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WASHINGTON: SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1845.
JFVBL,lHMUil> BW VJUjBM f MBMTOJT ' TERMS: Two dollab* a year; or On Doixa* for *? ?cation of each Ciogress, and Fifty C**ts lor *?*?**??* ..on of each Congre.., and the ww for each Extra Se siou?payable in all cases in advanoe^ ONE WORD MORE UPON TEXAS. An error of the press occurred in the leading ar-j tide in our paper of Saturday last (which, however, J attentive readers will have generally detected from its context) the correction of which may prevent some misapprehension. The error -insists in printing the date 1834 instead of JP'id as the year in which the Constitution of Te' j was formed by the " same Convention " as tfiat which had, in the -ame year, issued its Declaration of Independence. Having occasion thus again to allude to the sub ,f>ct, in regard to which we have recently been obliged, greatly regretting die necessity for it, to expose die unfortunate and lamentable errors if history and of fact of the Executive organ? tin-ore which led to its late denunciation of blood shed and 44 vengeance " upon any attempt of the Mexican authorities to send reinforcements to Mexican posts on Mexican territory?we take oc casion now to say, that, having done all in our power to prevent this Government from perpe trating or countenancing any such aggression, by demonstrating equally its enormity and its fatuity, we are content, for the present, to leave the ques tion, without further controversy, where it stands. Before we quit it entirely, however, we will briefly notice so much of an article on the subject in 44 the Union " of Saturday night last as is con tained in the following quotation from it: " The attempt made by the 'National Intelligencer' of this ' morning to reply to our argument of Thursday evening is ' like the struggle of the weak man to escape from the q^orase ' in which he i* floundering. What will the reader thinK of ' its attempting to show that the Texas which we now claim? ' the Texas whose boundaries are the same with those which 'all our Administrations have claimed it to have under the treaty ' of Louisiana.?Texas to the Rio del Norte?was not the ? Texas as recognised by the P?wers of Europe, although she * had solemnly proclaimed it in the organic law of 1836 ?" &c. Whether the 44 Union " or the 44 National Intelli gencer" most resembles the weak man in a morass, &c.. we are perfectly willing to refer to the judg ment of all disinterested persons ; that is to say, of all persons of whatever party who have no interest m Texan land claims or Texan scrip to be affected Dy the decision. Our purpose now is only to satisfy those of our readers who are also readers of 44 the Union," that nothing can be more unwarrant able than the abuse lavished upon us by the Execu tive organ for the ground which we have taken on this subject, unless it be its own assertion of title to the Rio del Norte as the recognised boundary of Texas. This we shall show by quotations from the argument upoi\ the question, by him who best J understands it, and who is at the same time the most prominent member of its own party in the Senate of the United States, 44 when the Treaty of Annex ation" was under debate in that body almost a year and a half ago. Of the Speech delivered by Sen ator Benton on that occasion, we quote from 44 the . Globe" of May 20, 1844, the subjoined passages, after commending which to the whole attention of | our readers, we cheerfully resign the merits of the, question into their hands. EXTRACTS FROM Mm. BENTON'S 8PEECH, Mat 16, 1844. 44 These former provinces of the Mexican Vice 4 royalty, note departments of the Mexican Repub 4 lie, lying on both sides of the Rio Grande from its 4 head to its mouth, we now propose to incorporate, 4 so far as they lie on the left bank of the river, into 4 our Union, by virtue of a treaty of re-annexation 4 with Texas. Let us pause and look at our new 4 and important proposed acquisitions in this quar 4 ter. First: there is the department, formerly the . 4 province of New Mexico, lying on both sides of 4 the river from its head-spring to near the Paso del 4 Norte?that is to say, half way down the river. 4 This department is studded with towns and vil 4 lages?is populated, well cultivated, and covered 4 with flocks and herds. On its left bank (for I 4 only speak of the part which we propose to re 4 annex) is, first, the frontier village Taos, 3,000 4 souls, and where the custom-house is kept at 4 which the Missouri caravans enter their goods. 4 Then comes Santa Fe, the capital, 4,000 souls; 4 then Albuquerque, 6,000 souls ; then some scores 4 of other towns and villages?all more or less po 4 pulated and surrounded by flocks and fields. Then 4 come the departments of Chihuahua, Coahuila, 4 and Tamaulipas, without settlements on the left 4 bank of die mer, but occupying the right bank, 4 and commanding the left. All this?being parts ? of four Mexican departments, now under Mexi 4 can Governors and Governments?is permanently j * re-annexed to this Union, if this treaty is ratified, and is actually re-annexed from the moment of the. signature of the treaty, according to the President's last message, to remain so until the acquisition is 4 rejected by rejecting the treaty ! The one-half of 4 the department of New Mexico, with its capital. 