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NOTES ON NEW BOOKS. " Nilbuhr's History of Rome, Parts III, IV\ VI" Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard. We are indebted to the publishers for these, the complement of the volumes lately noticed. They form, we now perceive, as to both the third and the concluding volumes, something not precisely what we had expected. The third is, we now find, the comple""*1 ut not corrected sequel to his re gular w. ..^which he left at his death in 1830. It is printed with scrupulous fidelity to his manuscript, cxccpt omissions of what he had introduced into the first and second volumes, in re-writing them. These three bring the work, in Niebuhr's own composition, down to the first Punic war. The re maining volumes are formed out of the collated notes of some of his best pupils, taken while attending the Lectures on Roman History which he delivered at the University of Bon in 1828-'y. Of these, delivered always extempore, and offering the com plete results of all his investigations in his favorite subject, no written trace by himself was left; and they could be recovered, in their substance merely, only by that process which Leonhard Schmitz, one of his pupils, has adopted. These lectures, as by him restored, bring down the history to the time of Constantine ; so that his labors, by means of this supplement, coalesce with those of Gibbon. The introductory lectures, eleven in number, ofi'er ail examination of the sources of Roman history, their credibility, certainty, &c. He discusses the progressive forms which history takes among early nations?traditions, lays, rude brief annals, regular narrative. He shows how the regular Roman re cords were destroyed and how restored; and how much the frequent chasms were of necessity sup plied out of the only memorials of the remote past that were general and popular?historical ballads. Descending from these, he gives an account of the historical literature proper of the Romans, both in its Greek and Latin authors, down to Dion Cas sius; surveys briefly the modern writers; and then points out the critical methods to be pursued, and the sciences to be mastered, for the successful study of Roman history : sketching, finally, the great pur poses to which that history is applicable. The regular history which ensues is less a com plete narrative than a continual commentary on the received accounts of Roman affairs. He has now arrived at the period to which history, written from more authentic materials, goes back; and it is enough, therefore, to correct and to elucidate. The incompleteness, however, the credulity, or the par tiality of % great part of the writers still leaves him a vast body of labor to perform. We cannot at present follow any further the plan I or describe the merits of Nibbi'iir. But we have lighted upon a passage in his twenty-eighth lecture, which, in describing the character, 'services, and fate' of one of the most admirable patriots that the Com * jnonwealth ever produced, approaches so singularly near to the remarkable public virtues of one of the great men of our day, and their popular reward, that we cannot avoid copying it. One has only to substitute for the words " Aristocrats " and " Sen ate " the equivalent names of those who, in this country, hold the same power?the Democratic Dictators and the so-called " party," and you have almost precisely our own contemporary history : " While Ciirs Gracchus was thus quietly proceeding as a legislator; while he wis engaged in distributing the public land and bunding several colonies, in which the Latins and Italians were allowed to take part, the jealousy and exaspera tion of the Aristocrats rose to the highest pitch, and the Sen ate had now recourse to a peculiar kind of stratagem. M. Livics Dauscs, one of the colleagues of C. Gracchus, was prevailed upon to try to undermine his popularity. Here we have an instance in which it is clearly seen that the Constitu tion of Rome was suited more for a city thsn for a whole na tion. Livius endeavored to outbid C. Gracchus in conferring benefits upon the people. He acted in the name of the Sen ate, and succeeded. For the masses never take the trouble to consider who the man is that offers them advantages , and in this instance they were unable to recognise in the actions of C. Gracchus the purity and sincerity of his intentions. The majority of the inhabitants of Rome, whom I call Romans only with great reluctance, consisted of freed men and their children, or grandchildren, and they perhaps thought that Gracchus intended to deceivc them. As Livius held out to them the same advantages as Gracchus, or even greater one*, the multitude followed him, although they must have seen through his scheme. Such is the character of the Romans to thi? Jay ; for, if a man ventures to give them his advice on any matter, out of true sympathy, and with the greatest pos sible disinterestedness, they will will always indulge in the suspicion that he has rome impure motive for doing so, or that he is a knave. This trait is common to all classes in modern Rome. Livius abolished the tithes of the lands distributed, and proposed to found twelve colonies each of which was to consist of three thousand citizens. "Caics (JaActHfs saw that the thoughtless multitude fol lowed the 8enate, whose sole objcct was to deceive them. There are two classes of men, the one consisting of those who are sincere and open, and seek and love the (icautiful and sub lime, who delight in eminent men, and aee in them the glory of their age and nation . the other comprising those who think only of themselves, are envious, jealous, and sometimes very unhappy creatures, without having a distinct will of their own : they cannot bear to see great men ui the enjoyment of the general esteem. It was these latter, a ?et of mm more fatal to mankind than original sin, that rose ag*in?t (J. Gracchus. He was too spotless, too pure, and too glorious not to be an offence to many ; for every one wa. reminded by his example of what he ought to be. It was the greatness of Gracchus which determined them to bring him down. It is not surpris ing te find that this disposition existed among his colleagues, but thousands of others wanted to make him leel that they had no gratitude for him. When the tribunes for the year following were elected he was taken no notice of. We have received from W m. Taylor ft Co. the first number of Martin'* Illustrated Family BihW, with notes, reference*, <Vr by the Rev. Alexander Fletcher. This work i* to 1* issued at twenty-five cents a number, each number eml>elli*hcd with a highly finished engraving on uteri. Also, the seventeenth number of llarjier'* Illuminated and ttew Pictorial Bible. We have received also from Mr. Taylor, Mr. W. (Jilmore Rims'a Life of that brave and indomitable patriot. General Mabiov. This work is comprised in one neat duodecimo volume, embellished with illustrative wot*! engraving*, and ought