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^ I SEVEN L___ i OWLCsl il Fillet Intrigues to Kill 0 Steadily Being PI No Country 1 The writer of the article which follows, Capt. Francis McCuIlagh, has recently reached London after extraordinary adventures in Russia and Siberia. A British officer, he was taken prisoner in Siberia. He escaped, made his way to I? an// /IwafltF Wnc_ cow. After a long period in that city he managed to get out of the country by way of Finland. Capt. McCullagh is a highly 1 trained journalist of international reputation. He is the only man of his pro> fession who has gone his way through Russia unattended, unsuspected and per^ fectly free since that country came under the sway of Bolshevism. Capt. McCullagh's story, as told in this and other art. cles to follow, will give the world the real truth as to how matters in Russia proceed under Lenine, the Red Czar. Capt. McCullagh served THE NEW YORK HERALD brilliantly as its correspondent during the Russo-Japanese war. By CAPTAIN FRANCIS McCULLAGH. 8l>ecial Correspondence to The New York Herald. Copyright 1920 hy The New York Herald. London, Oct. 25. ON sneaking Into the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs in Moscow one day, in order to get the address of a foreign Journalist, then in Moscow, I ran into a commissar who was specially charged with English journalistic affairs, who knew of my capture as Krasnoyarsk, and who had been anxiously awaiting my arrival in Mastow. I had a bad quarter of an hour explaining why I had not reported earlier, but I finally succeeded in shifting all the blame for the delay onto the shoulders of the commissar in wnose train i na<i travelled und without whose permission I could not, I pleaded, call on Comrade Tchitcherin. I This press commissar insisted on my moving at once from my railway carriage to one of the guest houses in which the Soviet Government accommodates its foreign guests. It had formerly been the residence of a German factory owner, and was situated near the Red Gate. I moved into it next day. Some weeks later I was transferred to the Savoy Hotel, a similar establishment.* The Red Underworld end Its Work for World Chaos. This change in my fortunes introduced me to a new world, the underworld of the Third Internationale, an institution which aims frankly at the overthrow of every Government in Europe, Asia and America. Among the guests were a Corean committee which is working hard for the independence of Corea, though It only contemplates the establishment of a constitutional monarchy there, not of a Soviet. The head of the Corenn committee is an intelligent and very pleasant young Corean called Pak-Y, who was cduca'ed at Moscow University and speaks Russian well. Under him arc several other Coreans as well as a Japanese correspondent of the Osaka Asahi, who had been captured, like mvself. In Siberia, imprisoned in Moscow and only released on promising to work against his own country. He is now translating with Oriental placidity all sorts of propaganda matter for dissemination among the Japanese troops, and this propaganda Is credited with having brought the desertion to the Bolshevist! of about one hundred Japanese soldiers In Trans-Baikalia last spring. A Communist newspaper is printed In Japanese by the Third Internationale and Is periodically despatched to the Far East. Another Japanese Journalist. Mr. Huste, representing the Otnka MainicM, came from Reval with a safe conduct signed by Tchltcherln, but the extraordinary commission, which Insisted that he a spy and had been living In 11115 with the Japanese Military Attache at Petrogrnd, made a great effort to arrest him. but had not succeeded In doing so up to the time I left Moscow owing to Tchltcherln's opposition. The correspond, ent In question wrs kept under domiciliary arrest, however, and, for all the news he got, might as well have remained In Esthonla. Capt. Sndul, formerly of the French Military Mission and now a Red commissar, was down In the south with the army during my stay In Moscow, but hla hrother, also a Bolshevik, had arrived from France. Professor Bnrrnkatula had come from India and was assisted by a number of Indians, who spoke Russian, in planning a revolt against British rule In Hindustan. He worked in combination with an Afghan deputation, dressed in the military uniforms supplied to the En' by the Indian Government, and, 1th number of other Mohammedans from