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\ Sj \ PORT J ARTHUR ^ [ * UNfTED0^^ \ 5TATE5 Y / "r\. koSQ/' ^ A Rriof fr^t ffHJS ECLIPSE OF AMERICAN SEA POWER. By Capt. Dudley W. Knox, U. S. N. American Army and Navy Journal, Inc. TO informed students of naval affairs it has been clearly apparent that the treaty resulting from the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armaments produced these four negative results, negative in that they worked against the sea power of the United States and any real limitation of armaments. They are: Definitely giving first place in naval strength to Great Britain; failing to place llmitatinna nn tho hnUHin<? nf nil classes of ships other than battlechips, battle cruisers and airplane carriers"; placing no restrictions on fitting merchant vessels as potential cruisers; and taking from the United States the power to defend the Philippines. It is the purpose of Capt. Knox's little volume to show that the above statements are facts to the end that any American who did not understand the outcome of the Conference ?n the Limitation of Armaments may now do so through reading his pages. American altruism, particularly in relation to effecting a world peace, had much to do with bringing about the results above summarized, for, as Capt. Knox writes, "Our people were prone to consider national interests as subordinate to the promotion of world peace. Not entertaining the same illusions as to nossfhilitv of oeace permanence. other peoples could not help but consider that question as secondary to the advancement of their national Interests." And advance them they did, won their way with most of them, leaving the United States "to yive up a certain first place (with no close second) In sea power and a positive ability to safeguard American interests the world over?and furthermore volunteered to do so at Stupendous financial Ions to herself." Capt. Knox shows how, in the United States agreeing?at the insistence of Japan?not ,to increase Its fortifications or naval facilities in the Pacific, our country weakened its naval strength materially, for naval bases are a mo&t important element in naval strength. In fact, he says, "this condition results in doubling the strength of the Japanese navy, relative to our navy," and shows that the familiar 5-5-3 Standard does not exist as between the Japanese and the United States, "tiie true ratio tor operations Involving the defense of the Philippines was really about 10 to 5 against America. Such inferiority denies us the power to send our fleet to the Far East." On the other hand, as bo points out, "the^abiiity of England to transfer her fleet to the China Sea and to maintain it during operations there. Is but slightly impaired by the agreement" This text plainly shows that in spite of the limitations imposed on battteship strength, rivalry In building submarines and auxiliary may "run Into very large figures indeed" and the "competitive pyramiding is likely to continue on an expensive scale," and "competition along these lines may easily be as expensive as when capital ships and airplane carriers were not limited." The fact that the conference dkl not place any limitations on aircraft is discussed but only in a general way, although this is a subject that demands much more thought on our part as a nation than it has received up to the present Capt Knox is of the opinion that the outstanding effect of I ^ ^ i THE NEW Y0R1 -7 < ) VPR* <rv^V/T?H o, ^_ . ? a?oo?. y/^%b % 3<o0^. /boning ^^bermuqa JAMtC-A ; A?y^^-^-^TRlNIOAD Sea Power the treaty will be to increase the need for greater naval efficiency on our part and he declares that the United States must keep its "treaty navy" up to its full strength. In several places throughout the book the author attacks the press of the United States for its attitude regarding the conference, stating that the correspondents in Washington depended for their naval facts on the press bureaus established by pacifist societies, much of the literature of which was inaccurate and this was published "because the press correspondents generally lacked sufficient technical know ledge to detect the Inaccuracies." Every working newsIn the Pat CAPTAIN NATHANIEL BROWN PALMER: ,AN OLD TIME SAILOR OF THE SEAS. By John It. Spears. The Macmillan Company. IN more ways than one this is a notable book. It is biography of unusual interest; history of a period great in national achievement; thrilling adventure of a kind and quality rarely found excepting in fiction of high order. Its pages are surcharged with that American spirit of initiative, daring and splendid success despite all obstacles which add so much to thi story of individual effort. Finally, the author provides a living, breathing, adequate and authentic portrait of a man now little known, whcse career added pirmanent luster to his beloved land. Upward of a century and a quarter have passed since Nathaniel Brown Palmer was born at Stonington, then a thriving seaport town of 5.000 inhabitants, standing at the mouth of Long Island Sound. Hie father was a builder of Ehips, and from childhood he himself was familiar therewith. At the age of thirteen a sailor on a blockade runner in the War of 1812; at sixteen or seventeen second mate, at eighteen first mate, and before reaching his nineteenth anniversary promoted to be captain of a merchant schooner? such was the beginning of a brilliant and long career. A lad of his type could not be kept down or held back by force of circumstances or anything else. Consider that at the age when American . youth of to-day are rollicking college juniors young Palmer was setting forth in command of a sloop "less than half as long as tlw> yachts which competed for the America's Cup in July, 1920,'' on a cruise not merely to South America but far beyond Cape Horn and into unexplored reruns of the Antarctic. On a previous voyage to the South Shetland Islands the Stoning-cn youth had learned of rich fields for seal hunters; and due in pa?