OCR Interpretation

Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, February 22, 1845, Image 1

Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045784/1845-02-22/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

PfWf MwgD BY ml,eh k uumv.
'I'wo UuLLAit* a year; or Off Dollar for the first rvgultr
Kwion of each (Jougreas; and Firrr CtJrrs tor the final ses
sion of rach Confrea*and the same for each Extra Ses
sion?payable iu all cam'* in advanw.
We can hardly persuade ourselves that already
Congress has been in session for 'nearly three
months. But so it is. Without pretending to par
ticularize the topics which have engrossed the at
tention of both Houses, and have been accurately
chronicled by our reporters, we foiiow our own
usage, by taking a brief glance at the week that
has passed.
Upon the fact, so quietly accomplished during the
week, of the fiual ratification, iu all legal form, by
t!ie Congressional bodies, of the late Electoral deci
sion as to the ensuing Chief Magistracy, we have
already slightly touched; drawing froin that occur- {
rence one of the good omens which still gladden us,
at times, and which, even among the growing presages
of confusion, renew no little part of our confidence
in that instinct of order and that love of what is its
only sure defence, our forma of Government, which
still manifest themselves in high public acts, and
give token of a spirit that may yet redeem the coun
try and its Government from those wild influences
that seem just now on nearly all sides in the ascen
dant, but temporarily only, as we still believe.
WhUe, amidst all the agitations that prevail, all the
vehement passions that are excited, in a contest like
that just past, we can see, at its decision, even un
der recent circumstances, a minority the most for
midable that ever in any country saw itself thus
overthrown submit to the forms of law and vindi
cate its patriotism and its rectitude, still more by its
patience under ill than its struggle against it, we
shall still hope something of that which the fiend in
Mdton dreads, when, bidding his fellows not to be
too confident of their own powers of hurt, he says :
" Or could we break our way
By force, and at our heels all Hell should rise
With blackeat insurrection, to confound
Heaven's purest light, yet our great enemy,
All incorruptible, would on his throne
Sit unpolluted, and th' ethereal mould,
Incapable of stain, would soon expel
Her mischief, and purge off the baser fire,
It is, however, by the intervening news of a foreign
event?the final overthrow of Santa Anna and the
triumph in Mexico of a Revolution against an old
artificer of Revolutions?that we are led to recur to
th? fact of last week, presenting so happy a contrast
to the violence which, in the neighboring Republic,
?o often subverts the State by its very efforts (even
when sincere) to correct its temporary mischiefs.
That unhappy country has continually, for some
twenty year*, been the victim of its own facility to
I resort, against every temporary abuse of power, to
the overthrow ol law and government itself?des
perate remedies, utterly beyond almost any tiling
that the rulers of a day, however pernicious, can
inflict upon a people possessing a system of freedom.
The les^n to the late Mexican chief is not less se
vere than it is in the main just. He had himself
shown too often how authorities were to be pulled
down ; and when, accomplishing the objects of his
>ersonal ambition, he grew conservative, and would
lave contained by force the spirit which he had j
lelped to teach, he has himself been upset by the
>ery arts which he had shown. He had sown the
wind : he has reaped the whirlwind.
If a better fate has thus far attended our experi
ment in government, we owe it partly to the old
habits of our race?to that which constitutes for the
\nglo-Saxon a genuine glory, most different from
?ne which we hear with shame imputed to the
Uncage. Its virtues alone, its love of law, its resistance
to wild and disorganizing impulses within, have
fiveu it predominance without. The nation that
tramples upon its own laws, that violates every do
mestic security, that is formidable to the best of its
own citizens, wUl never be able long to accomplish,
however willing to attempt, those.wrongs to other
countries which men amongst us seem meditating
with such delight, though to be achieved at the sa
. crifice of every thing permanently good and safe in
our own institutions.
But even these instinctive habits of our race
would not, in the outset of our Government, have
taved us from disorders which, once begun, grow
easier at every repetition, if it had not been our for
tune to possess, in one illustrious citizen, a man the
fittest in virtue, in wisdom, in courage, in patriot
>sm, and in the confidence which all these had at
racted to him, to maintain the steadfast temper of
the land and teach veneration of our laws, before
yet custom and time had made the general attach
ment to them implicit, sure, incapable of yielding to
momentary events or passions.
Constitutions have been subverted in Mexico by
design ; they might be overthrown among ourselves
by a sort of popular inadvertence, which, carried
*way by the passion or the fancy of the day, over
looked, in the eager pursuit of some present object
or feeling, the havoc which it was perpetrating of
things infinitely more valuable.
