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Portland gazette. [volume] (Portland, Me.) 1805-1805, March 18, 1805, Image 2

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Washington. M/itrs 4, 180.4.
THIS day, * 12 o’clock, Tbtmat Prefidenr of
ife United State*, took the <istfh of «ff£re, ami delivered the
following INAUGURAL SPT.FCH, in the Senate Cham
fer, i»- prriience of the iwj Houfca o! Cot.grei*, and a
krp co'ncourte of cinr^M
Proceeding, fellow cir>rn% to that qualifica
tion which the cufiftiiution requires, before
my entrance on the cha^c again confer
red on me, if is my duty to rxpren the deep
Uutfc l entertain ot this new proof of confidence
from my fcllow-citirtns at iarge, and the zeal
with which if mtpires me fo to conduit my
icif as may beil i’atbfy their juft expecta
On taking this ftaticn on a former cCcafion,
T declared the principles on which 1 believed it
tty duty to adminifttr the zlfairs of our com
monwealth. M* conference tells md that I have
on every occafion z£cd upon that declaration,
according to its obvious import, and to the un
demanding of every candid mind.
In the tranfafhon of your foreign affairs, we
have endeavoured to cultivate the Iriendfhip of
all nations, and efpecialiy of thofe with which
we have the nioflT important relations. We
h*ve done them juftke on all occafions, favored
where favor was lawful, and chcrilhed mutual
interests and ir.tercourie on fair and equal terms.
We arc f:rm!v convinced, and we aon that
conviction, th2t with nations, as with individu
als, our interefts foundly calculated, will ever be
found mlcperable from our moral duties. And
hiftory bears wirnefs to the fa&, that a juft na
tion ’s trufted on its word, when recourse is had
to armaments and wars to bridle others.
At home, fellow—citizens, you beft krov
whether we have done w'ell or ill. ihe fup
pre.Tion of unncceflary offices, of ufdefs eftab
iifhmentsand expenses, enable us to difeontinue
©ur internal taxes. Thcfe, covering our land
with omcers, and opening our doors to their m
trufior.s, had already begun that procccs of dom
iciliary vexation, which, once entered, is fcarce
lytobc rc lira in dh from reaching fucceffively er- 1
try article of produce and of property. If, a
mong thefe taxes, fomc minor once fell, which
had not been inconvenient, it wasbecaufe their
amount would not have paid the officers who
collc&ed them, 2nd bccauie, if they had any
merit the liatc authorities might ad pt them, ia
ftcad of others ick approved.
The remaining revenue on the confumption
of foreign articles, is paid chiefly by thofe who,
can afford to add foreign luxuries to domeftic
comforts. Being collc£tcd on our feaboard arc*
frontiers only, and incorporated with the
tranfa&ions of our mercantile citizens, it may
be the plcafure and the pride of an American
to afk what farmer, what mechanic, what la
bourer ever fees a tax gatherer of the United |
States ? Thefe contributions enaoie u« to fup
port the current expenfes of the government, to
fulfil contracts with foreign nations, to extin
guifh the native right of foil within our limits,
to extend thofe limits, 2nd to apply fuch a lur
plus to our public debts, at a ihort day the
final redemption, and that redemption once af
le&ed, the revenue, thereby liberated may by a
juft reparation among ftates, and a correfpon*
ding amendment of the conllitutioi, be applied,
in titne of peace, to rivers, canals, roads, arts, man
ttfa&uries, education and other great objects
within each ftate. In time c* War, if injuftice
by ourfclves or others mutt iometimes produce
War, increafcd populations and confumption,
and aided by other refources, referred for that
crifis, it may meet within the year all the ex
perfes of the year, without encroaching on the
rights of future generations, by burthening
• them with the debts of the pall. V7ar will
then be but a fufpenfkm of uleful works, and
a return to the prog rtfs of improvement.
I have faid, fellow-citizens, that the income
referved, had enabled us to extend our limits y
but that extent'on may poflibiy pay for irfelf be
fore we are cal ed upon, and in the mean time, i
may keep down the accruing interefl. In ail
events, it will replace the advance, we fhall
have made. I know that the acquifition of
Lou ifiana had been d lap proved of by fonae,
from a candid apprehenfion that rhe enlargement
of our teiritory may endanger its union. B>ut !
who can limit the extent to which the federative
principles may operate effeflively ? The larger
our affectation, the lei’s will it be fhaken by
local pafHons. And in any view, is it not bet
ter that the oppofire bank of the MifiUippi
ihould tc fettled by our own brethren and
children, than by flrangcrs of another family ?
