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g new york herald; published by the sun-herald Corporation, 280 bhoadwav ; TELEPHONE. WORTH 10,000. Directors and officers: Prank A. Munsey, President; Krvln Wnrdman, Vice-president; Win. T. Dewart, Treasurer; R. H. Tlther- j Button. Secretary. MAIL SUBSCRIPTION RATES. One 81* One By Mall, Postpaid. Year. Months. Month. ' DAILY A SUNDAY...912.00 ?0.00 $1.00 DAILY only 10.00 5.00 .81 SUNDAY only 4.00 2.2.1 .+1 SUNDAY' only, Panada 0.00 3.26 .66 I FOREIGN RATES. ( DAILY & SUNDAY...$20.00 $13.50 $2 40 DAILY only 1S.00 0.00 1.60 1 SUNDAY only 9.75 5.12 .80 All checks, money orders, Ac., to be made < payable to The Sun-Herald. Brunch Offices for receipt of advertisements and sale of papers: Pbincipal Uptown Office?Herald" Building. , Herald Square. Tel. Fltz Roy tiOOO. Hmjni Office?205 West 125th St., nbau Seventh Ave, Teh 794 Slornlngslde. Open until 10 P. M. Washington Heights Orno??185 West , 181bt St. Tel. 9008 Wadaworth. Open until 10 P. M. , Downtown Office?200 Dhoadwat. Open A M. to 10 P. 31.; Sundays, 2 P. 31. to J 10 P. M. Bbooki.tn Offices?24 Coc?T Sr. Tel. Main 1 5458. Open until 10 p. m. Eagle building, 801 Washington St. Tel. 1100 Slain. Hsonx Office?.">18 Wilus Ave., at 148tii St. j Tel. 9006 Melrose. Open until 10 P. M. Principal American and Foreign Bureaus. WASHINGTON?The Munsey Building. CHICAGO?208 South La Salle St. LONDON?10-43 Fleet St. PARIS?HI Avenue de l'Ooera. 39 Rue du Louvre. Tub Nkw York Herald ivai founded by Janit-R Gordon Hennett In 18a.Y It remained the solo property of Its founder until his death. In 1*72, when hla son, also James Gordon Hennett, succeeded to the ownership of the paper, which continued In his hands until his death. In 1919. The Herald became the property of Frank A. Munsey, Its present owner, In 1920. MONDAY, OCTOBER 25, 1920. Swing the Estimate Ate Over and Over Again. If the Board of Estimate and the city administration can suspend the, court house project because of the exposure of rank highway robbery in the building trades, the Board of Estimate , and the city administration can abandon other mimlciftai -pending* watch come immediately and terrifically out of the public's pocket. If the Board of Estimate and the city administration can recoil in horror from the waste and corruption of: public treasure going into brick and mortar, steel and timber, the Board of Estimate and the city administration can balk at the squander of put)- , lie treasure going into enterprises that are not essential, subsidies that are not legitimate, schemes that are neither necessary nor rational, salaries that are not productive The money lias got to be saved or! tiie city's credit cannot lie saved. The money has got to be saved or the use fulness of the local government cannot be continued. The money has got j to be saved or the Industrial and commercial supremacy of overtaxed New York cannot be assured. Millions cut out of court noiise bonds to lighten future interest unU i sinking fund charges against the tax-|' payers are only a drop in the bucket j to what must he done this week ton the budget of 1921 to check right now the flood gate waste of tax moneys running away to the early bankruptcy of the municipal government and colleetfve loss of the New York public. Cut every provision for non-essential work out of tlie budget to the last nickel. Cut every useless and every doubtful salary out of the hudget to the last name on the payroll. Cut every Item that cannot bear the acid test of Imperative necessity out , of the budget to the last trace. The budget for 1921, which the Board of Estimate has its last chance ' to revise downward this week, must be chopped, by sheer brute -stren 'tb If necessary, to the extent of tens of millions of dollars or there will he dismal days for this c'ty of New York | of ours before nianv m<?re chapters | have been written Into its history. Swing the Board of Estimate axe oxer and over again! When Gloucester Races Halifax. The ocean race between the American fishing schooner Esperanto snd the Canadian schooner Delawanna scheduled to be sailed in the Atlantic off Halifax next week has a closer association with American ynoht sailing and American yacht designing than might be believed on tlrst thought. The craft in this race will test the sailing skill of Halifax and Gloucester nsnermen rattier man lunnuian arm T'nited States designs, for both boats come from the board of t'aptain Ton McMawui, a veteran Boston architect' of fishing schooners, who for forty years has been aiming at speed as well ^ as sen keeping qnalites in his boats.; To anybody who hns watched the Improvement of American fishing craft In the last qnnrter of a century It has been clear that while the fishing ves-' sels have steadily bettered jn si^eed and stability, they have won this Improvement by utilization of the best elements of modern yacht practice. The tendency toward yacht design In Ashing schooners was first shown ^ In the work of Edward Bt uncsn and has developed the aide schooners now I familiar In the Gloucester Ashing fleet, j achooners with a modified spoon h<iw t and knockabout rig which give ad led HftltiK power and do away with tin1' Ion* bowsprit nnd the danger of n en" being swept from 't when furling j tendsnils In bn<l weather. The Anier lean fisherman Is not conservative j except In Insisting on wentlierly quail Ilea In hl-s boot. The more speed he ran pet out of It the better he Is1 pleased, grunted be does not huv.