to be in the hands of every youth. Another veteran Jerseyman has taken his final leave of scene* signalized by the achievements of heroic virtue?Mr. TitottAH Conn, who died at Jersey City on the 17th instant, aged 85 years. Mr. C. was born at Parsippany, Morris rouh ty, Jauuarv 16th, 1760, and at tlte early age of sixteen volun teered his service* in dclcnce of his country, which he served with unswerving fidelity. He was in thirteen well contested battle*, including those of Monmouth, Oerinantown, York town, White Plains, arid Hpringfieid. He was one of the detachment sent against the Indian* at Wyoming, and was with Washington at Valley Forge. He was also near the great, commander at We*t Point when Andte was captured, and attended his execution. Two years before the close of the war he was promoU-d to a captaincy on account of his faithful service*. An early life of so much peril was happily c owned in riper jrsrs with the virtue* that l*#t adorn the hu man character, and which alon* can qualify us for a higher and more honorable companionship.?flavork Daily Adi\ ' A^ALYbiS OF THE TEXAS VOTE. The following is a statement of the Ayes and Noes, with an analysis of the votes in regard to the poli tics and sections of the members voting on the An nexation Resolutions in the House of Representa tives on Saturday : Miijfk?Ay: Cary?!. No. Dunlap, Hamlin, Herrick, Morut, Severance, White?6. N*w UiMcnHiKL?Ay: Burke, Noma?2. No. Hale, Reding?2. Via most?No: Collamtr, Dillingham, Foote, Marsh?4. MAiitiachi/sjlttn Ay.- Panuenter?1. No.- Abbott, Adam*, Baktr, Urinncll, Hudson, King, Rockwell, Wil liam*, Winthrop?9. Knout Island?No: Cranston, Potter?2. CoswacTicuT?Ay: St-ymour, Simons, Stewart?3. No: Catlin?1. New York?Au: Clinton, Ellis, Hubbell, Leonard, Maclay, Murphy, Pratt, Russell, Strong?9. N> .? Ander son, Barnard, Benton, Carpenter, Gary, Carroll, Dana, Da viu, Fish, Green, Hunt, King, Mantlet/, Pater son, Pha nix, Purdy, Rathbun, Robinson, Rogers, Seymour, South, Stet son, Tyler, Wlieaton?24. AbsentHungerford. New Jeiisey?Ay . Farlee, Kirkpatrick, Sykes?3. No: Elmer, Wright?2. Pennsylvania?Ay: Bidlack, Black, Brodhead, Foster, Fuller, Hays, C. J. Ingentoll, Ritter, Smith, Yost?10. No : Brown, Buffington, Durrngh, Dickey, J. R. Ingersoll, Irvin, Jtnk.s, Mcllvaine, Morris, Neti, Pollock, Ramsey, Stewart ?13. Absent: Reed. Delaware?NoRodney?I. Mahtland?No: Brengle, Cousin, Kennedy, Preston, Wethired?5. Absent. Spence. Vihgisia?Ay: Atkinson, Bayly, Chapman, Coles, Drom goole, Hopkins, Hubard, Lucas, Newton, Steenrod, Taylori ?11. No: Chilton, Coggin, Summers?3. Nut voting: J. W. Jones, (Speaker.) . ' North Carolina?Ay i Arlington, Daniel, McKay, Rcid, Saunders?5. No: Hwringer, Cling/nan, Ikberry, Rxiy uer?4. South Carolina?Ay: Black, Burt, Campbell, Holmes, Rhett, Simpson, Woodward?7. Georgia?Ay: Black, Chappdl, Clinch, Cobb, Haralson, Lumpkin, Stephens, Stiles?8. Alabama?Ay : Belser, Chapman, Del let, Houston, Mc Connell, Payne, Yancey?7. Mississippi?Ay: HamineU, Roberts, Thomjtson, Tuck er?1. Louisiana?Ay: Duwson, Labranche, Morse, Slidell?4. Ohio?Ay: Dean, Duncan, McCauslen, McDowell, Ma thews, Morris Potter, Stone, Weller?9. No : Brinkcrhoir, Florence, (lidding*, Hamlin, Harper, Johnson, St. John, Sckenck, Ti/den, Vance, Vanmtier, Vint on?12. Isbtaxa?Ay: Brown, Davis, Henley, Kennedy, Owen, Pettit, Thomas Smith, Wright?8. No : Sample, Caleb H. Smith?2. Illinois?Ay: Douglass, Ficklin, Hoge, MeClernaiul, Smith, Went worth?6. No: Hardin?1. Kkstccki?Ay: Boyd, Caldwell, French, Stone, Tib batts?5. No: Davit, (Jreen, drider, Thomu6.ii/n, White?5. Tennessee?Ay: Ashe, Blackwell, A. V. Brown, M. Brtmm, Cullom, C. Johnson, A. Johnson, Jones, Peyton, Senter?10. Absent: Dickinson. Missouri?Ay : Bower, BowUn, Hughes, Jameson, Relfe?5. Michigan?Ay: Lyon?1. No: Hunt, McClelland?2. Arkansas?Ay : Cross?I. RECAPITULATION. A yes. Noes. Dem. Whig. Dent. Whig. Maine 1 0 4 2 New Hampshire, 2 0 2 0 Vermont 0 0 1 3 Massachusetts 1 0 1 8 Rhode Island 0 0 0 2 Connecticut............ 3...... 0 1 0 New York 9... . .0 14 10 New Jersey 3. 0 1 1 Pennsylvania .10 0 0 13 Delaware 0 0 0 1 Maryland 0 0 0 5 Virginia 10 1. 0 3 North Carolina 5 0 0 4 South Carolina 7 0 0 0 Georgia 6 2 0 0 Alabama ,...6 1 0 0 Mississippi 4 0 0 0 Louisiana........ * 4 0 0..... .0 Ohio 9 0 2 10 Indiana 8 0 0 .2 Illinois 6 0 0 1 Kentucky 5 0........ 0 5 T ennesaee 6 4 0 0 Missouri .5 0 0 0 Michigan 1 0 2 0 Arkansas I 0 0 *0 112 8 28 70 It thus appears that, of the Democratic votes in favor of the resolution, there were 53 from free and 59 horn slave States. The 8 Whig votes in favor were all from slave States. Of the votes ui the negative, the 28 Democrats are all from free States; and of the Whigs, 52 were from free and 18 from slave States. The number of Democrats voting waa 140 ; consisting of 81 from free and 69 from slave States. Those 81 were divided into 53 for and 28 against. The number of Whigs voting was 78 ; consisting of 52 from free and 26 from slave States. Those 26 were divided into 8 for and 18 against. The 59 Democrats from slave, and the 52 Whig* from free States, all of course voted, the former for and the latter against. Such are the results of our analytical nxami nation of the vote, which we have made to spare our readers the trouble they would otherwise probably take to make it for themselves. [Ntw York News. Th* Piucemini Fraubs.?We rejoice to find that the ?subject of the monstrous and astounding frauds committed by the Locos of Louisiana in the Parish of Plaqueminesat the re cent election, by which Mr. Clat was chtaitd out of the vote of Louisiana, is about to l?e investigated by the I legislature of that State, now in session. The subject was brought before the House a few days since by Mr. Perkins, a member from East Feliciana, by the introduction of a resolution authorizing the ajipointment of a committee to inquire into the manner in rhich the election was conducted in that parish, and clothing the committee with power to send for [tenon* and papers, with a view to ulurior action. The Bee says : ?'The presentation of this resolution appeared to strike the Ixwofoco party dumb for a moment. There was an expres sive [muse, and the members looked at each other as if they did not know what to do.. Finally one of the party .rose and moved that it should l?c laid upon the table indefinitely. On this motion the yeas and nays were called for, when it ap peared that every Whig in the House voted against it and ??very Locofoco in favor, save two?Messrs. Tex a da, of Kapiiiea, and Tat lor, of Natchitoches. Both these gentle men hail the manliness to spurn the dictate-- of party and sus tain the resolution. It is evident enough that if the election in Plaque mine was, as is alleged by the I^eofoeoa, conducted fairlv and properly, nothing need be feared from an investi gation. We are at some loss to account for the almost unani mous opposition of the I?ocofoco* to the proposed scrutiny, except upon the ground that they are a little apprehensive ol light lieing thrown upon the subject." An R ** i a * r* w. ?A mong the petition* presented to the Sen ate of New Vork on Monday, wm one from a public meeting held at Croton Hall, in the city of New York, praying for an mt to put an end to land monopoly, and that rut man or wo man b* her taper per mi tied to hold mirrelimd than is reamm atile fur a tingle farm ! The idea in a good one?hut not quite equal to the viewn exprc*<?