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r:f- * Jm^^r The first stone records of the peopl descended. A statue found in ruins of the ancient city of Ur. to 3200 B. C. and reveals for thi ticity just what the people of A the right is the statue in profile. * -t tHY did Abraham send Hagar into */*/ me wnuerness wim ner sou Ishmael? Was the reason as simple as it seems in the Bible narrative, which explains only that Sarah was provoked because Hagar's son had mocked at her son, and she refused to allow "the Egyptian's" son to be an heir with her own to Abraham's estate? Sympathy usually has gone out to Hagar and her son Ishmael, for who could :elp feeling sorry for the bondwoman who was driven from home because of the jealousy of Sarah, Abraham's free wife? But If one cares to read between the lines he must come to the conclusion that It was not so simple as the Bible tells It, Abraham was too wise a man to be prevailed upon by the whim of a woman. It was not like him to send the bondwoman wife and her son into the wilderness with only a loaf of bread and a bottle of water. There must have been much more plotting and counter plotting, of the scheming possible only to a jehlous woman. In fact, there must have been quite a harem intrigue. This always has been suspected, but there have been no narratives of that time other than those in the Bible, and even If there were we could hardly expect to find record of the doings of one who was at first only a private citizen of the great Ur of the Chaldees, of whom probably the King of Babylonia, in which this city was located, hardly could have heard. tint nn?f l? nr. o ?... - 11.1114.. .?ub uun jo uycacu Ua lie** yuOOiUlllV/* The British Museum has sent an expedition to dig over the ruin mound which holds the remains of the great city of Ur, known by the Arabs as Tell-el-Mukayyar. Just recently some of the finds have been brought to the British Museum for classification. The excavators have been very fortunate, for they have discovered the ruins of a temple going back to 2300 B. C., or 200 years before Abraham. Here too was the palace of King Ur-Engur of the third dynasty of Ur, known as "The House of the Mountain," built of great flat burnt bricks fourteen inches square, with walls five feet thick, to keep out the cold in winter and the heat in summer. Near this palace was the ruin of the Temple of Ninsun, the very temple lu which Terah, the father of Abraham, must have come to pray, and where Abraham himself began that great revolt against the Babylonian gods, announcing his belief in the one Ood. This only is the beplnflinc nf nrnelr *' " ? .u> nvin Ul CAVO vanoil, IOT the mound rovers considerable ground and It la more than possible that here will be laid bare the house in which Abraham lived before he emigrated with his two wivf^, and here too may be uncovered the private records which Abraham must have kept upon the clay tablets used at that time instead of papyrus or parchment, and which have been preserved In hundreds of thousands because th^y were made of clay and did not degenerate In the soil. Will the Inner history of that struggle of the two wives for mnstery over their husband be now revealed? Will the excavators bring to light more evidence of the reason Abraham sent Hagar out? Sarah calls her an Egyptian, and here perhaps is the hint of one line of attack 0 A 7 1 4 le? from which Abraham j ^ >< the hill which holds the 4 ^ It probably date* back ;,'A 'iM e first time with authenbraham looked like. At Sarah mav have followed in getting rid of her rival and the boy Ishmael, who she feared would share the lnherwith her own The Egyptians had many gods, as the Babylonians had, and if Sarah wished to influence Abraham against Hagar she only had to emphasize her Egyptian birth and to sug- J^msjk gest that her son, Ishmael, ^Hjtt would be taught Idolatry by his mother and was not a proper associate for her son, H to persuade Abraham to do what to us seems most cruel Cal ?send Hagar and her son away into the wilderness. ju>t If Abraham kept a record Abn ol nts early struggles in ur, under* especially the struggle at home between his two wives, which reached a climax after he went to Canaan, we shall know the complete tale of all the scheming when these tablets are found and deciphered, as they will be should the house of Abraham be discovered. Perhaps, too, there will be disclosed the early history of Hagar?where she came from. That it will not be impossible to iden- , tify the house in which Abraham lived is ] borne out by the Biblical story. What is told there about Abraham receiving a rpvplatinn frnm in whi/*h hn \a */\1H "Get thee out of thy country, and from < thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee," is the t Hebrew way of accounting for Abraham's , emigration from Ur, but much more, cer- , tainly, lies behind the statement. Abra- ( ham was 75 years old and must have j been considering the matter for many t years. A man of that age does not emi- ( grate suddenly. The excavators at Ur j may And some record of the events that f preceded this leaving home. It is quite g within the range of possibilities that , Abraham had tried to preach revolution j. before he went in sea,rch of a new coun- ^ try. He had become dissatisfied with the idolatries of the Babylonians and their , I many gods and we may be sure he tried f to bring others to his point of