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The Seattle post-intelligencer. (Seattle, Wash. Terr. [Wash.]) 1888-1914, December 04, 1888, Image 2

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045604/1888-12-04/ed-1/seq-2/

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into partnership with lu favorite-, to
their ail vantage and to the injury of a
nut majority of oor people Tbt< is
Bot equality before the law.
The existing ritnation is In-
Srioua to tbe health of our entire
ay politic It *tifles all patriotic
lore of country and stibstitotes in its
pla/c «elfi-h grved andgra»pingaranee.
Devotion to American nt zen-hip for
Ita own -ake arxi the ►enet.t it «nou,d
arcomplish as a motive to our nation s
advancement and tbe b»ppines- of all
our people is di-jrface.l by tbe aasump
tion that tbe gorerriment, in-tea/i of
being the embi*iiment equality. !«
but an instrumentality through which
eipetial and indiridoal advantage- are
to lie gained Tbe arrogant'- of the
assumption Is unconcealed. It af>-
pear- in tbe solid <li-regmrd of all but
personal interest in the refu«al to aliate
tor the benefit of other- one iota of
aeifiah advantage and in tbe combina
tion to perpetuate Mich adrantige
thnxigh effort to control leiiislati'rfi
and Improperly control tbe suffrage of
tbe people.
TBE EEORLE WILL ITEWA*!! A CMAXUI
Tl»e grierance of Uio-e not Inclwied
In the circle of the-- benefic:*ne
when fulls realized, will «urely ar».u«e
irritation and discontent. Our farmer-,
long-suffering ami patient, struggling
in the race of life with the hardest
and mo t unremitting toil, will not
fail to -ee and estimate the misrepre
sentation- and misleading fallacies
will see th:tt thev are obligi-d to ac
cept such pri'-e- lor their products a
are fixed in foreign markets, where
they compete with tbe farmers of the
world' that their land- aredediningin
value, while their debt- Increase, and
that without compensating labor they
are forced by the action of govern
ment to pay for tbe benefit of other
such enhanced prices for tbe thing
they need, that the scanty return* of
thier labor fail to fnrni-h thera sup
port or leave no < iar*in for accumula
tion < Mir workingmen, cnfranchi-ed
from ail delusions »nd no long fright
ened bv the crv that their wages are
endangered bv a just revision of the
tariff laws, will reasonably demand,
through such revi-ion. -teadier em
ployment, cheaper mean- of living.
Freedom for thenntelve- and children
from the doom of perpetual servitude
and an open door to their advance
ment bevond the limits of a laboring
Class. Others of our citizens whose
comfort- and expenditure- are meas
ured by moderate salaries and fixed
Incomes will in-ist on the fairnei- and
justness of cheapening the cost of
tiece--aries for them-elres and their
families.
When to the -elfi-hne- of the bene
ficiaries of unjust discrimination un
der our laws there shall I* added the
discontent of tho-e who will suffer
from such discrimination, we will re
alize the fact that the beneficent pur
pose of our gorernment. dependent on
the patriotism and contentment of our
people, is endangered.
THE COJIKI SCIS* or CAPITAL.
Communism is a hateful thing anil
a menace to peace and organized gov
ernment, but the commuui-m of com
bined wealth and capital, the out
growth of overweening cupidity and
seltl-hne-s. which inaiduoa-lv under
mines the justice and integrity of free
Institutions, i- not less dangerous than
the communism of oppre-»ed poverty
and toil, which, exasperated by in
ju-tiee and di-content. attacks with
wild disorder the ciladel of rule.
lie mocks the jieople who promises
that the government shall protect the
rich and they in turn will care for the
laisiring poor. Any intermediary !*•
tween the poor and their government,
or the lea-t delegation of the « ire and
protection the government owe- the
humblest citizen in the land, makes
the Itoast of free institution- a glitter
ing delusion and the pretended l«>on
of American citizenship a -hatnele-s
Impo-ition, and a scn-ible revi-ion of
our tariff laws slioukl be made for the
relief of those of our countrymen who
sutler under the present conditions.
Such a revision should receive the -up
port of nil who love that justice and
equality due to American citizen-hip:
of all who realize ihat in thi- justice
ami equally our government find- i's
strength and power to protect citizens
and profx rtv ; of all who believe that
th* 1 contented cootjietence anil comfort
of the many accord l»etter with the
spirit of our institution- than colo--al
fortune- unfairly gathered in the
band- of a few ; of all who appreciate
that the forbearance and fraternity
among our people which recognize the
value of every American intere-t arc
the surest guaranty of our national
progress, and of alt who de-ire to see
(he product of American skill and
ingenuity in every market of the
world, with a resulting restoration of
American commerce
HOW TO UEtlt'CE THE REVENI'K
The neee—ity of the reduction of!
our revenue 1- so apparent as to lie
generally conceded, but the means by
which thi- -hall Is- accimipli-hcd and
the -un> of direct lienetit which -hall
re-ult to our citizens, present a con
troversy of the utmost importance.
There nliould lie no scheme accepted as
satisfactory by which the burdens of
the Jieople are only apparently re
moved Extravagant appropriation of
public money, with ull their demoral
ising consequences, should not U- tol
crated, either a- a means of relieving
the trra-urv of it- present surplus, or
as founding pretexts for resisting a
proper reduction in the tariff rate-.
V;listing evils and inju-ti> c* nhould U
honestly recognized, boldly met and
effectively remedied. There should I
no cessation of the struggle until a
plan is perfected fair and conservative
toward exi-ting uidu-tric-. but which
will reduce the cost to the consumers
of the necessaries of life, while it pro
vides for our manufacturer- the ad
vantage of free raw materials and
|>ermit- no injury to the interest of
American labor. The can e for «hi h
the battle is w iged i- compri-ed with
in line- dearly and distinctly defined
It should never be compromised. It
i- the people - cause
MISTAKEN I. EG ISI ATI OS
raiVATE ISO'S FlKTllMirii *T Till VI
OI.ECT or rVHtlc M -IN KS-
It cannot be denied that the selfish
and private interests which are m»
prominently heard when efforts are
made to deal in a ju-t and comprehen
sive way with our tariff law- are re
lated to. if thev are not responsible for.
the sentiment largely prevailing among
the people that the general govern
nieut is the fountain of individual anil
private enterprise, and that it may 1-e
expected t«» relieve with paternal » are
the distress id citiaens and communi*
tie-, and that from the fullness of ts
treasury it should. upon the slightest
po-sihle pretext of promo ing the gen
eral good applv puMu fund- to the
lieneitt of 1< aliii** and individuals.