-d by a xailor, during a nautical row in New York during the " lon? embargo." " What do yon want, my good fellow* >" n?ked the Mayor of the city, in a deprecating tone. " Want !*' exclaimed the spoke*man, an old weather-beaten tar, aliout "three nheeUin the wind"?"we want our right*. ' No land-lub!>er should !?? allowed to live on fried halibut, ? ?ea-]rie, and xoft tommy, while poor Jack w utarving on ' mouldy biscuit and xn.lt juuk. We want an equal division ' of property and provixiorin !" " My good friend," exclaimed a xedate and portly-looking Alderman, "if we ahould comply with your denuuida, and ? make an equal diviaion of all property, in lean than a month ' you would be a* dcxtitute ax ever." " I'erhapa mo," replied the old tar, with a nly wink ami a wgnificant grin?and "then we will divide again Hofiton Journal. DANraii H. ADAMS, ATTORNEY AT LAW, ?Itckwm, MMmlp|tl, W ill give prompt attention to the collection of all claim* within the State of Mi?M??ippi. jan 14?wly nINTw ON THF.HI>0RGANIZAlT0N OF THE . "AVY??I'amuUkt, )S>w Vork, 1845. j*n 2i V. TAYLOlt. IMPORTANT TO COTTON PLANTERS. Our attention has been directed by one of the Representative* of the South in Congress to the following article, which he conliders to be of suffi cient interest to persons en#iged in the Cotton culture and trade to justify fie space which we give to it in our columns. tltO.M WlLXKHfet SMITH'* "BCXOrXUtriMK*" OFHOV. t9,1845. REPEAL OF THE DUTY UPON RAW COTTON. On Thursday, the 14th instant, tie Manchester Chumber of Commerce held a special general Hiding for the very im portant purpose of considering the propriety of memorializing the Lords of the Treasury for the repci of the duty on cotton wool. The meeting was very numeriLsly attended, most of the leading mercantile men in the liatriel being present. The President of the Cliamber, Thow* Bazlev, jun. Esq. took the chair. 1 The Chairman, in opening the procAdings, said: Gentle men, in having summoned thin special keeling of the cham ber, to promote the rejieal of the duty li cotton wool, your director* have, in my opinion, exercised 1 very sound discre tion. Public opinion, condemning thin tax on the trade of thia important district, in now evincing a fetermination to de mand, m term* not to be resisted, the attolLon of it. [Hear, hear.] The occasions are, I hope, beconing more frequent where gentlemen of generally different segment* can meet together in harmony, to seek by their dfoiV such objects as shall be beneficial to the couuuunity in whict, they exist, and I regard with peculiar satisfaction the meeting pf this morning, because I see individuals present who are ui%ongst the most wealthy and most extensive of those engaged 14 the consump tion of raw cotton. They come for the purpose of relieving themselvesol a vexatious impost, such as, I belieye, has never been before inflicted upon a great national interes^ such as the cotton trade has become, and I believe that the* efforts will be continued until that tax shall be annihilated, [fleur, hear.] From one individual I have learned that so oppressive is the tax upon his own industry, that taking the amount of duty and the amount of disadvantages collectively under which he labors, as compared with the United States of America, sup posing he could transfer his spinning and weaving concern to the United States, those disadvantages amount to.?20,000 per annum. [Hear.] This is an amount of competition that cannot jiermanently be maintained by any individual house. The memorial was then read. It stated that " it wil be found that this tax alone now increases to the British cotton spinner the cost of his raw material to the extent of te? per cent.; for, at the present time, the price of middling cotton of the class most largely in consumption is 3$d. per pound in New Orleans, 5-16ths thereon being exactly ten per a:nt. ; but the American spinner jHWsesses the convenience of conti guity to the markets of the cotton planters ; and, in freight, by the difference in distance, in the saving of time, anil in other diminished charges, a further advantage is secured b> him of not less than 7-16ths jier pound : thus making the disad vantages of the British spinner, as contrasted with the Ame rican, into twenty-four per cent. ; and which, upon all the American cotton used in Great Britain, will amount, accord ing to the last year's consumption, to upwards of a million and a half sterling, clearly establishing advantages in compe tition against this country, which neither ought to be nor can be permanently sustained." Mr. Robert Gardiner moved the first resolution, which de clared the repeal of the duty upon raw cotton to be essentially necessary to the maintenance of the manufacturing prosperity of lhis country. The second resolution was moved by Mr. Richard Birley Mr. Henry Ashworth said, we did not need to refine ujwn calculations as to how much per cent, that duty pressed upon individual classes of manufacturers?we took in round num bers the payment of ?743,000 last year as the cotton duty?a duty imposed by the Government of this country upon one in dividual branch of manufacture most unjustly. The manu facturer met in distant markets similar manufactures produced in different parts of the world, and more especially he found American manufactures in every market to which he had ac cess. The prices of his goods in those distant markets were ] the market prices of the place, and he could expect to receive no more than the market value for what he sent there. There he met his rivals upon equal terms, he having himself paid 5-16thsofa penny per lb. duty, and l-16th of a penny duty more upon the waste in making these goods, [hear;] and thus we found that the British manufacturer was not only burdened as a manufacturer, by that constant claim from the Govern ment of this country which he had to bear in addition to his costs and charges, but that that sum went in the shape of a bounty to his foreign rivals. He found, from a Parliamentary paper, some remarks and observations, collected by Mr. Thorn, who said, in shaking of China : " Of the sum put down for gray longcloths, one-half may be assumed as British, and the other half American. Domestics are entirely American, and we find it impossible to compeU- with them in that article." The Chairman said that Mr. Wylie, a gentleman engagrd in the American trade, was present, and would perhaps oiler some observations. Mr. A. H. Wylie, of the firm of Gordon, Wylie & Co., London, said he confessed that he wan