view. , He may have attempted the founding p of his new religion In Ur, and if he did d some record of this will certainly be v found, either in the records of the Tcm- t pie of NMnsun or in the ruins of the home * in which he lived. The Babylonian priests I would oppose any such revolutionary 1 teachings as those of Abraham, and upon t some ancient clay tablet may be found t the record of this attempt by Abraham, v and which was put down by the great J power of the priesthood. It should not be forgotten that the early Kings also s were priests, for state and church were v one at that time in Babylonia and the li old Patesl, or priest-king, would not have hesitated to send Abraham out for try- I tng to upset the belief of the mass of the h people. f Yet when the story was written later v to And a place in the Bible the Hebrew I writer would be careful to make thla v 'HE NEW YORK HERAI v ' i / \ .'./' '.W^i 't' ^'r'j H^rarann? fling deron's famous painting of iagar in the Wilderness." why she was sent away by iham has never been wholly tood, but may now be revealed by the new excavation. emigration of Abraham not compulsory, as if he had been exiled, but voluntary, as the result of a great revelation that came to this founder of a new nation, then only the sheik of a great tribe. He first went from Ur to Haran, where his nephew, Lot, lived and he persuaded him to join in the great "trek" to a new country, where a great people was to have its birth. When the caravan reached Canaan Abraham and Lot separated, and the story of the jealousy between Hagar and Sarah begins. Hagar bears a son to Abraham, and although Hagar was only i slave when her son was born, "her Distress was despised In her eyes" (Gen. ivi., 4) for Sarah was childless. The :hild Ishmael was 14 years old when at ast Sarah's son, Isaac, was born, and hus for fourteen years Sarah had been :ompelled to bear the scorn of her slave, t was quite natural that Sarah had misgivings as to the future and feared the on of the Egyptian woman, compelling Abraham to let the slave woman go with ler son, not earing whether she and the >oy perished in the wilderness or not. It was after this sending forth of Tagar and Ishmael that Abraham was ested as to his faith by the "chll" to sac iflre his Bon Isaac, by whom he set such -reat store. After tnking the 'ad three ayB' journey from home to a "high place" vhere the sacrlllce was to he ofTered, v bra ham bound his son to the altar and ' ns about to slay him as a sacrifice when le heard the voice of God: "Lay not thine iand upon the lad, neither do thou anyhlng unto him; for now I know that hou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from ne" (Gen. xxll., 12), From this time forth human sacrifice o generally practiced by the Canaanltes *as forbidden by the Hebrews and abolBhed as being unacceptable to God. The Dlble tells us that Hagar and shmael did not perish In the wilderness, ut that when the lad was near death rom thirst Hagar found a spring of mter, restored the fainting boy, and that shmael afterward married an Egyptian roman like his mother and founded a A uD, SUNDAY, MAY 14, 191 British Exploi Household 1 Which Ma the Feud Be Important Di Revealing Ne i , great city. In (act the Arabs ol to-day iv claim descent from mauuc., j ye Abraham is claimed as their ancestor pj '.hrough Ishmael as the Jews claim him co thrniiE-h Tnaar. The excavations at Ur may be expected m !v'5^?^5?^5k-"^BP'!fw^Br**6i '".^^ A "Jazz" pattern 5,000 years old. fragment of prehistoric pottery jus found on the site of the ancient ci The colors are remarkably preierr< and the pieces are being fitte^ togeth to shed light upon much of this early o history and the development of religious t thought of over 4,000 years ago, for the Investigators of the British Museum have ]( gone back to the time of 3000 B. C? find- pi ing remains of the earliest civilization in n! Babylonia. Going to a neighboring ruin ^ mound called Tell-el-Obeid they found relics <j of an early stone age, when copper and stone were used side by side. There were little copper nails, some with gold heads, and one nail of solid gold, the use of which is not* known, but It is possible that this was the earliest form of coinage, and that these nails were used as money ai in those ancient, times, 3500 B. C. Then ti they had already mastered the art of making painted pottery vases, and flint and obsidian knives and other utenBils. Here too were found four lifesize copper 11 lions, with eyes of red Jasper, tongues of tl red jasper and teeth of shell, and two ci small copper bulls. The greatest discov- p, cry made here was a great copper relief slab, with the figure of Imglg, the Hon r headed vulture of the god Ntnglrsu, holding two stags by their tails. While much ui of this doppor has degenerated In these ft 5,000 years the makers of the slab had w lined it with a filling of clay and bitumen, g: bo that even where the copper has fallen T 22. v v g rers nope to i Records of the y Throw New tween His Tw scoveries Aire iif S\?