Persia, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Turkey. A Pan-Mohammedan Congress was held at the Foreign riftinn with th? ?m??l ?f Ik. Fnirtlcih from India and Persia and. of creating trouble In Turkey, and one of the fruits of its deliberations was the attack on Persia which took place some time later. The Bolsheviks are convinced that the British raj In India Is undermined and will soon go down with a crash. They are equally convinced that chaos will soon prevail In Persia, Mesopotamia and Asiatic Turkey, not so much because the malcontents In those countries are strong as because (In their opinion) the English troops are tired of war and the English people will be unit w/////////;////jw///////////^ THE 1 A\ A G j \ussia a i With 1 rganized Governmen nnnpH in lYTnsrnw Being Ignored able and unwilling to make the financi sacrifices necessary for the retention or r conquest of these immense territories. Constantinople is an important centre Bolshevik activity and an unusually ene getic agent of the Soviet. Dr. Mansurthlnk, is his name?oscillates between th city and Budapest. In the centre of th fiendish activity at Moscow, with Bolshev agents arriving daily by some subterrane? route or with false passports, with hour announcements of strikes and labor troubl all over the world, with revolutionary loade coming from the ends of the earth to < homage to the red flag which floats ov the Kremlin and to take council with tl successful arch-conspirator who sits und it, I felt as if the end of all things had i ready come. Cut off, like a leper, from all the Cover ments of the world, Lenine is neverthskin daily communication with the most de perate and dangerous section of every pe pie. He receives ambassadors not accredlb by kings or presidents, hut, neverthelcs bringing terrible credentials from lawle associations which have sworn to carry o his policy of violence and blood. One di he signed an agreement with the Amcrici I. W. W. as King Oeorge might sign a trea with France. Another day he received deputation of "the Russian Friends of Ame lean Freedom"?an associat'on of expelh American anarchists who aim at smashii the Oovernment and the whole social syste of the United States?as President Wlls( might receive the heads of. an interchun movement. He dined In the ancient pala of the Czars with a group of powerful ai dangerous Mohammedans whose object is create chaos from Alexandria to Khartou and to deluge half Asia with blood. A Picture of Lenine Belies What He Hi Done Since Getting Power. And yet he looks a most harmless, bou geols person. At the ninth Communist coi ventton, which was the only public functic he attended during my stay in Moscow, 1 spoke freely, monotonously, without tl faintest trace of hesitation or nervousnef like the chairman of a London tea hou: company reading out an unsensational ai nual report which most of his hearers kne already. Dressed In rusty black, with troi Hers which were somewhat baggy at tl knees and a general appearance of reasoi ableness and respectability, he looked at fir sight a safe, unpretentious, middle class pe son in fairly comfortable circumstances. H head was bald, but with a dull, mottled ar not a shiny, billiiard ball hairlessness. H beard was scanty and xeddlsh; his eyes fi apart and with a cast In one of them: h cheek bones high; his face broad and with dim, disturbing suggestion of Asia whit half prepared one for the monstrous theorli he proceeded to set forth In -his matter i fact voice and manner. For some reason or other very little of li speech on this occasion appeared In tl newspapers. Perhaps because Russia wi at that moment seeking recognition by "cai ltalist" governments. In one brilliant pai sage, which was omitted, he declared hlmse unable to describe precisely the form whlc the Soviet 'Government would assume "unt the volcanic explosions cease and the smol clears away, and we can see the new shai into which the landscape has hardened." According to Trotzky, the Red Czar ofte lights up a debate with unpremeditated r< marks like this, remarks In which the Con missars discover profound and prophetic sU niflcance. But he discounts even nis moi terrible saylnga by the businesslike ever ness of his delivery and by his habit < handling pens and other objects on th table In front of him, and occasionally lr sertlng his thumbs In the armholes of hi waistcoat, a gesture which displays a com fortable and slightly