We passed safely through the Whiskey Insur
rection, kindled up against a just and neccssary
exercise of the powers of the Government by bad
men, who worked upon that jealousy of the
taxing power which forms one of the great checks,
throughout the British race, of governmental abuses. I
In the famous Olmstcad case we saw the State
authorities of Pennsylvania, under Governor Sny
der, arrayed in arms against the execution of the
Federal laws. \ et again the conservative prudencc
of the Government and the people averted serious
violence, and saved the Constitution from that se
vere trial. And again, in the attempted Nullifica
tion of South Carolina, the passions of a particular
section, enlisted against the legitimate acts of the
Government, threatened a direct issue of strife: but.
once more, by a wise concession, the authority of
the laws was preserved, the Constitution saved
from being either abrogated, or, for its enforcement,
stained with blood. Less fortunate, certainly, was
the example last year of the deliberate, contemptu
ous, and as utterly needless as illegal overthrow, by
a branch of CeagNM iuelf, of
sound law of die land (the Single Dt?tnct t ec on
Law) recently pa?ed by all ih. co?e?rrmg teg^U.
live powers. But the Rhode Iibnd ca*e again
moat encouraging in i?e. ^
wilh which our Democratic Repnbhc w?e?r threau
ened?precisely of the character of those emmda ve
and anarchical movement which have, in Mexico
and other of the Southern Republic., enabled dema
croiruea to overturn established government, and
olaiiUhe ladder of their own ambition on .to ruins?
' averted by the innate attachment of the mass of
the older and sounder men of Rhode Island to the law
alld the order which, as well as genuine patriotism,
have ever distinguished that glorious little Republic.
These dangers ?ur Republican Institutions have
encountered and paesed; the good sense of many
of the very individmls concerned in the transactions
referred to having been, when left to their own cool
reflection, smomr lb* moat efficacious means oi re
storing a right lone to the < excited masses of the
people, who have erred as much from heed
lessness as from ill'design, and as many of them
perhaps under the influence of pardonable motive
as of that which was positively bad. The evil ol
the contempt of its own solemn acta of legislation
by one branch of Congress?in the case of the Dis
trict Election law?is not, to be sure, entirely cured;
but the efTect of "the sober second thought
has already wrought a salutary changc in part,
which, it can hardly be doubted, will soon be found
to have extended its corrective power to every
member of the Confederacy.
Will the People of the United States suffer to be
lost upon them, in the present juncture of their
affairs, the new demonstration, afforded by the late
result of another revolution in a sister Republic, ol
the infinite importance of holding on, with unyicl -
iug clip, U) the forms of that Constitution in which
their liberties are enshrined? What has hitherto
sived and preserved us as a nation ? Nothing ut
the absolute acquiescencc in the will of the ma
jority, constitutionally expressed, of which we have
ai this instant so glorious an illustration. What has
Lade Mexico the theatre of a succession of bloody
revolutions, such as that of which the news lias just
reachcd us, but the departure, under the influence of
some popular mania, fanaticism, or caprice, from
the written law?from the letter of her Constitution .
After the overthrow of the Emperor Iturbidf., and
the establishment of representative Government
in that country, Pkdraza was, in 1828, const,tu
I tionally elected President of the Republic. He
I was, nevertheless, scarcely installed, before he was
assailed and driven from power by Guerrero, who,
by the assistance of his friends, was made 1 resi
dent. He was suffered to hold his ill-gotten power
but a short time, when Bustamentk (then Vice Pre
sident) succeeded him, he being attacked, deposed,
pursued to the shore of the Pacific ocean, and there
captured and put to death. Bustamentk w.cldcd
the Presidential power for a tune, when he in turn
was overthrown by Santa Anna, whose own life
is now, after being almost deified by his country
men, at the mercy of his political adversaries.
What a consolatory contrast, we repeat, does not
the working, thus far, of our own system present
to the contemplation of the philanthropist, the phi
losopher, and the statesman! Behold the three
millions of voters, spread over this vast region ol
country, divided for months in arduous contest be
tween two persons presented to their choice for the
first office in their gift, at length depositing their
votes so equally for each of the candidal that to
this day it is hardly known which of the two re
ceived the greater number of lawful votes, and it is
<*rtain that the citizen elected, constitutionally
chosen, to be President, actually did not receive a
majority of all the votes of the People. \ et, is
there a murmur of contention, a single whisper ol
resistance, among all the legions of gallant Whigs,
from Maine to Louisiana, from the Adantic to the
Rocky Mountains, whose hearts were leagued to
gether in the support of Clay, to the accession of
Polk to the Presidency! Not one; no?thank
Heaven for the reason we have to be proud ol our
institutions !?Not one !
And these institutions of ours, in their forms as
well as in their substance, seeing how much we owe
to them, shall we not cherish and cling to them
always, and under all circumstances ?
This brings naturally to mind the great prin
ciple at issue, according to our view of it, in the
important and momentous question which has been
debated for the greafter part of the last week in the
Senate, and will be yet debated for some days to
come. We mean of course the Texas question.
We have, in the preceding remarks, casually
adverted to some of the dangers which our poli
tical system has escaped or surmounted, being
such, in all cases, as were partial, not general, in their
extent and influence. The trial is yet to be made whe
ther our political system would long survive a suc
cessful assault upon those forms of which it is made
up, by a violent breach of its vital organs.
