WASHINGTON: SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1845.
JFVBL,lHMUil> BW VJUjBM f MBMTOJT
Two dollab* a year; or On Doixa* for *?
?cation of each Ciogress, and Fifty C**ts lor *?*?**??*
..on of each Congre.., and the ww for each Extra Se
siou?payable in all cases in advanoe^
ONE WORD MORE UPON TEXAS.
An error of the press occurred in the leading ar-j
tide in our paper of Saturday last (which, however, J
attentive readers will have generally detected from
its context) the correction of which may prevent
some misapprehension. The error -insists in
printing the date 1834 instead of JP'id as the year
in which the Constitution of Te' j was formed by
the " same Convention " as tfiat which had, in the
-ame year, issued its Declaration of Independence.
Having occasion thus again to allude to the sub
,f>ct, in regard to which we have recently been
obliged, greatly regretting die necessity for it,
to expose die unfortunate and lamentable errors
if history and of fact of the Executive organ?
tin-ore which led to its late denunciation of blood
shed and 44 vengeance " upon any attempt of the
Mexican authorities to send reinforcements to
Mexican posts on Mexican territory?we take oc
casion now to say, that, having done all in our
power to prevent this Government from perpe
trating or countenancing any such aggression, by
demonstrating equally its enormity and its fatuity,
we are content, for the present, to leave the ques
tion, without further controversy, where it stands.
Before we quit it entirely, however, we will
briefly notice so much of an article on the subject
in 44 the Union " of Saturday night last as is con
tained in the following quotation from it:
" The attempt made by the 'National Intelligencer' of this
' morning to reply to our argument of Thursday evening is
' like the struggle of the weak man to escape from the q^orase
' in which he i* floundering. What will the reader thinK of
' its attempting to show that the Texas which we now claim?
' the Texas whose boundaries are the same with those which
'all our Administrations have claimed it to have under the treaty
' of Louisiana.?Texas to the Rio del Norte?was not the
? Texas as recognised by the P?wers of Europe, although she
* had solemnly proclaimed it in the organic law of 1836 ?" &c.
Whether the 44 Union " or the 44 National Intelli
gencer" most resembles the weak man in a morass,
&c.. we are perfectly willing to refer to the judg
ment of all disinterested persons ; that is to say, of
all persons of whatever party who have no interest
m Texan land claims or Texan scrip to be affected
Dy the decision. Our purpose now is only to
satisfy those of our readers who are also readers of
44 the Union," that nothing can be more unwarrant
able than the abuse lavished upon us by the Execu
tive organ for the ground which we have taken on
this subject, unless it be its own assertion of title
to the Rio del Norte as the recognised boundary of
Texas. This we shall show by quotations from
the argument upoi\ the question, by him who best J
understands it, and who is at the same time the most
prominent member of its own party in the Senate
of the United States, 44 when the Treaty of Annex
ation" was under debate in that body almost a year
and a half ago. Of the Speech delivered by Sen
ator Benton on that occasion, we quote from 44 the .
Globe" of May 20, 1844, the subjoined passages,
after commending which to the whole attention of |
our readers, we cheerfully resign the merits of the,
question into their hands.
EXTRACTS FROM Mm. BENTON'S 8PEECH,
Mat 16, 1844.
44 These former provinces of the Mexican Vice
4 royalty, note departments of the Mexican Repub
4 lie, lying on both sides of the Rio Grande from its
4 head to its mouth, we now propose to incorporate,
4 so far as they lie on the left bank of the river, into
4 our Union, by virtue of a treaty of re-annexation
4 with Texas. Let us pause and look at our new
4 and important proposed acquisitions in this quar
4 ter. First: there is the department, formerly the .
4 province of New Mexico, lying on both sides of
4 the river from its head-spring to near the Paso del
4 Norte?that is to say, half way down the river.
4 This department is studded with towns and vil
4 lages?is populated, well cultivated, and covered
4 with flocks and herds. On its left bank (for I
4 only speak of the part which we propose to re
4 annex) is, first, the frontier village Taos, 3,000
4 souls, and where the custom-house is kept at
4 which the Missouri caravans enter their goods.
4 Then comes Santa Fe, the capital, 4,000 souls;
4 then Albuquerque, 6,000 souls ; then some scores
4 of other towns and villages?all more or less po
4 pulated and surrounded by flocks and fields. Then
4 come the departments of Chihuahua, Coahuila,
4 and Tamaulipas, without settlements on the left
4 bank of die mer, but occupying the right bank,
4 and commanding the left. All this?being parts
? of four Mexican departments, now under Mexi
4 can Governors and Governments?is permanently j
* re-annexed to this Union, if this treaty is ratified,
and is actually re-annexed from the moment of the.
signature of the treaty, according to the President's
last message, to remain so until the acquisition is
4 rejected by rejecting the treaty ! The one-half of
4 the department of New Mexico, with its capital.