protuberan*. abdomei Looking at him on such occasions wlthot knowing who he was or what he was talk lng about, one would feel inclined to sa; "Now this Is a safe, reliable man saying rea sonable things." Death Hover* Over Hi* Head and No Ei cape Seem* Poaaible. Save that the sedentary life he has le during the last two years has made hlr somewhat stouter, Lenlne has altered llttl in appearance since the day he presente himself at the Russian frontier near Tornet tired, dishevelled, accompanied by a crow of women and disreputable looking men, a one moment on the point of being refuse admittance and the next moment frantlcall organizing an anti-war meeting among th Russian soldiers and winning their applaus by his fierce denunciations of mllitansm. He takes so little ran- of himself In th Kremlin that a deputation of peasants whlc! once came to see him Insisted on sendlm him bread, butter and eggs from their Vll lage; and this is only a continuation of th life which he led in exile. An Intimate frleni of his told me that when Lenine left Pari for Switzerland his furniture fetched onl; rorty rrancs at auction. A tittle knwn side of Denlne's life Is th domestic side. The Red dictator Is slncerel; attached to his wife, whose health is, how ever, very had; and he Is passionately fon< of children. Despite his determination, when he en tered Russia, of turning everything upsld down, doing all tho things that a "capitalist Government does not do, and not doing any thing which a "cnpltaJIst" Government doet he has found that the laws of human naturi are too much for him, and that ho Is lead inir, nutwnrflly, much the aame kind of lif< as* any coneolentloua, hard working and rr spec table Cssar, and a very much more ray 4 VEW YO \ Z I N E NEW YORK, SUNDAY TT7 1 1 TJ world u\ ?aradoxe / LENINE, THE : t "His head was bald, but with a dv hairlessness. His eyes far apart, and wi high; his face broad and with a dim, d prepared one for the monstrous theorie V , al e- |$ Oi \ a)n |pp|||m !8, .;.?: ?^^nHHiW ^ j^jjr;?- ^ll&jfl^E /' ^1^||^H|^^BBh| in WUteiM WgmLjtL hi ir wmm is Is wlmmm :h ^ ?f ; ' .'my - ' >" vO".j:r!'^ wWMftjMK&S: -y^.-.'.v.; :: .>' > . .. A j;-;-.:x-.-v ...v. . , l?" '- r * /N MOSCOW: :il . , , [f, I saw secret agents of foreign >o open agents of foreign Powers who rt Quakers, who did not believe in war at P naval officers who, after fighting for tl J. Corean Buddhists, who thought it a s j- assassination of the Mikado; Mohamm< ?t ing to prove that the Prophet is really wanted the abolition of finance; I saw lf> remembered that they had got married /au/ h a\s in tr ftttlxr rl ism rmrl in + has mn rm 18 lawful wives beyond the sea.?From Ca i. ??????????? it ular life than was led by Peter the Great. His whole day is spent receiving deputair, tlons, signing papers, presiding over Cabl.' lnet meetings and doing all the routine business discharged by any King or President. Fanaticism in his case has east out fear, but '* his entourage have as great and well grounded an anxiety for his personal safety j as had ever the bodyguard of a Czar. The display of military force on the occasion of the convention I speak of was as great as ^ when Nicholas II. opened the first Duma in the Winter Ibilace. His future, too, is more uncertain than was over the future of a f Russian Emperor. With a wilderness :>f . blood and horror behind him, with a highly volcanic soil trembling beneath his feet, and v with clouds of inky blackness veiling his future, few human beings havo ever been * enveloped In more tragic menace and mystery than this prosaic, common looking ? man. Outlawed by every Government. anathematized by every church, cursed by K his millions of victims, he can never leave Russia alive, he cannot stay in Russia and f! live. /miiumk me nunui i?i uk novici were a 8 number of Germans Bent secretly by the V Ebert Government to consider the question of lending skilled G> rman mechanics to the c Russian factories. Thouah themselv s SoV ciallsts, those Germans were very much l?gustcd by what they saw In Russia. The * condition of the factories shocked them, hut they were even more shocked by the facility - of divorce and the lot k of reverence for the p riend. They told of how one day they hal met a Bolshevik lady twice. At lunch she - was the wife of one commissar, at dinner i, S Another article by Capt. P in THE NEW YORK 1 Y//////////////////^ >RK HE an c/ I Y/////////////////////////////////////////M^^ , NOVEMBER 7, 1920. >> oside Do s Beyoru RED DICTATOR. ill, mottled and not a shiny, billiard ball th a cast in one of them ; his cheek bones listurbing suggestion of Asia which half If j jj^ $j LA|^nHSHK^8i^l Powers, posing as Bolshevists, jostling ally leaned toward communism; I saw* all, defending militarism against Italian iree years, had become pacifists; I saw in to kill a rattlesnake, advocating the edans, whose religion is the sword, try' a man of peace; I saw financiers who respectable married men who suddenly again that afternoon according to Soviet ng before a Bolshevik Commissar their ipt. McCullagh's picture of Moscow. A she win the wife of another, at whose table her first husband was a guest. As for funerals, they (lis. overed that all corpses had to be handed over to the State, which interred fchem without religious ceremonies and without allowing the relatives to be present. The Germans also disliked the systematic and diabolical attempt which the Hods were making to destroy family life by tempting mothers to surrender their ihlldren to the State. Children who spent all day in school got one free meal; children who liv?-d day and night in the school got three good meals and were w> 11 clothed and cared for. Mothers were almost forced to spend most of their time at work In Government offices. If they insisted on remaining at home they got no rat.ons. A large number of German mechanics did eventually go to Hums la. but were bitterly disappointed by the treatment they met with there and have all returned to Germ iny, where one of them tia.H since pub i>h<d an extremely peselmlstk account of the Russian Industrial situation. The gang of international tone-ssion hunters who were also guest of the Soviet and who had risked their lives In getting into Russia Tormed a curious eontiast to the still larger gang of foreign capitalists who were ready to risk their Uvea for the sake rf getting out of Russia. The former were he more interesting by reason of their nravery, norjn'-sw, uump lencr, win power, diplomatic skill and absolute unnerupuiousness. They were "out" for ' big money," for concessions which would make them multlmlllionaln s, and they would let no considerations of sentiment, religion, nationality or dcCullagh will be printed -IERALD next Sunday. RALD \ O O K fi ^ W///////M//////////////^ wn and. i All Imc N Pen Picture of the \\ Lenine and Tro Co-Dictator civilization stand in their way. They represented the most Inhuman and aggressive aspect of that capitalism which the Reds have sworn to destroy, yet they made friends with the Reds and hobnobbed with I^enine. The Soviet Government, which wants recognition by Europe and America, thinks that it can get that recognition by pandering to the greed of these capitalists, and it has accordingly dangled in front of them prizes of practically Inestimable value?forests, fisheries, gold mines, dozens of square miles of priceless oreMillions Will Be Made by Some One and Race Is of the Keenest. The capitalists of California and South Africa will be paupers in point of wealth and cowards in point of courage compared to the hard bitten plutocrats who may arise out of this Russian chaos. The dangers from Boers, blacks, wild animals and American "bad men" which figure In the exploits of pioneers In other parts of the world are nothing In comparison with the dangers which these desperate adventurers run in Moscow, and I do not doubt that histories and novels and perhaps even Kiplingesque poetry will be written about those who succeed. But I cannot say that I admire them. It may be a good thing to reopen trade with Russia, but some of the adventurers who will reopen It and get concessions ajid float companies in England and America will be inspired by greed and also no doubt by that itch for colossal gambles and desperate adventures which one often finds in very great plutocrats who have once been poor. What I cannot forgive them in connection with this question of Russia s recognition Is their cynical and contemptuous attitude toward the moral aspect of it. They would betray civilization, abjure their religion and sell their souls if by doing so they could attain their own selfish ends. I have quite as much contempt, however, for those Money Bags of Mammon who refuse to trade with Russia till that country has acknowledged indebtedness for all the debts of the Czar's Oovernment. These people also would compound any felony so long