Nor CAB -t bi dltM thai there Is a
growing assumption that, as against
the government arid in uvrof orieate
claims and interests. the usual rule*
and limitations of busine-s principle
an.l ju.-t deaiiu* -hould l*e waived
Theal idea- have been unhappd\
niiii h en by Ifgi-lative a. \w
c.*oem-e Rci cf from contract- made
with the government i* too ca-ilv v
corded in favor of th* cttuen Ph.
failure to -unport c!aim* again-t the
Aivrmmrlit n> proof i> often Mippite>i
by no better atn«hlerttion than the
wealth of the government ami
UH' NO vert V of the claim ant
tlrat ntu »n tin* form of |*n?ioiiv
are granted upon no other reil ground
than ili»' nerd} e»»ti lttion of the ap
{tli rant or t\ r reav>n* not valid and
arge *ums are expended for public
buildiuin an,l .'titer improvements
upon the repre*enurtons of "oriftiri
clainuHl to o rtljt t to public need*
tttui nt - « ! c i " % extent to «huh
the consider .it: i\ of *v. titers -uh
ordinate* an-i j" « action upan
subject* of pfi! public imjortance.
but involving' no «pe* al private or par
tj%an interest, arre-t attention
an ! lead to ret or-nation
A fr« of th« "■ !n'e'on> »'hi*trat» -
of this itM; it o® may lie Mite-I The
re« liuia of the * a >*wi.»r %%:
the - pre • *:rt and the ra\ to
nuitori and the »ierr.d of ju-t. ere-ult
ing therefrom ha t»een strongly urged
uiHtn tie attention of the »
with a p'an for the re! ef o* the -ttua
lion, approved l»y tho-e *cli abe to J
udge of it- merits White thi- sub
jfrt remain* vitkovt effort)re emsad
eration. many law* bare b»*n pa*-«d
providing for Uw hoMiiil of term* d
inferior court- tt riirw to suit the
conveni^n' - * of localitie- or to Uy the
foundation of u application for the
eruption of a new public building
Repeated recommendation* bare been
submitted for tbe amend ruent and
change of tbe laws relating to oar
public lands «o that their spoliation
and direr-ion to use* other than for
the nomri of hone»t settler* rnuh: be
prerented. While a measure to meet
thi* conceded nece«*itr of reform re
main- na:iinr tbeaction of congres - .
cianr claims to the public liw and
aprllcatioa* for their donation in
faror If -tile- and individuals hare
been allotted.
A Ha» in aid o( I ndirn management
in recommended bv those well in
formed as ctmlailbw valuable matures
in furtherance of the -ojation of the
Indian problem. bat ha-* thus far
failed of lesri-latlve sanction, while
grant-of d«. ;btful e*pe.iient'T to rail
road corporations, permitting them to
p<t.- through Indian reservations, hare
greatly multiplied.
The propriety and necessity of the
erection of <'tjc or more pri-on- for the
'• .ntinement of I nrted state- convict*,
and a poaMßae building in the nation
al capital, are not disputed ; but th***
need-yet remain unan«wered, while
screen of public building- hare been
erected where their nece--ity for pub
lb' parposes is not apparent.
Iteri-ion" of our pensions laws ootdd
lie easOv made which would re-t upon
Just principles and provide for every
wortriv applicant; but while our gen
eral pension law- remain confu-ed anil
imperfect. hundreds of our prirote
pension laws are passed
which are the sources of unju-t dis
crimination and popular demoraliza
tion.
Appropriation bills for the -upport of
the government are increased by items
and provision to meet prira e end-,
and it i» freely asserted bv repon-ible
and experienced parties tliat a bill ap
propriating money for public im
proreruent would fail to meet with
favor unless it contained more for
local and private advantage than for
public benefit.
The-e-titement-can be much em
phasized by th" ascerta nment of the
proportion of federal legislation,
which either bears on its face a private
character or which on examination
develops sucli a motive power, and
vet the people wait ami expect from
their chosen representative such
patriotic actions us will advance the
welfare of the entire coantrv, and this
expectation can only I* answered by
the performance of duty with un -
selfish pur|*>se- Our mi-sion among
the nations of the earth and our suc
cess in accompli-hing good has given
American people the right to require
of those intrnsted with the
making and execution of our
laws perfect devotion, above
all things, to the public good.
This devotion will lead us strongly to
re-i«t all impatience of constitutional
limitations of federal powerand persi-t
--ently i heck the increasing tendency to
extend the scope of federal legislation
in the domain of state and local juris
diction on the plea of subserving the
public welfare The preservation, of
the partitions between the proper sub
ject- of federal and local care are of
such importance under the constu
tion, which is the law of our very ex
istence, that no consideration of ef
ficiency or sentiment should tempt us
to enter upon doubtful ground. Hav
ing undertaken to discover and pro
claim the richest blessings of a free
government with the constitution as
our guide, let us follow the way it
point* out. f.et us hojie it will not
mislead us, and surely no one who has
taken upon him-elf the solemn obliga
tion to -upport ami preserve the con
stitution can And jn-titiration or solace
for disloyalty in tbe excuse that he
wandered and di-olieved in search of
a better way to reach the public wel
fare than the constitution afforded.
AS DREW JACKSON'S DOCTKISK.
What has bee* said i- deemed not
inappropriate at a time when from a
century s height we view tbe way al
ready trod by the American people
and attempt to discover their future
path. The seventh president of the
b nited Mates. the soldier and states
man. and at all time-, the firm and
brave friend of the people, in vindica
tion of his course a- the protector of
the popular right- and the champion
of true American citizenship, said:
"The ambition which ICJIIS mc on i
an anxious desire and a fixed deter
mination to restore to the people un
impaired the -aired tru-t they have
confided to my barge; to heal the
wounds of constitution and preserve
it from further violation; to persuade
my countrymen, so far as I may. that
it i- not in a splendid government
supported by powerful monopolies
nd aristocratic e-tabli-hments that
they w ill find happiness or their liberty
and protection, but in a plain system,
void of pomp, protecting all and grant
ing favor- to none, dispensing it-
Messing- like the dews of heaven, un
seen and unfelt -ave in the freshness
and beauty they contribute to produce;
that the genius of our people requires
-.nil a one only under which our state
may remain (or ages to come united,
prosperous and free.
ST ATI* OF THE UNION.
THE rtHHKUIt*, I.HKII MA« KMLLK, \XD
OTIItR r«»K r.u.s « oMPLIf"ATIOSS.
In pursuance of aconstitutional pro
vision requiring the president front
time to time t«» give to congress in
formation of thi* -tate of the tJnion, I
have the satisfaction to announce that
tHo dose of the vr.tr finds the United
State* in the enjoyment of domestic
tranquility and at )»eace with all the
nations. Since m> annual message
our foreign relations have been
| strengthen*l anil improved by the
performance of International good
otßee-t and bv new and renewed
treaties of amitv. oomnierre and re
ciprocal extradition of criminal- The
international questions which
await settlement arc *ll reasonalv
within the domain of amicable negtv
tiation. ami there i- no exiting sub
ject of dispute U'tween the 1 nited
States and any foreign p iwer that i
not susceptible of > Uisfactiorv adju«t
ment by trank diploiuat.c treatment.
rtie rtfHrmn qrxsnoN
The questions between 'treat Britain
and the United State* relating to the
rights of American fishermen under
the treaty and international comity in
the territorial waters of t anada and
Newfoundland, I regret to -ay. are
not satisfactorily adjn-tcd. Thee
matter- were fully treated :n my mes
sage to the senate of February
I --S , '.lilt w : • \v • . •», V;
cotHiuiietl under my authority with
her aaa)esty - goi • ntiM nt on Hm I ih
of Februars last, for the removal of
all oau-ei >f misunderstanding. was
- lbmitted by me for the approval of
the senate. This treaty having been
rejected by the senate. I transmitted
a message to congress on the L'Sd
• f \ugu«t la-t rev ewing the transac
tions and submitting for consideration
certain recommendations for legis * ]
t on concerning the important .j
tions :nvi*lve*i Afterward. on the
l.*th of September, m re-ipon-e t» a
resolution of the senate, I again com
mumcated fully all the information in
my pos*e**iofi a* to the action of the
government of t ana !a affecting th«
tommen ul relation* letwein the Do
minion and the I'nited M*te*. m hid
ing the treatment of American ti-hing
ve» » N in the port- a: i water* "! Brit
i-h North Amerna flxi tlWlllli)!