4 becomes a territory of the United States : an angle
? of rhthnahua, *t the Paso del Norte, famous lor
its wine, also becomes ours : a part of the depart
; ment of Coahuila, not populated on the left bank,
4 which we take, but commanded from the right
bank by Mexican authorities: the same of Ta
maulipas, the ancient Nuevo Santandar, (New St.
Andrew,) and which covers both sides of the river
^from its mouth for some hundred miles up, and
all the left bank of which is in the power
and possession of Mexico. These, in addition
to the old Texas ; these parts of four Stptee
these towns and* villages?these people and
territory?these flocks and herds?this slice
4 or the Republic of MExico, two thousand |
' MILES LONO AND SOME HUNDRED BROAD?all this
our President has cut off from its mother empire,
' and presents to us, and declares it is ours till the
' Senate rejects it! He calls it Texas ! and the
? cutting off he calls re-annexation ! Humboldt
4 calls it New Mexico, Chihuahua. Coahuila, and
4 Nuevo Santander, (now Tamaulipas ;) and the
4 civilized world may qualify this re-annexa
4 tion by the application of some odious and terri
4 ble epithet. Demosthenes advised the people of
* Athens not to take, but to re-take a certain city ;
and in that re laid the virtue which saved the act
* from the character of spoliation and robbery. Will
4 it be equally potent with us f and will the re, pre
4 fixed to the annexation, legitimate the seizure
4 OF TWO THOUSAND MILES OF A neighbor'S DOMIN*
4 ion, WITH WHOM WE HAVE TREATIES OF PEACE
4 and friendship and COMMERCE T Will it legiti
mate this seizure, made by virtue of a treaty with
Texas, when no Texan force?witness the disas
trous expeditions to Mier and to Santa te have
been seen near it without being killed or taken,
to the last //un<" ?
?I wash my hands of all attempts to dismember
the Mexico* Republic by seizing her dominions
in New Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila,and J a
nuiulipas. The treaty, W all that relates to
THK BOUNDARY OF THE RlO GRANDE, IS AN ACT OF
unparalleled outraoe on Mexico. is
SEIZURE OF TWO THOUSAND MILES OF .Wa ??.
tory withoutaword of explanation with her. and by ]
? virtue of a treaty with Te?. to which she is no
? oartv. Our Secretary of State, in his letter to
? the United States Charg* in Mexico and seven
? days after the treaty was signed, and after the
? Mexican Minister had withdrawn from our seat
? of Government, shows full well that he was con-'
? sdoUS of THE ENORMITY OF THIS OUTRAGE ; knew
? it was war; and proffered volunteer apologies to
* avert the consequences which he knew he had
" I therefore propose, as an additional resolution,
. appliable to the Rio del Norte boundary only?
* the one which I will read and send to the Secre
? tary's table?and on which, at the proper time, I
< shall ask the vote of the Senate. This is the
" Resolved, That the incorporation of the left
? bank .of the Rio del Norte into the American
?? Union, by virtue of a treaty with Texas, com
11 prehending, as the said incorporation would do,
" a part of the Mexican departments of New
'< Mexico, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas,
44 would be AN ACT OF DIRECT AGGRESSION ON MeX
? ico ; for all the consequences of which the United
" States would stand responsible."
It is officially announced in the government ga
zette of Saturday last that Levi Woodbury, now
one of the Senators in Congress from the State of
New Hampshire, has -been appointed by the Presi
dent of the United States to be one of the Associate
Judges (Judge of the Supreme Court) in the place
of Joseph Story, deceased.
Mr. Woodbury has been for twenty years in tfce
General Government?first as Senator, afterwards
for several years Secretary of the Navy, afterwards
for several years Secretary of the Treasury, and
again Senator from New Hampshire, succeeding in
that office Mr. Hubbard. Before entering into the
General Government, he had been Governor ol his
own State, and, we believe, a judge in the highest
court of that State. He has had all the advantages,
therefore, which would be derived from extensive
experience in public affairs, in the course of which
he must have acquired a perfect knowledge of the
laws of the United States.
f We do not know that a better appointment could
have been expected, under all the circumstances, to
fill the vacancy in question.
A correspondent suggests that the refusal of the
Emperor of Morocco, through the Bashaw of Tan
giers, to recognise our recently appointed Consul,
calls for wisdom and prudence in those who have
the management of our foreign affairs. It is not in
itself, he says, a just occasion of hostilities, but it
| may lead to a state of things from which amicable
relations will with difficulty be restored. We have
now, as it happens, no naval force in the Mediter
ranean ; but, as the Mexican war-cloud has pretty
much departed, some of our national ships, he doubts
not, will soon be ordered into that sea.
