which is exactly the opposite
of the policy under which the
Antarctic Treaty was finally
drawn. Thus, it is believed
that the full dangers of this
treaty were not recognized by
higher echelons. This treaty
brings the slaveholding, athe
istic Communists into the
Southern Hemisphere where
they never were before and
into the Western Hemi
sphere which (except for a
tiny peninsula of Siberia)
they left in 1867.
Thus, the penetration of
Cuba starts with the Ant
artic Treaty, wherein, as
Senator Russell reminded us,
the Monroe Doctrine was
modified. Indeed that doc
trine was modified and the
Rio Pact was nullified. So,
naturally, the Soviets felt
free to enter Latin America.
Moreover, the Senate was
given a mistaken concept of
the inspection provision in
the Antarctic Treaty. The
Soviets knew what it meant
—that no Iron Curtain area
needed to be inspected under
the standards set up, inas
much as there is and was no
Soviet territory in Antarc
tica. Thus, the Soviets today
feel themselves on firm foun
dation in refusing inspection
of satellite Cuba or the
homeland. So the Monroe
Doctrine has fallen before
the Antarctic Doctrine which
is to the effect that where
ever the Communists wish to
remain they may remain.
This doctrine needs to be
E. A. Kendall.
Aquarium Design
I propose a different ap
proach to the construction of
our new aquarium, one in
which the fish would be
placed over and around the
visitor rather than in pools
and wall cases as presently
planned. We could then walk
the floor of the oceans—
albeit in glass or plastic
tunnels and could see the
fish from the diver’s point of
view in ecologically unified
groupings, from Bermuda
corals to the under-ice Arctic
To my mind, this would be
a far more stimulating and
instructive display than the
•customary divisions by genus
and species. Museums and
zoos have long since moved
to the re-creation of natural
settings in which the visitor
participates. Why not a simi
lar immersion figuratively
speaking—for the visitor to
the marine world?
I believe that if this con
cept could be made a reality
our new aquarium would
quickly become a municipal
attraction of national or even
world interest.
Geo. S. Leonard.
Spies in U. N. _
“Crackpots” have been
clamoring for some time to
“Get us out of the U. N.
and get the U. N. out of the
United States” Your No
vember 17 story about a U. N.
delegate being among the
group of Cubans arrested as
saboteurs illustrates one of
the weaknesses of this world
government body, and vindi
cates the “crackpots."
Much has been said and
written by experts concern
ing Red agents who work
with impunity to subvert this
country’s citizenry and who
conspire to overthrow our
Government under the aegis
of the U. N. There is over
whelming evidence that It is
being used by Communist
agents to Infiltrate the
United States.
Not long ago. two Soviet
agents were arrested in con
nection with a sailor of the
United States Navy who had
been passing them naval se
crets. These Red agents were
employed at the U. N.
And now a Cuban U. N. at
tache has violated his diplo
matic privilege by setting up
his own potent armory in
this country, no doubt with
“defensive” weapons fur
nished him by Russia or
J. Edgar Hoover pointed
out recently that Soviet dele
gations In the U. N. are nests
of espionage. He estimates
that 70 per cent of the So
viet officials at the U. N.
are carrying on spying activi
ties against us.
The U. N. stands as a Tro
jan horse and it Is tragic In
deed to think that we have
built It and that we are sup
porting Its activities.
Virginia F. Chabot.
Railroad Fares
A story in The Star of
November 15, headed “Travel
Tax Ends at Midnight; To
Cut Cost by $l5O Million,”
“Millions of American
travelers will begin saving
nearly $l5O million a year on
their combined travel ex
penses when wartime trans
portation taxes are wiped off
the books at midnight to
Was it the late W. C.
Fields who often remarked
“Never give a sucker a
break’’? Well, apparently rail
travelers on Eastern roads
will be the suckers and the
only beneficiary will be the
railroads. Some of the East
ern railroads have already is
sued their new schedule for
Fall-Winter 1962-3 in which
the fares are increased, now
that the tax has been re
So was the action of Con
gress supposed to be for the
benefit of the public or was it
a grant to indirectly increase
passenger rates for Eastern
George J. Burger.