4 becomes a territory of the United States : an angle ? of rhthnahua, *t the Paso del Norte, famous lor its wine, also becomes ours : a part of the depart ; ment of Coahuila, not populated on the left bank, 4 which we take, but commanded from the right bank by Mexican authorities: the same of Ta maulipas, the ancient Nuevo Santandar, (New St. Andrew,) and which covers both sides of the river ^from its mouth for some hundred miles up, and all the left bank of which is in the power and possession of Mexico. These, in addition to the old Texas ; these parts of four Stptee these towns and* villages?these people and territory?these flocks and herds?this slice 4 or the Republic of MExico, two thousand | ' MILES LONO AND SOME HUNDRED BROAD?all this our President has cut off from its mother empire, ' and presents to us, and declares it is ours till the ' Senate rejects it! He calls it Texas ! and the ? cutting off he calls re-annexation ! Humboldt 4 calls it New Mexico, Chihuahua. Coahuila, and 4 Nuevo Santander, (now Tamaulipas ;) and the 4 civilized world may qualify this re-annexa 4 tion by the application of some odious and terri 4 ble epithet. Demosthenes advised the people of * Athens not to take, but to re-take a certain city ; and in that re laid the virtue which saved the act * from the character of spoliation and robbery. Will 4 it be equally potent with us f and will the re, pre 4 fixed to the annexation, legitimate the seizure 4 OF TWO THOUSAND MILES OF A neighbor'S DOMIN* 4 ion, WITH WHOM WE HAVE TREATIES OF PEACE 4 and friendship and COMMERCE T Will it legiti mate this seizure, made by virtue of a treaty with Texas, when no Texan force?witness the disas trous expeditions to Mier and to Santa te have been seen near it without being killed or taken, to the last //un<" ? ?I wash my hands of all attempts to dismember the Mexico* Republic by seizing her dominions in New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila,and J a nuiulipas. The treaty, W all that relates to THK BOUNDARY OF THE RlO GRANDE, IS AN ACT OF unparalleled outraoe on Mexico. is SEIZURE OF TWO THOUSAND MILES OF .Wa ??. tory withoutaword of explanation with her. and by ] ? virtue of a treaty with Te?. to which she is no ? oartv. Our Secretary of State, in his letter to ? the United States Charg* in Mexico and seven ? days after the treaty was signed, and after the ? Mexican Minister had withdrawn from our seat ? of Government, shows full well that he was con-' ? sdoUS of THE ENORMITY OF THIS OUTRAGE ; knew ? it was war; and proffered volunteer apologies to * avert the consequences which he knew he had provoked." " I therefore propose, as an additional resolution, . appliable to the Rio del Norte boundary only? * the one which I will read and send to the Secre ? tary's table?and on which, at the proper time, I < shall ask the vote of the Senate. This is the ? resolution: " Resolved, That the incorporation of the left ? bank .of the Rio del Norte into the American ?? Union, by virtue of a treaty with Texas, com 11 prehending, as the said incorporation would do, " a part of the Mexican departments of New '< Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas, 44 would be AN ACT OF DIRECT AGGRESSION ON MeX ? ico ; for all the consequences of which the United " States would stand responsible." It is officially announced in the government ga zette of Saturday last that Levi Woodbury, now one of the Senators in Congress from the State of New Hampshire, has -been appointed by the Presi dent of the United States to be one of the Associate Judges (Judge of the Supreme Court) in the place of Joseph Story, deceased. Mr. Woodbury has been for twenty years in tfce General Government?first as Senator, afterwards for several years Secretary of the Navy, afterwards for several years Secretary of the Treasury, and again Senator from New Hampshire, succeeding in that office Mr. Hubbard. Before entering into the General Government, he had been Governor ol his own State, and, we believe, a judge in the highest court of that State. He has had all the advantages, therefore, which would be derived from extensive experience in public affairs, in the course of which he must have acquired a perfect knowledge of the laws of the United States. f We do not know that a better appointment could have been expected, under all the circumstances, to fill the vacancy in question. MOROCCO. A correspondent suggests that the refusal of the Emperor of Morocco, through the Bashaw of Tan giers, to recognise our recently appointed Consul, calls for wisdom and prudence in those who have the management of our foreign affairs. It is not in itself, he says, a just occasion of hostilities, but it | may lead to a state of things from which amicable relations will with difficulty be restored. We have now, as it happens, no naval force in the Mediter ranean ; but, as the Mexican war-cloud has pretty much departed, some of our national ships, he doubts not, will soon be ordered into that sea. MAINE ELECTION. The Kennebec Jourjial has returns of the vote for Governor of the State of Maine in 288 towns, as follows : For Morse (Whig) 23,434; Anderson (Dem.) 27,770; scattering 5,379 ; majority against Anderson 1,043. Last year his majority in the same towns was 1,298. " On Saturday week the remains of Daniel Boone and his Wife, which had been previously removed from their former resting place in the State of Mis souri, were reinterred in the cemetery at Frankfort, Kentucky, with imposing public solemnities. The public authorities of the State, together with the military and civil associations, and a large con course of citizens, participated in the interesting eeremonies. Mr. Senator Crittenden was the. orator on the occasion, and delivered a very elo quent address. Rkwaiikarle Whwt.