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*i KJberty umI (Jnion, now and torover, on* inaepsurable." SATURDAY, MAY 81, 1845. MEXICO AND TBXA8. The following Letter from ?? W>7 Bource on board our squadron off ' which we find in the government paper ( e of Thursday, confirming the report of e p pecificati.n b.twwn the Rcp-AUc. of Texe. end Mexico, end giring eleo a rather pec c "P* the purpoeee of the Mexican Government tn regard to the United Stetee, ie of too authentic a character to be withheld from our readers : LATEST AND DIRECT FROM VERA CRUZ. From a very rttpedabk wurce, on board our tquadron off j From a very rw, ^ ^ ^ ? For tome time put a report has been in circulation here tint a tieaty of peaoe waa negotiating between Mexico and Texas. Within the laat few days circumstances have transpired which teem to confirm and render it extremely probable. " it appears that Captain Elliot, the British Minister at Texaa, accompanied by an agent from that Government, charged with proposals for peace, arrived here on the 11th of April in the British man-of war Eurydice, and departed direct ly in a very private manner for the city of Mexico. From one of the newspapers enclosed (27th of April) you will learn that on the 21st M. Cuxvas, the Minister of 8tato, made a report to the Mexican Congress on Texan affaire, and, with the unanimous consent of the Cabinet, propoaed adecree author iting him to receive propositions made by Ttxas to and conclude ? treaty of peace honorable to tote aubmitted for the approval of Congress. Th? eCT** the House on the 3d of May by a vote of forty-one to thu teen, and subsequently waa approved by the 8enato un?u mmdjf. A bUl for a loan of three millions of dollars ha* also become a law. _ "Since then lettera from the city of Mexico, which told may be relied upon, have been received here, stating that tlie negotiation between Mexico and Texas has been completed, so for as the Executives of the two countries are concerned. The terms are said to be, that Mexico acknowledges the inde pendence of the latter, guarantied by France and England, provided Texaa rejects annexation with the United States or any other country. "Capt Elliot, with the agent from Tetas, returned to Vera Cruz on the 2d instant, and will embark on board the same ship, about to sail for Galveston. ii n joes not appear, from the different reports of the Cabi net on Texan affairs, and the subsequent action upon them by Congress, that an immediate declaration of war is contemplated against the United Statea. On the contrary, it would seem that the Government wishes to avoid such an alternative, by the readiness it has manifested on this occasion in listening to the propositions for peace made by Texas. By treaty with that Government, and acknowledging her independence on the terms as above related, she would no longer consider her a-lf bound in honor to fulfil the threats Bhe haa made of de claring war against the United States. To this effect M. Coevas has, on more than one occasion, expressed himself in his official reports. At any rate, it would seem highly proba ble that Mexico will await the action of Texas on the present negotiation before any decided measures are adopted on her part. " Believing it important that the Government should be in possession of the information relative to the above negotiation, Capt Cowjraa has deemed it proper to despatch the 8omers with it to Pensacola, with orders to return and join the squad ron without delay." TAHITI. The following letter, which bears the latest date from Tahiti, does not exactly accord with the intel ligence received from the same place, by way of Paris, per the last European steamer. Despatches of the 8d January had reached the French Govern ment from Admiral Haxelin, who, after a week s observation, represented the island to be " perfectly tranquil," and that every thing " tended to lead to the supposition that the restoration of friendly re lations was on the point of taking place. These despatches, however, state that the Natives were still in arms, occupying camps at some distance from each other, but that no conflict had occurred between them and the French since the 30th June. The special messengers who were sent to the Is land of Roitea did not succeed in seeing Queen Pomark, and therefore brought back the letter of \he French ambassador, which was ordered to be delivered to the Queen alone. This was the first attempt on the part of the Admiral to open commu nications with the Queen, in order to induce her to leturn to the French establishments. It is the in tention of the French Government to re-establish tin Protectorate, conformably to the treaty of Sep tember, 1842 ; and if Queen Pomark be absent or on btard a foreign vessel, and do not uncondition ally consent to the Protectorate, Admiral Hamklin is instructed to assemble the different chiefs of the island, and announce to them the intention of France to maintain that treaty?the Queen, in her absence, to be represented by three chiefs, elected in a man ner most in accordance with the customs of the country. These are the instructions which, we are led to believe, the French officers are now endea voring to carry out, but which cannot be complete ly carried into effect while the Natives continue to maintain a hostile attitude. "Papist*, (Tahiti,) Jaw. 3, 1845. " I have now been on shore about six weeks, but cannot as yet realize that I am on the Island of Tahiti, for you can not imagine the alteration that has taken place here in my ab sence. The French are now in full possession of the town of Papeete, and the harbor, which is strongly guarded. They hava built four forts and ten blockhouses to protect the harbor and town. Their garrison on shore consists of about one thousand men. Their ships in port consist of three 62-gun frigs tea, three corvettes, and one steamer. They keep sll their forces confined to the town, which is under martial law, and therefore make as behave like good citixens, as we are obliged to be in our houses by eight o'clock in the evening, at the tap of the dram ; for there are large parties of the natives encamped on both sides of the