-? to follow nil ?vewpnrred will plan. That is why he adopted ftt.ni the ynchtinr World the inodltled spoon how ind knockabout rig. ft. Is the misfortune of A merlon n yacht Hiring that It has been developing other qualities. In Its efforts to keep the America's Cr.p onr ynrhting world has enronrnged engineering In yaoht designs, for the work of the engineer Is the striking feature In rtiefng mnrhlnes like the latest Shnm-j t . IK l \ rock and tlie Itesolute, particularly In keeping their abnormally lefty masts on end. They are utterly worthless except for racing, yet a modern Yankee schooner yacht designed and built for cruising "off soundings" Is as good a sea keeping craft as ever was launched. For the reason that of late American schooner yachts and fishing craf* have been drawing nearer and nearer to each other In design the HullfaxSloucester fisherman race In November has a speclul interest for American blue water yachtsmen. fudge Miller on the Direct Primary Nomination Fraud. In answer to an Inquiry put to aim from the floor at a meeting he adIressed on Friday Jm'ge Miller, the Republican candidate for Governor, ?ave his opinion of the direct primary nomination system now in force in the State of New l'ork in these plain ivords: "I think, sir, that a Statewide direct primary has proved to be a delusion and a snare, a fraud. I think that It has offered opportunity for two things, for the demagogue and the man with money, and I am in favor of restoring, as far as the election of State and Judicial candidates is concerned, a representative party system. Teat is where I stand, sir. I -have not been talking about it because we are concerned with graver Issues." "That's" right!" shouted a voice. "Of course," said Judge Miller, "it is all right. The people of this State know a fraud w hen they have seen It. They have seen how the direct primary has operated in the selection of Judicial candidates; they have seen how it operates in the selection of State candidates, and they are ready to quit on it, anl I promise you that, so lar as my influence goes after January 1, we will get rid of the direct primary so far as It applies to either State or judicial office." At another meeting, in answer to a note handed to him from the floor. Judge Miller said: "It is utterly Impossible in this country to have mass action in any unit as large as the State. The effect of the direct primary law on .he selection of our candidates has been to cause deterioration. The effect of the direct primary law as applied to the State at large has been bad. I believe in the representative party system. This is a representative government. It is not a nure democracy, and people who say it is deceive you " The direct primary system was inlopted by Netv York State for the nomination of candidates for public office because of the belief of its sponsors that it would improve political conditions, make more effective the Interest of citizens in party management, and curb the power of the party leaders. How utterly the system lias failed to produce the good results which its honest advocates hoped and expected from its operation Is a fact recorded In the political history of the State. Its linexjiected and demoralizing consequences have been observed and discussed by intelligent citizens for years. What Judge Miller says of it is known to be the truth by every man w^io has had his eyes open to the progress of political affairs lietwoen Lake Erie and Montnuk Point. Judge Miller's words in denuncia una or ruis luuure nre nor 100 strong. To retain it on the statute books is t<> endanger the" American party system of government, and to pretend it has accomplished what it has not accomplished is a fraud. It should be repealed, and it will be repealed by n Republican Governor and a Republican legislature in 11)21. Its repeal having been effected, the State can return to the orderly development of the convention system. In this the natural political genius of the American people finds expression. Its processes can he safeguarded by law for the punishment of fraud in the selection and seating of delegates. Revond this statutes can do little of good in regulating political parties. Commercial Aviation In South America. The trip of inspection made in an airplane early this month by L. II. Kiek. general manager of the AngloSouth American Rank, of the branches of that Institution in Rrasll and Uruguay has directed attention to the great progress in commercial aviation in rMjiiui Aiiienca. -or. i\ikk nutrnvi in nn airplane of the River Plate avIntlon Company nt Ruenos Aires, the Argentine capital, and made the Journey to Porto Alegre, Rra/.i!, with nee essary hutlness atop* at Montevideo, Rio Grande do Sul, Pelotns and Santa Anna, without a mishap and In a moat comfortable manner. The actual flying time for the 023 miles was six hours and five minutes as against an average of practically five days for the same trip hy rail and steamer transportation. The South American countries have manifested a great Interest In aviation ever since the world war. Airships offered a solution of their perplexing problems of rapid transportation jnd communication l>etwoen the different countries, and a mens of reaching from the coast cities In the vast. Interior regions Into which railroads have not been built. These interior regions with their rich natural resources had. as a general thing, no other means of communication with the outside world except the slow transportation furnlshpd hy the rivers and the highways. A mall and limited freight service hy air iHE l)luiie has been carried on between the Pacific coast and towus In tbe Andes by which the time consumed in necessary travel has been redutad from four and live days to as many hours. The upper La Plate region and the valleys of the Uruguay and the Parana have been served by airplaneIn six hours where formerly a week | was required to cover the distance. The British airmen early saw in | South America an inviting and proftt! able Held. They directed their attention especially to Brazil and made Sao Paulo, where a national school ; or aviation was to be established, the central point of their efforts. Amerlj cans, however, seemed to have ?uci reeded In arousing a more permanent Interest, for when the school was j ojH'ned a large numner of American j air machines were purchased, and two American aviators, Lieutenant 1' A. (Vsacks and Lieutenant O. B. .Tames, were chosen as instructors. Americans too have had service in other countries; several were instructors in Chile and assisted in laying out the transandean routes, and Lieutenant Donald Hudson who flew over Mount Illlniani and passed over the city of La Paz at the record height of 18,000 feet, planned the air routes of Bolivia. A commercial airplane service was established recently at Limn, Peru, and Walter Peck, an American aviator, piloted