-'The Baltimore American notice* a * peri men of white wheat, very remarkable for iU extraordi nary size, which was grown on the farm of Mr. Joskph Pf.as ?os, about three mile* northwest of Baltimore, who haa this year raiaed about three hundred bushels, the produce being esti mated at forty to forty-fire bushel* pei acre. Thestalks are about six feet high, very stout at the bottom, and the grain fully one half larger than the ordinary ml wheat. The strength of the stalks enables it to stand the wind and rain, and it is said to be entirely exempt from smut. Several years ago Mr. Pearson purchased and sowed a quantity of wheat procured from New York, among which. some heads appeared towering several feet above the other grain. These were carefully collected, producing about a gill of grain, and in a few years Mr. P. has succeeded in raiaing from them the quantity above men tioned. He supposes it to be a species of Chine* wheat, the description of which it closely resembles. Th* Cottoh Caor.?The New York Shipping and Com mercial List of Saturday publishes its annual statement of the cotton crop for the year ending September 1st, 1846. The ' crop is estimated at 2,394,504, being 364,094 bale, increa*! on the previous year, 2,083,756 bale, had been exported. The stock on hand at the principal 8outhem cities is 74,298. The amount of cotton Uken for home consumption during the year was 389,006 bales, being an increase of 42,202 bales on last year. This does not include any cotton manufactured in the States socth and west of Virginia, nor any m that State, except in the vicinity of Petersburg and Richmond. Du ring the year 16,682 were destroyed by fire, of these 11,200 were burnt in New York, 3,481 in Charleston, and 1,900 in Savannah. IsstAK Hostilities.?The Arkansas Intelligencer of the 30th ultimo states that the Indians on the frontier are quiet and peaceable, with the exception of the Kickapoos and < a manches, who are arrayed in arms against each other. Hie Caiqpichea have said that the Kickapoos should not hunt up on the prairies, and the latter tribe, assisted by volunteers from several small scattering tribes, have proceeded to the hunt folly prepared to meet the Camanches in battle if they are molested- ' . Mr. B*!?jamii* Mirnm has retired from the Philadelphia Pennsylvanian, ol which he was one of the original proprie tor*, and his interert haa passed to A. Born Hamilton, who with Mr. B. Pa**t, will hereafter conduct the paper. The Pennsylvanian is a Locofoco paper, and i. one of the ablest of those of that party: THE NATURALIZATION LAWS. The character and position of Mr. Senator Archer (of Virginia) give great interest to the following Letter from his pen, which we find published in the Philadelphia papers : Sabatooa Sj-HIKHS, 8*i-t. 8, 1845. Diua 81111 It u in a very brief and hurried manner only, that, amid the detraction, of this place, I am enabled to give the answer to your request for my opinion of the fitness of an arrangement of our Law of Naturalization, ao aa to make American birth the future condition of American citizenship. I premise that an opinion favorable to auch a requirement can be attended with 110 effort contributory to the advancement of the object, the prevalent and adverse opinion being too firmly established for overthrow. The expression of this opinion can only have the result of exciting clamor, impairing the jiopu larity of those who avow it, and obstructing perhaps the pro gress of the American Republican party. Aa it has for along time, however, been my practice to have no reaerve as re gards the avowal of my opinions on public questions, when properly requested, I do not hesitate to respond to your le quest in the present instance. The great advance of our country in population stripe the proposed inquiry of any neceaaary consideration of our earlier policy of inviting the growth of our people by foreign contribu tion. That growth, suflicient for all purposes of large power and prosperity, and under the influence of a law of rapid indige nous multiplication, leaves us assuredly at full liberty to con sult and be guided by any consideration of differently advised policy which may serve to demand our attention. Of this character there appear to me to be aeveral, very im I perative in their requirements. Among them is one of a very I general nature, which on tliat account perhaps may with more readiness and effect i>? referred to. I allude to the great ad vantage of a homogenous character of the people composing a nation in regard to political administrations. When portions of the nation are emigrants from countries with forms of civil policy essentially differing, or inevitably adverse to those of the receiving nation, as in our caae, how can these men have the just appreciation or the adequate knowledge of the' value and structure and operation of our very peculiar and even anomalqps forms of government which qualify for participation in the conduct of them > This is a consideration which does not require to be enlarged upon. The suggestion is sufficient, and the inference equally incontestable and important. Diver sities of interest among the parts may contribute to the pros perity of a State; but not diversities of social and political character in its people to the harmonious and successful con duct of its political aflkirs. Why shall this material inconve nience, or it may be great hazard, to the perpetuity of its in stituUons, at least in an