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r, . 1 ^ ??? - - : ; 'A-- "T* ; < i:.: i ^^^^^EiflH|HHjB&kj?gB|HflNHpflPM^^R ^3SM^ m Testing t..c i<.ri<ujuy 01 u?e uouu. n. dch THE world's economic fabric has been so undermined by the great war that w victors and conquered, neutrals and t he newly erected States are near breakdown under the crushing burdens imposed upon them by the terrible conflict. Every country is making supreme efforts .and straining every nerve to improve its situation But no other nation is making so systematic and thoroughgoing attempts as the Germans, who are quietly making: preparations not only to regain their old pre-war markets hut also to conquer new ones. They had to hand over their merchant marine, but are enlarging and improving I heir seaports, obtaining control of vessels under foreign flags, canalizing their streams and, with vision and foresight, building artificial waterways of the most Aiodern type to secure control of the commerce of the territory they had Intended to incorporate in Middle Europe, of which they had dreamed since the days of their Bagdnd railroad scheme. They have lost a large part of their coal and iron deposits and must deliver 2,000,000 tons of coal every month, but they began to burn substitutes?sub bituminous coal, peat and even garbage briquettes?and to harness their rivers for the generation of electric current and use even the heat generated by the electric generators for central heating plants providing steam for whole residential districts. Such measures have been taken also by other countries, though perhaps in a less comprehensive way. Anyhow, those steps are not specifically German, though tending to show how tenaciously the Teutons cling to their old plan of making conquests?economic conquests?since the arms of the nations Into submission. Concentrating on Labor Problem. Recognizing that human labor Is the most valuable asset of a nation, the Germans, and the Germans alone, have set out to Increase production by a country wide system of Industrial recruiting based on psycho-technieal'tests. These tests are, In some respects, like the modern entrance examinations to Columbia University, which relegate the old time examinations in Latin. Greek and other high school subjects to a back seat. The .German tests* are designed to conclusively ascertain the lino of business activities in which the boy or girl is most likely to succeed. As human labor is the chief source of national production and wealth, waste of human productive ability?directly by idleness, indirectly hy entering into an occupation for which the Individual is less fitted?Is the most serious waste. On the other hand, to lead the Individual to a career for which he or she is most fitted means increased production, a larger Income to the individual ind an addition to na'lonal prosperity. The idea of assisting the individual in selecting a calling by psycho-technical tests was first conceived in Germany. Though tdopted in theory only by other countries, It has been put to a practical test on a large ?cnle in the Fatherland exclusively. There the institution of the "Rrrufsbcrnt?np" (advice as to the career to be rhosen) is not new. Tn ItllO experiments to test the ihlHty of n student as to sp< rial gymnastic ichlevetnonts wore mnde at the Bavarian THrnlrhrcrbildnnftttnnntnlt (Gymnastic Teachers Training School), Munich, and were soon afterward taken up by similar Merlin and Dresden Institutes. Private or municipal Hrrufnhrrntunp.nsirltrn (Institutes for advice as to the career to lie chosen) w.-rn est iWished in several cities?at Berlin, for Instance, in 1!M2 the Zrntral tclln fiirr LrhrHnpavermlttlupff rfr.t I'erhonrtea rtrr Mncrkx cftrn Arhrlt*nnchicrisr (Central Apprentice Office of the Alllince of f^abor Agencies of the Province of Rtandenbtirg) anil the Gross-IhrHnrr .Iwskunft.ntrllc fiirr Frnwnbrrufr (Great Berlin Advice Office for Female Workers)?hut did not exert any appreciable Influence, although the public authorities again and again called public attention to the benefits to be derived from consulting such Institutions. Then nil went well for Germany. Its wealth and foreign commerce increased by leaps and hounds. Under such circumstances im-* \ f? 11?#11 m yyi inj-icniiiM HI u-mib wnn not readily ado-ited by the public. But wh?n rjernwny hnd lost tho war and know she would not only hnv* to pay her own crushing? debts, btit also bo saddled with nearly is heavy a burden of Indemnities, she did Vint hositst in enh-'nee the vattie of har i In i i** !., human labor, at alt oat* > 7 THI Childre | l " mmmMM *! HnH p: IMVP^b Kmf Sly ^WH ^^pf - * i?i;s ii me b?ucs oi the hojt are touched > '.?&: .<?