With which (hall we be mofc likely to live in
harmony and friendly intercourie ?
In matters of religion I have confidered that
its free exercife is placed bv the conflitution,
independent of the powers of the general gov
ernment. I have therefore undertaken, on no
cccafion, to preferibe the religious exercifes
fuited to it, but have left them as the conttitu
tion found them, under the dire&ion and dis
cipline of the (late or church authorities ac
knowledged by the feveral religious l’ocietics.
The aboriginal inhabi.ants of thefe countries,
r have regarded with the commiileration thc r
hillory iofpires. Endowed with the faculties
and the rights of men, bearing an ardenr love
of liberty and independence, and occupying a
Country which left them no drfirc but to be
ttndilturbed, the ftream of overflowing popula
tion from other regions dire&ed itfelf on thele
Chores. Without power to divert, or habits to
contend againfl it, they have been overwhelmed
by ,thc current, or driven before it. Now re
duced within limits too narrow for the hunter j
date, humanity enjoins U9 to te«ch them agri- j
culture and the domcllic arts j to encourage
i a
< r
them fa thif indofcry which alone eafl enable
them to m»mr»in their place *n ciiftencc, and
to prepare them in time for that State of fbei
ety, which, to bodily ceinfor 5, adds the im- i
provemen* of the mind and frond*. W e have
therefore liberally fnrnifhed them with the
implements of husbandry and houfchold ufe :
we have placed among them ta-ftrullbrs in tlie
arts of firlt ntceflSrty ; and they aie covered
with the Jtg s of the law ag-infl aggreiTors from
among ourjelves.
13ut the endeavours to enlighten them on the
fate which awaits their prefent courfe of life,
to induce them to exercile their reafon, follow
its dilates, and change their pmfuits with the
change of circumitances, Save powerful obfta
cles to encounter. 1’ney art combated by the
h;d>its of their bodies, prejudices of their minds,
ignorance, pride, and the influence of intereffed
and crafty individuals among rricm, who feel
thcmfelves fomething in the prefent order of
thing*, and fear to become nothing in any other.
'1 hefe perfrns inculcate a fanciimoniotis rever
ence for the cuftoms of their ancestors •, th*t
whatfoever they did muff be done through all
time; that reafon is a falfe guide, and to
advance under its counfel in their phyfkal,
moral, or political condition, is perilous in
no\ atioR : that their du y i* to remain as their
Creator made them, ignorance being fafety,
and knowlege full of danger. In fhor#, my
friends, among them alfo is feen the a&ion
and co'Jnfer-adtion of good fenfe and of big
otry. f hey too have their anfi—philofophifts,
who find an interelt in keeping things in their
p’-efent ffate; who dread reformation, and
exert ail their faculties to maintain the af
: tendency of habit over the duty of improving
our reafon and obeying its mandates.
In giving theft outlines, I do not mean, fel
low-citizens, to arrogate to myfrlf the merit of
the meafures. That is due, in the frrft place, tc
the refle&ing character of our citizens at
large, who, by the weight of pnbiic opinion, in- 1
tiuence anu itrengthen the public meaiures.—
It is due to the found difcertion with whih they
uleCt, from among themfelves thefe to whom
they confide the legifhtive duties. It is due
to the zea! and wifdom of the characters thus
feleCted. who fay the foundations of public nap
pinefs in wholefome laws, the execution of
which alone remains for others : and it is due
to the able and faithful auxiliaries^ whofe pat
r.otifm has affbeiated them with me in the ex
ecutive functions.