unaltered character, be incurred by a nation like ours, if not redundant or replete, yet certainly auf ficiently abounding in population! of the character, if we ar< not at liberty to say the best in all respects, yet certainly th? best adapted to our institutions > I, it true that men whe pass the sea change their minds and their affections and the principles and the prejudices which may unfit them for parti cipance in pure and free government as readily as their cli mate > The adage which pronounces the reverse of this pro position has been received in all time as just. Let any truly patriotic man consult his own bosom ; does he find there a monition that, removed to any other country than his own, he can ever love it as his own > Will ha not treat the suggestion that he would as an injustice and an injury > Can he be fit, then?can it be either expedient or right, that he should have extended to him participation in the government of this other country, which it may be has variant interests and a commercial policy permanently adverse to those of his own country, and even come at any time into military conflict, threatening the prosperity, or it may be the cherished institu tions of his own ? Can it be a proceeding consonant to sound morals or to sound policy either to put men in this condition of irreconcilable separation between their affections and thei, duto*?t.etwe.-n their position and their obligations > Yel this is the unquestioned predicament in which every sound hearted man must or may find himaelf^laced by the process of naturalization. I do not ask whether he ought to place himself in this j?sition or consent to occupy it. That is for to?n*eif?nd ,u" own conscience, not my conscience, to decide. But I do ask whether it can be best for the country to which he may have transferred himself ifom his own for the improvement of his pecuniary condition, of its own accord, and without any imperious policy demanding, to insist on placing men, and large and continuously flowing masses of men, with no limitation as to numbers, in this position ? I It is a common remark, which does not require to be re peated, that the denial of citizenship, or the right to take a part in the exercise of our sovereignty and the management of our poliucal aflkirs, involves no necessity for the denial of any other right to foreigners who may see occasion to domiciliate with us. To every right or privilege appurtenant properly to the full attainment of the object which must be supposed to bring them to our country, the acquisition and enjoyment of property, the guaranty should be as efficient as to the natives. No one is found urging objections on this score, more than to the continuance of all privileges, those of citizenship inclu sive, where they have heretofore been conceded. As to the silly abstraction in the mouths of some people that refusal to extend equality of privilege to all resident among us would be in contravention of our institutions, it cannot be necessary to say any thing. There would be an end of all national independence and social safety if the peo ple invested with the property of a 8tate?the Nation?were to be restrained in adopting order according to its own views of policy, as regarded the parties who should he admitted to the participation of its sovereignty. Under such a principle, hordes of Hindostanese, or Chinese, or Haytiena, might forri themselves without limit, as without fitness, on our sover eignty, become preponderant in the population, asaert mas tery in the government, and change or overturn it under ita own forms. A proposition cannot be more stupid than that because I admit a man into my family, find him employment and secure him the fruits of hi. labor, I am also obliged to admit him to a full participation in the regulation of my household and ita inmates. I have thus, as hastily as I could put words on paper, given the answer to your request for my opinion on the question you proposed. A* far as I am advised, no nation, save our own, admits, except in individual case. a. .pecial favor, other than its indigenous population to the full enjoyment of politi cal as well aa civil rights. The pos^ss.on and guaranty of this last class of rights satisfying in my judgment all juat and reasonable pretensions on the part of the immigrant popula tion, it is my opinion that our nation would ?k> right and well to conform to the universal principle of action of other na tions, conceding no superior advantages in this important re- I spect beyond those they concede to us. The Father of our | liberty, had he been obKged by defeat to retire to a foreign land, would have found an asylum only, (in the best event,) not citizenship. 8hall every tenant of a l.zar-house abroad find not only welcome and security, but an equal participation ILTfii ?lZh>5* fro,m,<,?foctiv? "duration, he cannot know the value, and, from defecUve character, acquires only as a spoil ami an emolument, to dispo*, of without a passing thought of the public interests which he is allowed to influence > You will perceirethat I have confined myself to the .mall com pa* of remark indispensable to the reapect due to your request of me, the occasion not permitting a more general dis cussion of the great question. which the Native American ?consideration of the country, on these I shall probably find an occasion to express mv senti ments aHarge. In the mean time, howev.r, and a. the ae T a KP!TnihtVe TW I must not withhold the advice that the NaUve American party should not aim to carry out the