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1'iiMWiii (ft.) Itn ?*, Ittt. Hon. !? WiLUt, Strrrlmry of tk* Trtmmtry wf Ike l\ Muirt. Nta I have jnet mm jrwkr rwmUr .-.Miiaimn? forty 4urniTir- aUmml Mi wrtm H*?nui?iurri> of tk? UmunI ntmtm, trnm wh??-h it appear* dial ih* fcttvr drterwunMl to n?du?. tariff (if tbey ran) In ? nmlorm ataodanl of tweles nad i knif per mnt. THm bring mi M?pomnt official pup**. dw ???? dation of a kontiW n?o*m?mt i|>in? thr pnHrrtm policy, it hu iunhini Iww thr j??mi prod turn 01 thr President ami hi* ?' < ?lr mghwd ?.> yourself) Km brrn auhoullrd lor thr.r ronatdrraUou ?ft?t approval. Regarding it III Una light, I brg Iravelo mil your .?.! >>.?i .>f iKr miMi<- to aniiir nortum* ol attention and thai of thr publn to -nnr portion. this important circular. Thn 39th, 10th, and Slat ini*rro*atonra | eonai der the moat important, aa indicating thr jwiw standard to which the Pvomdrnt and hia ( ahtnei hare determined to reduce the tariff of IM1 *?* to twelve and a half per rent, ktrisanimi t that i?. twelve and a half per rent, upon rvrry thing alike. .That the publir may judge for Utrmaelvee I copy theae inierrogatoriea word for word Iroin the cinu lar itself: IjwwUon "SMh If Ui# duty upon IW (urr?fn ruawuteiur. of thr kinJ of gmdm which jam wake we?r rrdm-ed hi lwel? and a half per <?aL, with a rorrespoodwif redu<tM? upon all to imports, would you continue to maiiuUrturr ?l rwiure. prion ? 30th. If u would canaa you to abandon your buauMw*. i" what way would you aaapioy your capital ??Slat. la there any purauit in which you could rng*f from which you could derive greater pruAta, e?en after a wdw lion of the import duliea to twalve and a half per rent M Twelve and a half per cent, on all imports' seems, then, to be " the revenue standard" to which you, as the organ of thia Administration, propoae u? reduce the present tariff. Now, air, having indi cated your " revenue atandard." vu. twelve and a half per cent., I have only to regret that you did not at the same time indicate the amount ol revenue required. Allow me, air, to supply this omission. You will want at least twenty-four millions of dol lars a year; the Treasury estimates make it nearly twenty-seven millions. Now, air, permit me in turn to propound a few questions, which I hope will be answered for public satisfaction through the official organ of the Gov erment, " the Union," editorially or otherwise. 1st. Would twelve and a half per cent, assessed upon all the imports of the present year, including tea, coffee, and the free list, be sufficient to pay one half of the amount of revenue required at your revenue standard of twelve and a half per cent. ! [It would not, and you know it. Our whole im ports for consumption amouut to less than one hun dred millions of dollars a year; for the last four years the average is less than ninety millions Twelve and a half per cent, upon one hundred millions would give twelve and a half millions ot gros$ revenue, and deducting from this three mil lions for expenses of collection, drawbacks, boun ties, &c., and you have left but nine millions and a half nett revenue, instead of twenty-four or twenty-five millions?the amount required.] 3d. What increaie of foreign imports would lw required to supply this deficiency of revenue, say fifteen millions. [Answer/ One hundred and twenty-five millions The whole of the specie in the United States i* oaitmatoil oi nUo.ul o^uanlnJlwA Aiahiy l?l?lLujUrUi fit dollars. So that all the specie in the l nited State* would not pay, by forty-five millions of dollars, for the increased imports required to supply one year's revenue at twelve and a half per cent., the " stand ard " proposed by the present Administration !] 3d. Reduce tlie tariff to twelve and a half per cent., and how will you supply the revenue, now scarcely sufficient at an average duty of thirty-four and a half per cent. ? Will you supply it by direct taxation, exchequer bills, borrowing, or bankruptcy ? [These are hard questions, but they must be an swered. The People demand it.] 4th. When all the specie in the United States will not pay by forty-five millions for the foreign imports required for revenue the first year under your system, and when the banks of course sus pend and break, and their paper becomcs valueless, how are you to pay for the next year's importations, having neither money nor credit left ? 