only surprised that they had so long remained in abeyance. [Hear. ] They had allowed this duty to increase in the space of ten years from ?370,000 to ?743,000, and that was a sum which no Government would be willing to give up. He had in his possession an account sales of cotton sold within the last two weeks in Liverpool?of 63 bales of New Orleans; an actual account-sales?the amount of which was ?330 7s. 8d., and the duty upon which was ?38 5s. Id., or a charge of fully 13 per cent. (Hear, h?r- J It had been said, that if the duty were taken of? it would be to give a bonus to the American planter. Now, we all knew very well that the laws of demand and supply regulate the supply of cotton ; but it was not of this that we complained. Now, the consumption of cotton in the United States in 1842, which was a year there of depressed prices and Imd trade, was '267,850 bales. In the present year it was 387,000 bales ; but this was far from being ail the cotton consumed in Ame rica. The returns from New York only included what was consumed in the Northern and Eastern States, north of the Potomac ; the whole Southern and Western manufactures were not included, for this reason, (and he hoped he should be understood, for this was an important fact,) that the cotton wmsumed by these manufacturers did not enter generally into the receipts at the ports, as they were taken perhaps from the internal markets, without going to the seaboard ; and the con sumption there is stated, (and he believed it to I* within the fact, from his own personal knowledge,) to be 100,000 bales ( which brings up the consumption of America in the last year to 487,000 bales, which, if he mistook not, was more Ameri can cotton than was consumed in this country in 1825, and more than the cotton of all kinds consumed here in 1820; which was bringing the progress of American manufactures within the recollection of many present. So much for the consumption of the United States in 1828. The exports of cotton goods to China, from America, in 1841, amounted to $188,000. In the first nine months of 1843 the amount was $1,063,000. Now, this amount seemed, in comparison w ith our exports, to be rather trifling ; but it ceased to lie so, when compared with what the American exports were two or three years ago. In "bnly two years they had leaped up from 188,000 to 1,060,000 bales. [Hear.] If, for the next two or three years they went on at the same rate, they would not only rival" us, but almost drive us out of the markets. In one recent price current from Brazil, he found that in 1840 Great Britain exported 28,840 bales of cotton goods to that country, and in 1843, only 14,000, [hear, hear,] while the American* in 1840 exported to Brazil 6,100 l?ales, and in 1843, 7,300; so, in pro|N>rtion as our trade there had been decreasing, theirs had I wen increasing. If ever a country was formed for com mercial purposes it was America; and it app arcd as if the legislation of this country and America, upon commercial questions, was as hostile as it possibly could be, and conse quently as suicidal. [Hear. ] He confessed he did not think that there was any chance of any commercial treaty being en tered into with America. The time had l-een allowed to pass; r but there was a struggle going on there for the election of their President, and the tariff was made the starting point. If the tanrt party succeed, our hope* arc at an en<!. Mr. Guest aaiil our coarse manufacturer* were, generally, thriving and increasing until the American* became our rivals. [Hear.] He had himself a very extensive trade in them, an noon anhr hail commenced bu?inc*s, with America, (hear, heart] hnt, afterward*, from their Incoming manufacturer*, and sup plying their own want* firat, they liegan to interfere with hia customer* in the Nouth American trade. [Hear, hear.] That branch wa* now to him entirely extinct. [Hear.] Mr. John Bright, M. P., aaid there were two obaervationa that he wiahed to make 5 one of which had arisen from the observation* made by preceding apcaker*. A good deal had been aaid with regard to the rivalry of foreign countric*, and eapecially of the innreaae in the manufacturing jKiwer of the American*. Perhafm parties at a distance, reading the report of the meeting, might be led to *uppo?c that we had Rome hostile feeling toward* the manufacturer* of America, or other coun trieai but, although we admitted their rivalry, and deemed it a matter of deep importance to us, and that it might, in certain (tranche* of trade, become injurioua to certain manufacturer* lierc, yet he l>elieved there wa* no intelligent manufacturer in that room, or in thi* district, who felt any thing like a hostile feeling that would induce him to wish for any thing that could lie done to cru*h the riaing manufacturer* and the ri*ing proa perity of any country. [Hear, hear.] All they wiahed for wa* *imply that Government?that Government which ought to be paternal?that ought, in the true acnae of the word, to he a protective Government?that it *hould not be one that would lay bnrdena upon one branch of indu*try, and subject it to a pressure which made it nnahlu to bear that competition, and to ntn in that race from which there wa* no eaeape for ua. [Hear.] Thi* cotton tax appeared to him, therefore, a tariff exactly of thi* description, made upon u* by our own Government: [hear, he.ir,] for it had preciacly the mine effect u|>on our trade a* if a tariff of an equal per centage were levied by all foreign nation* to which we export. [Hear, hear.] After a few word* from other gentlemen, the resolution* were paaaed unanimously, and the meeting separated. West op the rock y mountains. f BOM THE !?*W TOBK COCHItH 4M> KNIil lHtK. LituT. Fbxmovt's EirkuiTiux.?The recent expedition of Lieut. Fbxmost to the region west of the Rocky Moun tain*, besides being one of the most hazardous and adventu rous exploit* of the day, promise* to add essentially to our knowledge of that vast and important region. Hi* report has not yet been published, though we learn tiiat he is closely en gaged in its preparation. It will be quite voluminous, and will contain map* and full descriptions of the country through which he passed. We find, meantime, among the documents which accom panied the Message of the Acting President, in the report from the Topographical Bureau to the War Department, an out line of his route and some indications of the nature and im portance of the explorations which he made. He left West port, the frontier town of Missouri, June 1, 1843, proceeded to the mouth of the Kansas river, and thence up the Repub lican. In consequence of the many impedimenta offered to hi* progress by the swollen state of the river, he divided the . party, leaving Mr. Fitzpatrick with twenty-seven men and the heavier baggage, and proceeded himself, with fifteen men and two carriages, through a fertile and well-watered country, to the upper waters of the Republican, from which he crossed to the south fork of