the first machine with an American representing a New York cotton firm as the first passenger. The distance from Lima to Pisco, 1.10 miles, was made in two hours; formerly the trip was made in two days by a small steamer sailing every ten days South America, in fact; has made so much progress in aerial navigation through private enterprise and official encouragement and support that It has completely eclipsed the northern continent In all branches of commercial aviation. A oollsh Affront to Diplomats. "Diplomatic envoys," wrote Dr. Oppenheim, the foremost authority on certain branches of International law, "are sacrosanct." Mr. Wilson's Treasury Department does not agree with this. It has ordered the Collectors of Customs to examine 'be baggage of foreign diplomatic representatives to see whether they are bringing la intoxicating beverages. Mr. Wilson's Secretary of State, Mr. Colby, denies the right of the l reasury Department to do any such thing. Mr. Coi.hy Is right. As Oppenheim succinctly remarks, an envoy must be independent of the jurisdiction and control of (lie .country to which he is sent.. He and his suite, their houses and their property, are i extraterritorial. A foreign diplomat Is not subject to the territorial supremacy of the State which receives him. Great Britain does not put an income tax on our Ambassador, Mr. Davis. To the best of our knowledge the Treasury Department of the United States has not .attempted to tax the Income of Sir Auckland Geddes. If a case should arise tn which a foreign diplomatist was found to be bringing in Intoxicating beverages tn l>e sold, then the State Department might take up the matter with the foreign Government ; nd request the i recall of the erring .gent. But we have heard of no such case. The Incident Is only one more in the string of episodes that have been the outcome of the "enforcement" under Mr. Wil son of the Volstead act. The Treasury Department satellites rush around among the rum barrels, turning off the spigots and pulling out the bungs. The booze graft is the scandal of the whole country. It makes us ridiculous enough at home. There Is no need for the Treasury Department to make us a laughing stock abroad. Women at Oxford and Cambridge. Women have at last been admitted to full membership In Oxford University, the oldest seat of learning In the British Isles and one of the oldest universities of Europe. About 1">0 woman undergraduates have matrlcu| lated and In all about 550 woman ?tuj dents are In attendance during *he present Michaelmas term, coming chiefly from the recognized societies of woman students of Lady Margaret Hall, Somerville College and St. Hilda's Hall. The long fight of women In Englaud for educational prlvl.eges equal to those of tnen may now he considered won, for Oxford was regarded as the key to the opposition, and with It In their possession there will probably be little delny before the last fortress of masculine privilege and exelusiveness among the English universities 'alls before them. This fortress is Cambridge University. Its Senate tins j been discussing the admission of woman students with Increased earnestness since Oxford took the action which Is the scholastic equivalent of * raising the white flag of surrender over Magdalen's gray towers. The committee of the Cambridge University Senate adiocntlng the ad mission of women has presented Its opinions In a pamphlet 'n which, among other things. It Is pointed out that while the status of womnn students nt I Cambridge has remained substantially unchanged since 1S07. when the Senate voted to reject the proposal to admit them to degrees, other colleges and universities. Oxford now being among ! tlie number, have ojienpl their doors, with the result that Cambridge stands alone among Rritlsh universities In i this respect, "excluding from Its mem1 bershlp the womnn students who already share In Its life, attend its lee! tures and laboratories, Join In Its tenchlng work and vote for Its parliamentary representative." The committee declares that this NEW YORK HERALD, is no time for halfway nieu.sures, and looking outside Cambridge its members see women admitted not only to all other universities but also "to the bar and to the office of justice of the peace, taking an active part In locul government and at length voting for Members of Parliament and sit-1 ting in Parliament." Ik short, the committee adroitly presents the argument found success ful *1u most Instances of conforming to what seems to be the general custom or fashion. The committee further says that the age long tradl- j tion that public life should be reserved for men Is collapsing, gnd clearly Cambridge, If It persists in its attitude of rejection, will be in a state of isolation. At latest accounts the Senafe had not voted on the proposal. But It seems to be a foregone conclusion that Cambridcre will crant the : demands of woman students. It seems also^ quite clear that in ; that event the doors of CambridgeI ! will open to women n ltli certain res ! j ervatlons or restrlctons. In other ! i words, while women may be admitted ; to full membership in the university, i ! they will not be enrolled In the men's j j colleges. They are to belong to bos-1 tels for women recognized as such by ; the university and subject to its con! trol. Probably neither Oxford nor I Cambridge Is yet ready for the full measure of coeducation which Is seen ' In some American colleges and univer| sltles. But that also may come In file course of time. Two Interesting Minor Figures In American History Pass. Within forty-eight hours the newsp;i|iers have reported the death of two men whose names were unfamiliar to most of us but whose personalities possess a definite Interest. One of these men was Hablet Mowbet, Sr., of Vernal, Utah, who Is asserted to have been the last survivor of a battalion of more than 500 members of the Mormon Church which fought in the Mexican war under Brigadier General Stephen W. Kk&hxy, commanding the Army of the West, which conquered New Mexico, His military service was performed while the Mormons were fleeing from Nauvoo, the "Place Beautiful," In Hancock countv, Illinois, which they were forced