-t to hts knowledge a scaling exprdHion was sent forth later, and he wis placed in charge of the sloop which was to !?rt no fPntlpF try th? ntHow ahtno Ilia courage Is shoan by a s nglc incident The sloop in a ticklish posi' tion among the ledges. Palmer was scarehing for escape when he saw ; a whale's -head rise In front of him ind proceed toward a narrow strait. "Where a whale can go I can follow," he remarked, and took bis tiny craft out safely. Mr. 8pears relates with vividness and with detail as well the discovery ' V I HERALD, SUNDAY, TH _24S0- ' ^ < AZORES / J GIBRALTAR *^*^***^^^* . >OAH U ~ * J AFR paper man knows how hard it is to get "technical knowledge" from our navy officers who have, as Capt Knox confesses, "long since formed the habit of ultraconservatism" so they are not a little to blame for this condition themselves. If a newspaper man looks to Capt. Knox's book for the cost of a modern battleship he will find a glaring "inaccuracy" on page 101, where it is given as "about $20,000,000," when such a craft nowadays costs approximately $40,000,000. He will also find Germany given 150,000 tons of submarines in the late war, on page 71, and on the following page she is given 270,000 tons. Press correspondents are not the only writers guilty of "inaccuracies." W. B. MCOItMICK. ;ket Days by young Falmer of the Antarctic Continent, a feat "which was to place him beside Columbus, in so far as he and Columbus were the only known men who have discoveied continents, for the name of the man who discovered Australia is not known." Documents are cited to show that the new found area originally was called Palmer Land, but this discovery later became ignored and discredited, largely because of two exploiations made by the British, ono of whom, Capt. John Biscoe, himself subsequently claimed discovery and named as Graham Land the territory already known as Palmer Land. And to this day it is referred Lure of Inl; SECRETS OF THE SALMON. By Edward Ringwood Hewitt. Charles Scribner's Sons. TO the ardor of a keen sportsman Mr. Hewitt unites a re markable faculty for scientific observation. Both these qualities are strikingly apparent in this, the latest of a considerable library on the mysterious ways of the most puzzling of game fish. Lest it be thought that the* author is a mere theorist it may be noted that he has taken more than 2,000 salmon with the fly, and that, furthermore, he has witnesses to prove that he can catch fish when other expert anglers can only fight black flies, perspire and pray for rain. "I have studied the sport for the last twelve or fifteen years," says .Mr. Hewitt, "and have succeeded in devising methods of fishing and tackle which cause salmon to rise in any water and under all conditions, so that I can safely say that in any^of our Atlantic rivers where there are salmon and wliere they can be seen Ln the nools I pan at ways raise a number each day and generally secure a good catch if*I am skillful enough not to bungle the casts and the hooking of the fish to too great an extent. The methods used are largely of my own devising, as I bad never heard of using a dry fly or a nympli fly for the salmon before I used them for the purpose myself." As to the increased proficiency which came with learning how. Mr. Hewitt notes tj;at his first salmon Ashing trip produced one fish, his second six and his third several hundred. The reference to the dry fly furnishes the key to an important part nt Mr Hnmiffo OTi streams are low and clear and the fisb lie Immovable in the pools he MAY 14, 1922. COMPARA" ?-^ctoolant)^b?tween nav> Y J & PAClf EUROPE ( ooessa _^<V LM. suezT^X M I5LS. V \ ICA vV 2D , to as Graham Land in standard woiks of reference. Capt Palmer's career, as pictured by Mr. Spears, was characterized by that boldness and originality which springs from a creative mind backed Dy pnysicai stamina, vacant was the part he played in creating and developing the famous American packets, and the still more romantic clipper ships which astonished the world. From first to last the son of that Stonington ship builder lived in an atmosphere - of adventure and deeds which counted for something? for a great deal, in fact. One of the most dramatic and intense chapters in recent literature consists of less . than ten printed pages wherein Mr. Spears relates how Capt. Palmer and his company were captured by convicts on the island of Juar Fenian- , dez, of his death sentence ar.d escape and of developments after the convicts had taken charge of his ship and compelled him to sail with them away from the penal settlement. Nothing more refreshing than this ] fine life story has come before the present miter for a long time. Every adult reader whose blood tingles with the savor of real Americanism will appreciate it to the fulL And aside from its value as authen tic historical record, the? volume is . one which should be placed in the hands of every boy and giil whose parents wish them to realiz-e the toil and sacrifice and danger gladly un- ( dertaken by the men and women of , past years who laid deep and solid j the foundations upon which the , American Republic has been built. 