That trial has not yet been made, though during
a former Administration we have had pretensions
set up which, had they not been vigorously checked
by a brave and patriotic Senate, might have npene
into a very serious usurpation by the Executive o
the legislative power. In the question now e
pending to annex by act of Congress a foreign
territory to the United States, we perceive a threat
ened usurpation by the legislature of the constitu
tional authority of the Executive, not less dangerous
to the existence of this Government than would be
the assumption by the President of authority vested
by the Constitution in Congress alone.
Let us hold on, whilst we can, as we would for
dear life, to the forms of the Constitution ! Let not
Congress undertake to exercise power which the
Constitution has given to the President and two
thirds of the Senate, and, by so entrusting and dele
gating it, denied to the House of Representatives any
participation in. Let us not undertake to do by
usurpation that which, it has already been admitted
without dispute, the treaty-making power alone can
do, and which the treaty-making power, when
invoked, has refused to do?hat declared shall not
be done.
Since we alluded, in Monday's paper, to tht
Olmntead cane, we have seen a notice in a New
York paper of the death, at the age of ninety-six
years, of Gideon Olmstkad, in whose favor the
judgment of the Supreme Court was attempted to
be resisted by the State of Pennsylvania. That
case, with the history of which lew ol our readers
are acquainted, in which the supremacy of the laws
was successfully vindicated against popular opinion,
operating upon the Government of the State so as
to induce it to take part against the authority ol the
Federal Judiciary, deserves to be remembered as a
lesson against permitting any supposed popular leel
ing to interfere, at any time, with the due course j
of law. . I
The facts of that case, the record of which is pro
bably within the reach of very few of oat readers,
are briefly as follows:
The Supreme Court of the United Hums hav
ing ordered a Mandamus to be issued in the case
of Gideon Olmstead vs. the Executors of Ritten
house, in which the authority of a law of the State
of Pennsylvania had been overruled by that Court,
the Legislature of that State directed the Governor
to resist the execution of the decree, taking ground
at the same time, by resolutions addressed to the
General and State Governments, that the decision
of the Court was unconstitutional, and that, " as the!
guardians of the State's Rights, they cannot [could
not] permit an infringement of those rights by an
unconstitutional exercise of power in the United
? States Courts." These resolutions were ordered
to be transmitted by the Governor of the State to
the Executive of the United States, and the Gover-|
nor was thereby also authorized and directed " to
? correspond with the President on the subjec t in
' controversy, and to agree to such arrangements as
may [might] be in the power of the Executive to
make, or that Congress may [might] make, either
* by the appointment of commissioners or other
? wise, for settling the difficulties between the two
' Governments." These resolutions, rcmarkablj
illustrating the confused notion entertained by their
authors of the distribution of powers in the General
Government as well as of the relations between the
General and State Government*, were transmitted
to the then President (Jambs Madison) by the then
Governor (Simon Snyder) on the 6th of April, 1809,
in a letter couched iu respectful and complimentary
terms. To this letter Mr. Madison replied, on the
13th of the same mouth, that, according to the de
sire expressed in the resolutions, they should be
laid before Congress when next in session, but in
dicating very decisively his own opinion of the pro
posed interference with the execution of the laws in
the following terms :
? Considering our respective relations to the sub
ject of these communications, it would be r.uue
. ressary, if not improper, to enter into any cxami
' nation of some of the questions connected with it.
? It is sufficient, in the actual posture of the case, to
remark, that the Executive of the United States
- is not onlv unauthorized to prevent the execution
4 of a decree sanctioned by the Supreme ( ourt of
? the United States, but is expressly enjoined, by
4 Btatute, to carry into cflect any such decree when
? opposition may be made to it."
Ill the course of time the Mandamus directed by
the Supreme Court was issued and placed in the
hands of the Marshal for the District of Pennsyl
vania ; and, on the part of the State, a dctachmcnt
of Militia was ordered out to resist its execution,
and was actually stationed for some time in front of
the premises upon which it was to be carried into
effect. The Marshal contrived to serve his process,
however, without the knowledge or consent of the
Commander of the detachment; and then the Mili
tia?marched back again. And so ended the re
sistance of the authority of the Supreme Court by
the State of Pennsylvania.
The election now going on in the State of New
I York for county officers shows most gratifying re
sults for the Whigs. Every where, so far, they
gain on the election of last fall, and the Whig spirit
I exhibits itself still undaunted.