the Platte, or Nebraska, anil reached St. Vrain's Fort, under Long'* Peak, on the 4th of July. The height of this peak?a shoot from the Rocky Mountains, named after Capt. Long?is stated at 12,500 feet. Thence Lieut. Fremont continued along the mountains southward, and arrived July 14th on the ArkannaH river, at the mouth of the " Fontaine qui bouit." Surveying this river, and remain ing a day at Pike's Springs, he amended the eastern branch to its head, and again reached St.'Vrnin's Fort on the 23d, meeting Mr. Fitzpatrick, who had arrived on the 14th, and had spent the time in refitting. The party again divided and resumed their routes on the 20th, Lieutenant F. crossing the broad plain which extends from the river to the foot of time mountains, passed through I the chain into the Lorramie plains, and encamped in the " Sweet-water Valley " on the 9th of August. Thence, cross ing the mountains by the South Pass, he descended into the valley of the Colorado, in the immediate vicinity of the head waters of the Yellow Stone, which flows into the Missouri, the Arkansas, which joins the Mississippi, Lewis's river, which flows into the Columbia, and the Colorado, which rolls into the South Pacific Ocean. In the midst of frozen mountains, he here stood upon the spot which waters a great part of the North American continent. On the 3d of September he reached the great " Salt Lake," at the outlet of Bear river, and spent a week in exploring the northern portion of this in land sea. No survey of it had ever before been made, none of its islands visited, no astronomical observations made, and, in short, nothing beyond the fact of its existence had been known. Here he remained some days, and reachcd Fort Hall on the 18th of September. Mr. Fitzpatrick had arrived a few days before, and both were detained by storms-until the 24th. On that day the journey was resumed, and continued along the Oregon road to Boise, a post of the Hudson Bay Compa ny, which he reached October 9. On the 26th of October he arrived at Fort Nez Perce, on the Columbia, and on the 4th of November encamped at the missionary station of the Dalles. He continued his survey by water to Fort Vancouver, and then returned to the Dalles. On the 25th of November, in the midst of a snow storm, he set out on his return. The next day at sunset the thermome ter whs two degrees below zero. He continued to travel along the western base of the jmowy range of the Cascade mountains until December 10, when he arrived atHamath Lake. Thence his course to the south and east was continually obstructed by parellel ranges of mountains, covered with snow, range after range of which he crossed until his animals gave out and his further progress eastward was stop|>cd. This region is one of extraordinary interest, having never before been truversed; and his animals being entirely unable to proceed further in that direction, he determined to cross the great Califomian mountains, called the "Sierra Minula," which lay betweeh him and the bay of San Francisco. All the month of Febru ary was occupied in crossing them, the nn<rw l*cing from fir* to tuienty feet deep. Early in March he descended from these icy regions to the perpetual spring of the valley of the Sacra mento, where he was entertained with great hospitality by some Mexican gentlemen. They remained there about ten weeks, and then proceeded up the valley of the Joaquim river, recrossing the Sierra at a very beautiful pass to the south. On the 21st of April they struck the N|mni?li trail from Pueblo de los Angelos to Santa Fe, and continued their journey along this rough, winding, and difficult road, until arriving at the mountains near the Colorado, where they turned to the northeast, and encamped at Brown's Hole, June 6, 1844. Then croaming the Colorado, they reached the Kooky Moun tains by way of the Yamj* river : crossing the ridge near the head of the river, they ascended the north fork of the Nebraska to the New Park ; rccrosaed the mountains to the Old Park, and then pursued a convenient pass into a lower gap of the mountains. On the 30th of June they reached the Arkansas; on the 2d of July they rested at Bent's Fort; and again started on the 5th ; continuing down the Arkansas, crossing to the Smoky Hill fork of the Kansas?following that stream to the Republican fork, and recrossing the ridge to the Santa Fe road, they encamped at the mouth of the. Wanna* on the 31st of las1 July. An inspection of the map will show this to have been one of the longest and most difficult explorations of the age. Under all circumstances?in the severest weather, and during the utmost privations, astronomical and other observations were never omitted ; and a careful record of the whole was made and preserved. The sketches of the country were based upon the determination of 190 positions by astronomical ob servations, and cannot fail to be in the highest degree accurate, interesting, and instructive. The JUtra of the country is said to tie exceedingly rich and varied, and in this department it is thought that the results of the journey will justify a supple mentary volume to Michaux's Sylva Americana. The expe dition is regarded as having been in the highest degree suc cessful, and we look forward to the publication of Lieutenant Fremont's report with great interest. The head of the Topo graphical Bureau thinks that another expedition would be highly useful to complete the surrey, and suggests that it should leave the frontier by the 1st of March, in order to return to the United States the same year. Defalcation at Aibaxt.-?The Albany Atlan contains an account of the defalcation of A. H. Lovktt, the taller of the Commercial Bank at Albany, to the amount of $34,524 02. Attention wan railed to hi* account* by a letter from Buffalo, through the pout office, and the Cashier and Directors imme diately railed upon him for hi* account*. He confessed the defalcation, informed the officer* of it* amount and exhibited a memorandum which he had kept of it. He was arrested and i?? in custody. Hia sureties in the sum of $10, (MM) are hi* brother, J. E. Lovett and Joel H. Wing, of Albany. The embezzlement i* said to have Iwen going on for a number of years, having originated in purchasing lottery tickets. The institution will not lie affected. As'mistook CorwTT.?The Bangor (Me.) Whig speaks of the rapidity with which this county, formed out of the long disputed territory, has been settled. The land is equal to the best in the State, and many fanner* have fields of wheat of seventy-fire and a hundred acres, yielding an average of thirty bushels to the acre. There are now in the county six hun dred families, making a population of 3,600. The people generally live in lnjr-hou*e*, though many of them, with that superior care for the production of their latiora which charac terizes the early settlers of an agricultural country, have erect ed large and handsome framed Iwrns. The people are indus trious, and arc rapidly rising to independence. There is also a good road from Bangor to lloulton, one hundred and fifteen miles, and a tolerably good one from Houlton to Fort Fair field, fiftv-two miles. Arrangements are in progress to pro vide the tne:tn* of education and of religious worship. The craggy fall* of the Aroostook intcqnjse serious obstacles to running lumber down the river, and the subject begins to be | mooted of constructing a canal, half a mile in length, to avoid paaaing over these fulls. Half a million dollars worth of lum ber passed over them last season. The cost of the canal is estimated at thiity thousand dollar*, and it is thought that it would pay a hanilsoine interest on the investment. '?"Got**?