The Kennebec Jourjial has returns of the vote
for Governor of the State of Maine in 288 towns,
as follows : For Morse (Whig) 23,434; Anderson
(Dem.) 27,770; scattering 5,379 ; majority against
Anderson 1,043. Last year his majority in the
same towns was 1,298.
" On Saturday week the remains of Daniel Boone
and his Wife, which had been previously removed
from their former resting place in the State of Mis
souri, were reinterred in the cemetery at Frankfort,
Kentucky, with imposing public solemnities. The
public authorities of the State, together with the
military and civil associations, and a large con
course of citizens, participated in the interesting
eeremonies. Mr. Senator Crittenden was the.
orator on the occasion, and delivered a very elo
Rkwaiikarle Whwt.-'The Baltimore American notice*
a * peri men of white wheat, very remarkable for iU extraordi
nary size, which was grown on the farm of Mr. Joskph Pf.as
?os, about three mile* northwest of Baltimore, who haa this
year raiaed about three hundred bushels, the produce being esti
mated at forty to forty-fire bushel* pei acre. Thestalks are about
six feet high, very stout at the bottom, and the grain fully one
half larger than the ordinary ml wheat. The strength of the
stalks enables it to stand the wind and rain, and it is said to be
entirely exempt from smut. Several years ago Mr. Pearson
purchased and sowed a quantity of wheat procured from New
York, among which. some heads appeared towering several
feet above the other grain. These were carefully collected,
producing about a gill of grain, and in a few years Mr. P.
has succeeded in raiaing from them the quantity above men
tioned. He supposes it to be a species of Chine* wheat, the
description of which it closely resembles.
Th* Cottoh Caor.?The New York Shipping and Com
mercial List of Saturday publishes its annual statement of the
cotton crop for the year ending September 1st, 1846. The
' crop is estimated at 2,394,504, being 364,094 bale, increa*!
on the previous year, 2,083,756 bale, had been exported.
The stock on hand at the principal 8outhem cities is 74,298.
The amount of cotton Uken for home consumption during the
year was 389,006 bales, being an increase of 42,202 bales on
last year. This does not include any cotton manufactured
in the States socth and west of Virginia, nor any m that
State, except in the vicinity of Petersburg and Richmond. Du
ring the year 16,682 were destroyed by fire, of these 11,200
were burnt in New York, 3,481 in Charleston, and 1,900 in
IsstAK Hostilities.?The Arkansas Intelligencer of the
30th ultimo states that the Indians on the frontier are quiet
and peaceable, with the exception of the Kickapoos and < a
manches, who are arrayed in arms against each other. Hie
Caiqpichea have said that the Kickapoos should not hunt up
on the prairies, and the latter tribe, assisted by volunteers
from several small scattering tribes, have proceeded to the hunt
folly prepared to meet the Camanches in battle if they are
molested- ' .
Mr. B*!?jamii* Mirnm has retired from the Philadelphia
Pennsylvanian, ol which he was one of the original proprie
tor*, and his interert haa passed to A. Born Hamilton, who
with Mr. B. Pa**t, will hereafter conduct the paper. The
Pennsylvanian is a Locofoco paper, and i. one of the ablest of
those of that party:
THE NATURALIZATION LAWS.
The character and position of Mr. Senator Archer
(of Virginia) give great interest to the following
Letter from his pen, which we find published in the
Philadelphia papers :
Sabatooa Sj-HIKHS, 8*i-t. 8, 1845.
Diua 81111 It u in a very brief and hurried manner only,
that, amid the detraction, of this place, I am enabled to give
the answer to your request for my opinion of the fitness of an
arrangement of our Law of Naturalization, ao aa to make
American birth the future condition of American citizenship.
I premise that an opinion favorable to auch a requirement
can be attended with 110 effort contributory to the advancement
of the object, the prevalent and adverse opinion being too firmly
established for overthrow. The expression of this opinion can
only have the result of exciting clamor, impairing the jiopu
larity of those who avow it, and obstructing perhaps the pro
gress of the American Republican party. Aa it has for along
time, however, been my practice to have no reaerve as re
gards the avowal of my opinions on public questions, when
properly requested, I do not hesitate to respond to your le
quest in the present instance.
The great advance of our country in population stripe the
proposed inquiry of any neceaaary consideration of our earlier
policy of inviting the growth of our people by foreign contribu
tion. That growth, suflicient for all purposes of large power and
prosperity, and under the influence of a law of rapid indige
nous multiplication, leaves us assuredly at full liberty to con
sult and be guided by any consideration of differently advised
policy which may serve to demand our attention.