I John Ross, principal chief, Richard Taylor, John
Looney, William S. Coodey, Aaron Price, Moses
Daniel, T. Walker, and John Spears, have been ap
pointed a Delegation by the National Council of the
Cherokee Indians, and directed to proceed to this
city without delay, with full powers to negotiate a
treaty that will embrace and settle all matters which
are open between their people and the Government
of the United States. These matters, (says the
Cherokee Advocate,) although of little weight com
paratively to that Government?great, powerful, and
wealthy as she is?are of incalculable moment to
the Cherokecs. They affect not merely their pe
cuniary interests, but also those intimately connect
ed with their being and prosperity, and are such as
justice, integrity, and humanity require should qieet
with prompt settlement.
Manufati'rino PVblic Opinion.?Meetings have
recendy been held in Brunswick, Bangor, Thomas
ton, and other places in Maine, at which strong re
solutions in favor of annexation have been adopted.
The Kennebec Journal has the following remarks
on the subject:
"It might be supposed from these expreaaiona of approval
of the annexation of Texaa that there w?. a .bong feeling in
the State among the Democracy in favor of the annexation of
I Texa- a* by the House of Representative*. Nothing
' ran be more unUue. It ? the e**ie?t thing in the worid1 to
1 na-H resolve* of this character. Not a twentieth part of the
Democracy are interwtod in the proceeding* of the* meeting*
They are got up by a few individual* who have much more
regard for the office* than they have for annexation. They
look large upon paper, but nowhere else. We do not th.nk (
1 Me**?. Herrick, Dunlap, Hamlin, or W hite will be very j
1 much moved by the parage of theae resolves, which th^e ,
1 anxious interested office-seekers mean to uaeMp?n***
' power and patronage under the administration of Mr. I oik.
i Colonel David Chambers, the Speaker of the
Senate ofOhio, (and formerly a Hepresenuuve jn ,
Congress,) was many years ago an editor^of r daily
newspaper in that State ; and John M. <'A -^oher
Esq., the Speaker of the House, is now the editor
of the Springfield Republican,
The packet ship I luteins arrived at New York
on Sunday afternoon from Liverpool, froirt whieh
port she sailed on the 12th of January., She brings
Liverpool papers of that dale, and London papers
o! the lltlw. The intelligence is thus eight days
later than had been previously received, but is,
however, of no great interest.
i he Londoa 7Ymet of the 9th contains some comment*
upon the project of annexing Texas to the United Slates ;
and after dialing that it is at present the most prominent i>oint
of public attention, and that it can scarcely fail to involve the
United States in u war with Mexico, speaks thus of Mr. Cal
houn s despatches and general diplomacy :
^ he tone and language of Mr. Calhoun's epistles cer
tainly look very little like any intention U> forego the antici
pated bonne Iwtirhc for any considerations of justice or policy,
or indeed for any at all short of absolute necessity. There is
a sort of gusto al>out the way in which the claim is advanc
ed?the fat and sleek condition of the anticipated victim en
larged and dwelt u|>on?its points gone over Heriuiim ami at
length, and the policy of devouring it expatiated and revelled
in, which absolutely make on*'* mouth water. ' It is our
?i:stis*'(!) says die Secretary, ? to occupy that vtut re
gion.' * ? Wo are very sorry for it?truly unhappy are
we at lieing compelled to devour that * vast region'?to re
joice. in the profits of its railroads and canals, ourselves no
shareholders the while?to reap its fruits, which ourselves did
not sow?to inhabit its ' citics, towns, villages,'built by no
hands of ours : truly sorry ore we to be driven to all litis ini
quity ; but, alas ! our miserable fate compels us ; there ia no
alternative ? so it must be ! We hardly know whether to
admire most the ineffable impudence or the abominable sub
terfuge maintained and disclosed by the few words which we
have quoted."
The Time* of the 10th recurs to the subject, and expresses
the belief, frotn advices received from Mexico, that she has
abandoned her intention of again invading Texas, and the
United States will lie thus deprived of this pretext for annexa
tion. Though not called upon to speculate upon the probable
reply of the French Government to Mr. Calhoun's letter to
Mr. King, it declares it cannot appreciate the silence of the
French press upon the subject, and expresses its belief that
" the most effectual contradiction on the pait of France will
be a cordial concurrence in our protest against the annexation
jjolicy of the American Cabinet, and a firm demeanor in Tex
as itself; and we have reason to hojic that these elements of a
just and pacilic resistance will not lie wanting."