* Pomtkn's Pasduis.?'The Philadelphia flrand Jury have recorded their deliberate opinion that the conduct of ex-Governor Pohtf.r in throwing open the prison doors, almost without restriction, for the egress of murderers, incen diaries, robbers, and rogues of'all description*, was a grenl deal too bail. Judge Josks, of the Quarter Sessions, Mind ing to this portion of the presentment, ?aid that the conduct I of the lute (bvemor had brrn of thr intuit Otttrngemu rhnrar ter?that all thf rff'rrtn of the ('mirt to uphold thf Imrn and i preserve the pultlie, moral* and protert mwietyhadbeen render ed void by thin trifling with and glaring mockery of jwitict. LATE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. The steamship Cambria arrived at Boston on Friday morning from Liverpool. She brings pa pers to the 4th instant, her day of sailing, being six teen days later than previous accounts. The commercial news is pronounced to be favor able. Business was good in almost all its branches, and money very plenty, the rate for commercial paper being only 2 to per cent, per annum. The announcement of the stock of cotton on hand at the end of tlie year had a tendency to depress the market a little, but prices remained without al teration, and the market on the 3d closed quietly. The prices declared by the Committee el Brokers for the week are?Bowed, 4^d.; Mobile, 4|d.; Or leans, 4gd. Mr. Everett, our Minister at London, it is said, is to leave England for this country early in the spring. Mr. Rives, Secretary of Legation, will be accredited as Charges d'Aflaires ad interim. It is contemplated by the British Government to send out another expedition to the Arctic regions, with the view of discovering the northwest passage between the Atlantic and Pacific. The command of the expedition, it is said, has been offered to Sir James Ross; should that officer decline it, it will fall upon Sir John Franklin. AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. A large meeting wuh held at Manchester on the 17th to urge upon the Government the remUsion of the duty on cot ton. The Mayor presided, and the principal speech was made by Mr. R. II. Greg, late M. P. from Manchester. Alter speaking of the uinount of the tax, amounting to ?600,000 a year on the consumption of the country, and of other circumstan ces which made its remission exceedingly desirable, he directed special attention to the nature and extent of the competition to which English manufacture* were exposed from the Uni ted States, which they hod to fear far more extensively and immediately than from any other quarter. The United States, he said, had every advantage in having the raw material on the spot, and in having to pay no duty, and the cost of freight and insurance of cotton to Boston and other ports of. the Atlantic was just half of what it cost to bring it to Liverpool. The entire advantage enjoyed by the American manufacturer in the matter of freights, insurance, and duty amounted to 13^ per cent, on cotton at 7d. a pound. In the minute, and he be lieved perfectly accurate statement of the Glasgow memorial, it was put much higher?on coUon at 3d. a pound showing an advantage of 25 per cent., and on the other which cost 7}d. per lb. not less than 36 per cent, to the American manufac turer over the English manufacturer who had to compete with him. This advantage amounted, in round figures, to about ^d. per lb. on the average of cotton"; and, adding to that the great advantages which the Americans possessed in their moving power, water power being almost unlimited, and costing 25 per cent, only of what British steam power costs, and a little further advantage which they had in the flour for their sizing, it amounted, he said, to a clear advantage of Id. j>er lb. on all the cotton consumed, or 10 per cent, on the bulk of the coarsc goods, and 15 per cent on coarse yarns. After these estimates, Mr. Greg proceeded to say : ** With these immense advantages, could any one wonder at the rupid increase of American manufactures, or that they should supply all their own consumption > For we must not suppose that English goods had been excluded from the Ame rican market by their high tariff; for coarse goods had been long, long excluded, by the very low price at which they tuere produced, by the Americans themselves. In 1823 the entire manufactures of America amounted only to 1,763 packages, (the valuation was not given ;) in 18*27 to 2,494 packages; in 1830 to 5,306; in 1833 to 13,207. Subsequently the value of the manufactured produce was given in dollars. In 1834 it amounted to $2,085,000, a considerable increase over the preceding vear ; in 1835 to $2,856,000 ; in 1838 to $3,758,000 j in 1839 to $2,975,000 ; in 1840 to $3,549,000; in 1841 to $3,122,000; in 1842 to $4,500,000; and for 1843 the estimate in Messrs. Jones, Gibson & Ord's circular was between $6,000,000 and $7,000,000. It was also known that in 1843 one-half of the exports to China had consisted of American domestics?that is to say, the export to China of American domestics was equal to one-half the entire shipments from Eurojx* and America. In the circular he had just refer red to, of the date of September, 1843, under the head of ' do mestics,' it was olhierved, 'This article is interfered and suc cessfully competed with in all foreign markets by the Ameri can manufactures, and will, we have reason to believe, ere long be entirely superseded by them.' Such were their pros pects, in the opinion of one of the most intelligent houses in this town, who had very extensive connexions in every part of the world. But, to establish more completely this very im portant point, whether they were or were not to be beaten by their rivals in America, he would read some extracts from let ters from the Indian and South American markets. " From Buenos Ayres, Messrs. John Anderson & Co. wrote, in March, 1844 : ? Having had establishments on the River Plate, both at Montevideo and Buenos Ayres, for the sale of British manufactures for the last twenty-five years, we have had opportunities of knowing that there were large im ports into these markets of cotton goods manufactured in the United States ; and, if such competition shall continue as it has done for the last few years, it will almost compel