During this co-irfe of adminiftration,and in cr
derto difturb it,the artillery of the prels has been
^veiled againfl us, charged with whatfoever its
licentioufnefs could devife or dare. Thefe a
bufes of an inft'itution fo important to freedom J
and lcience, are deeply to be regretted, inafmuch
as they tend to kflen its ufefulnefs, and to fap its
fafety. rI hey might perhaps have been correCI
ed by the wholefome punifhments referred to,
and provided by, the laws of the fcveral ftates
ag.inff falfehood and defamation. But public
duties more urgent prefs on the time of public
fervants. and the offenders have therefore been
left to find their punifhment in the public indig
Nor wa3 it uninterefting to the world that
an experiment fhould be fairly and fully made,:
i whether freedom pf di/cufTion, unaidied by pow- ,
I er, is not lufftcient for the popagition and pro
tection of truth ? whether a government, con
ducting itfelf in the true fprrit of its conftitu
tion, with zeal and purity, and doing no act
which it would be unwilling the whole world
fhould wltnefs, can be written down by falfe
hood and defamation*—The experiment has
been tried.—You have witnefied the feene.—
Our fellow citizens have looked on cool and
co’IeCted.— They faw the latent fource from
which thefe outrages proceeded.—They gath
ered around their public functionaries : and
when the constitution called them to the decis
ion by fufrage, they pronounced their verdiCfc,
honorable to thefe who had ferved them, and
confolatory to the friend ©f man, who beiieves
he may be entrulkd with the control of his own
No inference is here intended that the laws*
provided by the dates againit falfe and defam
atory publications fhouid not be enforced—He
who has time, renders fervice to public morals
and public tranquility, in 'reforming tbei'e
abufes by the falutary coertions of tke
law.— But the experiment is noted to prove that,
fince truth and reafoit have maintained thrir
ground agxinft falfe opinions in league with falfe
farils, the prefs, confined to truth, needs no o
ther legal retlraint. 1 he public judgment will
correfl falfe reafoning9 and opinions, on a full
hearing of all parties, and no other definite line
can be drawn between the ineftimable liberty
of the prefs, an:lits demoraliiing liceotioufefi.
If there be dill improprieties which this rule
would not idlrain, its fupplement muil be
fought in the cenforfnip of public opinion.
Contempla tg the union of fentiment now
m.inifefteJ fo generally, as auguring harmony
and happines to our future courfc I offer to our
country fincere congratulations. With thofe
too not yet rallied to the fame point, the dif
pofirion to do fo is gaining drength. Farits
are piercing through the veil drawn over them \ j
and our doubting brethren will at length tee
that the mafs of their fellow-citizens, with
whom they cannot yet ref dvr to act, as to prin
ciples and mcafures, think ai they think, ami
defire what they defire. Tha our wifh, as well
as therrs, is that the public efforts may be di
reriled honeftly to the public good, that peace
be cultivated, civil and religious liberty cnaffail
ed, law and order preferved, equality of rights
maintained, and that (late of property equal or
unequal, which refults to every mao fr<wa his
mm mduftry or that iff hb fathert. v\ r.en .at- J
|bfied ot thdc views, it b not in human nature
(thatthey (horrid nor approve and fupport tnem.
In trie mran time let us chcrilh them with pa
'ticrrt affedion. Let us do them juflice, anu
' more than intee, in ait competition of mterdl s
and we nted not doubt that truth, ft a tun, and
[ their own iftterelts witt at length prevail, wit!
'gather them into the fold of out country, and
will complcat that entire union of opinion
which gives to a nation the blcffingi of harmo
ny, and the benefit ol all its tlrength.
1 (hall now enter on the duties to which
my feWow*citizens have again called me ; anu ^
Ihlil proceed in the ♦pint of tiioic principle!
which they hav? approved. I fear not that
any motives of intereft may lead me atrav : 1 j
amfenfiblecf no paftion which could reduce j
me knovfing'7 from the p .rh otjuthce j but the ,
weakness of (roman nature, and the limits of
my own undertbndeng, will produce errors of
judgment fometime* injurious to your mtcrefts
1 (hall need therefore all the indulgence I have
heretofore experienced ♦, the want of it will
certainly not lciTen with increaftng years. I
fhall need too the favor of that being in whefe
hands we are, who led ou^ fathers, us 1 fra el of
old,"froiti‘their native land, and planted them in
a country flowing with all the nccefTaries and
comforts of life .* w ho has covered our infan
cy with his providence, and cur riper years
with his wifdom and power, to whole good
nefs I afle von to join with me in (applications,
that he will fo enlighten the minds of your
fervants, guide thtir connects, and profper their
| meafures, that whatfoever they do, (hail refult
in vour good, and fliall be tire to you the
peace, fricndlhip, and approbation of s'l na
tions. ' TH : JEFFERSON.