as they are paid enough for doing so- My sympathies are with those old fashioned people, if such there be. whose reluctance to trade with Soviet Russia is due solely to their high standard of international morality. Reds fear and respect these idealists, for they are idealists themselves. But even among the agents of materialist capitalism congregated jn Moscow there were exceptions to the general rule, though their exceptionality was also due to sordid motives. One American engineer called Keeley. representing the greatest captains of Industry in America, told I^enlne frankly that all the Russian factories and railways would eollapse if run any longer on Bolshevik principles, with the result that he had great difficulty in getting permission to leave the country. A Dutch capitalist called Schmidt was also imprudent enough to express pessimism, with the result that he was refused permission to leave and may be In Moscow still. Other Group of Capitalist* Cannot Be Respected. The other group of capitalists, the old hands who had lost their nerve and were making for the nearest frontier, wero, on the whole, an equally unlovely collection. Some of them were young men who had escaped military service and stayed In Russia on the chance of amassing great riches. When Bolshevism came they clamored for British soldiers to be Bent to their assistance. One man with a mine was excessively angry with the British Government for not having sent at least a hundred thousand men to Siberia. Though younger than I am myself, he had not stood by Tommy's side In France; never' theless he insisted very fWctatorially on ! Tommy l>elng sent, after he had done his "bit," to save his property In Siberia. AnI other man. with a factory, said: "I refuse to run this factory unless a British battalion i Is sent to guard It." British capitalists In every part of the world have cut a sorry figure during these last six years. A British Minister in one place described to me how they established offices abroad In order to escape taxation at home and how when any thief approaches their money bags they wave the Knglish flag and summon fleets and armies to their help. But worst of all Is the Russian capitalist, who now detests us more than he dotout a thn I3rb1?h*>V'i Uk Uii ilirl not .spend a thousand million on him instead of a mere hundred mil ion. because we did not send half a million of men to his assistance instead of a few divisions. White Russia is sulTering from a nervous disease which I would call revolution shock, for it Is akin to shell shock. It makes no complaint about those of the Allies who have offered It practically no assistance, but on us, who have stood by Its side, ministerina to it, for the last two years, it pours the bitterest Ven6m. Some of the Russian generals w'hom we did most for have now Rone to Berlin and are our worst enemies. An American Deserter Who Plots Against His Adopted Land. To return, however, to the Ruests of tho Soviet, there were some Russians among them. Mr Serexhnikov, a cooperative expert who left Moscow with the Kra stn mlaulnn hn/1 Inner wnrlrnrl fnr tho Hil??lan cooperatives on the American I'nclflc coast, whore h?> was known as Shavchenko. lie hail boon In tho Amorican Y. M. C. A. In Vladivostok and belonged to the Social Revolutionary party, but disgust with Kolohak Induced him to desert to the Bolsheviks. Another gentleman, called In America Mulkner TWELVE | PAGES | =====3 Apart, igination eird Gathering About tzky and of the s Themselves and In Russia Kamerinsk, was working hard to send agents to the United States with forged passports and false money, and left himself for the States in February or March last. Arrests sometimes took place even among these guests of Lenine. A Frenchman, who but really an agent of the War Office in Paris, disappeared one day because certain agents of the German Spartacists who had .turned up in Moscow informed the Extraordinary Commission of his true status. Having previously lived in iBerlin, this Frenchman had made himself known to the Spartacists in order to obtain from them information about plots that were being hatched by the German militarists, whom the Spartacists hated worse than they hated the French; and though this arrangement worked well in Berlin it was disastrous in Moscow. The German prisoners of war in Moscow, who occupy the former German Consulate and the adjoining German hospital, live comfortably and in perfect