tioS» hare all t*en pubU*bed *nil are
therefore open to the knowledge of
both hone* of congee-*, although two
wen 4 addressed to the senate atone
Com«%ent on or repetition of their con
tent- would be*nj»errtm»u-, and 1 am
not aware that autthiufr ha- >ince i*-
oumd «h ch -ho.*id be adde t t > the
ta«t« therein stated. Therefore i
merel> repeat a* applicable to t> e
present time the atatenlent * h ch w: i
tn* found in mv me-**re to t)n> -enate
>er 12 last that - Marci>
I, Ti*i VIM ha* been reported
t.i the department of *Late w tie re
<-«>mplitnt ha- Ifen mi'.e of
unfner d \ or ttnlawf.U treatnienl ot
\mericaa hahbig ve-*ei» on the part
of the Canadian *utiutnt;e- ia which
reperatu>n w*« not pTxicuptly and -at
•;-■•• • ' .* ."""" _v . . • "v ' •'. •• • • • -■:
SEATTLE POST - DfTELLICi fcXCEK. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 4,
irfmrtorVe made to tbe rnited States
ctKoaui-geremi at Halifax.
Hariri * essayed, in tbe discharge of
my dutr. to secure by negotiation tbe
aettlrment of a long-standing cause of
dispute and to remove a constant
menace to tbe good relations of the
two countries, and continuing to be o.
ibe opinion that tbe treaty of Febru
ary last, which failed to receive the ap
proval of tbe senate, did «upply a -at
lirfactorT, practical and fii al adju-t
--ment. upon aba-is honors'ie and jast
to U>tb parties, of tbe difficult and
vexed question to which it related,
and ha nag subsequently and onavail
ir.gly recommended other lej;;-!«t:on
•to congress which I h >ped would sof
ifice to meet the exigency create*! by
the rejection of the treaty. I now again
invoke the earnest and immediate at
tentixn of the congress to the condi
tion of thi- important qae-tion as it
! now -tand* before them and the coun
try. and for the settlement of which I
i am deeply solicitous.
LORD SA»'|C VII.LES SIS.
I Arsr.it tie close of the month of Oc
! to!>er last occurrences of a deeply re
gre'table nature were brought to my
knowledge, which made it my painful
but imperative duty to obtain, with as
little delay a- p>--ifJe. a new per.-onal
channel of diplomatic intercour-e in
this countr. with the government of
Great Britain. The i-orre-pondem ein
relation to the incident will indue
• cour-e tie laid before voa. and will di--
1 c'»-< the unparalleled conduct of the
officii! referred to in his interference,
by advice and counsel, with the suf
frage- of American citizens in the verv
cri i- of the presidentia' election, then
near at hand, also in his stib-equent
public declarations to justifv his ac
tion, superadding impugnment of the
executive and the senate of tbel'nited •;
State- in connection with important
oue-tions now pending in controversy
tietween the two governments. The
offense thus committed was most
grave, involving di-a-trous possibili
ties U) the good relations c.' the I"nited
Mats- and Oreat Britain, constituting
a gross breach of the diplomatic
privileges and an invasion of the
purely domestic affairs and essential
sovereignty of the government to
which the envoy was accredited.
Having fir-t fulfilled the just demands
of international i-omity by affording
a lull opportunity for her majesty's
government to act in relief of the
situation, I considered a prolongation :
of the discus-ion to be unwarranted, ■
and thereupon declined to further
recognize the diplomatic character of
the person wbo-e continuance in such
functions would de-troy that mutual
confidence which is es-ential to the
good understanding of thetwo govern
ment", and was inconsi-tent with the
welfare anil self-respect of the govern
ment of the United States. The usual
interchange of communication has i
since continued through her majesty's '
legation in this city.
ALASKAN QCEBTIONS.
My endeavors to establi-h by inter
national co-operation measures for the
prevention of the extermination of fur
seals in Bebring sea have not been re
laxed, and I have hopes of being en
abled shortly to submit one effective
and satisfactory conventional project
with tbe maritime powers for the ap- ;
proval of the senate.
The coast and Isjindary lietween
our Ala-Kan po»-es«ions and llriti-h
Columbia, 1 regret to say, has not re
ceived attention demanded by its im
portance and which on several occa
-ions heretofore I had the honor to
recommend to emigres-. The ad
mi'ted impracticability, if not impos-j
nihility, of making accurate and pre
ci-e -urvev and demarkation of the
boundary line as it is recited in the
treaty with Kussiaunder which Alaska
was ceded to the r nited State-,
renders it absolutely requisite
for prevention of internal jurisdiction ;
complications,that an adequate appro
priation for a reconnoissani e and sur
vey to obtain proper knowledge ef the
locality and geographical features of
the boundary should be authorized by
congre-s with a-little delay as pos-ible.
The knowledge to be only thu ol>-
tained is an es-ential pre requisite for
negotiations for ascertaining a com
mon boundary or as a preliminary to
any other mode of settlement.
WRK.I KIN'l OS THE I.EEAT I.AKEs.
It is much to be desired that some
agreement should be reached with her i
majesty's government by which dam- ,
age to life and property" on the fjreat j
lakes may l>e alleviated by removing
or humanely regulating the obstacles ]
to reciprocal l-i-tance to wrecked or ■
stranded vessels. The act of June 1!). \
IsTS, which offers to Canadian res-els
acce— to our inland water- in aid of |
wrecked or di-abled ves-els, ha- not
yet become effective through concur- I
rent action by the Canadian govern- j
i raent.
I NATURALIZED AJtrRICASS SOT TO BE
PRAFTEP.
The due protection of ourcituens of
French origin or de-cent from the
claim of aiilit iry service m the event
of their retnrniiigtoor vi-iting France,
has called forth correspondem-e, whiih
was laid liefore you at the last session.
In advance of a convention agreement
as to naturalization, which is greatly
to l>e desired, this government -ees no
occasion to recede from the sound po
sition it has maintained, not only with
regard to France but a- to all coun
tries with which the I'nite I Stites ha
not concluded special treaties,
i DEATHM or TIIE HERMAN FMIU.Ri'KS.
! Twice within the last year has the:
imperial hou-chold of Germany been '
vi-ite I by death, and I have hastened ,
to express the sorrow of thi- jieople
and their appreciation of the high
chsrai terof tne late aged Emperor j
William and their sympathy with the
heroi-m and -nfferihg of his son, the
late Kmperir Frederick.
; I renew my recommendation of two
; year- ago for the passage of a bill for
:'the refunding to certain German
! -team-hip line- of the interest m>on
| tonnare due- illegally exacted.
On the twelfth of April last I laid
before the house of representative* full
information re-peeting our interests in
Sam a ind in s ih-equent cnrres|H)nd
ence on the same subject, which will
I be laid before congress in due course
!of time, the history of the events in
tho-e islands will be found.
CHINK.SK RESTRICTION.
In a t;ie> age accompanying tny ap
prov il «»n the 1-t day of Octotier la«t,
u i bill for the exclusion of Chine-e
laborers. I hud l*efore congress full in
j formation and all the corre-pondence
t v ching the negotiation of the treaty
I with China concluded at this capital
« n the- 1 Jtla day of March, and
which, having tVen confirmed by the
-enate with certain amendment-', was
rejected by tie Chinese government
Tliis me—age contained a recommend
ation that a sum of money lie appro
priated a- compensation* to Chinese
-übject.- who have ciflered injuries at
the hands of lawless men within our
i infliction. S teh appropriation hav
in>r l*»*n duly made, the fun is await
re ejtion by the Chine>e government.