town, who are only waiting for some definite news from France to commence hostilities. They have had four battles in all, in which the natives have ?uffcred severely, though they fought bravely, and did consi derable execution among the French in the third battle. At Mahuia the natives left 110 of their number dead in their trendies, among whom were three chief men. Two Sundays ago I rode out to one of their encampments, about twenty milea from this place, and found a party consisting of about aix hundred men in the camp, and they are aa aanguine as ever that they can flog the French t but they never can, for they are too much split up among themselves to make any de cided stand. The (jneen is now on the Island of Roitea, and refuses to hold any communication with the Government offi cers here, either by letter or otherwise. Mr. Hamelm, the French Admiral, arrived here about a week since, direct from France. Two days after hia arrival the steamship was dee patched to the Ialand of Roitea, it is said, to demand of the Queen to accept of the Protectorate of France, and return in the steamer to Tahiti, where she is to be installed in all her former puasnnninnr. which are now confiscated to the Govern ment here \ but, in caae of her refusal, (of which there can be no doubt,) the whole group are to be declared possessions, and measures are to be taken immediately for subjugating them to the disposal of France?pesceably if they can, forci bly if they must. If such are the facta, (and I have the whole statement as truth,) we shall have some smart fighting in these diggings before long, aa the nativee are not inclined to yield up their rights peaceably, as yet." ?' On the night of the 26th of last month we oheerved here a moat magnificent comet, the nucleus of which waa aa large and bright as the planet Jupiter?the tail waa full aa large and more brilliant than that of the one we saw here two years ago. When first seen, it bore 88W. true, and it has been visible nightly OToe, and appears in a 8E. direction." A PaavoMsxo*.?The only place in the world where there are contracts made and broken, and regular courts, and judges, and --^niii but no lawyert, is at the Baliaa, In the Britiah settknrtsw uf Honduras?so saya 8tkfsbws, In hia Central America. \ jury is empannelled, the parties state the caae, and, M n?*M*tisfled with the verdict, an appeal lies to the Crown, in nfeieil \ bat Mr. Stephens was assured that only one case had l^n carried up in twenty-two years ! THE UNITED STATES AND FRANCE. We had supposed that all the sensibility of our soi-disant Democrats as to alleged intrigues of for eign Powers had been expended on the British Government. We learn, from the following article in the official paper, that we erred in this, and that the Government of France comes in for its share ol suspicion and jealousy, if not of ill-will: FROM "THB VMIOM." Among the clippings which we have received from an official correspondent in Paris is the fol lowing extract. " The Debats" referred to in the extract is the Court journal, and devoted to the en tente cordiale. We will not pretend to account for the change which has " come over the spirit of the dream" in our ancient ally of France, under the auspices of M. Guizot. Respect for the King of the French forbids our speculating upon the causes of this policy, or at least of the change of tone, which has been recently adopted towards the Uni ted State??particularly on the subject of Texas. We trust it will not continue so ; and if M. Guizot's health compels him to retire from the Ministry, and throw the premiership into the hands of M. Thiers or the Count Moll, we may see some favorable change in the revelations of the French Govern ment. Ancient services, mutual interests, the most amicable relations, which were once partially and momentarily interrupted between the two countries, will, it is to be hoped, again bind France and the United States together, as in the days when Lafay ette and Rochambeau dedicated their best blood to the cause of our country. We are compelled to say that the extravagant speculations in the following article from "77te Debats" do not partake of the usual penetration and statesman-like sagacity of her ipo6t enlightened journals. The facts are in many respects unfounded. The policy which it ascribes to the United States is incorrect. It is entirely at fault about the views and destiny of Texas. The character which it por trays of our own parties and politics is exaggerated and chimerical : " The Dibatt has a long article on the Texan question, the revolution in Mexico, and the differences between Eng land and the United States. It says it - has no intention of pronouncing a eulosrium on the government of Santa Anna, which was a government without morality, 4 but it had in it some | thing like a principle of stability. Santa Anna, finding Mexi co embarrassed by a federalism unskilfully copied from that of | the United States, had rendered a real service of reconstitut ing a sort of centralization. Our contemporary is of opinion that, with the overthrow of Santa Anna, the federal system will fall into fresh disorder, and the Anglo-Mexicans be en couraged by divisions among the people, and their want of unity, to attempt the conquest of Mexico.' It does not fol low, adds the Debats, that the United 8tates will add Texas to their territories : " 'They do not require this in order to have access to Mexico. We saw, two years ago, one of their naval officers audaciously take possession of the capital of California, which he evacuated on the order of the Cabinet of Washington. Without attacking Mexico by sea, on the side of the Pacific ocean, the Americans may penetrate into the Mexican pro vinces by the interior, by what are called the provincius in terna*, and following the route of the caravans from St. Louis to Santa Fe. The anarchy in Mexico, besides, must become for the Texans an argument against their annexa tion to the United 8tates. If hitherto they have been in dread of attack from a Mexican army, they are now delivered from this danger. Finding the opportunity of aggrandizing them selves along the coast of Mexico, they