5th. Will not a reduction of the tariff to twelve and a half per cent, (less than has ever been thought of or seriously suggested before) effectually ruin every mechanic, manulacturer, and farmer in the United States? At twelve and a half per cent, what will become, sir, of? The Hhoemakerw, who are now prelected by a duty of Wi per ct. Tailor*, who have .">0 do Blacksmithi 4<i do Saddler* 35 do T inner* 45 do Tinner* 35 do Iron-master* 75 do Woollen manufacturer* 40 do Cotton do 100 do Glan-maker* ISO do Paper-maker* 70 do And the Farmrrt, who are protected by the following dutie* : On Wool 40 per ct. Wheat 40 do Beef and Pork 80 do Spirit* 120 do Cbaeae 95, Ac.' Reduce these protective duties to twelve and a half per cent, and will not all these be sacrificed and ruined together ? 6th. When the mechanics, manufacturers, and farmers are thus destroyed, our specie all exported, our banks broke, and their paper worthless, why insult a bankrupt people by asking them 44 If twelve and a half per cent, will cause you to abandon your business, in what way would you employ your capital ?" The only answer they can givr you is this : ?? Sir, your policy has left us without capital and without employment; we must therefore beg, and when all are beggars, whom, sir, are we to l*?g from r But, in conclusion, permit me in all seriousness to inquire, when it is manifest that twelve and a hall per cent, upon our whole imports, including tea and coffee, would not yield one half the revenue required to carry on the Government, why expose yourself and the Administration to ridicule, if not execration, by talking in an important official paper about reducing the tariff to twelve and a half per cent, f In the present and prospective condition of the revenue and expenditures, would it not be much more consistent and sensible to talk of increaxing rather than reducing the tariff to "the revenue standard ?" But enough for the present. I may address you again shortly, but would be glad in the mean time to see some satisfactory answer to the foregoing questions in the official organ of the Government at Washington. It is due to the Public, and ought to be given. Yours, very respectfully, S. THE TELPXIRAPH OFFICE ?? open M jo 18 A. M., arid front 1 lo 3 and 5 to 7 P. M. aug 30 THE BALANCE OF TRADE. The ?* Mobile Register and Journal " ol ihe 16th 'of Mcplcnlwr hf ilon| irlirlv respecting ihe slulft oirnt uf the commerce of the United States with the other nation* of the American continenl which appeared in our paper of the 2d of thai month. Pleased that onr contemporary ?a?intra the table - a very interesting one," we cannot admil the rorrertnes. of the conclusion* which lie deduce* fimm it. I? particular we allude to ihe argument* u.rd ag*m*t what lie calla " the tariff doctrine of the balance of trade." in which he makes the friends of d?e tariff hold opinion* upon thai subject which we think they do not enurrlain, Thoae notion* ol the balance iff tmde, which the Mobile editor calls exploded, are regarded in the same lighl by ihe ad vorate* of ihe tariff; and. from the tenor ol his reasoning, we are led lo suppose Utat our contem porary has not himself a very clear perception of |ii We ran not imagine thai any friend ol the tarifi would draw die conclusion that our trade last year villi die odier nation* of the American continent m WM B m?Mt unfortunate and disastrous one to the : United Hlales," merely liecause our aggregate tni oorte therefrom eaceeded our exports nearly four, millions of dollar.; parhcularly when the greater oart of dial excess cousisted in three millions ol Eerie. IWstdr*, more than 9,000,000 of our tm iNiru from these countries consisted of coffee, cho colate, and cocoa, which are admitted free ol all duly; and of the remaining 18,000,000 there was ara'reeh am article whatever which interfered with our domestic productions, either agricultural or ma nufactured. 