It is sincerely hoped that by t'e
cf«-ati«n c»f the influx of this class of
Chine-* subject*, in accordance with
the expressed wi«h of both govern
ment*, a cau-e of unkind feeling has
been permanently removed.
*>•*■< a*D CoftEft
On the !Hh of Augn*t, 1537. notifica
tion tat given hy th* Japanese min
i*ter a! th:-* cat :tal «>f the adjoormnest
of th* conference for the revi-on of
the treaties of Japan with foreign
power*, oiir.g to the objection of hi
govern mint to the provi-ion ir» the
dratt of jurisdiction at the conference
whi h required the *ubiri*-ion of the
criminal «.. ;e of the empire to the
power- in Advance of it- becoming
operative*. Thi* notification a a-, how
ever, accompanied with an
of Japan * intention to Continue the
work of revision.
Not*; branding thi* temporary in-
of :t i*
that improvement* may *oon l*e se
cured in the juri fictional *y-tem a
•e«j»e, r« foretgrer«> in Japan ar.d re
» et afforded that country from the
present undue and oppres-ive foreign
■ ontr< 1 in matter* of commerce. 1
carne-tlv re*a nimend that relief he
p- v lev! for the injuries accidentail)
can-e«i to Japanese subject* in the
island of Ikisiira by the target pra<
lice of ore of our re*>e!f
A diplomatic mission from Cona
has been receive*! The formal inter
course between the two countries con
templated bv the treaty of I <- 1 i* now
estaUhbed." Lect'lative provision is
hereby recommended to organize and
equip consular courts in '"or^a.
Persia has established diplomatic
representation at this capital and has
evinced a verv great interest in the
enterprise an 4 achievements of our
citizen". I am therefore hopeful that
beneficial rommerrial relation' be
tween the two countries may be
brought aiout.
THE H ATTi AS IMCUltnol.
I announce with sincere regret that
Hayti has affain become the theater
of insurrection, di-order and blood
shed The liberal government of
Pre«:ient Solomon ha- been forcibly
overthrown and he driven out of the
country to France, where he has since
died. The tenure of power has been
so unstable, ami 1 the war of factions
that has ensued since the expul
sion of Pre-ident Solomon, that
the government constituted by
ihe will of the Havtian people has been
recognized a- administering responsi
bility t« the affairs of the country.
Our representative has been instructed
to abstain from interference between
the warring factions, and a vessel of
our navy ha- been -ent to Haytian
waters to sustain our minister and for
the protection of the persons and prop
erty of American citizens. Precau
tions hav*. been taken to enforce our
neutrality laws and prevent our terri
tory from becoming the base of mili
tary supplies for either of the war
. ring factions.
Under color of a blockade of which
no reasonable notice had l>een eiven,
and which does not appear to have
been efficiently maintained, a seizure
of vessel- under the American flag has
been reported, and in comequence
measures to prevent and redress any
molestation of any of our innocent
merchantmen have been adopted.
Proclamation was duly made on the
9th day of November, 1887, of the con
ventional extensions of the treaty of
June 3. 1875, with Hawaii, under
which relations of such sp-cisl and
beneficient intercourse have i>een cre
ated.
A CABLE TO HOgOLt'Ll'.
! In the vast field of Oriental com
merce now unfolded from our Pacific
border*, no features present a stronger
; recommendation for congressional
action than the establishment of com
munication by snbmarine telegraph
with Honolulu. The graphic position
of the Hawaiian group in relation to
our Pacific states creates a natural in
terdepencv of mutuality of interest
which our present treaties were in
tended to foster and which made close
communication a logical and commer
cial necessity.
FBIESPLY RELATIONS WITU MEXICO.
The wisdom of concluding a treatv
of commercial reciprocity with Mexi
co has lieen heretofore stated in my
messages to congress, ami the of
time and "growth of commerce with
that dose neiehbor and sister republic
confirm the judgment so expressed.
1 he precise location of our boundary
line is needful, and an adequate appro
priation is now recommended. It is
with sincere satisfaction that I am en
abled to advert to the spirit of good
neighborhood and friendly co-opera
tion and conciliation that has marked
the correspondence and action of the
Mexican authorities in their share of
the task of maintaining law and order
a!>out the line of our common
boundary.
The long-pending boundary di-pute
between Costa Kica and Nicaragua
was referred to my arbitration, and by
an award made on the 22d of March
last the question has been finally
-ettled to the expressed satisfaction of
both the parties interested.
SOTTH AMERICA.
The empire of llrazii. in abolishing
the last ve-tige of slavery among
Christian nation*, calleil forth the
earnest congratulations of this govern
ment in an expression of the cordial
sympathies of our people.
The claims of nearly all other coun
tries against Chili growing out of her
late war with Bolivia and Pent, have
been disposed of either by arbitration
or by a lump settlement. Similar
claims of our citizens will continue to
be urged upon the <'hilian govern
ment and it is hoped wiil not
be subject to further delays.
A comprehensive treaty of amity
and commerce with I'eru was pro
claimed on November 7 last, and it is
expected that under its operation
prosperity and good understanding
w ill lie promoted. .
In the pursuance of the policy of
arbitration, a treaty to «ettle the
claims of Saulos, an American citizen,
against Ecuador, has been concluded
under my authority, and will lie duly
submitted for the approval of the
senate. A like di-po-ition of the claim
of Carlos ltu'tertield against Denmark
and of Vonßoklen against Hayti will
probably be made, and 1 trust the
principle of such settlements may lie
extended under the practice and ap
proval of the senate.
Through unseen causes, foreign to
the w ill of both governments, the rati
fication of the convention of December
3. IS-.V with Venezuela, for the rehear
ing of claims of' itizen-* of the I'nited
States under the treaty of ISSti, failed
to exchange within the term provided,
and a supplementary convention fur
ther extending the time for the ex
change of ratifications and explanatory
of an ambiguous provi-ion «f the
prior convention now awaits the ad
vice and consent of the senate. Al
though this matter in the stage re
ferred to concerns only the concurrent
treaty-making power of one branch of
congre s, I advert to it in
view of the interest repeatedly and
conspicuously shown by you in your
legi-lalive capacity in favor of a speedy
and e piitable adjustment of all the
questions growing out of the discred
ited judgments of the previous mixed
commission of Caracas. With every
desire to do justice to the rerre-enta
tion of Venezuela in this regard, time
seems to have ended this matter, and
I trust the prompt confirmation bv
both parties of supplementary action
referred to w it! avert the need "of legis
lative or other action to prevent the
i longer withholding of such riehts of
I act :al claimants as may be shown to
. | exist.
As authorized by congress, prelirai-
I narv steps have been taken for the as
semblage at this capital dur
ing tha coming vear of repre
sentatives of the South and Cen
tral American stales, together
with those of Mexico, Hay ti. and
liomingo. toili-cuss * lmiry important
monetary and commercial topics. Kx
cepting in those cases where, from rea
sons of eontig titv of territory and ex
pense of a border line incapable of be
t;:guarded. reciprocal commercial
trcvies m ..v be f.- iiitf expedient. It
is believed that commercial policies in
diting free mutual exchange of pro
ducts can lie most a Ivantageouslv ar
ran.t-d bv independent but co-opera
! legi I.iti'.n m the mode last men
tioned. ( ntr.d of our taxation for
revenue will be always maintained in
our hands, unrestricted by convertti'.-n
a! agreements with other government.