In the same article it speaks of the projected occupation of
Oregon, which it regards as an utter impossibility, in the face
of the subsisting convention with Great Britain requiring from
either side a year's notice of such intention, and says that "it
is not a ease in which any sudden invasion of British rights
can be attempted, especially whilst the British subjects in the
territory are at least ten to one of the American settlers ; nor
would it be easy for a mere party conspiracy ltetwcen a falling
President and a rising faction in the House of Representative*
to commit the nation to so serious a dispute with Great Bri
tain." It speaks of the wise provision of the Constitution
that treaties can only be concluded by the President and two
thirds of the Senate, and alludes as follows to the character and
position of the United States Senate :
*4 No House of Lords, in the mo?t trying limes of what il
was then the fashion to call ob*truelion, ever stood the bruni
of popular effort more constantly than the Senate of the Unit
ed .States ; and, emboldened by the certainty of defeat in an
other place, every popular leader raises his voicc in the Hous<
of Representatives to carry by the authority of Congress mea
sures which the President is too weak to achieve, and the Se
. nate loo wise to endure. The consequence oi this state o
things has inevitably been, that the Senate is tlie sole institu
tion of the Uuited States which commands the respect of for
eign nations. It is scarcely worth while to inquire what trea
ties Mr. Tyler has signed, or what resolutions Col. Bentoi
1 has carried ; we are little moved by the tricks of a mounte
bank anxious to make the most of the six weeks which stil
intervene between him and the dense shades of private obscu
Irity ; nor are we moved by the proceedings of the mors pojnj
lar branch of the legislature, to which, in such nutters, n<
one, even in Amonca, attaches much importance. We wai
to see what the Senate says of them."
From France there is no news of any importance. Th?
Paris journals are discussing the probability of changes in th?
The intelligence from Spain is of little interest. The pro
|>osed law for the suppression of the slave trade has lieen jmb
lishrd, as well as the report of the Senate in its favor. It
will probably pas# with little opposition. Disappointment is
felt by the several parties at the omission in I<ouis Philippe's
speech of any reference to Sjmnish affairs.
The Paris I'rejur expresses the belief that the opening oi
trade with China is not likely to prove beneficial to France.
I he monopoly of the nvtst important articles of manufacture,
it says, ap|iears to I* secured to the English and the Ameri
cans, with whom it will be difficult to contend in the supplv
of white and unbleached calicoes. In the year 1843, it adds,
the Americans exported 1,000,000 pieces of unbleached cot
ton. That amount was nearly doubled in the year 1*44. In
April last the warehouses in the interior of Canton were over
loaded with British and American manufactures.
The Sheffield Mercury snys that very general attention has
been excited by the display of a large showbill of Worrall
Co., machine-makers of New York. The paper adds that,
while some have contented themselves with admiring the clev
erness of design, others have noticed that saws of all sorts,
from the largest circular to the smallest web, form a principal
part of the design, and are especially mentioned among the
leading articles of manufacture, " thus corroborating the cor
rectness of the statements we have often incidentally made as
to the great and successful efforts that arc made to rival us in
this important class of articles by the manufacturers in the
United States."
The wholesale way ip which the Liverpool radical papers,
. formerly Mr. O Connell's greatest eulogists, affcct to condemn
| and despise him and his proceedings, now that they see his
? fall has been accomplished, is remarked by the London fiapers.
The late Riehard Ley land, Esq., of Liverpool, tanker,
presented to his brother, the day liefore his death, the enor
mous sum of one million sterling, sup|?osed to I* the largest
amount ever given as a present in England.?A'. Y. Courier.
An extra from the Boston Courier informs us of
the arrival at that port, on Wednesday morning, of
i the packet steamship IIimcrma from Liverpool,
whence she sailed on the afternoon of the 4 th instant.
Fortunately for the crowded state of our columns
there does not appear to be any news of importance.
No material change had taken place in commercial
affairs; the cotton market had fluctuated but little;
prices were steady, and money was plenty. Par
liament was to be opened on the 4th by the Qiikrn
in person. The revenue returns for the year and
quarter exhibited a considerable increase on almost
every item of receipt. They showed for the first
time since 1837 an excess of income over expenditure, which
may be traced directly to an increased activity ami extension
of the trade and commerce of the country. The total increase
on the year was ?1,183,599; on the quarter ?493,910.
This state of things was deemed a great triumph for Sir Robt. |
Peel and his policy.
There was some discussion in the English papers about, va-1
canc.ies in the Ministry. Mt. Gouldburn, the President of
the Board of Trade, contemplated resignation, and the Secre
tary for Ireland has ascended to the peerage by the death of
his father, which vacated his place.
2^TI"> Morning Herald of the 3d instant says; "Jt is now
definitely arranged, we believe, that Sir Thomas Freemantle
goes to Ireland as Chief Secretary ; that Hon. Sydney Hu
bert leaves the Admiralty and takes Sir Thomas Freemantle's
place as Secretary of War, with a seat in the Cabinet, and
Hon. H. T. L. Cony succeeds Mr. Hubert. Lord Dalhousie '
quits the tfice Presidency of the Board of Trade to Iwcome
the head of the Department."
The merchants of Liverpool have memorialized Sir Robert
Peel. The memorial Hays that most formidable rival of the
British manufacture* in this trade in found in the rapidly in
crea*ing and improved manufacture* of the United State* of
Arnvrica, and giveH, a* a proof of the progretw of manufacture*
in the United Slates, the great increase of the export trade to
Sir Chari.eh Mktcalt, Governor of Canada, ha* been
created a peer, under the title of Baron Metealf of Fernhill.
