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I ^ I f WJCU* 25-3 1 [- r -ri.r i I I L r ILLUME I.J Mwday, October i$th, 1798. f ^ F Hiftorical Fads, leuitive to the Plague, Tell gw Fever, ijc. rh Fellow Fever, it its prefint pefiilcntial diffnfion ever t be principal cities of ihe United States, fee ms I* tz have given rife to much puritanical invedive a \ gain/1 the peculiar nvukednfis, irreUgion and prjli gacy of the times, as being the guilty infiruments of I bringing down the wrath of Heaven on this dcvo I ted land. Shame on juch fanatic ifm ! h is a fa hi that Moral Virtue never had more votaries than eft the prefent day ; and it is a truth equally tena ble, that the yellow fiver, w'icb theft impious bigots [ have pronounced the heaven-commiffioned fiourge ! ; V demoralifid man, is not only not an imported \ efirder, but an inhabitant of this country from time I immemorial. For the convid'try of theft who Jtill [ retain their inf e’ify cn this fubjed, it is only tic [ cejfiry to ext raft the following fiatement of hifiori tcl fahis from a late meitical tr,i8 publjbed in I Few TorL [Ruffe?s Gass ] [From the Ncw-York Commercial AJvcrtifer, A T this time of difttcD and alarm,, when a ju dready peftilence is laying wafte f>me of irmoft populous and wealthy cities, the in ahiiar.ts of town and country are anxiouf r inquiring, what are the cauf s ? What the leans of prevention or of cure ? Why has orchis deadly fever raged before ? Are ou ises to be aftb&ed with it every year ? Aftoniftiing as the fa£l may appear, there is i Cj. a hillory of the plague in exiitance. Of the reft awful calamity that befals the human ace ; a calamity Ot which probably piore per ynthave periibed, fince the Chriftian era, than rere are now on the globe, no regular account ev^r been written ; and fome of the moft apnrtant phenomena of epidemic and peftil n lil difeafes, are not known even to the mod trinent medical men in Europe. For want cf Mending to thefe phenr mena, ever* a Mead and CnUcrr embraced the moft egregicus errors re seeding the caufes of peftilen dal difeafes and n tin fc errors have been budt fyftems of regu tti n;, and laws of quarantine, for preferviug lUblic health,that arcalmoft enti e’y ufeiefs and n many Uat-s and kingdoms, inhuman and bar wrrus It has fallen to my lot to write a brief ac :cunt of peftilential dtieafe>, from fuch materi |U as can be found in this country ; and to Kfcover a number of important principles re jxtfiig the origin and progrefs of epidemics.— To fatisfy my fellow citizens who are involved n diilrefs, ai d feeking for conflation, as to bme of rheir anxious enqireries, I here offer to Item a few obfervations, which arc the refuts of ny inveftigation. 1. Peftilential difeafes of all kinds ufjly origi ute where they ext/l. A few doubtful cafes on 1 fmall fcale may be exceptions ; but I have de* Donftratirc evidence that moft difeafes of a con agious nature are the fruit of the foil in which h;y are found. The means prevention there* bre are not to be found in Quarantine r 2 Peflilental epidemics areprvgrcjfive in their malignity, and fcveral rf them ufady follow in s feries or order—fuch as catarrh or influenza, neafels, anginas, or diforders of the throat, pitted fever, yellow fever or plague. The Sellow fever or plague never appears as far as ran difeover, without feme one or all of ihe thcr difeafes for precurfors. Something like re order of the influenza, meafels and icariet :ver, in thefe Hates, Jrom 1789 to 1795, is al ays obfervahle before all the plagues that have infefled the old world. 3. In add tion to malignant difeafes, as the lyfe tary and violent billions rem ttents, from narfli eiHuvi^, which may be local, and occa r ned by peculiar feafon,, there are certain pe r:rdc, when peftdential dfeafes, invade whole k.mers of the g'ob , r.eirly at the fame time, tod fomet'mes both hem'fpheres. A remar ka >e inllanceofth s happened from 1759 to *7^3, irhen Egypt, Syria, all Europe and America, Eperience i a great i icreafe of mortality. Two br three inflames have occurred fince but the tpi “ Hcl wtre left f its. 4. The duration of thefe peflilential peri d i tarir.us, from five to ten, fifteen and even w*nty years. Intervals of health are alfo of herv var cus duration. The bills of mortality |n Eoudon from 1718 to 1742, were on an a 1’erase more than twenty per cent higher than hey have ever been fince ; owing to a contin ue- f lics of mortal epidemics. In Amer ca, 'o formidable pefl lential difea'e appeared from 1762 to 1791, a peri'd of twenty-nine year*.