> ' : ff 1 rr* . . J _ . lests to determine occupai rapidly changing lights and releas nimbleness of wrist and fingers is tThat was the more urgent, as development of her children had been retarded by undernourishment during the war. Germany wanted to forge ahead with a weakened population. A census concerning growth and weight of the school population showed that the average weight of boys of 8 years had decreased from 23 kilograms in 1910 to 22 kilograms In 1919; of boys of 11 years from 31 kilograms to 29 kilograms, and pf boys of 14 years from 41 kilograms U> 37 kilograms (ten kilograms equalling twenty-two pounds)The height had shrunk from 1.21 meters to 1.19 meters for boys of 8 years; from 1.36 meters to 1.33 meters for boys of 11 years, and from 1.54 meters to 1.45 meters for boys of 14 years. The girls showed similar effects of the war. The average weight for girls of 8 years was 23 and 22 kilograms, respectively; for girls of 11 years, 31 and 28 kilogrnms, respectively, and for girls of 14 years, 44 and 42 kilograms, respectively. The height of the girls had decreased as New G\ THE largest island on the globe, unless the continent of Australia Is to be considered an Island, is by a strange chance the island about which least Is known. In fact, it is so seldom heard of that few persons can say offhand where it Is or what its name is. This little known island is New Guinea, also known as Papua. It lies to the north of Australia and Is separated frota it by a strait of little more than 100 miles In width. An effort to uncover the secrets of this great trcplcal area Is shortly to be made by Dr. Carl Lumholtz, a Norwegian explorer, ethnologist and zoologist, who has recently spent two years In the almost equally unknown depths of Borneo. ? Plan of Explorer Lumholtz. It is the plan of Dr. Lumholtz to do what no other white man has yet done. He hopes to penetrate the Jungle at one of the broadest points in the island, fight his way through It to the great Snowy Mountain range, climb from equatorial heat to the bleak tops of the range, 10,000 or more feet above the sea, and mnke his way to the other side of the Island. "I cannot say now what I will accomplish for science If I succeed In crossing the Island, for the Interior of New Mulnea Is still a mystery, iml I kn<>* no more than nny one else what I may tlnd." I >r laimholts. who Is now In this city, said in discussing his venture. "During my explorations in Borneo T heard something concerning New Ouinen, which I cannot speak of now except to say that it concerns neither the Inhabitants nor the flora and fauna of She island. It Is more in the mineral line. Without attempting to appear mysterious I can say no more than that the expedition may surprise' the world." Because of the uncertainty of his quest. Dr1. Lumholt* declined to go further into the subject of possible discoveries. Tie said that undoubtedly Interesting discoveries In geo logloal and mlncr.iloglral lltm* would ba mado nnd prodictod that now kinds of mlnorala would bo found Ono of tho ploooa of oqnlpmont whloh ho will rnrry with him will ba an apnaratu* manufactunci in Ixnwr, ? flaw YUKK HERALD, i: n Forced loice of Careers Taken tory Tests in Mad Stri Employers Coerced f dons German children are compelled es the button when red appears. At > recorded follows: Eight years, from 1.21 to 1.18 me ters; 11 years, 1.37 to 1.33 meters, and 14 years, 1.54 to 1.49 uneters. That means less vitality, strength and energy than prior to tho war. There was only ono way to Lnarease efficiency, the weakened condition of the future workers notwithstanding, namely, to make the best possible use of the remaining ability for work. Of course, tho grownups had also suffered from war conditions, though to a lesser degree than tihe children. But concerning the adult population nothing could be done In the direction of choosing the proper calling. It was too late to take compulsory measures to shift adults from one occupation to another, for that would have meant reduced production at least for a period of transition. And that Germany* cannot undertake under her present condition of near-mendicancy, when she must strain every nerve to pull through. So sho concentrated her efforts on her children-?girls as well as boys?in the cities jinea Ideal which detects the presence of radiumNew Guinea Is owned by Holland and Great Britain. The western part is the property of the Dutch and the eastern of the British. It is in the Dutch section, on the southern side of the island, that Dr. Lumholtz expects to start on his trip across the Island. Some idea of Its size may be had by comparing it with the Island of Great Britain. Mew Guinea Is 1.300 miles lonir and about 360 miles broad nt Its widest point. Great Britain is 60S miles long: and 320 miles broad at the broadest part. The former has an area of about 152.000 square miles and the latter of about S9.600 square miles. "The Island Is broad In the