principle that nativity should be the condition of citizenship. Not that the principle ia not excellent, but be C*T f,t,?nno* * utUinwl ; and ,h* ?'fmpt to attain it mav and will hazard the attainment of good which-ia attainable A wise man always prefers in his necessity half a loaf to no bread. I am, very respectfully, yours, Gen. P. S. 8*itii. W. 8. ARCHER. FROM BUENOS AYRE8. Accounts to the 21st of July represent affairs in the Rirer Plate to remain without change. The English and French Ministers had demanded the withdrawal of the Argentine army from the terri tory of the Uruguay Republic and the removal of the Argentine squadron from before Montevideo, which the Argentine Government had refused to do, and required that they should acknowledge the rigorous blockade of Montevideo. Affairs were thus put at issue, and the next step of the two Ministers was awaited with much anxiety. A correspondent of the Journal of Commerce censures this interference on the part of European nations. He charges the French and English with aiding General Paz, in CorrierUes ; a part of whose forces (under General Lopjez) had recently sur prised and entered the city of Santa Fe. The in vaders, after sacking the town, retired, taking with them about four hundred women and girls, and cut ting the throats of most of those left behind, inclu ding all their prisoners. The same letter adds : " About two thousand men in Corrientes anil four hundred in the city of Montevideo, assisted by two thousand six hun dred Frenchmen with arms, are the onJy enemies that now exist to toe Argentine Government in all America; and for. these this splendid country i? u> bo again the scene of em 1 war and bloodshed. The Argentine Government offer to guaranty the lives and property of all who lay down their arms, the complete independence of the Uruguay Republic, and the entire |>acification of this part of Sooth America, if the English and French squadron withdraw their support from the ci^y of Montevideo. The quiet entry of General Om?K would follow, and our commerce would be again as usual. Mr. Brest, our chaig^, has nobly taken a stand to support our commerce and our rights by protesting against the En glish and French agents again exciting civil war by taking a part to uphold the fcw remnants of General Riv^ha'h party, and against any blockude, or any other measure of inter ference. " The Buenos Ayrean " Packet" also protests against :he interference of the European Powers, and mantains? " Tha' the question at issue is one of paramount impor tance to til the States of America, not from republican suscep tibility orfy in regard to the interference of monarchical Eu rope, but from the vital principles of independent existence it involves, and in respect to which there can be no compro mise. II is substantially reduced to this : Is the Argentine Republic, are the Republics of America members of the great family of nations, or are they mere fiefs of the crowned headi of Europe ' The Argentine Government asserts the former. The squtdrons of England and France practically maintain I the latter." The "Packet" of the 19th July has the follow I ing partgraph : ? ? We understand that President Obi be has convoked the [ Legislative Chambers of the Oriental State, which were so I unceremoniously turned out of doors by Rivkba in 1838, to assemble forthwith in the vicinity of Montevideo for the des patch of important business, now that the whole territory of the Republic, the capital excepted, obeys the legal authority. We believe that, with very few exceptions, the whole of the members of those Chambers are still alive, and will attend at I their post." LATEST FROM BRAZIL. By the Nautilus, arrived at Baltimore from Ric J de Janeiro, advices have been received up to the I 9th of August, by which the following informatior 1 ha? been obtained : "Rio ut JiMino, Auo. 9, 1845. " Die British Minister here has received despatches fron Montevideo saying that the English and French have placet a man-of-war alongside of each of Rosa*' vessels of war of Montevideo, and informed them that they could not move, Ross, has been defeated i? the interior by Paz and Lopez, and is now forcing every mar. from 14 to 70 ye.ni ofmgemto his army as a last struggle, and is doubUess near his politi I cal end. Montevideo advices to the 19th ult. say that a French brig-of-war has hauled up to the head of our harbor for the protection of the left wing of the lines, and the British ship Comus has anchored in a position outside to bear upon the enemy on the right wing. These movements evince a hos | tile character. " AFFAIRS IN THE RIVER PLATE. The subjoined letter from a correspondent of the New York Commercial Advertiser, though its dale is not quite so recent as other advices from the same quarter, gives an interesting statement of the condition of the war and parties on the River La Plate : " MowTKvinito, Jijlt 1, 1845.?For three years'a warhas continued in the Banda Oriental; for three years this little Republic has been saturated with the blood of her sons j and for three years has the bloody saw-knife !