The Lady of Sir CmMLtH lKiiOr, late Governor of Canada,
dieii on the 2d instant. 1
The death of the Duchea* of Nassau, daughtei of the
Emperor of Kuxnia, is announced by the Wiesbaden corres
pondent of the Frankfurter Journal under date of January 29.
Loyal add reaves to the King had lieen made by deputations
Torn lioth the Chambers, to which he replied, complimenting
them upon the stability of the Government and the prosperity of
the country. He said, " The affection of Franee for my family
and iiiyaeIf is the swoete*t recompense that 1 can obtain for uiy
labors and our entire devoted new*." The address was carried
in the House of Deputies, 216 to 33. The number of oofl
wrvative deputies pit-sent at the meeting of the Chamber on
the 29th ultimo wgt, at the opening, 170, wliich swelled at
the cIom to 241. Th* adhesions to miiiistim of hitherto dis
senting members, in fevar of the dause of the address respect
ing Tahiti, were no less than forty-aeven. A deputation was
named to wait on the President of the Council in the name of
the whole assembly, to ask the Cabinet, through him, to con
tinue the direction of affairs. Marshal Soult replied, in his
own name and that of the Cabinet, that neither he nor his
colleagues would desert.
Letters from Bavonne of the 23d of January give the news
of the arrest of the unfortunat e Zr a h a no, the insurgent chief.
It appears that the rumor of hi* escape into Portugal had been
circulated by his friend* with a view to lull the suspicion* of
the Government, and enable him to avail himaelf of a favora
ble moment for making his escape. That moment having, as
he fancied, arrived, he left his hiding place near Logrono,
with his brother-in-law Cayo Muro, but wtu? immediately
tracked and seized. The Governor of Logrono forthwith
placed the prisoners in capella, and in twenty-four hours from
their capture caused them to be shot. The seizure of Zur
bano led to the summoning of a Cabinet council, the result of
which was the expedition of an order to suspend his execu
tion?an order which, however, arrived too late.
By a gentleman who came passenger in the brig
Selina, arrived below, we have advices to the 20th
December from Rio Grande do Sul. The insur
rectionary movements in that quarter of Brazil had
been effectually put down, the rebel forces having
surrendered to those of the Imperial Government.
It was reported, subsequently, that Gen. Paez, who
was no doubt acting under the secret orders of Bra
zil, had marched to Corrientes, on his way to at
tack the Buenos Ayrean army which was besieg
ing the city of Montevideo. If this should prove
to be the fact, it was supposed that the siege would
be raised at an early day.?Baltimore American.
We have accounts front Galveston to the 8th
instant. Congress had adjourned. The nomina
[ lions of Mr. Riley as Charge d'Affaires to the
. United States, and of Mr. Terrell as Charge
- d'Affaircs to France, had both been rejected, on
5 account, as is supposed, of the passage by Con
gress of a bill abolishing the office of Charge oi
Minister to foreign Powers, w ith a view that the
. duties of such appointments shall hereafter devolve
- upon the Consulate officer. A correspondent writ
- ing from the seat of Government states that the Ta
1 riff Bill remains unaltered until 1846, by a kind ol
j compromise. The Hon. Ashbel Smith, the latt
Texan Minister to-France, has returned to Galves
. ton. The Civilian states that he bore some im
j portant propositions for the consideration of Con
1 gress, but it is not informed whether he arrived in
time to submit them.
? rnox the raovinavcic transcript.
The Writ of Error.?The Supreme Court
have granted the writ of error prayed for in the pe
tition of Thomas W. Dorr. The Governor and
Attorney General have been cited in behalf of the
Slate to appear on the first Monday of December
i next to hear the question argued.
The effect of this will be merely to try theques
r lion whether ihe Constitution and Laws of the
United States have been violated by the action of
this State in the trial of Dorr for treason.
It will not be regretted by any that the Supreme
Court are to hear and determine this matter. What
ever may be their decision, Rhode Island will abide
by it. We. fear not the result.
Alexander McLeod.?The name of this person
age was once, and not very long ago, a word of po
tency throughout the whole civilized world. He be
came famous, as it were, in a day, and discussions, of
which he was the subject, were b?*ld not only in
bar-rooms and by the fireside, but also on 'change,
in legislative halls, and the secret chambers of Gov
ernmental Cabinet*. But he had his day, and then
subsided. Topics of interest arose in which other
men's names were bruited, and his went into what
Mr. Van Buren would call " retiracy."
Recently, however, he has brought himself again
before the public by the publication of a " narra
tive," designed to vindicate his character against
various imputations that were thrown upon it during
the time of his great troubles, to wit: that he had
boasted of his agency in the destruction of the Ca
roline ; that he left Canada before he was arrested
at Lockport to escape the pursuit of creditors; and
that he was largely indebted, as deputy sheriff, to
individuals and the Canadian Government. All
these charges he answers at great length, but the
matter is not of sufficient interest now to require
(hat we should follow him. The "boasting" ac
cusation he utterly denies, and challenges proof of
its veracity. As to the other points, he tells a mo
ving tale of robbery and fraud, and makes it ap
pear that he was much worse treated by his own
countrymen in Canada than even by the "patriots"
and "sympathizers" in our bonier counties.