Of this character there appear to me to be aeveral, very im
I perative in their requirements. Among them is one of a very
I general nature, which on tliat account perhaps may with more
readiness and effect i>? referred to. I allude to the great ad
vantage of a homogenous character of the people composing a
nation in regard to political administrations. When portions
of the nation are emigrants from countries with forms of civil
policy essentially differing, or inevitably adverse to those of
the receiving nation, as in our caae, how can these men have
the just appreciation or the adequate knowledge of the' value
and structure and operation of our very peculiar and even
anomalqps forms of government which qualify for participation
in the conduct of them > This is a consideration which does
not require to be enlarged upon. The suggestion is sufficient,
and the inference equally incontestable and important. Diver
sities of interest among the parts may contribute to the pros
perity of a State; but not diversities of social and political
character in its people to the harmonious and successful con
duct of its political aflkirs. Why shall this material inconve
nience, or it may be great hazard, to the perpetuity of its in
stituUons, at least in an unaltered character, be incurred by a
nation like ours, if not redundant or replete, yet certainly auf
ficiently abounding in population! of the character, if we ar<
not at liberty to say the best in all respects, yet certainly th?
best adapted to our institutions > I, it true that men whe
pass the sea change their minds and their affections and the
principles and the prejudices which may unfit them for parti
cipance in pure and free government as readily as their cli
mate > The adage which pronounces the reverse of this pro
position has been received in all time as just.
Let any truly patriotic man consult his own bosom ; does he
find there a monition that, removed to any other country than
his own, he can ever love it as his own > Will ha not treat
the suggestion that he would as an injustice and an injury >
Can he be fit, then?can it be either expedient or right, that he
should have extended to him participation in the government
of this other country, which it may be has variant interests and
a commercial policy permanently adverse to those of his own
country, and even come at any time into military conflict,
threatening the prosperity, or it may be the cherished institu
tions of his own ? Can it be a proceeding consonant to sound
morals or to sound policy either to put men in this condition
of irreconcilable separation between their affections and thei,
duto*?t.etwe.-n their position and their obligations > Yel
this is the unquestioned predicament in which every sound
hearted man must or may find himaelf^laced by the process
of naturalization. I do not ask whether he ought to place
himself in this j?sition or consent to occupy it. That is for
to?n*eif?nd ,u" own conscience, not my conscience, to decide.
But I do ask whether it can be best for the country to
which he may have transferred himself ifom his own for the
improvement of his pecuniary condition, of its own accord,
and without any imperious policy demanding, to insist on
placing men, and large and continuously flowing masses of
men, with no limitation as to numbers, in this position ? I
It is a common remark, which does not require to be re
peated, that the denial of citizenship, or the right to take a
part in the exercise of our sovereignty and the management of
our poliucal aflkirs, involves no necessity for the denial of any
other right to foreigners who may see occasion to domiciliate
with us. To every right or privilege appurtenant properly to
the full attainment of the object which must be supposed to
bring them to our country, the acquisition and enjoyment of
property, the guaranty should be as efficient as to the natives.
No one is found urging objections on this score, more than to
the continuance of all privileges, those of citizenship inclu
sive, where they have heretofore been conceded.
As to the silly abstraction in the mouths of some people
that refusal to extend equality of privilege to all resident
among us would be in contravention of our institutions, it
cannot be necessary to say any thing. There would be an
end of all national independence and social safety if the peo
ple invested with the property of a 8tate?the Nation?were
to be restrained in adopting order according to its own views
of policy, as regarded the parties who should he admitted to
the participation of its sovereignty. Under such a principle,
hordes of Hindostanese, or Chinese, or Haytiena, might forri
themselves without limit, as without fitness, on our sover
eignty, become preponderant in the population, asaert mas
tery in the government, and change or overturn it under ita
own forms. A proposition cannot be more stupid than that
because I admit a man into my family, find him employment
and secure him the fruits of hi. labor, I am also obliged to
admit him to a full participation in the regulation of my
household and ita inmates.
I have thus, as hastily as I could put words on paper, given
the answer to your request for my opinion on the question
you proposed. A* far as I am advised, no nation, save our
own, admits, except in individual case. a. .pecial favor, other
than its indigenous population to the full enjoyment of politi
cal as well aa civil rights. The pos^ss.on and guaranty of
this last class of rights satisfying in my judgment all juat and
reasonable pretensions on the part of the immigrant popula
tion, it is my opinion that our nation would ?k> right and well
to conform to the universal principle of action of other na
tions, conceding no superior advantages in this important re- I
spect beyond those they concede to us. The Father of our |
liberty, had he been obKged by defeat to retire to a foreign
land, would have found an asylum only, (in the best event,)
not citizenship. 8hall every tenant of a l.zar-house abroad
find not only welcome and security, but an equal participation
ILTfii ?lZh>5* fro,m,<,?foctiv? "duration, he cannot know
the value, and, from defecUve character, acquires only as a
spoil ami an emolument, to dispo*, of without a passing
thought of the public interests which he is allowed to influence >
You will perceirethat I have confined myself to the .mall
com pa* of remark indispensable to the reapect due to your
request of me, the occasion not permitting a more general dis
cussion of the great question. which the Native American
?consideration of the country, on
these I shall probably find an occasion to express mv senti
ments aHarge. In the mean time, howev.r, and a. the ae
T a KP!TnihtVe TW I must not withhold
the advice that the NaUve American party should not aim to
carry out the principle that nativity should be the condition of
citizenship. Not that the principle ia not excellent, but be
C*T f,t,?nno* * utUinwl ; and ,h* ?'fmpt to attain it mav
and will hazard the attainment of good which-ia attainable A
wise man always prefers in his necessity half a loaf to no
bread. I am, very respectfully, yours,
Gen. P. S. 8*itii. W. 8. ARCHER.