ISTFB!»ATI N*t I \w on the srss.
In conformity also with congre-s
--i'-r.a! authority, the maritime powers
h-.vt- been invited t > confer in Wash
ii iiton in April next lipnn the practic
a' lity of Uevidng uniform rules and
mea- ir* - for the greater security of
l.ic I prof>ert\ .it s«-a, a di-position
to a ■ i the part . f a number of
I-ow. r« :. .- aJrea .v l*-en mani e-t
--i and the (. twiperation of the na
t 'lis lueiy ir.u>te-t d shall lie se
cure-!, inijs.'t.mt re-ults mar lie confi
dentially anticipated.
PI Ttlc.
The a ti f June-" 1 ' Ism.and the*rts
ami i; ia; rv the-, of. in relation to ton-
".areh.vepiYen r!«etoeiten.leii
|..<rre<:- : liorno with for>"pn nations
* :ti whom we hive eiitinjf treats
i .iV u'at'on. aoii hav. i'au>eU a re-
FTCXXA <■ c.verfrn eof in r*U»
uon tht inißo»iti<jn *>f the tlutie*
re:err*>i t". The queMiona are im
portant arj 1 ►hall make them the
- il_<vtof * m re delaUel comuiUDi
cation at the pre-ent se->ion.
MM. SATI"> »S1) CITIZZS-BIP.
ah the rapid inrrtlM of linn;izrft
iwa to »ar »hr res ana the fatiiiUes of
modern travel, abuse* of the generous
pnnieees offered by oar naturalization
laws call for their carelul revision
The easv and unguarded manner m
which certificates of Amencan citiien
•hip can now be obtained has induced
a class unfortunately large to awl
themselves of the opportunity to be
come absolved from allegiance to their
native land and vet by a foreign -resi
dence to escape any just duty and
contribution of service to the country
of their proposed adoption, ihas
while evading Uie duties of citizenship
to the I'nited States, they
make prompt claim for its
national protection and demand it
intervention in their behalf. Interna
tional complication- of a serious na
ture ari-e and the correspondence of
the state department discloses the
great number and complexity of the
questions which have been raised,
uur laws regulating passports should
be esrefullv revised, and the institu
tion of a central board of reei-tration
at the capital is again strongly recom
mended. By thi- mean- the particu
lars of each "case of naturalization in
the Initcd states may be se
cured and property indexed and
recorded, and thus many case- of
spurious citizenship wonld be detected
and unjust respon-ibilities be avoided.
COXsn-.tß BEFOKX*.
The organization of the consular
service" is a matter of serious impor
tance to national interest-. The num
ber of ezi-tivg principal consular
offices is believed to be greater than -it
all ueces-arv for the conduct of public
business, ft need not be our policy
to maintain more than a moderate
number of principal offices, each sup
ported by a salary sufficient to en
able the incumbent to live in
comfort, and so distributed as
to subordinate the aeencie- of affairs
over a con-iderahle district. 1 regret
the recommendation hertofore made
by me that the proper maintenance of
our diplomatic and consular service
should be recast so that the so-called
national or official fee, which our rep
re-entatives abroad are now permitted
to treat as a personal perquisite, should
be forbidden, that a system of consu
lar inspection tie instituted anil the
number of secretaries of a legation at
large, be authorized.
DOMESTIC AFFAIRS.
FUA.ICES. I-ESSIOSS A3D EXrESDITt: BF.S
NEEI-ED LEGISLATION,
Preparations for the centennial cele
bration April 30. I*B9. of the inaugura
tion of George Washington as presi
dent of the United States at the city
of New York, have been made by a
voluntary organization of citizens" of
that locality, and, believing that op
portunity should be afforded for the
expression of the int«re-t felt through
out the country with this event, I re
spectfully rec "mmend fitting and co
operative action by congress in behalf
of the people of the United States.
THE TIUDCIV.
The report of the secretary of the
treasury exhibits in detail the condi
tion of our national finances and the
operation of the several branches ot
the government related to his depart
ment. The total ordinary revenues of
the government for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1888, amounted
to $279,266,874 76. of which $219,-
091,173 63 was received from
custoics duties and $124,29 >.f>7l 98
from internal revenue taxes.
The total receipt- from all sources ex
ceeded tho-e for the ti-cal year ended
June 30, 1887. by $7,882,797 10. The
ordinary expenditures of the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1888, are $259,-
653,958 67, leaving a surplus of $119.-
612,116 09. The decrease in these ex
penditures, as compared with the
fiscal year ended June 30, lss-, was
$8,278,220 30, notwithstanding the pay
ment of more than $.">,000,000 for pen
sions in excess of what was paid for
that purpose in the latter-mentioned
year. The revenues of the government
for the year ending June 'Xt, as
ascertained for the quarter ending
Sept 30. 1888, and estimated for the
remainder of the time, amount to
$377,0<iQ,000, and the actual estimated
ordinary expenditures for the same
year ar# $273,000,000, leaving an esti
mated surplus of $lO4/100.000.
The estimated receipts for the year
ending June 30, lsfiO, are $377,000,000,
and the estimated ordinary expendi
tures for the same time are $275,767,-
48s 31, showing a surplus of $101,232.-
511 *>•;. The foregoing statements of
the surplus do not take into account
the sum necessary to be expended to
meet the requirements of the sinking
fund act. amounting to more than
$67,000,000 annually. The cost of col
lecting customs revenue for the last
fiscal year was 2.44 per cent.; for the
year 1885 it was 3.77 per cent.
The excess of internal revenue taxes
collected dnritig the last fiscal year
over those collected during the fiscal
year ending June 30, 1887, was $5,4*9.-
171 00, and the cost of collecting this
revenue decreased from 3.4 per cent, in
1887 to less than 3.2 per cent, for last
year. The tax collected on oleomar
garine was $723,918 01 for the year
ending June 30. 1887, and $864,139 88
for the following year.
BOND PURCHASE.
The requirements of the sinking
fund have been met for the year
ended June 30, lsßs. and for the cur
rent year also by the purchase of
bonds. After complying with the law
as po-itively required , and l>onds suf
ficient for that purpose had been
bought at a premium, it was not
deemed prudent to further expend the
surplus in such purchases until au
thority to do so should be more ex
plicit. A resolution, however, having
been passed by both houses ot
congress removing all doubt as to
executive authority, daily purchases
of bonds were commenced on the 2Tkl
of April, lHss, and have continued un
til the present time. By this plan
Ixind* of the government not yet due
have been pure ha-ed up to and in
cluding the :tOth of November, IHS.3,
amounting to s*> I 700,100. the prem
ium paid thereon amounting to
$17,503,613.
The premium added to the principal
of these Ixinds represents an inve-t
--ment yielding about 2 per cent, inter
est for the time they still had to run.
and saving ato the government repre
sented by the difference between the
amount of 2 per cent, on the sum piid
for principal and premium, and what
it would have paid for interest at the
rale specified on the bonds if thev run
k> maturity, or about $3,716,ri00. At
tirst sight this would seem to be a
profitable and sensible transaction on
the part of the government, but, as
suggested by the secretary of the
treasury, the surplus thus expended
for the purchase of bonds was money
drawn from the jieople in excess of any
actual need ui the gpvernment, and
was expended rather than to allow it
to remain idle in the treasury. If this
surplus, under the operation of ju-t
and equitable laws, ha.l been lett in
the hands of the people, it would have
benefited them in their business at
least 6 per cent per annum. Iteduct
ing from the amount of the interest
on the principal and premiums of
these loans for the time thev bad to
run at 6 per cer.t . ihe saving of 2 per
cent made for the jieople by the pur
chase of stii h bonds, ihe lo»- will ap
jiear to be $• > .">7i> 000.