to abandon after the repeal of their charter In 1*45, leaving their just completed temple and much of their prop vii,> ucvause ui iixt: ? iiirii uuu been aroused against them. At this time It was believed by many that the Mormons planned to conquer the Mississippi Valley and ultimately the whole continent. The Mormons who served under General Kearny contributed their 1 bounty money to their coreligionists, ; and this proved of great assistance to the migrating host, which at the moment did not know its .destination. | This pilgrimage ended at the Great Salt Lake, to-day the centre of Mormonlsm. Ten years nfter Mowrey and his companions served under Kearny the Mountain Meadows Massacre occurred and the conflict known as the "Mormon war" began. Mowrey was ( 08 when he died. The other man whose death recalls the United States of another day was j George S. Hawker of Ayr, Scotland, who attained 102. lie was a veteran I of our civil war nud of the FrancoPrussian war of 1870. His distinction is based on his declaration that in his business as a tailor he had Lisi coi.n among his customers. Whether this patronag^ was given before Lin- i i mr.Jf Iwvflmo PrnnMniif nr u ftnruMi ' the news from Ayr does not iilaclo.se. It would Tie Interesting to get .Mr.' Hawker's reminiscences of his most 1 distinguished customer. The world has had and valued highly Intimate relations of great men from persons not half as likely to form shrewd Judgments. or half as likely to pierce to the real man, as an intelligent and conscientious tailor would. * What did Mr. Hawker think of the American tailor who succeeded Lincoln as President? Disinterested observers assert that at midnight Charles P. Mttrpht'h magnificently bound copy of the Covenant of the League of Nations still remained with uncut pages. The Ohio town of Flndlay observed Fire Prevention Week with good sense and Intelligence, but on Its closing day the most disastrous Are the city has experienced In four years occurred, '''he cause of the blaze, which did rtamnre estimated at $75,000, Is put down is "spontaneous combustion." Having got this far, the enlightened citizens of Flndlay Will undoubtedly proceed new to And out who left the oily rags ; In contact with woodwork, or who j thrnu' fhr Tip-hlr.d match loir, n Tt-natc paper basket. Perhaps some enterprising Porto ltican, learning of the plague of rats on the Leviathan, will offer to clear her of vermin with some of tho eminent mongooses of his Island. Should uch a scheme be tried, Commissioner Wallis should bond the extermination squad not to come ashore. Certain eminent educators are oxerrlsed over the question "Can a pretty g rl 'vamp' her way through college?" If she can't It Is the first thing known to mankind that a pretty girl cannot do. The New Mimd Midler. Maud Muller one November clay H'>M and raked the liaive* away, Posed a batch of pumpkin plea, Set a l*an of bread to rlae. Made the *?ede and swept the house. Killed a bold marauding mouse. Hung the curtains out to air, Shook the Vugs and combed her hair, Powdered up her pretty nose, Honned her new and nifty clothes, Seised her beaded hag so fine, Priced at nineteen for'y-nlne. Hailed a trolley, took a ride, 1 Tteaehed the polls and tripped Inside, And?although she bore no grudgo? 'last her vote agatnet the Judge. Mtww* Tertwe I I MOXPAT, OCTOBER PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE. Au Address by Mr. Wilson and HI Action Regarding: Shantung. To Tub New York Herald: On Oc tober 27, 1913, President Wilson dellv ered a short address before the South ern Commercial Congress at Mobile. Th< following are the sentences with whlcl that short address concludes: Do not think, therefore, gentlemen, that the'qucstlons of the day are mere questions of policy and diplomacy. They are shot through with the principles of life. We dare not turn from the principle that morality and not expedt'-ncy Is the thing that must guide us, and that we will never condone Iniquity because It Is most expedient to do so. . And then Shantung! A. H. Preston. Newark, N. J., October 23. PERIL IN THE COVENANT. i ?\Hmpitas ui iruuuro .uauc uj Loosely Worded Treaties. To The New York Herald: Tha diversity of opinion as to the propel Interpretation of vital clauses in Mr Wilson's League of Nations Covenant li a sufficient reason for regarding it a; objectionable may very well be Ulus trated by considering the controversj lr respect to the meaning of clauses in the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 in re lation to the Panama Canal tolls. In the Yale Laxo Journal of March 1914, there Is an article by T. Baty D. C. L., LL. D., which is characterized by the perceptions and reasoning of a well trained legal mind. In his cominenl on those treaties he says: The treaties of 18r>0 and 1901 are so badly drawn and expressed in such a slovenly way as to make It far from an easy matter to pronounce offhand upon questions of their Interpretation. It seems not unfair to ctnclude that .he negotiators designedly used ambiguous language In order to put off until another time the necessity of arriving at a really clear and complete understanding. Tlio treaty of !8!>0 contained a loose and vague aspiration (VIII.) quite out of place In a business Instrument. The treaty of 1901 Is even worse draf'ed. Acclaimed at the time a.