— pn unnfa’.ly long period rf bea’th. The dyf.n Nry of 1775 and 7 was the m ft defltudive dif pfe ci erienced in that lonz interval—-Tfce ^arlet lever fpread *01785 and 6, hut was light. F than ufal.—From 1591 to the prefent tnne, u'e tav* felt ievere fleknetg, and how long tins $e fi!eniial p-r.od will endure GOD only pours. I 5- Bullet us not difpair- After ths clofe of m tickly period, health will again revifit our (ties, as it now does the country. The Icarict ever fpretd from Ncw-\ork in 1792 to Maine n 1796, anJ has finifhed its courfc, leaving the ecu itry in ufual health. The dreadful plague chat n *w fcourges our cities is probably Lhe ef fed of the great and all fubduing heat of the laft two months, and it is mope than probable that the fuccecding winter and faramer may be temperate and healthy. Such a winter and fummer as the lafl are uncommon. 6. To thofe who aft, why this peftilence ne ver appeared in former times, I anfvver, it did. In certain periods, when great plagues have ra ged in the Etft, the vellow fever his prevailed in America, from the firft fettlement of the country by the Engiifh. Nay more it effeded and wafted the Indian tribes b fore the fettle ment of New England by the Engiifh. At leaft 30,000 Indians perifhed by the yellow fever in the year i6iS ; of this fad l have authentic teftimony. It is therefore the natural plague rf our climate% Ir.ftead of being a new difeafe, or imported from the Weft Ind es. it appeared on th;s con i rent before the iflanos were fettled by the En gliih, and as frequently before any trade was opened be.ween ti is continent and the Iflands, as it has fince. Only thirteen years aft r Maf fachufetts was fettied, a peftilential autumnal fe ver carried eff one hfth of the Plymouth plan ters. This was in 1633. In 1645 a hmiiar fe vet raged among the Indians at M.ntha’s Vine yard. In 1647* a ftmilar fever prevailed in Conne&icut. In 1654 and 1662 fmi.ar difeafes iwept away many people. In 1668 a pdlilen- j tial dif afe prevailed in Newyork. In 1699, the ytllow fever was malignant in Philadeiph a, it it is th s feafbn ; th'S was hut feventecn years after -he place was fettled, and when it contained ! few people. In the fime fummer, the difeale was fo fatal in Charlefton, that m°ft of the p'in 1 cipal people died, and the lurvivors almoft a bandoned the place. In 1702 the yellow fever raged in New York, and an eruptive fever was nearly as fatal in Bofton, in 1798* l he yellow fever raged In Charlefton in 1728 and in 1732 ; and again in f739* 1° *74' l^c fame difeafe raged in Phi ladelphia and in Virginia. In 1743, in New. York—in 1745, again at Charlefton. In 1746 in Albany. In 1747, again in Philadeiph a— and alfo in 1762. The fame difeafe fwept away almoft ail the Indians on Nantucket tmd Mar tha’s Vineyardin 1763. The fame difeafe in its milder form appeared in Philadelphia in 1778. Bhefe fads may fatisly inquiries on this head. From authentic h ftories of plague ft r tw o thou fand two hund.ed years, I can aflure my fellow c tizens, that it is rare for cities between the lat itude of 32 and 45 ; to efcape malignant pef tiiential ctileales for 30 years, at any ofie time. Generally, once in twelve or fifteen years, a fe ries of epidemics fpread over the whole world. In healthy pofitions, this pcftilentb.l ftate of air is limited in malignity tomeaf Is, and fraileti na—in other pofitions, it extends to fma‘l pox nnd pelechiel lever—in large cities and left healthy fixations, it often runs into the plague. — This has been the fad unilormly from the days ol Hippocrates. I his peltiiential ifate of air is evinced by the catarrh, or influenza, which during the period of contagion, appears in a whole hcm fphere, at once and fometimes over the whole globe, fiez ing people on thir continent, in the Weft In dies and on the ocean at the fame time. This i epidemic is ufually followed by great mortality i in the fucceedmg years. To this faft, there is hardiy an exception in the three fail centuries, before which period our accounts of that difeafe are few and irrsperfeft. This general peflilence is of various degrees of