4 HENRY ROOD. , . ! I and Waters : j finds that a dry fly skillfully cast from below and drifted down imme- > diately over the salmon will rouse ! them in many instances when they 1 are indifferent to any other lure. ' The fly is preferably a hackle, whis- 1 kered like a resident of Sacramento 1 and tied to the end of a very long, 1 tapered leader, sometimes measuring twenty feet. This is unlike the i accepted salmon fishing practice, in 1 which the angler begins at the top i of the pool and fishes down, working 1 his fly across the current. A3 to the efficiency of his method j the author notes that in July, 1921, he visited the upper Restigouche. V-J 1 ' * wv.iuiuuJio ncic tfJ3 UdU iis COUia D6 from the fisherman's standpoint: a ' cloudless sky, a shrunken river and 1 breathless air. Four rods had camped for three days on one pool 1 watching a school of salmon lying motionless beside the rock ledgea Industrious casting with the wet fly had not produced a rise. Mr. Hewitt was invited to try his dry fly method. There wa3 action imme- ' diately. At the end of two hours ' the score was fifty-four rises, four- i' teen fish hooked and eleven landed, j Nymph-fly fishing is recommended i when the salmon are rolling in the 1 nnnla late in >**> nmmai- V.? t ? ? I their heads and back3, like bulging trout. The fly is small and wingless, or with wings tied close together so , as to resemble the nymph stage of a hatching water insect. It is allowed 1 to sink a little and is drawn very ' slowly toward the fisherman by > stripping the line through the left i hand. It will often catch fish when the regular wet fly and the dry fly ' are both ineffectual. t As to wet flies, Mr. Hewitt be- 1 lieves that patterns are of no impor- < tance, but that brilliancy, weight i and size, especially size, are all im riVE DISTANCES \L BASES IN ATLANTIC IC OCEANS BLACK = ATLANTIC RED = PACIFIC ?\S) IN0IA \ COLOM^J portant. He prefers flies that are light on top and dark belcw and is experimenting with aJuminum foil wing coverings, on which he has patents pending. Mr. Hewitt writes: "I would arrange the factors governing the attractiveness of a fly in the following order of relative importance: (1) the light effects of the fly, above and below the surface; (2) the way the fly is cast and manipulated, including where the fly is placed relative to the fish; (3) visibility of the leader to the fish; (4) the size of the fly; (5) design of the fly; (6) color of the fly; (7) accuracy of imitation of natural insc ts." A fly in lighting on or entering the water, the author shows by interesi.ng photographs made in a glass tank, produces a series of light-explosions or ccr caseations which attract the attention of the ftsh, and to me extent thb value of the fly proportion to the curiosity thus excited. It is for this reason that Mr. Hewitt prefers a hackle for dry-fly salmon fishing, as each tiny spine creates its own center of interest. Mr. Hewitt is an ultra-modern in favoring ljght weight salmon rods. For two-handed wet-fly work he has a fourteen foot implement, weighing about sixteen ounces; for clear water he recommends to the man who casts well a five and three-Quarter ounce, ten foot tournament model, with an extra handle to be added below the reel. For dry-fly work in pery clear, low water he has a special seven ounce rod, measuring ten feet 3ix inches, and there is also a ten luui ruu wt-igiuiig seven ounces, wuu the weight toward the butt, for wetdy fishing in rough water. He prefers a small diameter barrel multiplying reel. The author finds that the salmon ifter passing through his successive stages as alevin, parr, stnolt and grilse does not always return to the river of his birth, as is generally believed, and points out for example that fish hatched in Canadian rivers have been taken in Newfoundland. As to the perplexing question why the salmon rises to the fisherman's By, when food is very rarely found in the fish's stomach while it Is in fresh water and, in fact, the digestive apparatus is almost ncr-existent it that time, he has a theory. He believes that the salmon seizes Insects, crushes them for whatever juice they may contain and then ejects them from his mouth. This may account for the fluid often found in the digestive tract. Mr. Hewitt purposes to explore the matter further with a misroscope. "In Cfilmnn fichino- " V>? tw* conclusion, "a good angler will always get fish and plenty of them, if there is any quantity of salmon in the river, and particularly if he can see them. There is no fish so sure of capture as the salmo". if you know how to please him and are skillful in manipulating your tackle." And there you are. ARTHUR C. CLARKE. The manuscript of O. Henry's last story was one of the items from the collection of William MacPherson that was sold recently at the Anderson Galleries, New York. It went to IV. D. Faull, the collector, for $180, the top price of the session. The jubjeet of the story is "The Dream." it is written on eight quarto pages >f the author's usual manila paper, ind the last sentence is interrupted in the middle.