This calcila'ion would seem to
demonstrate that if exces-ive and nn
nece-sary taxation is continued and
the government i- forced to pur-ne the
policy of purchasing too often !>onds
at the premiums which it will be
ne--e.-arv to pay. the loss to the people
»ih 1* hundreds of millions of dollar-,
i-incethepurcha-eof londs was under
taken as mentioned, nearly all that
have been offered were at la-t ac
cepted. It has been made quite ap
parent that the government was in
dar.gerof being subject to a "combine"
to rai-e their price". a» appears by the
instance cited by the secretary, of
the ofering of lond- of the par value
of only ss».2,>rt) so often that the
aggregate of the sums uemanded for
their pnr<h*-e amounted to more
than $19.700 00' Notwithstanding the
large sums paid out in the purcha-e
of bonds, the surplus in the treasury
on the 30th of November. 1 s-; was
512.234.710 01 after deducting about
$2,060,000 just drawn out for the pay
meat of pensions.
CniSASI or SILYMt DCLLAIS.
At the dose of the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1«, there had been coined
under the ovmpui*ory silver coinage
art s3Btf.»S)'.2sO in silver dollars, *K>,-
S0»31«i of which were in the hands of
the people. On .he 30tl» dav ofJane.
ISS?, there had been coined f290,7(te,-
T». and of this 9U.&9.30S was in cir
culation in coin and in sil
ver certiticates. for the redemption of
which silver dollars to (hat amount
were held by the government. On the
30th day of November. 1888. $312,570,-
{WO had" been coined and 100.970,980 Of
the silver dollar- were actually in cir
culation and $237,418,346 in certificates.
The secretary recommend* the su>-
jtension of thefurther coinage of silver,
and in such recommendation I earn
estly concur. For further aluable in
formation and timely recommenda
tions I a-k the careful attention of
congress to tlic secretary's report
THE Wtn PFr.VRTJiFST,
The secretary of war reports that
the army, at the date of the last con
solidated returns, oon-i-ted of -193
officers and 24.515 enli-ted men. The
actual expenditure- of the war depart
ment for the fiscal year ended June
30. 1888, amounted to $1! .186,107 07, of
which -urn $9,158,516 53 was expended
for public works, including river and
harbor improvements.
The board of or--nance and fortifica
tion, provided for under the act ap
proved September 22 last, was con
vened October 30, 18*48, and plans and
specifications for procuring forging*
for S-, 10- and 12-inch gun- under the
I provision-of section 1. and also for
procuring 12-inch breech-loading mor
tars. ca-t-iron. looped with steel, un
der the provision - of -ection sof said
act. were submitted to the secretary of
war for reference to the loard by the
ordnance department on the same date.
These plans and specifications having
been promptly approved by the l>oard
and the secretary of war, the neces
sary authority to publish advertise
ments inviting proposals in the news
papers throughout the country was
granted by the secretary on Novem
ber 12. anil on November 13 the ad
vertisements were sent out to the dif
ferent newspapers designated. The
bids for the steel forcings are to be
opened on December 20, 188s, and for
the mortars on December 15. I^*B.
A board of onlnanee officers was
convened at Watervleit arsenal on
October 14, 188*. to prepare the neces
sary plans and specifications for the
establishment of an army pun factory
at that point. The preliminaries of
this hoard, with estimates of shop
buildings and officers' quarters, was
approved by the board of ordnance
and fortifications. The form of adver
tisement ami instructions to bidders
has heen prepared and an advertise
ment inviting proposal* for excava
vations for the shop building and for
the erection of two sets of officers'
quarters has been published, with
detailed drawings and specifications.
Fur the gun factory the building is
well in hand and will lie finished in
three or four months, when bills will
be invited for the erection of the build
ing. The list of machinery, etc., is
made out and it is expected plans for
large lathes, etc.. will he completed
within about four months and
after approval by the board of ord
nance and fortification bids for furn
ishing the same will lie invited. The
machines anil other fixtures v ill be
completed as soon as the shop is in
readiness to receive them, probably in
1890.
I'nder the provisions of the army
bill for the procurement of pneumatic
dynamite guns, the necessary specifi
cations are now being prepared and
advertisements for proposals will be
for guns of 15 inches caliber and to
fire a projectile that will carry a charge
each of aoout 500 pounds of explosive
gelatine with full calibre projectiles.
The guns will probably be delivered in
from six to 10 months from the date of
the contract, so that all the guns of
this class that can l>e procured under
the provisions of this law will be pur
chased during the year.
I earnestly request that the recom
mendations contained in the secreta
ry's report, all of which are, in nty
opinion, calculated to increase the
usefulness and discipline of the army,
may receive the consideration of con
gress. Among these it rs proposed that
there should t>e provided a planforex
amination of officers to test their fitness
for promotion, which is of the utmost
importance. This reform has been be
fore commended in reports of the sec
retary. and its expediency Is so fully
demonstrated by the arguments pre
sented in its favor that its adoption
should no longer be neglected.
A TRtBTTE TO SHKRIDAS
The death of Gen. Sheridan in Aug
ust last was a national affliction. The
ariuv then 10-t the grandest of its
chiefs, the country lost a brave, ex
perienced soldier, a wise and discreet
counsellor and a modest and sensible
man. Those who in any manner came
within the range of his per-onal asso
ciation will never fail to nay deserved
ami willing homage to his greatness
and the plory of his career, out thev
will cherish with more tender sensibil
ity the loving memory of his supple,
generous and considerate nature.
Ti!E APACHE PRISONERS.
The Apache Indian*, whose removal
from their reservation in Arizona fol
lowed the capture of those of their
numlier who engaged in the bloody and
murderous raid during 1885 and* 1888,
are now held as prisoners of war at
Mount Vernon barrack*, in Alabama.
They numbered on the tirst day of
Octol>er. the date of the last report,
83 men, 170 women. .'iO boys, 29 girls;
in all. 382 jiersons. The commanding
officer* state that they are in good
health and contented.' and they are
kept employed as fully as possible un
der the circumstances Tl e children,
as they arrive at a suitable age, are
sent to the Indian schools at Carlisle
and Hampton, and last summer char
itable anil kind people a-ked permii
sion to send teacher* to those Indians
for the purpo-e of instructing adults
as well as such children a* should be
found there. Permission was read
ilyEgiven, accommodation provided
for teachers, and a certain |K>rtion of
the building at the barracks made
available for this purpose. The good
work contemplated has been com
menced and the teachers engaged are
paid by the ladies with whom the
plan originated. I am not at all in
sympathy with the-e benevolent but
injudicious people, who are constantly
insisting that these Indians should be
returned to the reservation. The r re
moval was an absolute necessity. If
the lives ami property of the citizens
of the frontier are to be at ail regarded
bv the government, their continued
restraint at a distance from the
scene of their re|«>rted cruel murders
ami outrages is -till necessary. It is
mistaken philanthropy, in every wav
injurious, which prompts the desire to
see those savages returned to the old
haunts. Thev are in their present
location a* a "result of the !>e«t judg
ment of those having official responsi
bility in the matter, and who are by
no means lacking in kind considera
tion for the Indians A number of
the-e prisoners have forfeited their
lives to outraged law and humanity.