>rrpfM nf ] rr vy v/ v/1 v/w v J vay altogether Its impress has been >rfectly preserved and it is a very sime, though delicate, task to replace the i pper as It once was. i This tablet is regarded as one of the i ost important discoveries made in Babylonia, because it runs back to the time of the Sumerians, the i non-Semitic inhabitants of Baby- ; Ionia, who were there before the i Babylonians settled in the coun- i try. The Babylonians were a i Semitic people, coming no one as yet knows whence, but very different in physical characteristics and in culture from the Sumerians. The important fact established by all of these dis- i coveries both at Ur and the 1 neighboring mound is that there was a high state of civilization in this part of Babylonian more than a thousand years before the birth of Abraham. Critics of the i Bible story raised many doubts : concerning its trutti, because they claimed that the ideas attributed to Abraham could not 1 have been held so long ago when 1 all the world was in a state of i barbarism. Their own argument i now rises to refute them, for |: with the very substantial evi?| dences of a high plane of culture P attained before Abraham was * born it was by no means difficult for him to have achieved that i epoch making conception of the I ..A . A Farm implements and other it by the British Museum Exhi ity. which show what the fai d mechanics of Abraham er. had to work witl ne God, the beginning of the religion of he Hebrews. Of course these early Sumerlans were lolators, and that they were nuch is made lain by some of the stone images found nd against which Abraham raised his I'belllon. On one of these stone Images i an inscription showing that it was edicated to the god by a man named , \ [T appears that Navajo blankets were at first the product of men's hands, but that the women of the tribe re the exclusive workers In this Indus y at present. Almost the only modern Implements lat are employed In the weaving are le hand cards, wire toothed combs for te wool, and shears with which to make ittlngs. The frames are made of rude oles with the beams held In place by iwhlde ropes. The Indian puts his frames on uprights, sually staked and lashed to a tree In ont of his "hogan" or house. The omen do the weaving, squatted upon the round with legs folded under them, hey aro close enough to reach to either i ' x igarOat Find the Patriarch Light Upon 'o Wives; ady Made Earliest Man Kur-Lil, doorkeeper of the temffle of Erech. It dates from at least 3200 B. 0? and with Its shaven skull, prominent eyes and nose characteristic of this style, presents a perfect example of the art of the Sumerlans and their idolatry as well. While these remains are now being 9hown for the first time in the British Museum further excavations will cer talnly be stimulated by them, and the rest of the great mound of CJr will be uncov ered, bringing to light still more of that very early period in the history of man, when the struggle between the older Inhabitants, the Sumerians, and the Incoming Babylonians was taking place. The inscriptions have shown scholars that there was a great and radical differ ence between these people and their culture, and in the great libraries which have been discovered in Nineveh and Nippur are found thousands of tablets bearing the words in the Babylonian as well as in the Sumerian for the students to study from. These tablets are called "Syllabaries," because the cuneiform, or wedge shaped Vriting, is not an alphabetic language like the English or Latin, but is made up of syllables, indicated by , signs of combinations of wedges. This makes it very difficult for the beginner, who has to familiarize hlmsedf not only with twenty-two letters In order to read but with several hundred syllables, out of which the words are formed. This system Is further complicated by the use of enmA nf thpsp alenn an "THftnerrama " nv signs which while apparently syllables, j, and sometimes used as such, are also the syrai bols for entire words, and it is only by studying the connection in which they appear that the reader can know whether a sign stands H for a word or for only I ^ a syllable. For inI B a stance,' there is a com|| IX 1 binatlon of wedges >1 B 1 which has the sound of rj the syllable "mat," but this sign also stands for the word "country." J When that sign appears in a line of writing the ffZSSa/W pupil has to use his best Ingenuity to be sure whether It means rmintrv nr la nnlv tha * syllable "mat." So when we read of the wonderful discovertool* found 169 of Ascriptions made bition at Ur, 1? Babylonia, running -men and back forty or fifty cent's time turles, we must stop h. and think that all of these writings are in this strange character, made up of wedges, and that many scholars will strain tneir brains trying to translate them. These were the characters known to Abraham, by which he made his discoveries known, in which he wrote down his thoughts about God and the destiny of his tribe and people. side of the blanket or halfway up. When the work has proceeded to a height where it is uncomfortable for them to reach they tilt the loom so that they may continue In their original position. The spindle in use Is that of a hundred years ago?a stick through the center of a wooden disk. The work Is exceedingly slow; an Inch or two Is a day's work on the better grades. The best blankets are made of fine native wool, spun to a tension that makes them almost as durable an steel, with dyes that last forever. The coarser grades of blankets have but few flecks of color, being usually white, gray or brown. The Navajo women display an Interesting Imagery In their designs. That Imagery is largely confined to the color scheme, as everything done Is a copy of something that the weavers have seen.