< a monument to Pauncefote's statesmanship and discretion, it now reveals Itself as having raised more difficulties thnn It laid, and as having made confusion worse confounded. The American people may wel. b< thankful that the Constitution did no entrust to the Executive the sole treat; making power, and that the Senate li the performance of Its constituted func tion saved the country from a treat) beside the ambiguities and uncertalntiej of which the treaties referred to by Mr Baty would stand n? monuments of lega precision. It Is well that the discussions in th< Senate and In the newspapers and th< arguments of highly trained legal mlndi have educated the people as to the obli gations Incurred in the League of Na tions Covenant. On election day th< people will render their verdict. John J. Sheridan. New York, October 23. MRS. CROSBY'S RIGHT. A Lifelong Democrat "Who (anno IUI1- mr- Ift-IIIIFI lilllV ll'ht'l. To Ths New York Herald: I an proud to say I am the same kind o: Democrat as Mrs. John Sherwin Crosby who has been expelled from this Wil soacratic Women's Democratic Club, o which she was the founder and honorary pres'dcnt. Mrs. Crosby and every tfue Jeffer sonlan Democrat must see that our die tatorial President, Woodrow Wilson, h:u been trying to kill onr old Democrats party. But it Is still slumbering and wi real Democrats who always follow th< doctrines nnd principles of Jefferson Madison, Monroe, Jackson and Clevelant will do all we can to elect Warren O Harding ind to bury on November forever that false doctrine of Democrat-; known as Wilsoncratism. I have been an active Democrat foi fifty years and come from a New Yorl family Democratic, for 100 years: m; grandfather voted in New York city it 1824 for the defender of New Orleans Andrew Jackson. As a Democrat I could not vote it J89G for Bryan, but as a gold Democra I supported Palmer and Buckner. voted for Charles E. Hughes in 1916, ni I could not stand the actions of Wopd row Wilson In regard to the war. voted for Edward I. Edwards of Nev Jersey for our Democratic Governor, ai he jpheld the good old Democratic prln clple of personal liberty. Every real Democrat like Mrs. Crosby who is an American woman and uphold; Americanism, must know that we havi no national Democratic candidates foi President or Vice-President no Demo cratlc party In Washington. wtlu'am osborx. Stei.ton IlnioitTR, X. J. October 23. FLORIDA BALKS AT COX. Prediction* of n Surprising Demo crntle Vote for Harding. To Tub Nkw York Hriiai.d : Evei hero In Florida, where the old timer when they heard the name Republlcai would say "There ain't no such anl mal," there are going to he surprising!; large numbers of Harding vote* cast. On a train out of Miami last weel Ave men In the smoker got to talklni politics. A typical old Southern plante; now living at Little River said: "I am Southern born and raised, m; family owned slaves and I am a Demo crat, but 1 am going to vote for Har ding, and It looks like Dade count; would go Repuhllcan." O. P. M. Sti'art, Kla., October 21. Democratic Campaign Methods. To This New York Herald: One Is sue In this campaign, Injected by th< President, namely, whether or not Amer leans shall barter their constitutions birthright ntray for a mesa of doubtfu pottage, will make It ever memorable, Still more remembered, and wltl shame, will be this campaign for reck leas statements spouted In default o argument by the desperate Democrats demagogue from Dayton. f. W. Cincinnati, Ohio, October 23. Mr. Cox's Charge t'pon Mr. Ifoot. To Tub New York IIfrai.p: Mr. Cox' teleeram to Mr. Root and Mr. Riot' reply recall to mind tha farmer who snv his young bull chnrglng up the ralltoai track against an oncoming locomotive The farmer remarked: "Oo It. little one I I admire youi spunk, hut I despise your discretion I'* SMtTHTOWN, October 23. F. M. L?. Measuring Time's Flight. From the Hmrnrd IKnn.) CourOnt. Howard's first eernlval anil street fat was held seventeen years ago, and the ?IUIi girl who took first prlr.s In the baby shot ts now married and has a pretty baby a her own. 25, 1920. VOTE REPUBLICAN; WORK. | s This Is the Advice of Frances Gordou .Alexander to Her Fellow Citizens. To The New York Herald: I shall J - vote the straight Republican ticket, feel Ing, as I do, that the Democratic Ad) ministration has been unsuccessful In i i carrying on the bus'ness of the country. We know from history that this is usually the case under a Democratic administration All this talk about the Deagul* of Nations Is superfluous. The League of Nations, as 1 know by three years residence ( in Europe?1917 to 1920?has never been a real working organization. The ineptitude, Ignorance and folly of that ( body will nev-r be known. Some of the larger Powers have attempted to use It us ii muuium 10 crusn cikii umci w smaller nations, but as Its .mandates have never been obeyed It has not made any impression in Europe. Consequently t if we were to succeed in enacting the proposed league of Nations we should have to convert to our ideas most of the 1 other nations. It has been the laughing ' i stock of those who are in a position to know since the beginning. 3 As far as we are concerned the war 5 is over, but as regards Europe it still continues and will continue until they 1 have settled their own differences, and 5 let us beware that we do not put our 3 linger between the "bark and the tree." It will be resented. Charitable and sentimental people to the contrary, we did not go it to this war because we wished to rescue any ' nation on the other side, not even France, I but because we felt that our rights and ' privileges were being menaced. When It Is our duty to interfere in foreign affairs we shall come forward in the samo generous spirit which we have shown before, and I hope with more preparation. As to "keeping us out of war," there Is no one In America who wants to go to war for WRr's sake, nor indeed do I think there are on the whole earth's surface more than a handful who do. The history of the last hundred years shows that "holy alliances, treaties and the rest have never held back nny nation from lighting when it came to the point. They never have : they never will. It is against natural law. We have passed through several years of destruction. Now It remains to be seen if we have the force to look the ? question fairly in the face. We shall t see that "no matter from what angle | you approach our situation, you will run II up against need for greater production." What we need is work, not talk. No I wonder California finds itself In an em- t a barrassing position. The Japanese are f j at the threshold, and certainly the en- i ! tire country will he taken over by them ? i if no restraint is put upon them. I have ' ? 