Kxj>erience ha« proved that thev are
dangerous and cannot he tru'sted
This is true not only of those on the
warpath, who have heretofore been
actuallv guilty of atrocious murders,
but of their kindred ami friends, who,
while they remained upon their reser
vation. f'irni-bed aid and comfort to
those ab«ent with bloody intent.
These prisoners should tie treated
kindly ami kept in restraint, far from
the locality or their former reserva
tion They should I* subjected to
efforts calculated to lead to their im
provement and to the softening of
the - -m-age and aruel instinct-, hut
their return to their old home should
lw> |>ersistently rejected. The secretary
of war in his report gives a graphic
hi-tory of the-e Indians and re< ites
with painful vividness their bloody
deeds and the unhappy failure of the
government to manage them bv peace
ful means. It will be amazing if a
perusal of this history will allow the
survival of a desire for the return of
these prisoners to their reservation
upon sentimental or any other grounds
THE SAVTf.
The report of the navy demonstrates
very intelligent management in that
important department, and discloses
the most satisfactory* progress in the
work of reconstructing the navy. Par
ing the past year, of ships in cour-e of
construction! tive. viz., the Charleston.
Baltimore. Yorktown. Vesuvius and
the Petrel, have in that time lieen
launched and are rapidly approaching
completion, and in addition to the
above the Philadelphia, the Sati Fran
cisco, the Kewark. the Bennington, the
Concord and the Berre-hef torpedo
boats are all under con'ract for deliv
ery to the department during the next
year. The progress already anil being
made gives good erotind for the expec
tation that these vessels will 1* incor
porated as a part of the American na
vy in the next 12 months.
The report shows that, notwith
standing large expenditures for new
construction and the additional lai>or
they involve, the total ordinary or cur
rent expenditures of the department
for the three years ending June .10.
IBSB, are less bv more than 30 percent,
than such expenditures for the three
years ending June 30. ISSI. Various
steps which have been taken »o im
prove the business methods of the de
partment are reviewed by the secre
tary- The purchasing of supplies has
lieeo consolidated and placed under a
responsible bureau head. This has re
sulted in the curtailment of open pur
chases. which in the years
JBS4 and 18J*5 amounted to
over 50 per cent, of all the
purchases of the department. They
are now less than II per cent., so that
at the present time about 00 per cent,
of the total department purchases are
made bv contract and after competi
tion. As the expenditures on this
account exceed an average of $2,000,000
annually, it is evident an important
improvement in the system ha- been
inaugurated and substantial econo
mies introduced.
TUE POSTAL SERVICE.
The report of the postmaster-general
shows a marked increase in business
in everv branch of the postal service.
The number of postoffices on July 1.
1888, was 57,376. an increase of 6124 in
three years, and of 22X0 for the last
fiscal year. The latter-mentioned in
crease is classified as follows: New
England states 5, middle state- 181,
southern states and Indian territory
1406. the states ami territories of the
Pacific coast 140, ten states and terri
tories of the West and Northwest 435.
district of Columbia 7; total. 2210.
Free delivery offices have increased
ISO in the fiscal vear ended June 30,
18S7, and 358 in the year ended June
30, 1888. In the railway mail service
there has been an increase in one year
of 168 routes, and in the number of
miles traveled j<er annum an increase
of 1,509.115,017,411. The estimated in
crease of railroad service for the year
is 000 miles, but the amount of new
railroad service actually put on was
1,275.450 miles.
The volume of business in the
money-order division, including trans
actions in postal notes, reached a sum
upwards ot $143,000,000 for the year.
I luring the year parcel post conven
tions have been concluded with the
Barliadoes, the Bahamas, British Hon
duras and Mexico, and are now under
negotiation with all the Central and
South American states.
The increase of our correspondence
with foreign countries during the past
three years i- gratifying, and is es
pecially notable and exceptional with
the Central and South American
states. As the greater part of the mail
matter exchanged with these countries
is commercial in its character, this in
crease is an evidence of the improved
business relations with them.
| The practical operation of the parcel
i post conventions, so far as negotiated,
! has to fulfill the most favorable
' predictions as to their lienefits. In
| January last a general post convention
was negotiated with the dominion of
Canada, which went into operation on
March 1, and which practically makes
one postal tcrritorv of the United
States and < 'anada. I nderit merchan
dise parcels may now lie trasmitted
through the mails at the fourth-class
rate of postage. It is not possible here
to touch even the leading heads of
the great postal establishment to illus
trate the forms and rapid growth of
its business and the need* of legisla
tive adjustment of much of its ma
chinery that it has outgrown. I en
dorse the thorough aud valuable rec
ommendations of the postmaster-gen
eral. Attention is earnestly invited to
his report.
A department whose revenues have
increased from $10.772,000 in 1870 to
$52,700,000 in ISSB, despite reductions
of postage which have forced reduced
rates of revenue while greatly in
creasing in business demands the care
ful consideration of the congress as to
all matters suggested bv tho-e familiar
with its operations and which are
calculated to increase its efficiency
and usefulness. m
GOVKKKMEKT BFILIHXC.S FOE IVBT
orrtcES.
A bill proposed by the postmaster
general wan introduced at the last ses
sion of congress, by which a uniform
standard in the amount of gross re
ceipts would fix the right of a commti
-1 ity to a public building to be erect, d
by the government for pottofißce pur
poses. It was demonstrated that,
aside from the public convenience ami
the promotion of harmony among cit
izens invariably disturbed bv
change of leasing* and site, it
wa« a measure of the highest
eeonomv and of sound business judg
ment. It was found that the govern
ment was paying rents at a rate of
from 7 to 10 per cent, per annum on
what the co-t of such public buildings
would lie. A very great advantage re
sulting from such a law would be the
prevention of a large numl>er of bills
constantly introduced for tin- erection
of public buildings at places and
involving expenditures not justified
by public necessity. I tru-t that this
measure w ill become a law at the pres
ent session of congres-.
Of the total numlier of postmasters,
51,*74 are of the fourth class.
of course, receive no allowance what
ever for expenses in the service, and
their compensation is fixed bv per
centage wn the receipts at their respec
tive offices. This rate of compensa
tion may have b®:-n and probably
was at some time just; out the
standard has remained unchanged
through the several reductions
in the rates of postage. Such reduc
tions have necessarily cut down the
compensation of these officials, while
it has undoubtedly increased the busi
ness performed by them. Simple jus
tice requires attention to the subject,
to the end that fourth clas. po-tina--
ters may receive at legist an equivalent
to that which the law, in fixing the
rate, intended for them.
Another rlus« of postal employes
whose condition *eeni« to demand
leci«iation is that of clerks in the j>o*t
office; ami I call especial attention to
the rei eated recommendations of the
postmaster-vrcueral for tbei'da sifica
tion. Proper legislation of thi< charac
ter fvr the relief of carriers in the free
delivery service has been frequent
Provision is made for their promotion,
substitutes for holidays and limiting
their hours of latior. Seven million
current year to provide for them
though the total numlier of office*
where they are employed is but (or
the pa*t li- al year with an estimated
increa-e for the current year of hut
40. while the total appropriation 'or
ail clerks in oflice- throughout the
United States is $5,950,000.