will perhaps imagine it to be their interest to remain their own masters.' " The Debats then goes on to observe that the spirit of invasion of the Anglo-Americans is at an extreme height; that Texas, large as it is, would not satisfy them now ; and that they require immediate and complete possession of the Oregon Territory. Proceeding then to potice the excitement that is kept up in the American Congress, the Debats adds: " ' People are excited against England ; as if; by maintain ing under her domination Canada and the adjacent provinces, the British Government is spoliating the United States. These are bad symptoms, or ridiculous clamors. As regards Cana da, New Brun*wick, or eVexi the Oregon, these demonstra-1 Uons are without danger. England is powerful enough to command respect from a haughty and insatiable democracy, better able to talk than to act, when the question is one of military enterprise against regularly organized forces, and against one of the greatest nations of the civilized world. Bat it cannot be denied that from these extravagant pretensions in a portion of the American public may arise in the Union itself i embarrassments, and even storms. The men, some of them j ambitious, others insensate, who, in order to strive at power w the United Htates, have excited to ?uch stlrgrv# the frcling of the masses, have prepared great difficulties for themselves Tbey will see this now thst they have arrived at their aim. They will learn to their cost what is no mystery for any poli tician of the European school, over which they ridiculously affect a disdainful superiority ; they will learn that the power which is obtained by exciting popular passions, right or wrong, is a very oppressive burden t and that, instead of its procuring for them the glory of which they had dreamed, it can only bring bitterness and disgust.' 99 Important Decision in the U. S. Court for the Fourth Circuit and Eastern District of lirginia. One of the defendants, A., on the 20th January, 1842, ex ecuted a deed to P. and G., which was recorded in the Clerk's Office of the Hustings Court for the city of Richmond on the 22d day of the same month, conveying to them all the real and personal property, stock in trade, debts, credits, and effects of the said A. in trust, to secure ccrtain creditors therein men tioned, designated as creditors of the first and second ?-!??. A. petitioned on the 13th of August, 1842, to be decreed a bankrupt; and, on the 17th September following, he was de creed a bankrupt. The Court set aside the deed to P. and G. upon the ground that it was made in contemplation of bank ruptcy, and was a fraud upon the bankrupt law, and ordered the trustees to deliver the property, dtc. now in their hands to the assignee in bankruptcy, and to render an account before one of the Commissioners of the Court of all the property, Ac. which came to their hands, or to the hands of either of them, by virtue of said deed. The defendants asked for an appeal, which was granted on the usual terms. The bankrupt act passed the 19th August, 1841, to take effect on the first of February, 1842. Under the decision in the above case, in which a large amount is iavolved, all deeds to secure the clsims of any particular creditors, executed be tween the 19th August, 1841, and the 1st of February, 1842, are declared to be fraudulent, and must be set aside. Knq. Nor-rkductiok of Fari on thk Railroad mtwikk Waabiwotoi* Ann Baltinork.?We have noticed for some time past Intimations through the press that, contrary to general and reasonable expectation on the part of the travelling public, the Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company have dertermined not to reduce the fare of #2 50 per passenger, now charged to travellers on the Baltimore and Washington branch. Having made some inquiry upon this ?object one of great interest to the travelling public?we ffM to learn, from a source entiUed to respect, that, although thai* has not yet been any action by the Board of Directors, it is thought there will be no reduction of the fare between *???? Baltimore. Now this, we take leave to say, ^ kit-110* * #ore ^^appointment to the community, but *Py grievance, the rate being now so much above all rrB- U*T*"in* by lailroad in various parts of the York to nJT ,ft,d.thit pem>n* Mn now tr*T?l from New that narsjn- ' we ^aTe '*te'y it advertised sum fTLTfr<>m NeW York to Montreal for a like Zpart JZ wJT Unr~"n^ ? "ell a* impo.iUc, on ? lUftwdComptn,, ?h. r?, ?*i w, am "2 tr.r.r""h" u"n nuke tin Mjwctod reaction to uk. rfbn'r' TT .ill Ml off, .*1 d... JjJ ^ , ?xoelfent line of stages now running brtween the two atim I which will place them on a permanent and sure baais j Mr. James Wade, a very respectable citiwn of Trent? 1 Tennessee, while gunning with a neighbor, Mr Jn^rJT w w?a shot by Harrison, who mistook him for a wiM He w.. |h, ,)QahM imi*r wild turkey. He died almost instantly/^ NATIONAL HONOR. The following striken us as not only good morali ty, but as (what is another thing of much value when it can be found) sound sense : " The Locofocoa in the repudiating State* are holding meet ings and denouncing Great Britain. If theae gentlemen would pay that country what they owe her, they would act much more like honest men. Pay Groat Britain first and whip her afterward*, Messrs. Repmliator* ! To keep her mo ney and to thraah her too, ia rather more affliction than you ought to wish to bring upon your worst enemy. If honor " pricka you on" to go to war with England, doe* not honor alao " prick you on" to the payment of what you owe her ' It i* a very questionable ?ort of honor, indeed, which pockets a man's cauh and whips him afterwards."