>een applied to the throats of those who have been taken as prisoners of war. A recapitulation of all the horrors of this war would be startling indeed it has been carried on on such opposite principles to those which govern every other nation in the nineteenth | century. "We are now waiting the return of the British packet from Buenos Ayres with great anxiety, and shall then probably know whether we are to have peace or war in the river. The French Admiral said yesterday to a gentleman of high stand ing that he thought there would be peace, as Iwth peart nnd war had been oflered to G#n. Rosas. My opinion is, howe ver, that there will be war, and that Gen. Rosas will prefer going to the Pampas with his army, and there carry on u pro tracted war, to living and ruling in But nos Ayres in a state of peace. He has constantly been at war since he has been al lowed to rule, and the theatre of his ambition now is the vast territory of the Brazils. "Hhould Montevideo fall, this part of the Brazilian Empire would I* beaten, and within two years shaken to iu founda tion. France and England will not permit this, and Brazil enters into the triple alliance to save Montevideo. A few days since an order came down from Buenos Ayres to Admi ral Brown, commanding the Buenos Ayrean squadron, to at tack the city. The English Admiral, knowing the order, placed the English steamer Firebrand alongside the Buenos Ay rran squadron, with orders to sink them if they attempted the attack. Her guns, which are K4-pounders, were double shot ted and brought to bear on Admiral Brown's brig, who I have no doubt was well satisfied with this intervention. There is also no doubt that powder and ball cartridges have been fur nished this Government from both the English and Fitench ships of war. " We can therefore consider that the intervention of force has commenced, and soon I trust will it be in active execu tion, and continue Ull the flags of all nations can navigate the noble rivers which empty into the Rio La Plate. These have Iwen closed by General Rosas, and we know nothing of the people who for thousands of milns inhabit their banks ; but I trust the present generation will become acquainted with their history, and the flag of the United States float along the shores of Paraguay, a nation which has maintained its independence for forty years, and still is shut up from all intercourse with the civilized World. France and England will not require any troops from Kurope. Paraguay will send all that are re quired to settle the controversy in Buenos Ayres. All she wants are arms and munitions ot war, and she has the men to give laws to the whole Southern continent. " Since writing the foregoing the British packet has arrived from Buenos Ayres, and it is almost certain that war will take place between that place and the Alliance of Peace, consisting of France, England, and the Brazils. About ninety days will finish the business, and bring lasting peace to the citizens of the River La Plate, who are now banished and driven to the caves anil forests of the country, to save their throats from the saw-knife of Baenos Ayres." LATE FROM CHINA. By the arrival at New York of the ship Rain bow, from Canton, we have intelligence from China to the 5th of June, considerably later than wan re ceived by the overland mail. On the 5th of July the Rainbow saw the United (States frigate Consti tution going into Macao, and was boarded by a boat from her. By former arrivals we received a rumor that there had been a large fire at Canton. From papers brought by the Rain bow we learn the particulars concerning it, with the terrible fact that over twelve hundred lives toere lost ! The Friend of China, published at Hong Kong, of the 31st of May, state* that tho fire broke out in the forenoon of Sunday the 25th in a theatre while the performances were going on. The theatre was situated in the centre of a square, from which there was no egress except by a narrow lane. As soon as the firo was discovered the audience endeavored to escape ; at the same time an immense crowd from the outside were endeavoring to force themselves in. The result was that an immense num Iter of people were burnt to death or trampled to death by the crowd. The official estimate of the Mandarins state the number of killed at twelve hundred and fifty-seven, including fifty-two male and female actors ; the wounded are estimated at twenty-one hundred. The day after the fire thirty more were killed by a falling wall, and nearly a hundred wer^ badly wounded. The bodies of the dead were so horribly dis figured that many of them could not be recognised, and lay unclaimed and uuburied. The authorities had ordered four hundred coffins for unclaimed l>odies. A large portion of the dead were females, aud it -was feared man) had been murdered by the robbers that infest the city for the sake of their jewels. Thirty years ago a similar calamity occurrcd at the same theatre. At that time the authorities forbade dramatic repre sentations by the inhabitants ; the present company were out ? side people. From Honan province there are accounts of an earthquake, which demolished about ten thousand houses, killing upwards of four thousand people. The Chinese authorities-have ordered the robbers and as sailants of the British officers, in the affray noticed by a pre vious arrival, to be punished , British subjects, however, are still excluded from the city of Canton, and the authorities urge the unwillingness of the people as the reason why they can not permit them to enter. The great age of the Emperor is said to make the duties of the Government irksome to him. There is likely to be a good deal of difficulty in regard to the succession. Large deficits still occur in the revenue. Recent orders have been issued that all officers who fail to pay the greater part of their debt* shall suffer decapitation. Kktixu has received a seat in the Cabinet as Assistant Minister. The following is given as a summary of the imports and exports of Canton for the year 1844 : Imports. Exports. British..