middle section and narrow at the ends," said Dr. Lumholtz. "At either of these narrow ends explorers have crossed, and one Englishman ascended the Snowy Mountain range to a height of 6.000 feet some years ago. A strange storywas brought back by this explorer. One morning the Englishman found near his camp huge hoof tracks somewhat resembling those of a horse, I^ater on he found other indications of a huge beast of some sort, entirely unlike the marsupials which form the greater part of tho Island's animal population. He questioned the Papuans who were his guides, but all he could get from them was that the tracks were those of a devil with nn ugly head which no white man had ever seen." The investigation of this animal will be one of the tasks the expedition will take up. At the present time the Dutch Government l.as an expedition in the field, but this organization is concentrating on exploration* along the Eidenburg Hlver. and will not attempt to cross the Island or penetrate Its Inmost recesses. it may. however, unearth strange species of plnnts, animals and birds, for the interior of the Island has, up to the present time, only been scratched, but has nPverinnrRs yu'iucu up new species in ooi n flora and fauna. People of the Stnnt Age. The people who live In the interior of the Island are said to be unlike those who live upon tho coast. The coast trjjies are somewhat like negroes In appearance. Indeed, the name of the Island. Papua, Is from the Malay "kinky hslr." and the other name for the Island, New Guinea, was bestowed on It by Alvaro de gauvndra, a Spaniard, some times culled Its discoverer, who noticed rosemhlance of tho natives to those on the Guinea coast of Africa. But although the Pnpuans are somewhat ne?rolr> In appear* * nee anil taller than most Kuropeans, a / SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1! 1 by State From Them hv Manda iggle for Supremacy? >v Economic Council H || :^3^H,. vuwiiAv -J^Bnk Is to follow are illustrated above. In left, the sense of exact feeling is sh and industrial regions as well ns In the country and agricultural districts. An executive order issued on March IS, 1910. provided that every city and every krels (an administrative district of an average population of about 150,000) establish a bcrufaamt (career office) to give advice to every person -who Is going to enter business life or to change his or her calling. The illustrations of this article give some idea of the character of the psycho-tcchnlcai tests, which are direct and simple. An exceptional ability to strike hammer blows of the same strength and force tends to snow that the hoy ought to choose the career of a machinist, toolmaker or Instrument maker. T<> become a machinist ho ought to have not only muscular control, but also more than average strength, his strength being tested by a special apparatus. Locomotive engineers, chauffeurs, hoisting machine tenders, for Instance, need a certain hand and ability of quick decision, qualities which are ascertained by drawing an especially constructed instrument through openField for E: race of pigmies, vicious and formidable, are anion* the inhabitants of the interior. These little people use poisoned arrows. Many different languages are used by the various tribes In the Interior of the Island. Some of the natives are cannibals, and others are devotees of a strange religion about which very little is known. "The people of the Interior live in the stone age," Dr. Lumhnltz said. "They use stone axes and knl\-es and stone tipped arrows. They haven't even the most antiquated guns such as are possessed by the most primitive tribes of Asia. The Imagination cannot depict what we will find In the Jungles hi which (lies*' people live and in the regions of perpetual snow high above them In the mountains." As far as Is knoVn the people of New ' Oulnea have always been primitives, and most of them are aborigines. Because there has been no advance there can have been no retrogression such as Is tho case hi other parts of the world where savages live amid the ruins of a former seml-clvlllzatlon. In the opinion of Dr. Lumholtz, no Impressive, ruined temples, desolate cities or fine roads will be found burled In the Jungle. The Interior of New Guinea, at least In the low. II' Iwi itniiiiaeninto.l nrlmnvol fr?v ests. with the- m'>l<t of centuries of luxuriant growth under foot. Fossils, either of prehistoric animals or of man-boasts llko the famous Java ape-man, relation of the missing link, are not likely to be discovered. Dr. L,umholtz will not rely upon the Papuans to nld him In his travels. Instead he will bring from Borneo, almost a thousand miles away, but almost In the same parallels of latitude, about 17fi, Dyaks, who will net as pack cai t iers and woodsmen. Dr. Lumholtz lived In Australia thirty years ago with the blacks, and since then has spent years In studying oth< r Australasians, and In his opinion tho D.vaks are the most dependable of all the races of this part of tho globe. "The Dyaks of Borneo are fino people." Dr. Dumholtz declared with much enthusiasm. "They have their faults?they are head hunters, and It Is hard to wean them from It, for It Is part of their religion. Nevertheless, they won't lie, steal or take an unfair advantage like civilized people, and they are hard workers. My Dyaks are the hackhone of the expedition. f. .1.1..