111 our ;igirregate amount of exports Wf f7,000,000 of breadsturis, nearly 00O.IIM ol provisions, and upwards of *6,000,000 ol 'manufacture, of all k.nds-our agruullura-lex-, iMiru beitur lo our manulactured ones as 10 to 0. SureU our agricultural friends have no right to i compiain ?f the operations of the tariff here ; and we will engage that our manufacturing ones will not, notwithstanding the "balance of trade," as esti mated by our annual Treasury statement, was four millions against us. . We will not examine the arguments of the Mo bile editor further upon this point; for we fully agree with him in his deductions, and admit that the doctrine of the balance of trade, as he explains ft, is an " exploded one." We only ask him not to attribute the adoption of this " exploded " doc trine U? the friends of the tariff; and we deny that the trgumenl* which he uses against the tariff, in con-1 nruuenct of "" '< erronrott* ascription, have any the Irani relevancy. We would here state, en pa* ?ant, that we think the annual statements of our exports and imports should not return the amount of specie and bullion which we send to or receive Irom other nations as part of such exports and im iH.rt. ; for they certainly are not either exports or imports, commercially considered, but merely the means of paying national as well as individual ba lances. (iold and silver, and their representative, good bills of exchange, have always a real, a uni versal value. If it he said that gold ami silver fall j properly into the category of commercial articles, liecause they have a price in the market, and rise or fall according to circumstances, the same may be said of bills of exchange, the premium or discount upon which fluctuates with great rapidity. We will not examine this question at present; in fact, nei ther the truth nor fallacy of our opinion will ma terially affect our present object. In order, how- ] ever, to show ihat the insertion of die exports and imports of specie in our annual Treasury report gives a very different appearance to what it would exhibit were they omitted, we make the following | I statement: ..... Including Exchuung upreir. tprcic. 1841 Eiports #121,851,803 11,817,471 lnip.rU. 137,846,177 132,967,5441 Balance against II. SUtes #6,094^374 $ 1^140,073 l,ua Balance in fa tor U. Ktales.... .*4.539,447 $3,802,924 184.1. Export.,... $84,340,480 *83,825,689 Import. 64,753,799 43,433,464 | Balance in f.vor I . Btate. .. $19,593,681 $40,392,22j I 1844. Export. $111,200,046 $105,745,832 Import. MMMtfNft 102,004,806 Balance in f.vor IT. Htatea.... .$2,765,011 $3,141,32l> 1845. Export. $107,891,632 $99,413,96; Import-.. 119,51*.?06 115,560,374 Balance again* I*. KUIes ... $11.630,984 $16,146,407 Wc have long lliought that much nonsense has I been spoken and wrinen about this said balance of I trade, and that much mystery and confusion has tieen heaped upon a very simple subject. In our opinion, the balance of trade is merely that balance irhich is due to or from any other nation Irom or n all other nations, upon the commercial transac .iotis of any given period ; and that this balance s not shown ny the difference between die export, ind the imports of any nation, but is created by a l rariely of causes and circumstances independent ol ?uch difference. Among the cause, for a nation getting into debt wilh odier nations, may be enumerated f*di?ff crop*, bad harvest., war, pestilence, luxury, indolence, improvidence,and unskilful commercial speculation. The reverse of these will place a nation in the op posite position. We are here speaking of ruinous 1 or injurious debt, and not of the temporary debt which arises from regular mercantile transactions. Passing over all that the Mobile editor says about tke ?'exploded, craiy, absurd idea" of the balance of trade as shown by the exports and import, of a country, and which notion i? equally repudiated,] diough not in such vehement language,by oursrlves, we would respectfully ask him the following ques-1 tion : What are ?? the impudent fallacies,groundless fabrications, and gross delusion. " with which the friend, of ihe tariff are chargeable ! He deal, in I wholesale vituperation, but be mentions only one .object, and on that subject we think HMM? of the friends of the tariff agree with Itian. It is a very easy mode of defeating an opponent to charge him with opinions which he doe. not hold, and then w. run riot in laughing at his folly when Oiose opin ions are refuted. The Mobile editor say. that ? country which eonstauUy exported more than it imported would - end witlmot having a penny left." Undoubtedly it would, if it d?d not get p??d for its surplus exports, and en would the merrhsnt or die tradesman who sold Isrgeiy on credit, it he did not succeed in getting i?i his annual arronni. ; but we put such individuals and ?sch nation, ont of the category of rational agents,* reneon ?