violence. Sometimes it appears in a milder form and is confined to a few places, as in New York in 1795 and 6—at others, it becomes uni- , verfil and mows down mankind, with undif tinguifbing ft verity, as in the prefent year. In two or three inltances, fince the chriftian era, it has been fo vioient, as to attack men in feat -1 tenng cottages on the healthieft hills and moun tains, without ind commj|pication<i with the ! difeafed. It has raged fometimes through the j winter, and two or three times has invaded the inhabitants of Iceland and Greenland. From thel'e few fafts which (land on noquef tionable authority, and which l am preparing in detail for the prefs, ti e people of the Uni ted State*, wii! judge how far they are to ex peft repetitions of this diftrrfling malady. For ; their coftfolition, it appears that our cries will not be coniinna ly harrafT*d with this au’om nal fever. Periods cffie.il h wiji occur—Come times of longer and fometimes of Ihoitef ciu’a ration. Then villoc ur a fir es of epidemics and our ci ie* wi 1 be laid wafie with peflilence. inis ha* been the c ife fern the date of our nrlieit (lories to this day. and we h ive no rght to exp eft the laws of the Univene are to be now changed. Great good effc-fts hewe* er may be brought by introducing different modes of conflrofting our hordes—by changes ir. diet and habits of batkin", bv the me ojfijrtib running water I I in cities. The water beneath a city fhould never be wfed for drink. It i>» probable that fuch changes in Europe have very much mui gaied the feverity of mortal dife »fes in the large cities within the prefent century. Yet they are all occasionally vi ited with malignant fevers, that fall but one grade below the plag *e Our prefent nv>de of building cities, and our prefent habits of living, will not fuffer us to efcape peftilence. We are prectfely in 'he 1 iti tude moll obnoxious to autumnal peftilence j and if Newyoik, Philadelphia, Bofton and Baltimore continue to increafe on the prefent mode of conftruflions till they equal cities of the firft orfecond rate in Europe, it is their in evitable doom to be ravaged with the plague, as often as Caira or Conftantinopie. It is to be obferved, however, that with a very few exceptions, fince the days of Moles, the plague is exclufively the fcourge ot cities or populous towns.' It is, in ordinary cafes, entirely in human power to avoid this dreadful calamity—every commercial city nfgbt be fo laid out and conftrucled, as to be eret. more healthy than the country. B it ignor mce and imereti forbid us to indulge the exp.&ati :n of ever realizing fuch a project. There nothing new m the horrors of the prefent p'ague. The famefeenes have happen ed in every period of a few years, fom the days of Homer. Annies and cities arc c- nti. u allv expo ed to peftilence, and always ha e been. The prefent fic^n f will fubftde and j loon be forg t en, and men v. ill proceed in the j fame round of folly and vice. All our habits | wiil cont nue—and the fame practice of piling i together builuings, accumulating filth, ar.d de ft eying frelh air, an<i prepat jig new and more j abun ant ma erials for peftilen e» which will 1 continue to aftume grea er virulence and to prove more dedhnftive to human l»fe, in pro portion to the maguitude of ouri ties. If more wiftlom(heutd be exerted m America, it will be a glorious but an unexpected event N. WEBSTER. Extra&s From the Charge of Judge Rush, to the Grand Jury of Luzerne County, Penn fylvania. “ NUl more certain is it, that a corrupt fountain Will fend forth cor rupt iljjeams, than that immoral prin ciples will produce immoral actions— and to thofe caufes it mull be afcribed, that at this moment, from recent and authentic accounts, France exhibits a fcene of more brutal fenfuality, profliga cy and debauchery, than even Sodom and Gomorrah of ancient days. “ It feems almoft impoflible, that any perfon of a candid and liberal mind, who attentively examines the tranfac tions of the French reformers, can bring himfelf ferioufly to believe, they ever had in view the i ;ppinefs of mankind. They certainly had too much fagacity not to know they were fcattering fire brands, arrows, and death ; and too little virtue to be concerned, if they did not rejoice in the confequences. “ l am deeply fenfible, that fome fe rious, well difpofed amqng us, have