- !.? |h, o.nnZlHnx tt,OI IT, elude two Collectors, skilled men who will gather specimens such as are types of srnrgenus birds of paradise, marsupials and other animal*; a geologist who will study th< fin in ! "f 'I land and the minerals m. : to Picke ' I ^ v ag?p>|?;$ ?? hSH^L W> \$-\ i ^Qii^Hfi^HB S&rc^B ::iU -fliBM ^K |.; ttj^B |$ SfiS^P '. > ?^w i^H|^| IB : " . ......v.J.'.'..'::":"''"' . 'v' nrn uc indicate tnc b * **M v . ? j V centre oval the boy counts the lown by the plate test. At right, _________________ ings without touching the sides. Every failure is marked by the ringing of a boll. Draftsmen and civil engineers may be expected to become proficient when possessed , of an ability to estimate anglos and distances. They have to pass the test of placing a right angle on a plate in a short time, , divide given distances and circles, &c., halve, third and quarter with a dark plate. The , ability to pull out of a machine two metal plates exactly alike in thickness by feeling with t ho tin co pm in?linftto? that thf> hov generally fitted to become a skilled mechanic, as Is also the Instinctive picking out of the proper tool by Identifying it from drawings of mixed tools. Ximblencss of wrist and fingers indicates that, the hoy will make a good machine hand or compositor or typewriter. A similar purpose is served by another instrument for the testing of the lime required by the applicant for the reaction fo a changing light. Girls are subjected to similar tests to ascertain whether they should become office workers, or hike up embroidery, or sewing xplorers we will find; a botanist to collect new ap? - < cies of plant life, and possibly a man to do- i velop photographs. "I expect to leavr this country by Christmas. I will purchase food and other supplies in England or Holland. The food is very important, for if the right things are taken along there is no excuse for illness among 1 the explorers. You may he sure I will not take with me the polished rice you use in this country. This food is the cause of beriberi, cousin to scurvy. Our supplies will include brown rice, rolled oats, dried vege tables, preserved meats and condensed milk. "You cannot depend upon the country foi your food In New Oulnea, especially when you Intend to strike inland md climb to the region of perpetual show. There are, howc'Yer, the crown pigeon and other edible animals along the coast, and the tops of palm trees, the roots of plants I learned of among 4hc blacks in Australia, and many other plants." At tho foot of the great mountain range ' which runs the length of the Island a has? ' will be established Then the march upward Will begin. Each Dyak will carry a pack of about forty pounds. Some of the Dangers to Be Fought. I Dr. Lumholtz said that watchfulness was the only protection which could he employed < against tho arrows of the little people, the , bite of snakes or the other dangers of the Jungle. It is too hot to wear high leather hoots such ns tropical explorers are popularly supposed to wear Instead I>r. Luniholtz will wear light shoes of brown duck , with puttees above them. The puttees are for protection against poisonous wood leeches, which cling to the underbrush and fasten themselves to the legs of the xplnrers. These leech "A besides sucking blood, inject a poison Into the blood which causes fever and symptoms Mmllur to those of malaria. The temperature of the jungle is not excessive, although th" equator passes Just above the northernmost point of the Island Generally It Is about 8j d< grees, but In the steaming vapor >f th> foliage this I hot enough. Clothing sorn< what like khaki will be worn, but coats will have a woollen lin in*, as tne party rnmna m*ner into tne < mountains the temperature will abate. At the same time water will probably become ( scarce. One Dutch explorer was held tip for i three months on the roast by torrential rains. Up In the mountains there i? i*crv little rainfall Indeed, and th< whole character of the country is changed. y 8 ;d Work - "-*>* '-mp v.