Kennedy Woos Voting Blocs
Bloc-voting racial, reli
gious. economic, urban and
rural—is not new in this
country. It is, however, dom
inating the political picture
more and more. Both major
political parties strive for
support in these blocs. The
Republicans, for example, are
continuing their drive for
greater support in urban
areas, the great industrial
cities where their political
rivals have been supreme.
They made dents in demo
cratic majorities in these big
cities in the 1962 congress
ional and gubernatorial elec
tions. especially in the guber
natorial contests, enabling
their candidates to win. Their
high command is aiming its
campaign in six States where
big city voting is tremendous
ly important New York,
California, Pennsylvania, Il
linois, Ohio and Michigan.
Pick Their Blocs
The Kennedys, who will be
Intensely interested in the
national elections of 1964,
are past masters at playing
up to this Find that bloc. And
they seek the support partic
ularly of those blocs which
have the greatest number of
voters. Some blocs necessarily
overlap, particularly when it
comes to economic Interests.
The Democrats, for example,
have had great support from
labor, organized and unor
ganized. The day when the
Republican Party was able to
count on such support went
out with the old slogan of the
“Full Dinner Pail” and high
tariffs to protect American
industries and their workers.
Another bloc, the Negro vote,
which for years had been Re
publican, turned to the Demo
crats under Franklin D.
Roosevelt when he fed them
in the days of the great de
pression. Their belief that
they can look to a Democratic
administration for more help
than from the Republican
has kept the majority voting
for Democratic candidates
ever since.
President Kennedy has just
gone a step further. His new
executive order barring racial
discrimination in all housing
in any way drawing financial
support from the Federal
Government—while it applies
to all races and to members
of all religious faiths—is de
signed particularly to prevent
any discrimination in hous
ing (home owning and rent
ing) against Negros. Al
ready Democrats are praising
Mr. Kennedy for issuing this
order and criticizing the last
Republican President, Gen.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, for
having failed to issue such
an order. What the total ef
fect this new order will have
on voting is not yet entirely
clear. But one effect is al
ready obvious; it will
strengthen the President with
the Negroes.
Religious faith—church—
should not be either a bar
or a boost to any candidate
Electronic Man Awaits Creation
Eventually there may be
an electronic man.
"Machines’’ that may du
plicate human sense organs
artificial noses, artificial
ears, artificial touch sense
are objectives of the new sci
ence of bioelectronics now
being developed at Massachu
setts Institute of Technology
in co - operation with the
The development is de
scribed in a Navy report by
Dr. A. Shostak, chief of the
electronics branch of the Of
fice of Naval Research, and
Miss Elizabeth Appleton of
the same office. It involves
co-ordination of mathemat
ics, biology, chemistry, nu
clear and mechanical engi
neering. neurophysiology and
several other branches of
The studies begin with ef
forts to learn as much as
possible about how the hu
man brain and sense organs
perform. Later attempts will
be made to duplicate this
mechanically as far as possi
ble. The possibilities at pres
ent seem quite intriguing but
the further the brain studies
go, the more complicated na
ture’s sensory mechanism ap
Frog’s Eye Examined
A present study, for exam
ple, is of the frog’s eye. When
the eye is stimulated electri
cal impulses go from it to
the visual area of the brain
where the image—what the
frog sees is formed. The
studies have shown that five
kinds of impulses go to the
brain over five different
kinds of nerve fibers. Some
carry color, others shape,
others size. etc. All must be
co-ordinated in the final im
age-before the frog really
sees anything. Somewhat
similar studies are under way
with the human eye, but for
the present are much re
stricted in scope because of
possible pain involved.