FROM BUENOS AYRE8.
Accounts to the 21st of July represent affairs in
the Rirer Plate to remain without change. The
English and French Ministers had demanded the
withdrawal of the Argentine army from the terri
tory of the Uruguay Republic and the removal of
the Argentine squadron from before Montevideo,
which the Argentine Government had refused to do,
and required that they should acknowledge the
rigorous blockade of Montevideo. Affairs were
thus put at issue, and the next step of the two
Ministers was awaited with much anxiety.
A correspondent of the Journal of Commerce
censures this interference on the part of European
nations. He charges the French and English with
aiding General Paz, in CorrierUes ; a part of whose
forces (under General Lopjez) had recently sur
prised and entered the city of Santa Fe. The in
vaders, after sacking the town, retired, taking with
them about four hundred women and girls, and cut
ting the throats of most of those left behind, inclu
ding all their prisoners. The same letter adds :
" About two thousand men in Corrientes anil four hundred
in the city of Montevideo, assisted by two thousand six hun
dred Frenchmen with arms, are the onJy enemies that now
exist to toe Argentine Government in all America; and for.
these this splendid country i? u> bo again the scene of em 1
war and bloodshed. The Argentine Government offer to
guaranty the lives and property of all who lay down their
arms, the complete independence of the Uruguay Republic,
and the entire |>acification of this part of Sooth America, if
the English and French squadron withdraw their support from
the ci^y of Montevideo. The quiet entry of General Om?K
would follow, and our commerce would be again as usual.
Mr. Brest, our chaig^, has nobly taken a stand to support
our commerce and our rights by protesting against the En
glish and French agents again exciting civil war by taking a
part to uphold the fcw remnants of General Riv^ha'h party,
and against any blockude, or any other measure of inter
The Buenos Ayrean " Packet" also protests
against :he interference of the European Powers,
" Tha' the question at issue is one of paramount impor
tance to til the States of America, not from republican suscep
tibility orfy in regard to the interference of monarchical Eu
rope, but from the vital principles of independent existence it
involves, and in respect to which there can be no compro
mise. II is substantially reduced to this : Is the Argentine
Republic, are the Republics of America members of the great
family of nations, or are they mere fiefs of the crowned headi
of Europe ' The Argentine Government asserts the former.
The squtdrons of England and France practically maintain
I the latter."
The "Packet" of the 19th July has the follow
I ing partgraph : ?
? We understand that President Obi be has convoked the
[ Legislative Chambers of the Oriental State, which were so
I unceremoniously turned out of doors by Rivkba in 1838, to
assemble forthwith in the vicinity of Montevideo for the des
patch of important business, now that the whole territory of
the Republic, the capital excepted, obeys the legal authority.
We believe that, with very few exceptions, the whole of the
members of those Chambers are still alive, and will attend at
I their post."
LATEST FROM BRAZIL.
By the Nautilus, arrived at Baltimore from Ric
J de Janeiro, advices have been received up to the
I 9th of August, by which the following informatior
1 ha? been obtained :
"Rio ut JiMino, Auo. 9, 1845.
" Die British Minister here has received despatches fron
Montevideo saying that the English and French have placet
a man-of-war alongside of each of Rosa*' vessels of war of
Montevideo, and informed them that they could not move,
Ross, has been defeated i? the interior by Paz and Lopez,
and is now forcing every mar. from 14 to 70 ye.ni ofmgemto
his army as a last struggle, and is doubUess near his politi
I cal end.
Montevideo advices to the 19th ult. say that a French
brig-of-war has hauled up to the head of our harbor for the
protection of the left wing of the lines, and the British ship
Comus has anchored in a position outside to bear upon the
enemy on the right wing. These movements evince a hos
| tile character. "
AFFAIRS IN THE RIVER PLATE.