freedom owing to the fact that they were taken prisoner wnne rignung against tne Czar. Ttiey have two motor cars, a fine hospital and a Soviet of their own. Not all of them have joined this Soviet, which will only serve to convey the poison of Bolshevism Into German and Austrian homes. One of these Germans brought one day tb a friend of mine an English magazine article by an English military officer on the way to decide figure ciphers without a key and asked him to translate it into German, offering him at the same time a large sum of money for the work "What cipher messages,'' we asked one an other in astonishment, "has the man got hold of? Has he a private wireless apparatus by means of which he is communicating with Germany?" Other mysterious things were done by those Germans, but to me they are still mysteries; mysteries, however, that have no importance since Germany has ceased to be a great military Power. It would be eas\ enough to work oneself into a state of m'.nd wherein these trifles are charged with sinister meaning, but I do not think that there Is any reason for doing so. The secret mission from the Ebert Government, of which I have already spoken, ended, for instance, in nothing, for though as a result of it German skilled workmen were sent to Kuss.a, these workmen soon came back again. A Pnnaitlur V^. d ^..1. been stationed in Petrograd wan also in Moscow last March and had many conferences with the Bolshevik F. O., but it was probably in connection with a deal In Russian copper, which did not come off owing to the Bolshevik sailors of Oronstadt refusing to let the copper be shipped to a capitalist country. Human Paradoxes Beyond All Imagination Gather There. The collection of hopes, panics, greeds, secrecies, cunnings, treacheries and idealisms which jostled one another in those amazing guest houses of the Soviets transcended in interest anything that I ever saw, read or imagined. Secret agents of foreign Powers who posed as Bolsheviks jostled open agents or rorelgn Powers who really leaned towards Communism. Quakers who did not believe in war at all defended militarism against Italian naval officers who. after fighting for three years, had become pacifists. Corean Buddhists who thought it a sin to kill a rattlesnake advocated the assassination of the Mikado. Mohammedans whose religion is the sword tried to prove that the Prophet was really a man of peace. Financiers wanted the abolition of finance. Respectable married men suddenly remembered that they had got married again that afternoon according to Soviet law. having duly divorced that morning before a Bolshevik Commissar their lawful wives beyond th< sea. Diplomatists, who knew nothing, fished delicately for information from low class Labor Journalists who, having Just dined with Trotzky, knew everything. The lgnerunce of the diplomatists surprised me more than anything, until I remembered that In all this vast empire the whole diplomatic, consular and commercial machinery by means of which Governments keep themselves Informed of the ever changing conditions In a foreign country had been utterly swept away. Rural* la now as much of a herrr.lt empire as Jar an was sixty years ago The carefully shepherded Journalists and Labor men who are allowed to circulate a little outside Moscow learn little rrore of actual conditions In the districts which they tra\erse than did the Dutch deputation from Deshlma in their annual pilgrimage to Yedo. When I was arrested Inter on hy Lcnlne'x Inquisition nothinir In my notebook excited such suspicion as some Industrial statistics which I had dotted down. A dubious foreigner arrested In Englnnd during the war with a map or Scarpa Flow in his possession would hardly have been regarded with more distrust at Scotland Yard. Owing to the groat preponderance of Russlon Bolsheviks tho tone of conversation at these gatherings was always v?ry "advanced." Whatever some of us miv ha\? thought, none of us openly defended klngshlp or parliamentary government any more than a visitor to a Jesuit novitiate would have defended free love. The world consists of different "atmospheres"?the "atmosphere" of battleship ward room, the "atmosphere" of the National Liberal Club, the "atmosphere" of Wall Street, and many other "atmospheres.' The Bolsheviks have succeeded In creatine: a special "atmosphere" of their own, such as never existed In the world before. It Is not. In my oplnlou, a good "atmosphere."