?Louisville Jour. Mississippi and Arkansas, Illinois and Indiana and Pennsylvania are, through their entire Loco focoism, rampant for war with Britain. Possibly they would be less bellicose, were they, like some other States, out of debt or nearer to the enemy. Othello, we think it is, makes a reflection which we have always looked upon as decidedly rational, considering that he set up for being a gentleman and talked about44 the plumed troop and the big wars." He remarked, like a sensible fellow, "But why should honor outlive honesty ?" For, after all, if honor be one of the chief graces of life?one of its ornaments?a sort of Corinthian cap ital of society?still, it must have a pillar, and a base to stand upon. It is a delightful luxury ; but honesty is the main necessary of life ; and what signify all elegancies of life, if a man has neither meat nor bread 1 By-the-by, we will tell our Western friend a Southern story, which, however, he will easily see dates back a good deal beyond repudiation. We knew in the Carolinas of two Southern gentlemen who, being friends, the one lent and the other bor rowed a large sum of money. But, inasmuch as this business of lending a friend money implies very often the loss of thejfriend, if not the money too, our debtor and creditor fell out. Whereupon the former sent word to the latter that, being in his debt, he held that he could not fairly fight him, and that his loan was too heavy to be liquidated in less than four or five years ; but that with the last pay ment he should send him a challenge. The other, of course, could make no objection to this double liquidation, placed in that right order of integrity first and punctilio afterwards. Well, they lived on upon these notorious terms until the entire amount was punctually refunded; and then the borrower, his probity safe, thought he could indulge his honor. I So he sent his cartel; it was accepted with a due sense of his punctuality, and they fought, the ex creditor breaking one of the ex-debtor's arms, and the ex-debtor shooting him down with a wound nearly mortal. Now, we do not say that these parties did well to shoot at each other for an offence five years old. Nay, we think there is often as much honor in not quarrelling as there can afterwards be in fighting. But if, under such circumstances, there was to be fighting, this it seems to us was the only honora ble way of doing it. And we hope that either Mis sissippi, Arkansas, &c. will send a message such as we have mentioned to Great Britain, or that the General Government, seeing how those States are situated, will send the message for them. Though opposed, under present circumstances, to the Gene ral Government taking upon itself the debts of the States, we trust it will not think of going to war with Great Britain without making some provision to vindicate the national reputation in that parti cular. TERRITORY OF IOWA. The Legislature of Iowa had assembled at the last accounts, and Gov. Chambers had sent in his mes sage. The Governor suggests that at present, and under existing circumstances, a majority of the people would prefer to remain under the Territorial Government rather than incur the responsibilities and expenses of a State Government. He likewise suggests the propriety of again submitting the ques tion to the people in relation to another convention for the forming of a constitution?the last having been rejected. In regard to the boundary contest between Iowa and Missouri he speaks in a calm and judicious manner, stating that he had pardoned the Sheriff of Adair county, (Mo.) and his deputy, both having been in prison for a supposed violation of territorial laws, in arresting and falsely imprisoning a citizen of Iowa. He says the Territorial Govern ment has no power to surrender the disputed terri tory, if they were disposed to do so; it has been committed to them by the General Government, and they have at all times exercised jurisdiction over it. Some years ago this controversy came very near producing >armed hostilities between the State ot Missouri and the Territory. In the Southern Methodist Episcopal Con vention, at Louisville, on Saturday, the resolution from the committee for a separate organization, un der the title of the 44 Methodist Episcopal Church South," was adopted by a vote of 94 to 3. The second resolution reported by the committee was adopted unanimously. It is as follows : ??Ruolotd, That while we cannot abandon or compromise the principle* of action upon which we proceed to a separate organisation in the South, nevertheless, cherishing a sincere desire to maintain Christian union and fraternal intercourse with the Church North, we shall always be ready kindly and reapectfully to entertain, and duly and carefully consider, any proposition or plan having for it* object the union of the two great bodies in the North and South, whether such proposed union be juri$didional or contifxional." A General Conference is called for next May at Petersburg, Virginia. The Parent Missionary Society is located at Louisville. The Book Con cern will not be finally established till the meeting of the General Conference, though it is probable depositories of books may be made at Louisville and elsewhere for the present. Protection to Life and Limb.?The New Or leans Grand Jury, in making up their presentments recently, alluded to the almost entire exemption from punishment of crimes against life and per son in that community, as an evil of frightful mag nitude to society: " Are life and limb," they say, " of so much less value than property, that while offences against the latter receive their just punishment, those against the former may be com mitted with almost perfect impunity > Is this community willing to remain in any degree liable to the charge almost daily made against us, that our laws in effect offer no protec tion to life ot limb > It ia feared that the evil is too deep-rooted in a depraved ?public opinion' to be eaaily reached or auddenly cured \ but if every true lover of good order and of our city'a fair fame will, on every occasion, let his voice be heard in loud de precation of auch a state of things, much may be done by it in giving a healthy tone to public opinian in our country, aince , without ita strong aid all laws are absolutely powerless." , FROM BRAZIL. i The New York Commercial Advertiser has a commercial letter from Rio de Janeiro of March 27, which is considerably later than previous advices, i Of political news it mentions only that the protract- i ed civil war in the province of Rio Grande is at last i brought to an end, and that the whole empire enjoys