- ; r I ' ' . >oy nas precision ana muscular control ir lljsrht factory work or some other calling. Most of the failures in business are duo o the fact that the boy or girl chose a ailing for which he or she was not fitted. ^ack of success creates dissatisfaction with ine's work and aversion to labor; success. / in the other hand, creates satisfaction. Satsfaction makes for greater efforts. In other vords, imposition of a business career on a >oy or girl Is not imposition at all, but a lelp, In the opinion of the psychologists, heoretlsts and practical men, with whom he German system originated. They claim. >r?/1 f ho rounlta n/f oitrh trenrc' PVTwrlnnrH teems to bear them out, that the activities >f the private and municipal "career offices" tad a moat salutary effect for the boys and fir Li who entered business life as wall an or the community. Dr. Bohulte of the Berlin "HochaohuJ? fmm LeibeauebHnu" (Academy for Gymnastics), >ne of tlie foremost exponents at the peycholochnloal teeta, quotes statistics In support >f his contention. Crtmlnallty at those men ind women who followed the advice of career jfflces as to the calling they chose is far uelow the average, while their success in life ivas above the average. Criminality, to a ai-pro part, is engendered by failure In earn ng a decent living, while success spurs the Individual to greater efforts. City boys, with Insignificant exceptions used to become mechanics or Industrial laborers or clerks, while country boys, as fat M they did not swell the number of unskilled city workers, usually took up farming, elthct as farmers or agricultural hands. Since the compulsory establishment of rarscr offices In titles and oountrv districts the farmer boys who manifest ability for other trades are urged to go to the city and become skilled mechanics, while many clt; boya aro Induced to go to the country. The same Is true of the girls. Whole System Compulsory. Though everybody Is nominally free t<> rhoos" his or her calling, the advice given by the career office Is not a mere advice: it amounts to an order under normal circumstances. Tho Government Is in a position to bring irresistible pressure to bear on aii important employers of labor. And the public authorities freely use their power. A> far ns her economic structure Is concerned Germany of to-day Is vastly different from Germany of pre-war times, and differs wldelv from all other countries. After the invading hosts had suffered defeat in the first battle of the Marne in September, 1914, and their dreams of a short and victorious war had been shattered, the Kaiser's Government, with Its characteristic ilsregard for individual interests, ordered a remarkable shift within the Osrmun Industries. They were practically sequestered, although they remained under the nominal management of th'lr private owners. Small and middle sized factories were closed and their machinery, as far as fit for the production needed by the army, transferred to large establishments of the same kind. It is true the sumo process could be observed In otner warring countries, but not on the same large scale. In Germany the number of textile mills was reduced from 1,700 to 70; the number of shoe factories from 1.400 to 200, and the establishments of the various oil Industries from 720 to IB. Germany does not think of returning to her pre-war manner of production. The small and middle ?iaed employers who have disappeared during the war will henceforth have to work for wages or salaries. The control of all industries In the Government has thereby been made a relatively simple matter, since the Koonomn nunon or tne kncti was eseaousnea severa nontlis :iro. Wide Power* of the Council. The Economic Council not only divid* Qermany into economic districts to whiit may restrict the excharyp' and sale of n? materials, half finished and finished pi?? nets, as far as they are not exported to f<" r*iun countries; tt also has authority to d< i-ide what fuel .any factory; nay, any hous? hold, may use, and what fuel or mechanic |iow> r may be allotted to every Industrie establishment. ' An\ < m pi oyer who Rives a Job to a tsar Rlrl in disropard of the advice Riven h\ the career oflli es may expect re tall.it or measures from th<? Economic Council or 1" tubordlnnte district councils. The Eeonoml' 'ouncil is nn organ of the Government with ! Drdered the establishment of the career ot flees throughout the country and has a vita Interest that the advice of these career of Ices be heeded. Ground enough for any employer not t> help In any way boys and girls seeking em frioyment who defy the advice of the rare* iimrn, ?nu wic i"?m ?<? ?-> inc I Ike the overwhelming- majority of the Oei man*, are convinced that the selection a made by the career offices Is for greater ffl :iency of labor. The spirit, though not the letter, of thexecutive order providing for the establish ment of the career offices is compulsion That Is the essential difference between the > flermnn system and the isolated, non-com pitlsory attrnipts nj, selecting skill made in ome other cotintriv*.