1 been told again and again what a terrible J ,! menace they are, and In the same breath 1 31 that the whites won't work and the r Japanese will. At the present moment l . people who are working (?) and trying I 5! to see how little they can accomplish and ' ; how much they can gain are very largely 1 | to be found among the white race. The j I whole Idea Is to live on somebody else. | and the next person, with the same idea, j , j to live upon somebody else. The devil j will get the foremost, first. If there is any wny of awakening the ' world at large to the necessity of not j only paying for the needs of the day but , for the destruction which has been j p wrought since 1914 the lesson to be ; . preached is common sense and work; | . otherwise it means the passing of the j f white race. Do you wish to pass into j f n state of tutelage? It Is not the first j time It has happened in history, but this j peaceful penetration does not appeal to J me at all. Eternal servitude would be j s worse than the mad caperlngs of Bol- | shevism, which bears its own death In ; its very Inception, as we now begin to ; see. Frances Gordon Alexander. , i Nsw York, October 23. ' DID THE SCHOOLS FAIL? f Only 0.1 Out of 4.10 Applicants I'ass a Cooper Union Examination. r To The New York Herald : It < might interest your readers to know 1 that there have been more than 450 ap1 pllcants to the first year's course in motor vehicle design nnd testing which is given at Cooper Union In the Interest 1 of the automotive industry, no tuition ' being charged. Out of that number of ' applicants only 93 have passed the ex- i s amlnation In the most elementary math- i " ematlcs; that is, nothing beyond ordi1 nary mensuration, in other words. 300 ! l' of these applicants did not even know J s how to And the area of a circle. We * find that this does not"apply to those j applicants who learned the machinist i * trade In foreign countries. < Tills is a reflection on our public * schools, and It will obtain as long as the r i standard of requirement of teachers is * as low as at present, and It iff being ! lowered continually to replace those teachers who resign. Instead of making the profession of teaching sufficiently lucrative to attract those who have not only sufficient knowledge themselves hut also the gift to Impart their knowledge to others, the standard of our teachers Is purposely lowered. In our public schools the prerequisite 1 for teaching does not seem to play an , Important role, but rather "If we don't , pay them enough to keep them let's get _ , cheaper men." The loss to the city nnd v the country nt large from such methods j cannot be overestimated. t J Take only the present Instance of f these 300 young men who cannot enjoy r the privilege to -obtain training for positions of higher responsibility and thus f be of more use to the community. The - lack of more Intelligent and better - trained men In all phases of our life ir cannot be computed In dollars and cents. I It is a grave reflection on our community. Ethei.bert Kavart. . f?ew York, October 23. Sentiments of n Loyal American. * To The New York Herald: I have t . sent the following reply to the Pro-' I 1 league Independents' postal card Invi- f i tatlon to support Cox nnd Roosevelt \ and the League of Notions: ^ , "I can conceive of no greater scourge t . that an angry can Inflict upon a r f j sinful nnd erring people than to put Ccx B and Roosevelt at the head of their Gov-' t ernment. Neither politically nor per- 1 Honnlly are mcjr wnnny me support or ' any loyal Anrterlcan." A. S. L>an?er. Washington, October 23. I One Kule for Jtogs. " To Title New York Hbrai.P : All do?rs i should be mussled. This Is my reply to a letter cnmplnlnlnir of dlacrlmlnatloa ] ^ between bl(t dogs and little dogs. I My little boy was bitten by one of r those so-called pet* supposed not to bite. Had a muttsle been on this particular distinguished dachshund much worry , would have been avoided. H. H. H. i New York. October 23 I fr( An t'rRrnt Mississippi C'sll, r Fmv\ the Wtplep Rmilhrrn Statesman, f Hounds?I want to buy some trained and untrained bounds What bass ymit j CALIFORNIA MAY END ALIEN LAND LEASING Vote Next Week Will Decide Question of Withdrawing 3 Year Privilege. j? 3RIENTAL CONTROL GAINS Claim Made State Is Following Nippon's Example Which Bars All Outsiders. San FrajJcisco, Oct. 24.?*nie f~te of lapanese farmers in California will be lecided November 2, when the decorate of this State passes on an lntiative mcaAire that would amend the present alien Innd law by withdrawing ntirely the three year agricultural land easing privilege from aliens who are nellgible to American citizenship. The measure aims aTso to place minor and owning aliens under the guardianship of a public administrator. The ictual ownership of farm lands by aliens nellgible to citizenship already is prollbited by the alien land law enacted >y the State Legislature in 1913. The initiative measure, its proponents issert, will conform strictly to the leter of the treaty between Japan and lie United States, in which certain irivlleges were granted to Japanese resllents. The opponents of the proposed lew law declare that the Issue raises the [uestlon an interpretation of phraseilogy in the treaty wherein it is prodded that the Japanese resident in the Jnlted States "may' own or hire and iccupy houses, manufactories, warelouses, shops and premises and lease ands for residential and commercial lurposes." It is pointed out by person^, opposed o amending the present, law that the easing of lnnd for "commercial purposes" contemplated the privilege of easing agricultural lands. The voters if the State have had the legal verbiage if the measures clarified by arguments 'or and against it respectively by V. 55. dcClutchy, publisher of the Sacramento Hee, and by John P. Irish, an extensive and owner of Stockton, Cal. Keep I,and* for Americans. / In behalf of the measure, Mr. Mc^latchy says in part: "Through the measure California >eoks, a.