$ 16,506,240 $17,025,360 American 1,320,170 6,686,171 French 33,823 37,130 Dutch 231,708 572,188 Belgian 60,517 9,042 Danish 51,990 Swedish 18,234 153,688 German 5,743 122,888 ' Portuguese 614,824 7,522 Total $17,843,249 $25,513,949 The ratio of the aggregate imports and exports of China for several years may be seen from the following statement: Imports. Exports. 1832 $7,530,609 .$17,240,486 1840 11,205,270 13,840,750 1344 15,920,132 17,925,360 The imports are in each case exclusive of opium. The Government has officially authorized the traffic ii opium, and "farmed out" the privilege of licensing opiun houses at auction for $720 per month.?Enquirer. 1 FROM HAYTI. A correspondent of the Philadelphia Exchangt ! furnishes the subjoined intelligence from Cap< I Haytien : p "The difficulties between the people of the French an< Spanish parts of the island, or, as they are termed here, th< Haytiens and Dominicans, appear to be as far as ever from i settlement. On the 27th ult the Haytiens attacked Saxavon drove out the Dominican troops, and took possession of th? place. No more military executions of prisoners have been ordered, and the prisoners are well treated. Saxavon is a frontier town, commanding the main j*ass between the French and Spanish territories, and is eighteen leagues to the west ward of Cape Haytien, and ten back in the interior from Monte Christ, which is on the north coast. " Government is said to be making active preparations to carry on the war. A decree was published here on the 16th authorizing all citizens to fit out privateers] and a French barque of two hundred tons, polacre rigged and pierced for twelve guns, has lately lieen purchased and now lies in the harbor, together with a topsail schooner of six guns, (formerly the Kathleen, of Philadelphia,) and three little clippers of two guns each. This force, it is said, is only awaiting the arrival of a steamer, ordered from the United States, to sail for a blockade of Santa Domingo, while a large force is to march over and attack the town by land. " The President still resides here, and intends to make Cape Haytien his permanent residence, though Port-au-Prince con tinues to be the seat of Government. The President is now ill, and his general health is far from being good." A later letter, dated at Cape Haytien on the 10th of September, says: " On the 1st instant the Haytien fleet, consisting of one barque, a topsail, and two fore-and-aft schooners, carrying in all twenty guns, sailed hence for Monte Christ, where it ar rived next day, and after soma firing, by which neither party was injured, the Dominicans ran their vessels on shore and abandoned them. The Haytiens thenbutnt one of the schoon ers, and having got the other off, sent her in here a prize, with a mahogany barge in tow, which had also been taken. " On the 25th ultimo an " arrets" was published here by the President, declaring all the Dominican ports blockaded, and that any foreign merchants who should, directly or indi rectly, expedite a vessel to any of these ports, should forfeit his patent and be driven from the island. " The fleet returned into port on the 8th. It is said its next expedition will be against Porto Platte. The Haytien Navy now numbers seven sail, viz. one batque, two topsail and four fore-and-aft schooners, amounting in all to about six hundred and seventy tons burden, and carrying thirty-two guns. " Rumors were current yesterday of new disturbances at I?eogune and Jeremie, but nothing definite has yet reached us." THE EQUINOX AND THE WEATHER. The Sun crossed the line between midnight of Saturday and Sunday, the 20th and 21st, and we have never known the weather to behave so conformably and so handsomely, ac cording to the popular notion of how it ought to behave at such a crisis. For many days, prior to Saturdsy, we had hsd a continua tion of the most prostrating of all seasons?a violent Septem ber sun?with little or no air in circulstion at night, and with an almost universal disposition to nausea and plethora about the head. On the night of the Equinox the clouds gallantly mustered up from the noith, as if they were going to volun teer against Mexico, poured out a fine shower, and then dis persed on Sunday night, leaving us with a clear sky and a glorious and bracing northwester. We have never known the Equinox to come up to time with so exact a punctuality?and we begin now to believe in sidereal and lunar influences?in the hang of the moon?in her relative ecliptic position in her first quarter, and, to say all in one word, in the Dutch theories respecting the influence of that planet upon our world.?Richmond Whig. VERY LATE FROM EUROPE. The Atlantic steamer Britannia arrived at Bos ton on Friday from Liverpool, bringing advices from that place to the 4th instant. The Hon. Edward Everett, our late Minister to Great Britain, together with his Lady and other members of his family, were among her passengers. The commercial advices by this arrival are favor able. Willmer & Smith's European Times says : "The Cotton market, that great barometer of public feel ing, has shown symptoms of improvement. The fine weather bus had a material influence in strengthening thin feeling, ami in dispelling the melancholy forebodings about the harvest which had taken possession of the public mind. The sales up to the end of the week exceeded 48,000 bags?a daily average of more than 8,000. In the four days since nearly 40,000 have been sold, and prices are evidently getting up. It is true that speculators have t>ought freely, but this is only a natural course, to be expected now that the harvest is con sidered secure." Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were still absent, enjoying themselves in Germany, where they were treated with marked attention and hos pitality. The affairs of Ireland are represented as far from favorable. An Orange agitation now prevails, and the Repeal movement appears to be on the wane. The boats of the British ship-of-war Pantaloon, on the coast of Africa, after a most gallant action, [ captured a large slaver, having a crew of about fifty-eight persons, composed chiefly of Spaniards. "Jlcren of pirates were killed, and eight severe ly wounded. The terms of a treaty of amity and commerce have been definitively agreed upon by the British and Brazilian negotiators. The treaty between France and Morocco has at length been ratified by the Moorish Emperor. It fixes the limits of the territory between Algiers and Morocco, and is remarkable for containing an [ express acknowledgment on the part of the Empe ror that Algiers is 44 a French possession." Paris and the neighborhood has been visited with | a whirlwind, which did great damage. At a village near Rouen it was so disastrous that it swept away | several large manufactories and houses, ana caused the death and the mutilation of a very great num ber of persons. According to a private letter published in the Paris Presse, the French had suffered a sad reverse i in Algiers. In the North the tribes are said to have risen against the French authority ; and that | one French battalion had been massacred and ano ther drowned. The number of soldiers killed, wounded, and drowned, or overcome by the heat, I (which is said to have been excessive,) is stated to be 2,700. A successful expedition has lately been made to Delly by Marshal Buoeacd, at the head of 5,000 men. Immediately on the appearance of the troops, the people made submission. Abd-el-Ka [ der has retreated into the interior, but he is still as far from being conquered as he was years ago. The Queen of Spain and her mother are await i ing the visit of the Due and Duchesse de Nemours near the French frontier. Nothing appears to be settled as to the marriage of the Queen, but it is thought that something will be done respecting it i after the visit of the Due de Nemours. An out I break had taken place at Madrid, occasioned by the oppressive operation of the new plan of taxation. Petitions having been presented in vain for a sus pension of the measure, several thousand trades men closed their shops on the 19th of August, and the streets were filled with those who were opposed to the measure. The troops were called out and charged the populace?several lives were lost before th* mob were dispersed. Mr. Wheaton, the United States Minister at Berlin, has again opened negotiations with the Zoll Verein for a treaty of commerce. The Voss Ga- . zette states that he 44 has already acted on this di rection from his Government, and it is not unlikely that his proposition may be laid before the German | Customs Conference, at present being held at iCarlsruhe." In Germany the new religion is continuing it* | career, with alternate successes and defeats. At Ilalberstadt, Ronge, the leader of the movement, was nearly assassinated when preaching a violent | sermon against Rome; but at other places he has had great success. A serious affray had taken place at Madagascar, between the natives and the British and French, in which the former lost four men killed and twelve wounded. The latter had seventeen killed and forty-three wounded. The Russian army in Caucasus, after several bloody conflicts, have succeeded in capturing the village of Dargo, the residence of the chief of all the Mahommedan tribes of the Caucasus and of the Daghestan. Accounts from Turkey state that the Porte has decided upon a plan for the pacification of the Le banon, which has received the approval of the rep resentatives of the Five Great Powers. By this measure the independence of both the Druses and Maronites will be maintained, and the free exercise of the two religions satisfactorily secured. There has been a change of the Turkish Ministry. POST OFFICE STATISTICS. The following table exhibits, in round numbers, the de crease in the revenue from postages at certain of the large post offices during the quarters ended the 31st March and 30th June, 1845, as compared with the corresponding quarters of 1844 : Post offices. Albany Annapolis .. Augusta . .. Bangor Boston Columbus .. Detroit Hertford .. . Lynn Middletown . Mobile Natchei.,. . New Bedford New Haven. New York. . Philadelphia Portland .. . Providence.. Salem Schenectady Troy State. Decrease 1 Decrease quarter <end-quarter end ed March ed June 90, .11, 1845. 1*45. N. Y. Md. Georgia Maine Mass. Georgia Mich. Conn. Mass. Conn. Alabama Miss. Mass. Conn. N. Y. Penn. Maine R I. Mass. N. Y. N. Y. $787 62 <m 78 2,231 186 149 4 AS 83 126 ? 67 185 163 5,567 3,031 196 1,197 86 S3 705 IS, 9 AS $397 140 137 103 1,302 27 126 239 *93 142 1,771 331 135 318 8,684 1,991 174 623 34 140 343 16,900 * No decrease this quarter. Decrease in the twenty-one offices above, for the six months ended the 30th June, 1845, as compared with the same pe riod of 1844, as shown by the table, #33,852. In 938 post offices yielding a net! revenue ol $ 100 per quarter and upwards, there warf, during the quarter ended the 30th June last, an increase of revenue in 505, and a decr?ase ? in 433 of them. '"'fr-.' ?