i unbroken tranquillity. A MAGNIFICENT 8PECTACLE. An enlarged and comprehensive mind can picture no scene more truly sublime and magnificent than would be exhibited by a world at peace. The splendors of victory and the achievements of mili tary conquest are transmitted from age to age, by the erection of triumphal arches, by joyous festivi ties and glowing eulogies; but if the effusion of blood and the triumphs of battle are worthy of such renown, how much more worthy would be the con quests of peace ? The splendors, and blessings, and successes of such a conquest would richly merit monumental distinction, and deserve a far greater name in the annals of mankind, while the ecstatic acclamations of a grateful people would echo and re-echo to the remotest points of the universe. War would no longer consume the immense reve nues of the earth ; it would no longer curseanddry up the currents of life, and fill the world with muti lated bodies and shattered bodies, and clothe hu manity in anguish and blood. If war, with all its attendant horrors, should cease, the treasures of life and wealth which are now demanded to meet its dre&dful exigencies, would be converted to happy and productive uses ; eggary and want would give place, to comfort and plenty; deserted lands, commerce and manufac tures crippled by neglect and inactivity, would be come the inestimable sources of industry, wealth, and happiness, where now violence or bloodshed and devastation hold oppressive sway. The nations, relieved from overwhelming taxation and degrading submission, would be excited to new undertakings lor the diffusion of ease, happiness, and virtue; and, cultivating the spirit of peace, would become cemented in a union of friendship and harmony. Christendom would be no longer a military barrack, whose disciplined armies, fostering a tumult of de structive passions, oppress the people with crushing taxes, with fear and slavery, with desolation and wo. Let the besotted and bloody war-god, on which men have so long lavished their idolatrous worship, be cast down, and the kingdom of the Prince of Peace would be speedily established, and the tran quillity of the nations, the happiness of humanity, and the reign of Christ would be triumphant. The dreadful traces of desolation, the plaintive cries of the dying, and the tears of ruined families, which mark the progress of battles and victories, would be superseded by seasons pure and serene, in which " the tranquillity of nature incites in every being the charm of existence and the sense of happiness," and in which all the pursuits of men would harmo nize and blend together for the diffusion and assimi lation of peace, virtue, and goodness. It would be the most magnificent spectacle in the universe. [Highland (S. C.) Messenger. Nautical Surveys.?Sundry timorous journals have been thrown into paroxysms of terrified indig nation lately, by the announcement that a small Bri tish Government vessel had cast anchor in Boston harbor, and that persons belonging to her were ac tually engaged in the audacious work of taking soundings and other works of nautical observation Of course the next thing is to be a silent nocturnal visit from a dozen ships of the line, steam frigates, and bomb-ketches, and the good people of Boston are to be waked up, some fine morning, by the roar of cannon, the whizzing of rockets, and the noise or their habitations tumbling about their ears. Now it may assuage the alarm of all concerned if [ they will reflect that the most enlightened Govern ments not only take measures to construct accurate charts of their own harbors and roadsteads, and in deed, of harbors, roadsteads, shoals, Sic. Sic. all over the world, but cause them to be published and distributed very widely ; that our Government and our nautoca publishers have minute and excellent charts of all the British waters ; and, in short, that the wise commercial policy of the present day re cognises the expediency and the duty of making ac cess to harbors, Sic. as safe and easy as possible to the vessels of all nations. It is the benefit of com, merce that is regarded in modern nautical observa tions, not the facility of cannonading and bombarding. , [Aifto York Commercial Advertiser. Tke Home Market for Breadstuffs.?After all, (says a writer in Hunt's Magazine,) the home market is the great market for our breadstuffs. I What becomes of the vast amount of wheat that is grown m the country ? The product, we have | already seen, is about 100,000,000 bushels, and only about 0,300,000 bushels are sent abroad. The of 0hio a,one produces three times as much as we export annually ; and the little State of De laware produces twice as much Indian corn as our annu:il export. It is not possible to state the exact .amount of wheat which is consumed in the country by those engaged in other pursuits than agriculture. U we take those engaged in manufactures and trades, in mining, in the fisheries, in all their forms, j in commerce and navigation in all their varieties, and the learned professions, with their families and dependants, it would amount to one quarter of our population, viz. five million persons, who are not producers but consumers of breadstuffs. These will consume one barrel of flour or five bushels of wheat per head, making a constant market for twen ty-Aye million bushels of wheat, equal to about i one-fourth of our whole product. The New Eng land States alone consume annually one million four hundred barrels of flour, or seven million | bushels of wheat more than they produce, which is about seven hundred thousand bushels more than i our entire export. .. ^r'/AME9 G. Birney, the recent abolition can didate for the Presidency, having been taken to task by one of his friends for consenting to be voted for as a member of the Michigan Legislature, and, if elected, to take the oath to support the Constitution of the United States, has written a letter to that in dividual in explanation of the inconsistency ; and a more shameless avowal of atrocious recklessness and profligacy was never made by mortal man. Mr. Birney says, in so many words, that he should have no objection to taking such an