The legislation afTe, ting the relation
of the government with railroad- i.- in
need of revision. While for the most
part the railroads throughout th*
country have cordially ■ o-oprated
with the postofflce department in ren
dering excellent service, yet under ihe
law a- it stands, while tlie compensa
tion to them for carrying mail is lim
ited and regulated, although railroad*
are made po-troad» by law! there is no
authority reposed anvwhere to compel
the owner of a railroad to take anil
carry the I'm ted Mates mail. The
only alternative p-ovided by act of
refusal is for the postmaster-general
to send mail forward by pony express.
This ia but an illustration o'f the ill
fitting legislation reasonable and
! projwer at the time of its enactment
hat .ince outgrown and r»n u ir
nig readjustment. 1
sm«rrrL ecoxoxy.
U is gratifying to note from caw.
fully prepared natistici aoeomMcT
ing the postmaster-general t
that notwithstanding the great
penw of service the rate of expendi
lures has been lessened «nd the If
Bciency has been im|fe>ved j n ever*
branch; that fraud and crime btv£
decreased; that losses from the ni*il»
have tieen reduced, and that tbemim!
ber of complaints of the service made
to postmasters and the department
are far less than they were beiore
pepartmest or Jimcr.
The transactions o{ the department
of justice for the ti«c»l Tear ended
June 90. are contained in the re
port ot the attorney-n>neral. a*
as a number of valuable re uinmenda
tions, the most of «hich are repeti
tion- of those previously made and
ought to receive c.-nideration
It is s'ated in this report that thoueh
judgments in civil >uu» amounting ta
$353,021 08 were recovered in favor of
the government during the vear onlv
the -urn 01 *1 :t was' collected
thereon and that lines, tenuities aad
forfeitures were imp-.-ed imo'insint
to {.itl.-O? 13, but only 11(6,648 42 ol
that >um wa" paid on account thereof
These facts may furnish an illustr*!
tion of the sentiment which exten
sively prevails, that a debt due ;he
government should cause no incon
venience to the citizen.
TAUIMI THE MOKHOas.
U also appears from thi- report tluu
though prior to March, t.sv>, there had
been but six convictions in the terri
tories of It ah and l.iaho unuer the
laws of and l-_> punished foi
polygamy and unlawful cohabitation
crimes, tliere have been since that
date nearly WO convictions under
those laws and the statutes of I*X7
and the opinion is expressed mat
under such a tirm and vigilant exe
cution ot those laws and the advance
of ideas opposed to the forbidden prac
tice. polygamy within the I'nited
States is virtually at an end.
Suits instituted by the government
under the provisions of the acts o{
March 3, 1887, for the termination of
the corporations known .is the Per
petual Emigration Fund Company
and the Church of Jesus Christ of
l.atter Uav Saints hare resulted in a
degree favorable to the government,
declaring the charters of these cor
porations forfeited and escheating
their property, amtfunting in value to
more than foUO.OOO, which is in the
hands of a receiver pending further
proceedings, tin appeal having been
taken to the supreme court of the
United States.
THE FfBLIC tOXUI.
In the report of the secretary of the
interior, which will be laid before you,
the condition of the various branches
of our domestic affairs connected with
that department and its operations
during the past year are tully ex
hibited. But a brief reference to "some
of the subjects uiscnsseu in this ible
and interesting report can be her#
ma le, but I commend the entire re
port to the attention of congress and
trust the sensible and valuable recom
meudations it contains will secure
careful consideration. I cannot too
strenuously in-ist u| on the importance
of proper measures to insure a right
disposition of our public lands, not
only as a matter of present justice, but
in forecast of the consequence to fu
ture generations. The broad acres of
our agricultural plains have been long
preserved by nature to become her un
tramineled gilt to a people civilised
ai.d free, upon which should rest ia
well-distributed ownership the numer
ous homes of enlightened, equal and
fraternal citizens. They come into
national possession with' the warning
liefore our eyes of the entail of inequi
ties in laud proprieiorship which other
countries have permitted and still suf
fer.
We have no excuse for the violation
of the principles cogently taught by
reason and example, nor the allowance
for pretexts which for some time ex
posed our lands to colossal greed.
Laws which open the doors to fraudu
lent acquisition, or an administrator
which permits favor to the rapacious
seizure by a favored few of the ex
panded areas that the many should
enjoy, are accessory to offenses against
our national welfare and humanity,
not to be too severely condemned or
punished. It is gratifying to knotf
that something has been done at la«t
to redress the Injuries to our people
and check the perilous tendency of
reckless waste of the national domain.
Over 00,0U0.u00 of acres have been ar
rested from illegal usurpation,improv
ident grants and fraudulent entries
and claims, to lie taken for the home
steads of honest industry. Although
less than greater arrears unjustly lost,
this recovery must afford profound
gratification to right-feelinir citizens,
rs it is a recompense for the labors aud
struggles for tecovery.
Our dear experience ought sufficient
ly to Urge sp< edy enactment of meas
ures ot legislation which will confine
future ilispo-ition of our remaining ag
ricultural lands to the use of actual
husbandry and genuine homes, nor
should our vast tract* of s» called <les
ert ands be yielded up to the monop
oly of corpora'ions or grasping indi
viduals, as ap|>ears to be too much the
tendency under the existing statute.
The lands require but a supply of wa
ter to become fertile and productive*
11 is a problem of great moment hoir
most easily for the public that
factor may be furnished. 1 caimet
bnt think it perilous to suffer either
these lands or the source of their irri
gation to fall into the hands
of monopolies, which by -neb
means may exercise lordship
over areas dependent on their treat
ment for productiveness. Already
steps have been taken to secure ac
curate and scientific inhumation of
the conditions, which is the prime
basis of intelligent action. I'ntilthis
shall be gained the course of wisdom
apis'ar j clearly to be in a suspension
oi further disposal which only promisee
to create rights antagonistic to the
common interest. No harm can fol
low this cautionary conduct. The
land will remain and the public good
presents no demands for hasty dis
possession of national ownership and
control.
SWAMP I ANlts
I commend also the commendations
that appropriate mea-ures to be taken
t i complete the adjustment of the
various grants to the states, for inter
nal improvements, of swamp and
overflowed lands, its well as to adjudi
cate and linallv determine the validity
and extent of numerous land claims.
All tliese are elements of great injus
tice and jieril to settlers upon the lo
calities affected, and congrc-s -hoold,
us soon as possible, limit their bound*
and terminate the threats of trouhle
which arise from uncertainty.
tnt IMUIASS.
. The condition of our Indian populaj
t" ,n continue* to improve, and pnnjfs
in ulliply that I he transforming change,
so much to be de-ired which -ball
substitute for barbarism enlighten
ment and c;vilii.it 011. is in favorable
progress. Our relations with these
people during the year have l«en dis
turbed by no nerious disasters. hut
rather marked by a letter realnation
oi their tr .c interests and increasing
confidence and good-will. The-e con
ditions testify to the value of the
higher tone of consideration and hu
manity which ha- governed the latter
in liters with dealing with them, and I
com mend its continued observance.
LAKDB IK 8! VKRAI.TY
Allotments in severalty have lieen
made oti «ome reservations until all
those entitled to land thereon have
had shares assigned, ami work still
continue* in directing execution of
this duty. J have not aimed so much
at rapid dispatch as to secure just and
fair arrangements which lie-t condace
to the object o' the law, by procuring
satisfaction with the re-ulls of the
allotments made. No measure of gen
eral effect lias ever been entered on
from whi h more may be confidently
hoped if it shall be discreetly adminis
tered. It proffers op|>ortunity to that
independence of «pint and life which
the Indian peculiarities need, while at
the same time the inalienablility of
title afford* security againit the risk*

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