u? to decline receiving consignments of goods made in this coun try, particularly of coarse domestics.' " Then, on the opposite side of America, from Valparaiso and Lima, Messrs. Gambling, Brothers 6c Co. reported that the competition of the American manufactures on the west coast of South America was increasing;, and would become more active as the skill of the American weavers increased ; whilst in the China market, which had lately drawn all its supplies of yarn from Great Britain, large quantities of these goods were sent from the United States. There was also very important evidence on this point from the house of Graham & Co. of Glasgow, who had dealt in these articles in almost every part of the known world, and who stated that they had been obliged to abridge their consignments to all these mar kets, compared with whr?t they haif sent in former years. The accounts from Manilla, China, the West Indies, and Canada, were all to the same tern >t, describing the American goods as uniformly gaining ground in the markets. Two days ago he had received a letter, not addressed to him, but written by n leading American manufacturer, dated the 15th of Novert !?r, 1844, which con tail led some important information as to the probable result of American competition. It appeared that large extensions of their manufacturing system were contem plated, and that they were now about to enter into the pro duction of twist, an article to which they had scarcely as yet turned their attention." These statements (says the New York Courier) are cer tainly of the highest interest and importance, and furnish stronger evido,ncc of the growing strength of the American manufacturing system than any statistics we have before met The Timer, on the same grounds, urges the remission of the cotton duty. The great object of tha South in opposing the policy of protection has always been to secure the admission of cotton in England free of duty. It would lie singular if the protective policy itself should secure that result, and yet it seems likely to do ho. THE CHURCH. I The affair* of the Church are still the engrossing subject of public discussion and inquiry. The jmstoral letter issued by the Bishop of Exeter, commanding the strict observance of the Rubric, and the use of the surplice in preaching, ha* excited an agitation never before known in that large anil important diocese. The laity in various part* of Devon and Cornwall have held meeting" on the subject, and adopted the most atringent resolutions, condemning the Bishop's letter, declaring their determination to resist his onlers, and even suggesting their intention to attend divine service in uneonsecrated build ings, if his directions be enforced. In many instances the parishioners have adopted petitions to the (juoen, praying for her Majesty's interference as the Head of the Church, to avert a crisis which they believe will lead to still greater divisions. The Bishop, however, has yielded tothe feelings of the people in regard to the surplice, and has issued a letter to his clergy, | withdrawing his order in respect to its use in preaching, ad hering, however, to the enforcement of the rubric. Mean while the Bishop of Worcester, in a charge delivered at an ordination in his?diocesc on St. Thomas's Day, advises his clergy to continue the practices which have so long prevailed in the Church, and adduces various fiets to prove that the sur plice is not the proper dress to be worn in the pulpit t that the rubric is inconsistent with itself in regard to the prayer for the Church-Militant, and that the weekly offertory was superseded by the enactment of poor rates. His lordship adds, that in all cases where the offertory is adopted, the consent of the con gregation is essentinl, and that the money so collected can only be legally applied for the relief of the parish poor. At the ordination by the Bishop of Salisbury, held at Wei!*, his lordship expressly charged the candidates to make no deviation whatever from the Accustomed mode of performing divine ser vice in their respective churches, without first consulting their dioce.nan. The Hebdomadal Board of Oxford University hn* actively ' taken up the ease of Mr. Ward, of Baliol College; has deter mined to submit the unorthodox psssages in his Idral nf a Christian Church Considered, to a Convocation in February j auJ w ill propo* Id fegrsds the author, atrippiug him of hi* dtgreea. Dr. Pussy km publish*! ? letter, intimating that be not sign to Thuty-nia* Artkl*, wit^ J} fUly,3g even ?WUbs result n, hw rauov.| from the Uiuv? srty. The Article-, be wyn, an now requued to be "?<*? tain ami indubitable token of opinion t" whicb they have nev?? . F RANCH, There has been a family gathering at the Tuile ries; the King and Queen of the Belgians, the Due d'Aumale and his young bride, and the Prinoe de JoinviHe. ^ On the 26th December the King opened th> Chambers with the loilowing speech : "At the cloac of last session, cocnpbcationii, which might have become grave, were the objects of my solicitude. Tie necessity of securing our poaaeaslons in Africa against hoetili and repeated incursions, obliged us to carry the war into tb empire ot Morocco. Our brave ariniea of land and sea, wot thily commanded, attained with glory, and in a short tune, the object marked out to their valor. Peace promptly follower i victory, and Algiers, where three of my sons had this year ths honor to serve their country, has recorded a dajuble pledge of security, for we have proved at onco our power and our Mo deration. "My Government was engaged with that of the i^ueen of Great Britain in discussions which might have given reason) to fear that the relations of the two States might have been af fected ; a mutual spirit of good will and equity has maintained between France and England this happy accord, whicb guar unties the peace of the world. " During the visit which I [mid the Queen of Great Britain, to testify to her the price that I attach to the amity which unites us, and to that reciprocal friendship of which alie ha, given me so many marks, | have been surrounded by manifet ? tations the roost satisfactory for France and myself. I havr gathered, in the sentiments that have been expressed to tut additional guaranties for the long continuation of that generou i peace, which secures to our country abroad a dignified and strong position, and at home an eternally increasing prosperi ty, with the enjoyment of her constitutional liberties. " My relations with all foreign powers continue to be friend ly and amicable. "You are, Messieurs, yourselves witnesses of the prospe rous atate of France. You see manifested upon all parts of our territory our national activity, protected by wise laws, an f reaping in the bosom of order the fruits of its labors. The ri? of public credit, and the equilibrium established between our annual receipts and expenditures, attest the happy infiuenc of this situation upon the general affairs of the State for th