oath; for, though the C onstitution does recognise slavery, and (for* contain certain other objectionable provisions ne should take the oath to support that Constitu tion with the understanding that he was to disre' gard all parts of the instrument which he should consider as conflicting with the Word of God, and morality! ^ ***** ^ ***** PrinciP,e9 of Every thing in the Constitution of the United States contrary to Jas. G. Birnev's notions of what should be there, are, in his view of the case, null and void, and of no binding force whatever 1 If James G. Bir ney or James G. Birney's opinions were or any consequence, or he was ever to reach a position in which they could become or consequence, it would be a duty to deal with his letter in such terms as its atrocity deserves; but, as the case stands, a simple statement or his avowal is all that is necessary.?N. Y. Ceurier 4- Enquirer. The New Orleans Courier having undertaken to assert that the debt or Texas does not exceed six I millions, the Tropic 0r that city pushes home a que ry upon the Courier, which we should think the 1, latter paper would find some trouble in answering. ' I How did it happen, inquires the Tropic, ir that debt ' only amounts to six millions, that Mr. Tyler stipu- 1 lated in his Texas treaty that the United States ?' should assume the debt to the amount or ten mil lions, and that the Texan Commissioners admitted ( that the debt would probably exceed that amount? < But the Tropic is cruel enough to go on and tell the Courier that ir it will take the trouble to inquire into 1 the subject, it will find that in Texas no well-inform ed person ever estimates the debt at less than fifteen ' millions, and many carry it beyond that sum. ' [flf. Y, Courier 4 Enquirer. THE CAMDEN RACE?FRIGHTFTTL ACCIDENT. On Wednesday the second trial for supremacy between the celebrated racer# Fashion and Peytoiia to|? i ?laCe over the Camtlen bourse, opposite PhU aoelphia. Fashion, this time, came off rictorious, having won the race in two heats?the day warm and the track somewhat heavy. A friend, who present, gives us the following brief account of the race: " After the dreadful accident to day, the race between Pey "nu and Fashion came 0$ and victory restored to the brow. 0 the Utter at Camden the laurels which her more Southern* competitor had anatched fiom them at the Union Courae. 1 bus may victory perch, alternately, on the banner of the Th" ?' t Norlh' but~the Union be perpetual.' I he story u ahortly told, thua : First heat.- Fashion took the lead and kept it, time, 7 48. Second heat, Even, u if they had been a pair of Siamese twma, unul they entered the first quarter of the fourth mile. Here Peytona (the favorite at the start, $200 to $180) fell back into the wake of her unfailing competitor. She, answer ing to the motion* of her rider, looked back with her big eves at her rival, and, seeing she had it all her own way, led her in several lengtha ahead, and pausing the Judge*' stand under a pull back, in 7 67." Of the accident above alluded to, and concern ing which our city was yesterday filled with such distressing rumors, we copy the following account Irom the Philadelphia Inquirer : Yesterday waa a day of much excitement at the Camden race-ground and its vicinity. Thousands passed over the ri ver from the city, and collected together from the surrounding country, to see the great race between Fashion, and Peytona. The race was to take place at one o'clock, and as that hour approached the stand became crowded, and the excitement deepened in intensity. On the principal stand there could not have been leas than fifteen hundred persons, far too many for iu strength. When Peytona and Fashion were brought out, and the race was about to begin, there was a sudden movement?a sort of general bending forward, to catch a view of the celebrated horses. This movement produced an extra strain upon the stand, which wavered, tottered, and cracked. At first it part ed and fell gradually?at least, sufficiently so to give a mo mentary, and only a momentary, warning of danger. Then the whole centre of the ponderous mass, containing two stories and more than one hundred feet in length, fell with a tremen dous crash. The scene that ensued beggars all description. The cry of panic and alarm was truly appalling, and it was impossible for a time to discover the extent of the injury, and the belief at first was general that a great number of lives had been lost. Poles were promptly obtained to keep the crowd back, and to remove the ruins and lumber. The ground floor was occu pied with eating, drinking, and gambling tables, and contain ed a great number of people, some of whom were among the wounded. It occupied about half an hour to clear away the mass of rubbish. Meanwhile, the reports were of the most exagge rated character; and by the Ume they reached the city the number of killed waa placed by several of them at over one hundred. As far as we have been able to ascertain, no life was immediately lost, although a boy was carried away ap parently dead, and it was feared that "five others were dan gerously if not fatally wounded. The names of some of the sufferers are Mr. P. O. Daniel, Mr. E. Ovenshine, Mc 8ti*tton, W. P. Way, Mr. McElroy, Mr. Price, James Torbert, Garrick Sharpe, John Kisely, Reuben Haines, C'opeland, Singleton, James Mc Man, Riley, William Beebe, Patrick Quigly, Thomas Reynolds, Thomas J. Hough, Samuel McKinney, Wm. Cal houn, and W illiam Franks. The wounded in all will amount to nearly thirty, but the majority of them, we are glad to say, are in no danger. Most of the sufferers were conveyed home, and while on the ground were attended by Dr. McClelland and several other physicians. At first the excitement was so painful that it was thought the race would be postponed altogether ; but the alarm sub aided in some measure in the courae of an hour, and the race took place. The Philadelphia Times nays that after the race another match between Fashion and Peytona was immediately proposed, it is said, to be run over the Canton Course near Baltimore, for $20,000 aside, to fairly determine the championship. It will come off very