Very complicated is the
sense of smell. Because the
majority of the elements of
the nervous system consist
of very small cells and fibers
with very small diameters it
has been necessary to design
and construct new types of
microelectrodes to obtain ac
curate measurements. Since
the larger neurons probably
carry different smell infor-
for high or low office. For
the first time in its history,
the country elected a Catho
lic President in 1960. This
election was widely hailed as
having taken religion out of
politics. But skepticism is
being voiced in many quar
ters today. A prominent so
ciologist, Prof. Gerhard Len
ski of the University of
Michigan, making an analy
sis for the First National In
stitute on Religious Freedom
and Public Affairs, sponsored
here by the National Con
ference of Christians and
Jews, reported that religion
“is a real and important fac
tor in American voting be
havior.” He added that “the
influence of religion can no
longer be ignored or explained
away.” He gave this esti
mate of the situation: “Prot
estants are more likely to
vote Republican than are
either Catholics or Jews.
Northern white Protestants
form the bulwark of the Re
publican Party, while Catho
lics, Jews, Southern white
Protestants and Negro Prot
estants provide the major
basis of the Democratic
His estimate that religion
plays its part in elections was
confirmed by a leading poll
ster, Oliver A. Quayles 111,
vice president of Louis Harris
and Associates, the firm
which conducted polls for
President Kennedy in his 1960
campaign. Mr. Quayles said
the Jews had swung heavily
toward Mr. Kennedy in the
last days of the campaign be
cause he was a Catholic and
deserved support as a mem
ber of a minority group, even
though another minority
Outlook for 1964
If these estimates are cor
rect, what do they hold for
the 1964 presidential cam
paign and election? Demo
cratic thinking probably was
indicated when Robert M.
Morgenthau, member of a
prominent Jewish family in
New York was picked—large
ly on the recommendation of
the Kennedys, it is reported
—to run for Governor against
Nelson A. Rockefeller in the
recent election. A union of
the Jewish and Catholic vot
ers in the Empire State was
desirable and desirable for
1964. Undoubtedly, tu similar
effort for such a union will
be made when Mr. Kennedy
is up for re-election—prob
ably against Gov. Rockefeller,
a Republican candidate. Pres
ident Kennedy has just re
appointed Mr. Morgenthau
to the office of United States
Attorney for the Southern
District of New York, which
is only fair when it is mea
sured against his sudden se
lection to run for Governor.
On the racial side, Presi
dent Kennedy’s appointment
of former Mayor A. J. Celeb
rezze of Cleveland, of Italian
descent, as HEW Secretary,
gave recognition to a huge
bloc of voters.
mation than the larger neu
rons definite measurements
of small fibers and cells is
of the utmost importance.
Electrodes are being used
to record, from single cells
in the frog’s nose, the ani
‘mal's response to different
chemical stimuli. Some cells,
it has been found, respond to
one chemical but not to an
other that is very similar to
it. Some respond to only one
particular chemical. The
electrodes tell, by the signals
they put out. what chemical
is nearby. Once the pattern
of responses to different
odors has been deciphered
the next step will be to de
vise a chemical theory of
odor—an extremely difficult
Sensation originating in
the skin is of particular in
terest. Because of the preva
lence of such conditions as
headaches and facial neural
gia, special consideration is
being given to responses to
stimulation of skin of the
face. Under study is the fifth
pair of cranial nerves of the
cat. These nerves receive the
sensory news from the face.
Responses to heat and cold
were measured. Except in the
nasal cavities cells that re
sponded to pressure did not
respond to heat but cells that
responded to cooling also re
sponded to pressure. No pain
cells, per se, could be found.
Sensory Systems Studied
Sensory systems of both
skin and muscle are being
studied to determine how the
sensory parts of the central
nervous system are connect
ed. In experiments with tad
poles an attempt has been
made to determine the
change of central nerve path
ways which occurs during
change of behavior. Certain
areas of the tadpole’s skin
that respond to a particular
stimulus are transplanted to
the abdominal area. The
transplanted area still re
sponds to the stimulus to
which it responded originally,
rather than to some other
stimulus, the experimenters
have found.
Development of nerve cell
tissue cultures is making pos
sible study of the interaction
between nerve cells and oth
er cells. Also under study is
the mechanism by which re
lay stations in sensory path
ways act as filters.

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