(;V. y. Com. Adrrr.
In thq Texas debate in the Assembly a few days ago, Gen.
Foniia, of Montgomery county, avowed himself in favor of
" immediate annexation," and expressed ail entire confidence
that his constituent* agreed with him in thia opinion. On
Mondav last the town elections in Montgomery county were
held, and for the first time, in we know not how many years,
the Whig* have obtained a majority in the Board of Super
visors, carri/ing grvr.n town* out of ten The peo|?le will
uprak nut on this question, even though the legislature should '
continue to be dumb.?Albany t'rrning Journal.
The New Orleans Picayune has the following:
"That orderly and sober part of the city, known as Camp
street, was thrown into a commotion yesterday by the novel
exhibition of a very pretty girl giving a tolerably likely young
man a taste of her qualitv a* a pugilist. As the party passed
our office, the youthful Zantippe was belaltoring him with such
portions of her apparel?to wit, handkerchief, shawl, rt retrrn,
as might be converted into a lash. The recipient of these to
kens of affection illustrated the idea of ? tall walking' with
great energy ; but the enraged damsel ' followed in the foot
steps ' close enough to keep her ' illustrious predecessor * with
in range of her miscellaneous threshing machine. They both
appeared to be foreigner*. After they passed the armory the
cavalier quickened his speed as though he had got to the quar
ter stretch. The last that was seen of thrin the ? grey mare'
' was hanl upon his quarters, and using the persuaders freely.'''
There were many memorials and petitions pre
sented and referred during the week, and the fol
lowing reports from committees made :
Mr. WHITE, from the Committee on Indian Affairs, re
ported a bill for the payment of arrearages due the Stoekbrii'ge
Mr. BAYARD, from the Committee on Naval Atliurs, mov
ed that the committee he discharged from the further consider
ation of the petition of Mary McNeils.
Mr. BAGBV, from the Committee on the Territories, re
ported an act for the construction of certain roads in Wisconsin.
Mr. ARCHER, from the Committee on Foreign Affaus,
made an unfavorable report on the claim of John Baldwin, tor
Mexican indemnification.
Mr. FOSTER, from the Committee of Claims, reported,
without amendment, an uct for the relief of the heirs of Alex
ander Mitchell.
Mr. JARNAGIN, from the Committee on Revolutionary
'Maims, made an unfavorable report on the petition of Francui
Mr. BATES, from the Committee on Pensions, made an
adverse report on the act granting a jiension to Suuaiiiwh Scott,
widow of William Scott.
Mr. CRITTENDEN, from the Committee on Military Af
fair*, reported, wivK aineivlnwnU, an act providing payment
for certain military services in Florida.
Mr. ARCHER, from the Committee on Foreign A flair?, '
reported, for indefinite postponement, the bill to provide for
the adjustment and settlement of claims of citizens of the Uni
ted States upon the Republic of Mexico.
On motion of Mr. ARCHER, the same committee were
discharged from the further consideration of the petition of John
Stroheckcr, claiming indemnity for loss of insurance.
Mr. FOSTER, from the Committee of Claims, reported
with amendments, an act for the relief of Daniel Homans.
Also, a bill authorizing the [myment of a sum of money to
Robert Purkis.
Mr. EVANS, from the Committee on Finance, reported an
act to authorize the importation of railroad iron free of duty in
certain cases.
Also, an act to remit the duties which have accrued or been
paid upon the importation of railroad iron in certain cases.
Mr. CHOATE, from the Committee on the Library, re
ported a joint resolution for the distribution of certain printed
documents among the several statistical associations.
Mr. SIMMONS, from the Committee on Printing, reported
the resolution from the Committee on Foreign Aflairs, to print
5,000 copies extra of the Chinese Treaty and correspondence,
which was concurred in.
Mr. WOODBRIDGE, from the Committee on the Public
Lands, reported unfavorably on the petition of sundry citizens
of Missouri, Rsking the consolidation of the land districts of
Fayette and Palmyra, in that Stale.
Mr. FOSTER, from the Committee of Claims, reported,
without amendment, the following House bills :
For the relief of the President and Directors of the Dismal
Swamp Canal Company.
For the relief of Jacob S. Vance, of Ohio.
For the relief of Charles R. Allen.
For the relief of John R. Converse.
Mr. EVANS, from the Committee on Finance, reported
back, without amendment, an act making appropriations for
the payment of navy pensions for the year ending the 30th of
Juno, 184fi.
Also, an act for the relief of Harvey & Slagc, accompanied
by a report.