\ Is her Inherent right, to prelerve her lands for Americans, precisely is Japan preserves her lands for the lapanese. Its primary purpose is to prohibit Orientals who cannot become \merican citizens from controlling our -ich agricultural lands. "Our present treaty of commerce and mvlgatlon with Japan deliberately omits 'rom the privileges granted the Japanese in una country cuner ownersmo cr ease of agricultural lands. Japan has ilways prohibited ownership, or leasi, )r use of agricultural lands In Japan jy Americans or other foreigners. "Orientals, and more particularly Tapanese, have commenced to secure control of agricultural lands in California. There was enacted in 1913 the illen land law, which prohibited owner(hlp?or lease beyond three years?of igrlcultftral lands by aliens ineligible :o citizenship. "In defiance of that law, through carious subterfuges, including use of lummy corporations and minor native jorn children. Orientals, largely Japaicse, are fast securing control of the richest Irrigated lands in the State, :hrougli lease or ownership, the proportion already controlled In some counties being from *i0 to 73 per cent. "Tho initiative measure simply closes the loophole in tho 1913 law which pernlts violation and evasion thereof. In iddition it forbids even short leases." In his nrgument against the measure Mr. Irish discusses the commercial treaty with Japan and declares that 'in its economic definition commerce consists of production, transmutation ind exchange: production is the ranking element, because without It there ?an be no commerce. (nils It Class Discrimination. "The treaty is Intended, then," the opposition argument continues, ' to give the Japanese privilege to enter upon mmplete commerce, and therefor^ protects their right to lease land for prolurtlon. Any other interpretation twists the plain language of the treaty into rain repetition. "Considered in the light of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution >1 the United States, which says, 'No State shall deny to any person within is Jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,' we find the initiative Is in L-onfiict with our Constitution, since It proposes a discriminatory classification >f aliens, conferring upon one class tho protection of the law which It denies to another class. "This discrimination applies also to the leasing of land denied to Japanese applies to the feature of the Initiative which subjects Japanese minora who awn land to the guardianship of the public administrator, but exempts other ilien minors who own land from such guardianship." The measure has two distinct purposes, according to Mr. Irish, and these ure: "First, to forbid the leasing of and to Japanese and Chi' .-so; and. secand, to take land owning minors of those races from the natural guardianship ?f the parents and commit them to the control of the public administrators." Concluding his argument to the voters Mr. Irish says: "Considered in Its effect upon the and owners of the State the Initiative, inder penalty of confiscation, prohibits them from leasing land to a certain lass of persons. If the State can do that It can also compel land owners, under penalty of confiscation, to lease their lands to a certain class of persons." tJOMPERS DEPENDS LABOR. Saya KrilfTtlllon Oppimm Vlolrnrr nnd Revolution. The reply of Samuel Oompera to hargos made by the Washington Post hat ho la trying to tell labor what to think In the political campaign was made nihllc yesterday by the Amalgamated deat Cuttera and Butcher Workers of America. Mr. Oompera admitted that he article referring to him \^ys "mighty nteroHtlng reading," hut he aald that he elt much rebuked by It. "The organised labor movement of America has steadfastly rf lod for progress, for reform ns against violence and revolution," he wrote, "and the entire course of the A. F. of L., Industrially nnd politically, Is governed by that source. You not only antagonise these both but attempt to hold up to ridicule ind contempt the chosen representatives of the men and women of labor who have the temerity to e?press the jructlcally unanimous expression of 1.500,000 wage earners In our federation." ootmoiirat in ivoifMVt Bupapkst, Oct 24.?The whipping lost has been Instituted In Hungary by ? bill passed by the Assembly. As orlgnnlly Introduced It was meant as a (linlshment for profiteers, usurers nnd iffendcrs against the food laws. As sir.eted. however, this feature Is eltmllated and It applies only to moral offenders sgainst the army, the State and ilrts against property. Daily Calendar THE WEATHER. For Eastern New York?Increasing cloudiness to-day ; to-morrow, shower* ; fresh south to southwest winds. For New Jersey?l'artly cloudy and tome what warmer to-day; to-morrow showers; moderate to fresh south to southwest winds For Northern New England? Increasing cloudiness to-day, followed by showers tonight and to-morrow; not much change in temperature; moderate to fresh south to southwest winds. For Southern New England?Increasing cloudiness and somewhat warmer to-day, followed hy showers to-night or to-morrow; moderate to fresh south to southwest winds. For Western New York?Showers to-day and to-morrow; much cooler to-morrow; moderate to fresh shifting winds, becoming northwest. WASHINGTON, Oct. 24.?Pressure continued high to-day in the Atlantic States, the plateau and Itocky Mountain regions and the plains States, but It fell from the St. I-awrcnce Valley and the lower lake region SOUthwoStwnril tn TV.-.--.. .... i .v. lower Mississippi Valley. Rain fell within the last twenty-four hours In the upper lake region, the middle and lower Mississippi valleys, the Gulf States and southern New Mexico. Cooler weather overspread the western lake region, tho middle Mississippi and lower Missouri valleys, Oklahoma and western Texas, while the temperature was higher In New York and New England. The outlook Is for showers In the region of the great lakes, the Ohio Valley, Tennesseo and the Gulf and South Atlantic States to-morrow and In tho Appalachian region and the middle Atlantic and north Atlantic States to-morrow nlglit or Tuesday. The weather will be fair Tuesday from Michigan south ward to the east Gulf coast. The temperature will he somewhat hlglter to-morrow In the middle Atlantic and north Atlantic States and It will be lower In the lower lake region, the Ohio Valley, Tennessee and the east Gulf States. Observations at tTnlted States Weather Rtircau stntlons, taken at 8 PM yesterday, seventy-fifth meridian time: Temperature Rainfall last 24 hrs. Rsro- last 24 Stations. High. Lo.v. meter, lira. Weather. Albany 68 28 20.08 .. Clear Atlantic City.. ?rt 56 30.18 .. Clear Baltimore .... <16 BO 30.14 .. Clear Bismarck .... 