Appointment: by Authority.
Robert Smith, Attorney General of the Uni
ted States, in the room of Levi Lincoln, refign
Jacob Crown infhield, Secretary of the Navy
in the room of Robert Smith, appointed Attor
ney General.
Gen VYm. Hull, Governor of the territory
0f Michigan.
•* god save the COMMONWEALTH ;*
[It is with much p 'em fure we fay before the
public the following tejlimony of the refpefted
Judge Freeman, relative to the char after of our
•worthy Govern# . j
aS one of your correfpondents has ap
pealed to me, through your laft Gazette, for
the character of Governor Strong, in the year
1776, and as filerice on my part may be con
ftrued as unfavorable to it, I think juftice to
him and to the public (I'o far as my teftimo
ny may have weight.) requires me to fay,
that I was not only at the General Court while
he was a member, but boarded at the fame houle
with him in Bofton, and can truly fay that 1 had
a high opinion of his talents, integrity, patriot
ic, and of his moral as weil as republican
pi UiCipiC*.
He is certainly a gentleman, amiable in his
manners, mild in his temper, affable in conrcr
fation, and now Hands high in the efteem of the
citizens of Northampton, where his private ;
chara<fber is bed known.
Ic would be prtfumiog in me to delineate
his public character. This is in fome meafure
known to every member of the General Court j
but I cannot avoid obferving that as a member
of Congrefo, as well as of the (General Court,
and as Chief Magillrate of this Commonwealth,
his irreproachable conduct, his unbiased, faith,
fu attachment to the intereds of the people,
deitrve the higheft praife, the wireaed grati
tude of all his condiments.
Perhaps my political piinciples may incline
fomc to believe that in this character I exig-I
gerate—and that I am a&uated by a party fpirit. !
With reipc&to the former, I cannot fay too
much—and as to the l itter I will not let my
principles fwerve me from the truth.
I was a republican with him in thofe “ times '
which tried men’s louls •’* and (tho I have been
difmiiicd from office far my fentiments) I am one
now.—It is true I cannot as a friend t# mv coun
try approve of the man who is at the head of the
prefent adminHlration *, nor of all the meafures
adopted by it—yet I a;n not a ** monarchill”
nor do I confidcr myfelf the lefs attached to re
publican principles. l he term I think may be
as well applied to Federalism as to Democracy,
perhaps with more propriety. I wiffi for the
honor and profperity of my country, and with
a view thereto, I wilh for the further fcrvices
of him who for a long time has been its able and ;
faithiul friend, and a nrm fupporter of the rights
of Man.
_■ -gar-j
Under this head the Repertory givet the following
pertinent rjervAtions : —
At the eleftion which mud (hortly take place *
in this State, we fhail ha’*t two candidates for '
the chair ot Chief Magittutc before us. 7 he ■
on* a decided advocate of (he Waftiing^ ^ '
Adams theory ci Government, the ether a par
tiznn of Mr jefferkm. This is one of the rnoft
obvious diftmaions by which the two candG
elites are known, and a diltin&ion which ought
to excite a zealous 5< careful inquiry. It ;s but
a few years fine* we afTemblcd with hearts
buriling with grief, to lament the Infs of cur
Immortal Washington \ we preceded, ar.d
God forbid that thofe pre fedions fhould c pro
ved infincere, to revere his cha!a£lcr—-to ad
mire his sentiments, to fed the ftrongeffc
ties of gratitude for the ferviee rendered to his |
country as an illuftrit us xvarriour, and a wise,
and patriotic* statesman. Hag it appear
ed by any evidence, that the politic.! creed •{
that great and good man wa» dangerous or ab
furd ? If not, who will now aba ml on the fritnd
and follower of Wafft ngfon to turn alter new
and oppofite doctrines ? Is it any juft recom
mendation to Mr. Sullivan that he is icprefcn
ted as tlronglv attached t" the prefent Lxecvr
tive of the United Mates ? Let it be remem
bered that the fuppert of Mr. Sullivaa, as a
friend of Mr. Jeffcrfon and his political max- **
ims, inevitably involves an incondifent renun
ciation cf our attachment to the principles of
VV a (king ton and Adams ; that it throws fufpi
cion on cur partialiaity to that form of Govern