soon. * t ashion is out of the \ irginia bred mare Bonnets o' Blue. Guizot's " Washinoton," akd Literary Hon ORS*?I* >? "tated in some of the journals that M. Gpixot is ?? the author of the Life of Washington." i his is a mistake, M. Guizot never having written I a Life of Washington. The mistake has doubtless arisen from the fact that a translation of Sparks's Life of Washington, with a selection from Wash ington's Writings, six volumes in all, was publish ed in Paris by that accomplished scholar and states man, to which he prefixed an eloquent Essay on the Character of Washington. A translation of the same work of Mr. Sparks into German, with a se lection from the Writings of Washington, by the dis tinguished historian .,Von Raitmer, has likewise been published at Leipsic, and a translation into Italian is now in progress in Italy. It is a matter of just national pride when Ame ricans gain deserved distinction in the universal re public of letters; and we are happy to understand that Mr. Sparks is another of our countrymen who has hpen honored with a diploma of membership by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin; and also by the Academy of Sciences and Literature at) Palermo. Recent letters from Berlin state that M. Von Raumer has nearly ready tor the press an account of his travels in the United States. A work of this nature, from so eminent a writer and so acute an observer, may reasonably be looked for with much interest.? Boston Daily Advertiser. John Quincv Adams having received a volume of Scott's Commentary on the Bible from the publish er at Philadelphia, in reply said : " W'th my sincere thanks for your kind intention, I must pray you to consider me a subscriber for the book, and, to save the trouble of repeated payments, I enclose a check for the whole subscription?a generaJ principle of propriety interdict ing my acceptance of articles of value while I am in the pub lic service." O*?oo!? TtaaiToai.?Some Ume ago a gentleman, aware that Mr. Astor was better acquainted with the resources of Oregon than any person in this city, asked him what he thought of Oregon, and whether it would be a valuable acqui sition' Mr. A. replied "it was good for nothing but to fur nish furs, and they were all gone long ago."? JV. Y. Gazette. The country north of 49? is of little value for any other purpose than furs, and the British Govern ment appear to have designed no other use for it.' They have neither colonies nor troops there. The posts of the Hudson's Bay Fur Company are the only settlements.?Kennebec. Journal. Cdrioits Correspondence.?The London Globe 1 publishes the following curious correspondence as explaining why Captain Meynell, though holding an , office in the household, was again absent from Fri- \ day's division: Mr. Young, M. P., to Captain Meynell, M. P. , Dear Mrthrll : Pray come up. Peel wants every Tory vote. If we havn't a majority of our own on the second reading it will be as much as my place is worth. D n Lis- \ t>ume. Fiteroy votes ; Pringle cuts ; ami old Forbes Mac kenzie, who had been vaporing at the Carlton that he should , rote, perhaps against, certainly not for us, has just been with ne to say that he has been thinking a great deal on the Hub ert, and should vote with us. He pretended he didn't know I hat Pringle had resigned. Oh, yes ! Kelly is going to rat, mo. 1 hope he won't be sold. For God's sake come up and rote. Yours, ever. J. YOIJNG. | Treasury, Wednesday. Captain Meynell, M. P., to Mr. Young, M. P. ' Deak Vociffl : Peel and all of you may be d?d before I ?me up to vote for Mavnooth. Because Fiti.roy, ami Macken zie, ami Kelly are rogue*, i, that the reason why 1 should be' Your*, ever, H. MEYNELL. Windsor, Thursday. NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. New York, May 29, 1845. The Columbus ship of the line, Captain Wyman, and the sloop of war Vincennes, Commander Paoij> ino, are now lying off Htaten Island, waiting for a fair wind. These vessels form the squadron under the command of Commodore James Bu>dle, bound for China. The Hon. A. H. Everett and family go passengers in the Columbus. The Vincennes, it will be remembered, was the flag-ship of the Ex ploring Expedition. Thejship Bazaar arrived hereon Wednesday from China, bringing an immense collection of Chinese curiosities. It is said to surpass that recently exhi bited in Philadelphia by the late Mr. Dunn. A passenger by this arrival states that the Emperor of China nas written a letter to the President of the United States which fills a paper six feet long and about three wide, in two languages, the Chinese and Manchoo, with the signature of the Emperor in the centre. The manuscript is enclosed in a silk case. Who will interpret it ? Our new Mayor has been signally rebuked by his party in this city for nominating a Whig to of fice, on the poor and insufficient ground that lie was the man best qualified to serve the public in the se lected capacity. The Board of Assistant Aldermen on Monday rejected the resolution of the other Board, confirming the nomination of Justice Tay lor as Chief of the Police. The vote stood four teen to one. Every person bears testimony to the pre-eminent fitness of Justice Taylor for this post; but Locofocoism thinks it a bad precedent to place men in office on such a plea. " In he faithful ' is he compe tent *' were the only question* which Mr. jEPPiBioir thought it necessary to ask in regard to a candidate ; but all that mo dern Democracy demands is, 41 Will Tammany Hall be pleas ed with our choice ' Is he an unscrupulous partisan, and on our own aide Mr. Tat lor is a Whig. He is, moreover, somewhat formidable as an officer to the big and small rogues who infest our city, and who have a voice potential in matters affecting the interests of the dominant party. The rejection of such a man, under auch circumstances, is as disgraceful to the body who have accomplished it aa his nomination was honorable to the Mayor. The thorough-going partisans who have rejected Mr. Tai lor are now hard at work to effect the removal of Collector Vam Ness. They have resolved to bully the President into a compliance with their wishes, and openly avow that he will not have the hardihood to refuse their demands. Mock meet ings, got up by a few wire-pullers, and pretending to speak the will of the majority, have taken place during the last week, at which denunciatory resolutions were adopted. The " spoils" must be in the hands of the ** faithful," say the Tammany leaders ; and Mr. Vait Ness is neither of us nor with us. But, notwithstanding their efforts, these self-consti tuted leaders have failed in bringing the " rank and file" into the traces. In two Wards only out of the seventeen have they succeeded in making an impression, and here only be cause of the slimness of the attendance. A very ingenuous admission was made at a meeting of the German Democracy. One of their resolutions accuses Mr. Vaw Ness of having been appointed to office by John Tyler "at the time he was buying up Democrats like cattle in the market." 