The subjoined letter from a correspondent of the
New York Commercial Advertiser, though its dale
is not quite so recent as other advices from the
same quarter, gives an interesting statement of the
condition of the war and parties on the River La
" MowTKvinito, Jijlt 1, 1845.?For three years'a warhas
continued in the Banda Oriental; for three years this little
Republic has been saturated with the blood of her sons j and
for three years has the bloody saw-knife !>een applied to the
throats of those who have been taken as prisoners of war. A
recapitulation of all the horrors of this war would be startling
indeed it has been carried on on such opposite principles to
those which govern every other nation in the nineteenth
"We are now waiting the return of the British packet from
Buenos Ayres with great anxiety, and shall then probably
know whether we are to have peace or war in the river. The
French Admiral said yesterday to a gentleman of high stand
ing that he thought there would be peace, as Iwth peart nnd
war had been oflered to G#n. Rosas. My opinion is, howe
ver, that there will be war, and that Gen. Rosas will prefer
going to the Pampas with his army, and there carry on u pro
tracted war, to living and ruling in But nos Ayres in a state of
peace. He has constantly been at war since he has been al
lowed to rule, and the theatre of his ambition now is the vast
territory of the Brazils.
"Hhould Montevideo fall, this part of the Brazilian Empire
would I* beaten, and within two years shaken to iu founda
tion. France and England will not permit this, and Brazil
enters into the triple alliance to save Montevideo. A few
days since an order came down from Buenos Ayres to Admi
ral Brown, commanding the Buenos Ayrean squadron, to at
tack the city. The English Admiral, knowing the order,
placed the English steamer Firebrand alongside the Buenos Ay
rran squadron, with orders to sink them if they attempted the
attack. Her guns, which are K4-pounders, were double shot
ted and brought to bear on Admiral Brown's brig, who I have
no doubt was well satisfied with this intervention. There is
also no doubt that powder and ball cartridges have been fur
nished this Government from both the English and Fitench
ships of war.
" We can therefore consider that the intervention of force
has commenced, and soon I trust will it be in active execu
tion, and continue Ull the flags of all nations can navigate the
noble rivers which empty into the Rio La Plate. These have
Iwen closed by General Rosas, and we know nothing of the
people who for thousands of milns inhabit their banks ; but I
trust the present generation will become acquainted with their
history, and the flag of the United States float along the shores
of Paraguay, a nation which has maintained its independence
for forty years, and still is shut up from all intercourse with
the civilized World. France and England will not require
any troops from Kurope. Paraguay will send all that are re
quired to settle the controversy in Buenos Ayres. All she
wants are arms and munitions ot war, and she has the men to
give laws to the whole Southern continent.
" Since writing the foregoing the British packet has arrived
from Buenos Ayres, and it is almost certain that war will take
place between that place and the Alliance of Peace, consisting
of France, England, and the Brazils. About ninety days
will finish the business, and bring lasting peace to the citizens
of the River La Plate, who are now banished and driven to the
caves anil forests of the country, to save their throats from
the saw-knife of Baenos Ayres."
LATE FROM CHINA.
By the arrival at New York of the ship Rain
bow, from Canton, we have intelligence from China
to the 5th of June, considerably later than wan re
ceived by the overland mail. On the 5th of July
the Rainbow saw the United (States frigate Consti
tution going into Macao, and was boarded by a boat
By former arrivals we received a rumor that there had been
a large fire at Canton. From papers brought by the Rain
bow we learn the particulars concerning it, with the terrible
fact that over twelve hundred lives toere lost ! The Friend of
China, published at Hong Kong, of the 31st of May, state*
that tho fire broke out in the forenoon of Sunday the 25th in
a theatre while the performances were going on. The theatre
was situated in the centre of a square, from which there was
no egress except by a narrow lane. As soon as the firo was
discovered the audience endeavored to escape ; at the same
time an immense crowd from the outside were endeavoring to
force themselves in. The result was that an immense num
Iter of people were burnt to death or trampled to death by the
crowd. The official estimate of the Mandarins state the
number of killed at twelve hundred and fifty-seven, including
fifty-two male and female actors ; the wounded are estimated
at twenty-one hundred. The day after the fire thirty more
were killed by a falling wall, and nearly a hundred wer^
badly wounded. The bodies of the dead were so horribly dis
figured that many of them could not be recognised, and lay
unclaimed and uuburied. The authorities had ordered four
hundred coffins for unclaimed l>odies. A large portion of the
dead were females, aud it -was feared man) had been murdered
by the robbers that infest the city for the sake of their jewels.
Thirty years ago a similar calamity occurrcd at the same
theatre. At that time the authorities forbade dramatic repre
sentations by the inhabitants ; the present company were out ?
From Honan province there are accounts of an earthquake,
which demolished about ten thousand houses, killing upwards
of four thousand people.
The Chinese authorities-have ordered the robbers and as
sailants of the British officers, in the affray noticed by a pre
vious arrival, to be punished , British subjects, however, are
still excluded from the city of Canton, and the authorities urge
the unwillingness of the people as the reason why they can
not permit them to enter.