ment which Jcffcifon, his fen, his friends and
his [Servants have abufed; and which they are
modelling, bv radical alterations, more confor
mably to their policy and view's
Look back to the feenes of profperity which
fove refuifed from the adminiflration of thu
ftate government on federal principles. Have
not order, happinefs, and a rapid accumulation
of wealth beers our portion ? It is true that a
clafs of people, who are now the denoted friends
of Mr Jefitrfon and Mr, .Su livan, did once
make a bold attempt to deftroy the government
and peace of this ftare, and by force of arms
to introduce their own opinions. They thru
were quelled by the arm of power, and the
name of a ShaiJtH became odious and difgrace
ful. But look now among the advocates for
a revolution in the admin uration or the rite
government; there you fee the fame malcon
tents ; the fame diforeanizing fpirfts, the fame
pefts in fodety. They have affirmed the new
motto of JefFerfon aud Sullivan ; but in the
fame motley group, you difeover, the friends
of Daniel Shays, the revilers of Watfiington
and Adams and the oppofers of Governor
Electors of Maffachufetts, you arc ret
merely to determine whither this or that man
(hall be ebofen as Governour. The candi
dates ate the Reprefeniafivcs of|two contending
parties ; the one is the remainder of the old
Rcpnblican fchool; the tried friends of our
beft inftitutions, thofe who have conduced us
(afely through many fccnes of difficulty, and
(land firmly «ppof?d to the apoftacy of the times.
The other is a party who Rare as iheir big he ft
recommendation, that they will introduce a
fvftem of State adminiftration, which fhiii be
conformable to the wiflics and principles of Mr:
Are we not happy ? Who is aggrieved by
the adminiftration of Gov. Strong ? Let
every £Ood citizen afk himfdf, have I felt the
neceffity of a change in the chief m? gift raff
of this State ? Y<rs* let every individual ex
amine his own cafe, for caufe of complaint ;
for motives to with for an important revolution
in State politicks. Every man’s heart will be
his Gfeft guide. Bat if he will look abroad,
let him but remark, that amon^ the moft buiy
to effect the elc&ion of Mr. Sullivan, are the
old oppofers of the Federal Conftitution ; the
partizans or abettors cf Daniel Shays ; tire
enemies of Washington ; the moft violent
advocates the French ^Revolution ^through all
its fclnes of ccnfufion, oppreffion, cruelty and
AS the charges againft Judge Sul!’van,
made in frveral of the Button papers, have al
fumed a fhape of fome importance ; your rea
ders ought to be made acquainted with the char
ges, and with the evidence produced in fupport
of them ; and it would alfo be proper to ft ate
what has been written in defence, in order that
a corrc£f judgment may be formed tipoa
In the Repertory, and Centinel, if has brm
dated, that judge Sullivan, in a lolemn appeal
to heaven, denied his having been a member of
the jacobin chib in Rofton, that he had any J
hand in drawing up the conflitutioo of fai l
club, fwearing in the fame foiemn manner, that
he never iaw faid conftitution \ whereas in
truth and in fa&, fay the papers, he did draw up
the projet, meaning as I fuppofe, the rouyh
draught cr ourlines of faid conftitution, and the
fame was (hewn by Mr. Cooper the town cleric
of Boftcn, to Judge Wendell, in the well known
hand writing of Mr. Sullivan.
Thus ftands rhe charge. The defence is
in the Chronicle, it does not deny the appeal to
heaven but itill iafifts upon the truth of that
appeal, and in fupport of this pofition produ
ces the certificate of Mr. Cooper, m the follow
ing words, via.
*" I certify that I never had, and never fa\v, the
tutlo* alluded to in the Centinel of Saturday, Marc*1 ^
in “ Jadg* Sullivan s own xudl i*<m» C J
ccurfa never did or could have &own it to Judge ^endriL
Wx- Cwm»"
Upon this certificate it may be obferved, that
admitting :t to be true, it by no means dif*
proves the charge as ft-.^ed m the federal papers.
It may be that judge Sullivan drew up the pr»
jet, or rozigb draught or outlines of the confuta
tion, which may have been {hewn by Mr. Coop
er to Judge Wendell, which tie latter recognized
to be in the hand writing of Mr. Sullivan \ and

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