00 .. 30.14 .. Clear Boston 70 B2 80.10 .. Clear Buffalo 74 00 20.06 .. Pt. Cldy Cincinnati ... 82 .. 30.02 .. Pt. Cldv Charleston ... 76 .. 80.06 .. Pt. Cldy Chicago 58 .. 80.08 .00 Cloudy Cleveland 80 60 20.98 .. Pt. Cldy Denver 52 .. 80.26 .. Clear Detroit 72 62 80.00 .. Cloudy Galveston .... 78 .. 20.84 .. Clear Helena 18 .. 80.28 .. Pt. Cldy Jacksonville .80 .. 30.00 .. Cloudy Kansas City. .00 ., 80.08 .. Pt. Cldy Los Angeles... 76 .. 29.08 .. Clear Milwaukee ... 58 52 80.04 .. Clear New Orleans. 84 .. 20.84 .50 Pt. Cldy Oklahoma ... 48 .. 30.04 .38 Rain Philadelphia" . 08 G2 30.18 .. Clear Pittsburg 78 .. 80.00 .. Cloudy Portland, Mo. 02 44 80.00 .. Clear Portland. Ore. 06 .. 30.14 .. Clear Salt Lake City 44 ., 30^4 .. Clear San Antonio.. 74 .. 29.88 .. Cloudy San Diego 74 .. 20.04 .. Clear Han Kranclsco. 70 .. 30.02 .. Clear St. Louis 62 .. 20.08 .08 Cloudy St, Paul 54 .. 30.00 .. Clear Washington .. 72 .. 30.14 .. Pt. Cldy LOCAL WEATHER RECORDS. 8 A. M. 8 P. M. ! Barometer 30.26 30.17 Humidity 74 72 Wind?direction W. S. V/lnd?velocity 5 23 1 Weather Clear Clear Precipitation Nona None The temperature In this city yesterday, I as recorded by the official thermometer. Is shown In the annexed table: . 8 A. M 50 IP. M....03 CP. M OCT 9 A. M 51 2 P. M 65 7 P. M 50 10 A.M....52 IP. M 00 8 P.M....50 ill A.M....57 4P.M....64 0 P. M 58 12 M 61 5 P. M 03 10 P. M 57 1020. 1918. 1020. 1910. OA. M....51 55 OP. M 00 57 12 M 61 50 0 P. M 58 54 8 P. M 66 58 12 Mid 56 52 Highest temperature. 66, at 3 P. M. Lowest temperature, 50, at 4 A. M. Average temperature. 58. EVENTS TO-DAY. Senator Jnmes W. Wadsworth. Jr., and Lieut.-Col. Theodore Roosevelt will speak at a mass meeting of the Harding Democratic League, Yorkvlllo Lyceum, Eighty-sixth street and Thlr.1 ? a r> \? The Cox and Roosevelt College Men's League will give a dinner to Franklin D. Roosevelt In the Hotel Commodore, 7 P. M. Oov. Alfred K. Smith will apeak at rallies at Hunts Point Palace and Morris Hi eh School, The Rronx, this evening. Oliver M. Raylcr will speak on "The Spirit of the Modern Russian Theatre" at the women's conference of the Society of Ethical Culture, 2 West Sixty-fourth street, 3 P. M. National Association of Audubon Soclctloa, meeting, American Museum of Natural History, Seventy-seventh street and Central Park West. 8:13 P. M. The National Business Show will open In Grand Central Palace, 1 P.M.; typewriting contest. 3 P. M. Raymond C. Brown will speak on "Demonstration of Problems" before the New York Society of Accountants, Rumford Hall, 30 East Forty-first street, this evening. The Public Service Commission will continue the hearing on telephono rates and service, 10 A.M. American Dietetic Association, meeting and dkhlblt. Hotel McAlpln, all day. J. Malcolm Bird will speak on "Recent Achievements In Science In America" at a meeting of the Clio Club, Hotel Astor, 2 P. M. Republican women will entertain Mrs. Nathan L. Miller at a luncheon In tile VsnderWlt Hotel, 1 P.M.; former Judge Miller and John J. Lyons will speak at the forum, 3 P. M. Employing Printers Association, dinner, Hotel Astor, 6 P. M. PUBLIC LECTURES TO-NIGHT. MANHATTAN AND THE BRONX, "Trend of the Times," by Dr. John H. Randall, Washington Irving High School, 10 Irving place. "Trend of thn Times," by Arthur D. Uses, Public School 160, 223 West 108th street. "Trend of the Times," by William Bradley Otis, I'llgrlm Hall. Fifty-sixth street and Broadway. "Trend of the Times." by Prof. Nelson P. Mead, Morris High School, 106th street and Boston road. The Bronx. "Bible Story of Joseph," by Miss Ada Ammerman, Public School 46, 136th street and St. Nicholas avenue. "Coloratura Arias from the Operas." by Miss Maria P. Galnsborg. Public School 39. 228 East Fifty-seventh street. "Some American Composers and Poets," by Miss Sally Hamlin, Tuhllc School '12, Hester, Essex and Norfolk streets. "Tha State Reconstruction Plan," by Miss Jennlo M. Davis, Public School 137, St. Nicholas avenue and 127th street. "Irish Life and Character," by Owen MePhllomy, St. Columba Hall, 343 West Twenty-fifth street. "Songs of the American Red Man." by Miss Marguerite Potter, Evander Chtlds High School. 184th street and Field nlaee. The Bronx. BROOKLYN. "Trend of the Tim*1!"." by Mrs. Mary TO. Benae, Buahwlrk High Sehool, Irving avenus. Mini Iron and Woodblna streets. "Tennyson's Tnoeh Ardpn,' " by Mrs. Marian Inland, Rastcrn District High School, Marry avenue and Kaap atrppt. "Plays of the Hour," by Mlaa Ada Rtorflnc, Rraamna Hall High School, Flnlbiiah. avenua. near Church avpnup. Illuatratpd. "The Pitfalls of Youth," by Mra. Mahal Irwin, Manual Training High School, Roventh avpnup and Fifth atrect. "MpxIco, Yesterday and To-day," by Mra. Ada B. Talbot, Brooklyn Public Rlhrarv, Norman avenue and I,eonard atroct. Illustrated. MONUMENT TO MGR. O'KEEFFE. i l?r?l left tril nt Ilia flrayp In Wpat Point Cemplpry. The memory of the night Rev. Mgr. I Cornelius O. O'Keeffe, the only civilian I who has been burled In the military cem- fl eter.v nt West Point, was honored yes- j terdny by the dedication of a monument H over his grave, and the unveiling of a J tablet In the Roman Catholic chapel on ] the army reservation which lie erected It twenty years ngo. The Hlght Kev. Mgr. I Joseph F. Mooney, vicar general of the 1 archdiocese, blessed the monument. The I dedicatory sermon was delivered by the I Kev. Francis P. Duffy. Mgr OKeoffe died In May. 191*. At 1 that time ho was among the best known I priests In the archdiocese. His personal K labors before Congress against much op- j position brought about the grnntlng of H permission to build a Catholic church I where cadets and Instructors of that I faith might worship, and his years as j re t<ir of If gained him wide acquaint- M anro among nil ranks of the army. Hd H was an authority on ecclesiastical rela- I s The Associated Press Is exclusively MtltM * to the use for repnhllcatlon of all news dee patches . .. .111...l to It or not otherwise cr. dhed in Mils paper and also the local news published herein. All rights of repuh1lcatl9n of special dee- M patches hccsla Slsa y -w.-ed.