viewed the affairs of France, with too little horror, if not with approbation ; from an opinion, they are fo many links in the great chain of fcripture prophe cy. We fhould remember that feveral things belong to the Lord. In the mean time, we are commanded, not only to abftain from evil ; but neveT to do evil, that good may come of it. I n^ed hardly add, that the man who ap proves of evil, is not much better than he who commits it. It is clearly your dutyand mine, and that of every moral agent, fleadily to fet our faces, and on proper occanons to raife our voices againff every fpecies of enormity ; lead ing it to the God of Heaven to accom plifli his purpofes in his own way and time. “ We have too long, at lcafl many among us, rejoiced at French fucceffes. Their victories over humanity—their overturning eflabhfhments that diffufed peace and happinefs to millions—their carrying fire and fword through un offending countries—nay, their mur ders and maflacres have been celebrated in our country. A more linking fpec tacle can fcarcely be exhibited, than crouds of perfons afietnbkd to manifeft their joy at the triumphs of Iawlefs power and ambition, over nations who have done ns no injury, nor had given any juft caufe of war to their cruel plunderers. A mind untindured with fuperftition may be permitted to exprefo its tears, left fuch condud fhould ere long drawn down upon us,the righteous retribution of Heaven. * “ Our country has been too long allied to France—it was the connedion of unfufpeding youthful virtue with an old bawd ; at one period difguifed in .robes of‘monarchy, at another in th> lefs fafcinating garb of republican drefs —but invariably the fame. “ From a nation thus perfidious and ambitious—from a country thus Ueeped in blood and all manner of vice and corruption, furely every benevolent heart, every lover of his country and of virtue, will rejoice that we are at laft divorced. The maxim, that evil com munications corrupt good morals, is not lefs true with reined to individuals; than to nations. The treaty of 1778, laid the foundation of a continual inter courfe between.the two countries, and drew them up into a clofe, but unnatu ral union. Their politics—their infi delity—and their immoralities, became faftuonable, and have lprajd like an i fedious diforder throughT)ur land. The French nation diftinguifhed by en terprizes equally brilliant and wicked, attraded admiration, which has been followed by an imitation of her princi ples, and an approbation of her crimes* And it feemed highly probable, if no event had occurred to put a check on our meretricious fondnefs, we muft 'ere long have perilhed in her vile and loath feme embraces. “ Let us however, gentlemen,indulge the animating hope, that the period of our deliverance from this complication of evils, is dawning upon us. The feventeenth day of fay draws a line, and tears up the ioundation of our national connedion. Hail aufpicious d^y 1 1 t* ai • t «• M ' neiicerorin me ridiculous claim or na tional gratitude, will be no longer rung in our ears by ungenerous bene factors. Let the feventeenth day of July be had in everlafting remembrance. Upon the anniversary of that day, let the voice of joy and gratitude be heard through our land. It is a declaration, l truffc, of our independence on France, and perpetual exemption from the baneful efFeds of her morals, her reli gion, and her politics. From calami ties infinitely more to be dreaded, than thofe commemorated upon the 4th of July, it is calculated to fecure us. The one (hielded us only from political de pendence and fubjedion—but the other we flatter ourfclves, will be the means of faving us from religious, moral and political deitrudion.” Mifcellaneous Articles. • His Britannic Majefiy has granted • 18,oool. to the French emigrant cler gy* ihe French General St. Cvr, has ordered the Tope to quit Tufcany. The prefs of the Propaganda is feiz ed ; it contains the alphabet of 28 lan guages. A demand of 124 millions has been, made for the French navy and granted. The council of 500 aik 15,000 Hvrcs to buy foreign newfpapers. The Julian Calendar is nbolifhed throughout Switzerland. Some of the Swifs Cantons (fill wage an awful war. The Batavian Biredor* has muled all the popular foeieties Wii h d *c!arri againft the latl; |Jev'vfutid:i eifc&ed in that country lq be lhut.