The great age of the Emperor is said to make the duties of
the Government irksome to him. There is likely to be a good
deal of difficulty in regard to the succession. Large deficits
still occur in the revenue. Recent orders have been issued
that all officers who fail to pay the greater part of their debt*
shall suffer decapitation. Kktixu has received a seat in the
Cabinet as Assistant Minister.
The following is given as a summary of the imports and
exports of Canton for the year 1844 :
British..$ 16,506,240 $17,025,360
American 1,320,170 6,686,171
French 33,823 37,130
Dutch 231,708 572,188
Belgian 60,517 9,042
Swedish 18,234 153,688
German 5,743 122,888
' Portuguese 614,824 7,522
Total $17,843,249 $25,513,949
The ratio of the aggregate imports and exports of China
for several years may be seen from the following statement:
1832 $7,530,609 .$17,240,486
1840 11,205,270 13,840,750
1344 15,920,132 17,925,360
The imports are in each case exclusive of opium.
The Government has officially authorized the traffic ii
opium, and "farmed out" the privilege of licensing opiun
houses at auction for $720 per month.?Enquirer.
1 FROM HAYTI.
A correspondent of the Philadelphia Exchangt
! furnishes the subjoined intelligence from Cap<
I Haytien :
p "The difficulties between the people of the French an<
Spanish parts of the island, or, as they are termed here, th<
Haytiens and Dominicans, appear to be as far as ever from i
settlement. On the 27th ult the Haytiens attacked Saxavon
drove out the Dominican troops, and took possession of th?
place. No more military executions of prisoners have been
ordered, and the prisoners are well treated. Saxavon is a
frontier town, commanding the main j*ass between the French
and Spanish territories, and is eighteen leagues to the west
ward of Cape Haytien, and ten back in the interior from
Monte Christ, which is on the north coast.
" Government is said to be making active preparations to
carry on the war. A decree was published here on the 16th
authorizing all citizens to fit out privateers] and a French
barque of two hundred tons, polacre rigged and pierced for
twelve guns, has lately lieen purchased and now lies in the
harbor, together with a topsail schooner of six guns, (formerly
the Kathleen, of Philadelphia,) and three little clippers of two
guns each. This force, it is said, is only awaiting the arrival
of a steamer, ordered from the United States, to sail for a
blockade of Santa Domingo, while a large force is to march
over and attack the town by land.
" The President still resides here, and intends to make Cape
Haytien his permanent residence, though Port-au-Prince con
tinues to be the seat of Government. The President is now
ill, and his general health is far from being good."
A later letter, dated at Cape Haytien on the 10th
of September, says:
" On the 1st instant the Haytien fleet, consisting of one
barque, a topsail, and two fore-and-aft schooners, carrying in
all twenty guns, sailed hence for Monte Christ, where it ar
rived next day, and after soma firing, by which neither party
was injured, the Dominicans ran their vessels on shore and
abandoned them. The Haytiens thenbutnt one of the schoon
ers, and having got the other off, sent her in here a prize, with
a mahogany barge in tow, which had also been taken.
" On the 25th ultimo an " arrets" was published here by
the President, declaring all the Dominican ports blockaded,
and that any foreign merchants who should, directly or indi
rectly, expedite a vessel to any of these ports, should forfeit
his patent and be driven from the island.
" The fleet returned into port on the 8th. It is said its
next expedition will be against Porto Platte. The Haytien
Navy now numbers seven sail, viz. one batque, two topsail
and four fore-and-aft schooners, amounting in all to about six
hundred and seventy tons burden, and carrying thirty-two guns.
" Rumors were current yesterday of new disturbances at
I?eogune and Jeremie, but nothing definite has yet reached us."
THE EQUINOX AND THE WEATHER.
The Sun crossed the line between midnight of Saturday
and Sunday, the 20th and 21st, and we have never known
the weather to behave so conformably and so handsomely, ac
cording to the popular notion of how it ought to behave at such
For many days, prior to Saturdsy, we had hsd a continua
tion of the most prostrating of all seasons?a violent Septem
ber sun?with little or no air in circulstion at night, and with
an almost universal disposition to nausea and plethora about
the head. On the night of the Equinox the clouds gallantly
mustered up from the noith, as if they were going to volun
teer against Mexico, poured out a fine shower, and then dis
persed on Sunday night, leaving us with a clear sky and a
glorious and bracing northwester.
We have never known the Equinox to come up to time
with so exact a punctuality?and we begin now to believe in
sidereal and lunar influences?in the hang of the moon?in
her relative ecliptic position in her first quarter, and, to say
all in one word, in the Dutch theories respecting the influence
of that planet upon our world.?Richmond Whig.
VERY LATE FROM EUROPE.
The Atlantic steamer Britannia arrived at Bos
ton on Friday from Liverpool, bringing advices
from that place to the 4th instant.
The Hon. Edward Everett, our late Minister
to Great Britain, together with his Lady and other
members of his family, were among her passengers.