well-being of all. " Financial laws will be immediately presented ta you. Pro jects of laws for the amelioration of our roads, of our porU, and of our internal navigation, for the completion of our rail ways, and for different objects of general utUity, will be equally submitted to your dolilx;rations. ! " In the midst of the general prosperity of the country, | Heaven has blessed my family. It has increased the number of my children ; and the marriage of one of my well-beloved sons, the Due d'Aumale, with a Princess who already was rr lated to us by so many ties, has been for mo and mine a lively satisfaction. " Messieurs : Providence has imposed upon me many laboi a and painful trials. I have accepted the burden. I have de voted myself, I have devoted my family to the service of my country. To lay a lasting foundation of union and happiness has been for fourteen years the object of our constant efforts. I feel confident that with your loyal aid you will enable me to attain it, and that the gratitude of France, free and hap(n, will be the reward of our mutual devotedncss, and be, too, the honor of my reign." ? The Journal des Debate observes that the explanations give by the Minister of Finance, on presenting the budget to tl Chamltcr of Deputies, demonstrate that the financial" positit? of France is this year more favorable than last year. SPAIN. An important bill relative to the treaty concluded betwet i Great Britain and Spain in 1835, for the abolition of the "la ?; trade, was presented to the Senate on the 23d by the Mni?t< r tor Foreign Affairs. By this measure offences conntctco with the slave trade are rendered penal?a point which, av .? since the signature of the treaty, it has l>cen the constant ?!> ject of English Ministers to obtain from Spain. The Assem bly had adjourned till after the Christmas holydays. Zurhano is still missing, although every effort has been mod* to discover his hiding place. The lives of General Rengifi^ Captain Garcia, and 8. Aviln have been spared. The number of political offenders who have been executed in Spain, since the removal of Espartero, is two hundred ajw) fourteen, and of this large number only twelve had been tried. The cold has been dreadfully severe at Madrid. On tfcft night of the 8th a sentinel was found dead upon his beat it the Punta del Diamante,""an advanced post near the palac*, and exposed to the keen blasts of the Guadarama mountain*. INDIA. The overland mail from India brought letters from Calcutta of October 17th, Bombay of November 1, and China of Au gust 30. Wars have ceased, and rumors of war are disa^v pearing. The army in Scbide is moderately healthy. Tlie commercial intelligence from Bombay is very unfavorable. MI8CELLANEOU8 PARAGRAPHS. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, it is rumored, is abort to propone a reduction in the Three per cents on the opening of Parliament. ?? The Anti-Corn-Law League has recommenced its system of agitation for the season, but the opening has been rathar. unfavorable for their views, the free trade candidate at Dan? mouth having lost the election by a majority of seven. This is a seat granted by their opponents, not simply retained. It is said that Mr. Galloway, the engineer, and author of the pamphlet showing the importance of the railroad from Suez to Cairo, has arrived at Paris, on his way to Egypt, to commencc that important undertaking. The Medical Gazette contains a long article from the pens of Dr. Hastings and Mr. R. Storks, surgeon, descriptive of a remarkable operation for the cure of consumption by the per foration of the cavity of the lung through the wails of the chest. The cure is described as being complete. On the 14th ultimo ths regicide Tshech, who attempted to assassinate the King of Prussia, was executed at Spandau, where he had been conveyed under an escort of cavalry. The King had remitted that part of his sentence which stated that he was to be broken on the wheel. The receipts of the Zoll-Vcrein during the first nine months or 1844 were 18,889,502 thalers, or 1,221,705 more than in the corresponing period of 1843. Suicides being so numerous in Prussia, owing to imprison ment for debt, Uie Government have it in contemplation to abolish that mode of satisfying the creditor. Hordes of money are forthcoming for the Irish railways. The whole capital of ?800,000 required for the Southern Rail way, from Dublin to Cork, was subscribed in three days, and subscribed entirely in Ireland. \ On the 19th ultimo, William Burgess, who was arrested in the United States and taken to England under the provisions of the Ashburton treaty, was tried for feloniously uttering a forg?*l warrant of attorney for the transfer of ?6,305 3s. 5d. Bank stock. The prisoner was convicted and transported for life. A letter from Admiral Dupetit Thouar*, written at Rio do Janeiro, ha* been received at Park, relative to hi* disavowal of the sovereignty of Tahiti. He declare* that he will not receive the sword of State for which Young France haa ?oh ?crihcd, a* ft involved a alur upon the act of the Government. 'n Pari*, court* of arbitration are about to l?e established, to wl. :h all commercial difference* tliat do not involve legal point* are to lie referred, with the leaat posaible expense to the litigant*. The wolvea in France, owing to the intenmty of the cold, are beginning to show themaclve* in larg* number* in the neighlwrhood of *ome of the large town*. The English contractor*, Mcawr*. Mackenzie and Bra**ey, have contracted for the execution of the Orlean* *nd Borjpaux railway for sixty-one million* of franca. On the 10th instant, Mia* Clara Webster, a celelrrated Eng lish dancer, of Drury Lane Theatre, aged 21, fell a victim to fire, which caught her light dancing garment* while perform ing in the ballet the Revolt of the Harem, and cauaed her death within three day* afterward*. The Government of Egypt ha* *ent instruction* to the Eu ropean Consul* at Cairo to prohibit traveller* crossing the de sert between Cairo and 8uez except by the Egyptian Tramiit Company. I)r. Woi.rr was on hi* way from Teheran to Erzeroum at the latest date*. Full Nati*factinn i* to be given to the Briti*h Consul at Trebixond for the inault offered him by the Pasha. Merchant*' letter* from the Danube state that the Runaian fleet on the coast of Circaania ha* lately captured a Turkish ?lave-ship, on l>oard of which, be*ide* a quantity of ammuni tion, there were several cheat* of English arm* for the moun taineer*. The Pari* Siccle, alluding to the determination of the King of Prussia to give a "Constitution," snya: "The work i* not only a project, but it i* already flniahed. All that now i* to be done u to promulgate it and to put it in operation." The weekly meeting of tho Repeal Amociation on the 18th ultimo poHscned little intere*t. The rent had f.dlen to ?180, ami Mr. O'Connell moved that from the l*t of January the R?l<c*ler* throughout Ireland be called on to send in weekly contribution*.