80 the "unterrified democracy" msy be bought up " like cattle," if we may believe the testimony of the German branch of the family in this city ! This is candid at any rate. We know of one argument at least which their patriotism finds irresistible. They are not proof against gold. They plead guilty to the weakness of being subjects for bribery and corruption. Is this intended ss a delicate hint to the Whigs to buy up these austere, incorruptible republicans > We have accounts from Hudson of another anti-rant out rage of a very gross character. I11 attempting to dispossess a man named Freexax Hah two officers were shot, and se riously though not dangerously wounded. They narrowly esraped with their lives. The small-pox panic begins to abate in this city. The number of deaths from that malady last week was only fifteen. There is no longer any cause for alarm. The Board of As sistants last evening appropriated four hundred dollars for the purchase of lime to purify the streets5 also, twenty-five hun dred dollars to defray the expenses of gratuitous vaccination. An arrest under the Ashburton Treaty took place in this city last evening; a man named JVarr, of Bridgeport, England, being arrested for forging an acceptance to a bill of exchange for seventeen pounds. He had taken passage in the George Washington for this port; and of course there was ample time to send out word by the steamer to have him arrested. He indignantly denies the chsrge brought against him. But little money was found upon his person- He is accompanied by a son of tender age. A line of new packet ships, furnished with propellers on Eaicssov's plan, is to be put upon the route between this city and Liverpool by some Boston cspitalists. The first ship of the line is expected to be ready to leave our port early in September ; she is called the MiuMtrhuseitt. The enterprise is likely to be a successful one. What will our Boston friends do for us next > Will they have the goodness to take under their charge the keeping of our streets in a cleanly condition ' ANOTHER FIRE AT PITTSBURG. We condense from the Pittsburg Gazette the subjoined par ticulars respecting another fire of soine extent which occurred in that city last Tuesday night: " We are pained to be called on to announce the occurrence of another fire, not ao much because of the destruction of pro perty as the distress it inflicts upon the poor, who, with few or no exceptions, sre the sufferer*. The fire broke out about nine o'clock on Monday night, in the stable of Mr. Samuel Young, a drayman. The origin, we believe, was accidental. It immediately spread across a narrow alley, and, the whole neightwrhood being composed of small frame houses, it spread rapidly. The space burnt over was just upon the edge of a steep bank, and difficult ef access from below. The* stable was on an alley running from Prospect street to Coal lane. The fire spread across Prospect street, and took the housea on both sides up to Washington street, where it was stopped. On the side of the bank it took all the back buildings, sheds, Ac. Thirty houses or more were burnt \ but, with few ex ceptions they were of very trifling value : nearly all were frame, of one and two stories high, none more than the latter. " The loss in value of proptqQy being so smsil, the fire at any other time would be thought very little of; but what makes it felt is the unsheltering of so many families belonging to laboring men, draymen, and others of like occupations, when houses are so difficult to be got. Their furniture, being easily moved, was mostly saved, except in the houses first burnt. Our citizens, we have no doubt, will be prompt in aiding their necessities." "ALABAMA LAW" EXPLAINED. We thought our contemporaries of the press a little too sa gacious to circulate the report that Judge BaAnn, of our Cir cuit, had decided that Texaa is a part of the United 8tatea, and required a Texaa citizen to do duty here. It is all a joke. No such decision was erer made by Judge Bragg. The fact ia, as we understand it to be, that " an old resident of this city asked to be excused from serving on a jury because he had been in Texas and taken the oath of allegiance there. Hia excuse was disallowed, and he waa ordered to take hia ?eat in the box. The Judge merely remarked to a bystander, jocosely, that it could make no difference any how?Texaa was annexed." Out of this casual remark has grown tho xtory thst the Judge had formally made the decision reported. The Sew York Expret* of Monday afternoon saya : "The failure of John T. Smtth A Co., Bank Note Brokers, turna >ut to be very heavy, and larger than was at first supposed. There is considerable overdraft on one of the banka, ami ?hecks, for money lent, are also unprovided for, to a very arge amount. Some of the securities, in the shape of notes tnd acceptances, due here, and which have been lodged in >anks, will be contested. A very large sum, placed here in leposite by district banks and capitalists, will be unprovided Tor." Thornton A. Freeman, a deputy postmaster in Carroll :ounty, Missouri, who abstracted a large amount of money From the mail some time last year, was, on the 9th uhimo, sentenced to undergo thirteen yeara of punishment in the pen itentiary of that State at hard labor.