The commercial advices by this arrival are favor
able. Willmer & Smith's European Times says :
"The Cotton market, that great barometer of public feel
ing, has shown symptoms of improvement. The fine weather
bus had a material influence in strengthening thin feeling, ami
in dispelling the melancholy forebodings about the harvest
which had taken possession of the public mind. The sales
up to the end of the week exceeded 48,000 bags?a daily
average of more than 8,000. In the four days since nearly
40,000 have been sold, and prices are evidently getting up.
It is true that speculators have t>ought freely, but this is only
a natural course, to be expected now that the harvest is con
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were still
absent, enjoying themselves in Germany, where
they were treated with marked attention and hos
The affairs of Ireland are represented as far from
favorable. An Orange agitation now prevails, and
the Repeal movement appears to be on the wane.
The boats of the British ship-of-war Pantaloon,
on the coast of Africa, after a most gallant action,
[ captured a large slaver, having a crew of about
fifty-eight persons, composed chiefly of Spaniards.
"Jlcren of pirates were killed, and eight severe
The terms of a treaty of amity and commerce
have been definitively agreed upon by the British
and Brazilian negotiators.
The treaty between France and Morocco has
at length been ratified by the Moorish Emperor.
It fixes the limits of the territory between Algiers
and Morocco, and is remarkable for containing an
[ express acknowledgment on the part of the Empe
ror that Algiers is 44 a French possession."
Paris and the neighborhood has been visited with
| a whirlwind, which did great damage. At a village
near Rouen it was so disastrous that it swept away
| several large manufactories and houses, ana caused
the death and the mutilation of a very great num
ber of persons.
According to a private letter published in the
Paris Presse, the French had suffered a sad reverse
i in Algiers. In the North the tribes are said to
have risen against the French authority ; and that
| one French battalion had been massacred and ano
ther drowned. The number of soldiers killed,
wounded, and drowned, or overcome by the heat,
I (which is said to have been excessive,) is stated to
be 2,700. A successful expedition has lately been
made to Delly by Marshal Buoeacd, at the head of
5,000 men. Immediately on the appearance of the
troops, the people made submission. Abd-el-Ka
[ der has retreated into the interior, but he is still as
far from being conquered as he was years ago.
The Queen of Spain and her mother are await
i ing the visit of the Due and Duchesse de Nemours
near the French frontier. Nothing appears to be
settled as to the marriage of the Queen, but it is
thought that something will be done respecting it
i after the visit of the Due de Nemours. An out
I break had taken place at Madrid, occasioned by the
oppressive operation of the new plan of taxation.
Petitions having been presented in vain for a sus
pension of the measure, several thousand trades
men closed their shops on the 19th of August, and
the streets were filled with those who were opposed
to the measure. The troops were called out and
charged the populace?several lives were lost before
th* mob were dispersed.
Mr. Wheaton, the United States Minister at
Berlin, has again opened negotiations with the Zoll
Verein for a treaty of commerce. The Voss Ga- .
zette states that he 44 has already acted on this di
rection from his Government, and it is not unlikely
that his proposition may be laid before the German
| Customs Conference, at present being held at
In Germany the new religion is continuing it*
| career, with alternate successes and defeats. At
Ilalberstadt, Ronge, the leader of the movement,
was nearly assassinated when preaching a violent
| sermon against Rome; but at other places he has
had great success.
A serious affray had taken place at Madagascar,
between the natives and the British and French, in
which the former lost four men killed and twelve
wounded. The latter had seventeen killed and
The Russian army in Caucasus, after several
bloody conflicts, have succeeded in capturing the
village of Dargo, the residence of the chief of all
the Mahommedan tribes of the Caucasus and of the
Accounts from Turkey state that the Porte has
decided upon a plan for the pacification of the Le
banon, which has received the approval of the rep
resentatives of the Five Great Powers. By this
measure the independence of both the Druses and
Maronites will be maintained, and the free exercise
of the two religions satisfactorily secured. There
has been a change of the Turkish Ministry.
POST OFFICE STATISTICS.
The following table exhibits, in round numbers, the de
crease in the revenue from postages at certain of the large post
offices during the quarters ended the 31st March and 30th
June, 1845, as compared with the corresponding quarters of
Augusta . ..
Hertford .. .
New York. .
Portland .. .
Decrease 1 Decrease
quarter <end-quarter end
ed March ed June 90,
.11, 1845. 1*45.
IS, 9 AS
* No decrease this quarter.
Decrease in the twenty-one offices above, for the six months
ended the 30th June, 1845, as compared with the same pe
riod of 1844, as shown by the table, #33,852.
In 938 post offices yielding a net! revenue ol $ 100 per
quarter and upwards, there warf, during the quarter ended the
30th June last, an increase of revenue in 505, and a decr?ase
? in 433 of them. '"'fr-.' ?
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