Mr. CRITTENDEN, from the Committee on Military Af
fairs, reported an act fot the relief of John H. Mclntohh.
Also, an act for the relief of CapUiin J. B. Crozier's com
pany of mounted volunteers.
On motion of Mr. CRITTENDEN, the same committee
were discharged from the further consideration of the resolu
tions of the Alabama legislature for the establishment of a
national foundry at the South.
Also, from the documents relating to an increase of pay for
? military storekeepers.
> Also, from the memorial of the Common Council of Roche*
tei, New York, praying aivappropriation fur the construction
of a fortification at the mouth of the Genesee river.
" The committee wished to be discharged from then- subject <
' Mr. CRITTENDEN said, chiefly from the want of time to
! act upon them before the close of this session, but liad not re
jected them.
Mr. BATES, from the Committee on Pension#, made an
unfavorable report on the claims of W. W. Buchanan, which
was ordered to be printed.
1 Mr. WOODBRIDGE, from the Committee on Public
Lands, reported the act to extend the time of locating Virginia
land warrants and returning surveys to the General Land
Mr. ATHERTON, from the Committee on Pensions, made
an unfavorable report on the petition of Ellison Williams.
Mr. WHITE, from the Committee on Indian Aflairs, re
ported a l?iU for the relief of William Henson. t
Also, a bill for the relief ofCatlin, Peoples &. Co.
Also, a bill for the relief of W. H. Thomas.
Mr. BAYARD, from the Committee on Naval Aflairs, re
ported a bill for the relief of Commodore Jesse D. Elliot.
The hill for authorizing the South Carolina Railroad Com
|?any to import certain pipes and machinery free of duty, be
ing under consideration? ?
Mr. STURGEON said that he wished for information upon
the subject. The mechanics ami artisans of the United
States are celebrated for their skill, and he supposed were
quite equal to the production of any machinery which could
he wanted. He did not see the necessity for an exoneration
from the payment of duty in aid of the importation of ma
chinery from England.
Mr. EVANS replied that he could perhaps supply the in
formation sought for by the Senator from Pennsylvania. This
hill had relation to a late invention in England for the appli
cation of atmospheric pressure as a propelling power on rail
roads. The pipes and machinery could not be made here, and,
probably, not by any body else I>esides the inventor in Eng
land. The invention had been proved to be well adapted to
short distances ; but it had not yet been sufficiently tested on
long ones. If introduced into this country, it might lead to
an extension of our knowledge, and prove of service not only
to our mechanics ami artisans, but to the proprietors of iron
works and all who were interested in the consumption of that
material. There was a part of the South Carolina railroad
which w as well adapted for giving a fair trial of this new prin
ciple. The machinery to he imported was only for one mile .
in length. The amount of duty in question, in a national point
of view, was very small; the object was an important one.
He trusted the bill would not be opposed in its passage.
The bill was then ordered to he engrossed for a third read
ing, and was subsequently passed.
The bill to provide for the ascertainment and payment of
the claims of American citizens for French spoliations coming
up on its passage?
Mr. McDCFFIE commenced a speech in opposition to the
bill. He detailed briefly the history of these claims, and argued
that the various adverse reports which had been made against
I hem afi<>rded ground of presumption that they were not very
strong ones. Twenty years' qmet possession of real estata
afforded presumptive evidence of a good title ; but in this case
the Government was callad to recognise claims which had
rested, or had been regarded as unfounded, for nearly fifty
years. And now, when all who were part and parrel and
I witnesses of the transactions had passed away, the Claimants
were again before the Senate, asking for the passage of a
sentence of condemnation upon General Washington and his
Cabinet t for such would lie, in fact, the passage of a bill do
ing that which, by implication, it will be held, they ought to
have done.
He objected also to the power riven to the board of
commissioners appointed by the hil^ before whom and by
whom those claims were to be decided ; he objected to the
evidence which they were require,! to take; he would not leave
a claim of $ 100 to the settlement of a commission so consti
tuted and with such powers. He viewed the case before them
as void of any original principle of jostire?as voided by its
antiquity, and, as referred to. a very objectionable mode of set
tlement. He ilenied that the Government had rendered itself
liable to the claimants by having in fact appropriated the
property of individuals to its own puqioses. He had no idea
of any speculator who had given *10 for a claim of $1,000
being benefited by the passage of this bill; that speculator '
might have purchased this claim of a poor widow, and told her
that it was worth no more.
Mr. CHOATE replied that the bill provided that no holder
of a claim should receive more than he had paid for it. Nearly
all the claims were in the hands of the original claimants or
their descendants. There was nothing in his opinion in the
argument against the claimant* arising from the antiquity of
the claims, or any lapse in the prosecution of these clainw.
From 1800 to 1818 they were constantly before Congress
The claimants were always before Congraw by their re
presentatives, but from 1818, and for several years after
wards, the state of the country was unfavorable to the consi
[Sac tht fourth page. J

xml | txt