**P^"|"?g whose conduct would prove owrael%es oe*o?i1 reason. , Again, how does our contemporary m?W? this assertion good t *' In every profitable foreign I' the return or imparled rarfo mu?t rjrreetf ??? ???/?" |. the rarfo exported?mother word., the aisr*h.tn I ? must import more than hr erporlt. or he Urn? by ? the operation." Is not thi. an adoption of thr | " crazy absurd idea" of the balance of trade, which we we're told was exploded, making the prolil ?r 1 loss of a mercantile adventure u? dej?end np-m the relation between exports and imports; aa if there was no mode of selding for a balance either way * In fart, the editor admits of this mode of settlement in his eery next sentence ; ihns blowing hn? and i cold with the same breath, and using both aide, a* I the argument, although neither of them applies. ' against the advocates of the tariff. j To show what sort of argument ? resorted to on this subject, we give the concluding paragraph of the article in the Mobile paper, and a? every telligent and candid reader to judge lor hnusell a* to its truthfulness or relevancy : 44 Yet not a whit more absurd is this chiUli-h fallacy of the ? tudance of trade than the fallacy of the whole protocUv. 4 sV-U>m?system which, in effect, enforce asits cardm.1 ? maxim that no nation should ever buy abroad, no nutter 4 how low the want can be supplied, but n,u-t make at home ? all that it consume*, no matter at what cost of the lal?or ami 4 treasure of iu psople-n system invented, a- reason ami his I ? tory concur to illustrate, by the opprassMs of mankind o ? build up artificial classes, and to breed in the popular body 4 of the State a kindred corruption, wedded by the affinities I 4 of unjust gain and mercenary motive to the abusesof agosern ?4 ment which cannot be otherwiac sustained. Upon this |>nn | 4 ciple rest the corn laws and manufacturing system of Great I ? Britain, and all other monopoliea wherever they exist. That ! ? such a system should 1* found in a free country like ours I ? can only be ascribed to the contagious character common j ' alike to aocial and political vices." We need not go to Mobile, however, for exam ples of language and arguments ol this kind, the first without dignity or propriety, the latter without force, ingenuity, or applicability. We have only to turn to the files of our neighbors. And first, to the official organ, the 44 Union." A writer in that paper of the 11th of September, who signs iimself 44 Torn Tough," in a reply to our correspondent ?4 Madison, undertaking to elucidate the subject of the 44 balance of trade," says : 44 In the usual course 4 of foreign trade, the value of the imports must ex 4 ceed the value of the exports, to make it a profit 4 able commerce." This is the Mobile argument, and it is no better in the District of Columbia than it was in Alabama. Tom Tough gives this exam ple : 44 If," says he, 44 the exports of the United 4 States amount to $100,000,000 custom-house val 4 uation at home, and the imports for the same year 4 (valuation likewise in this country) amount to 4 $120,000,000?it shows precisely this, according 4 to my understanding of the case, that the mer^ 4 chants of this country have made twenty per cent 4 upon their exports, or $20,000,Q00, thereby adti 4 ing so much to the capital of the country." Not quite so fast, Mr. Thomas Tough; there is only one state of the case in which this result would ob tain, and that would be, if the $100,000,000 of ex ports exactly paid for the $120,000,000 of imports, and all costs of transportation, Sic. both ways. But how would it be if the $100,000,000 of exporti as valued at home only realized $90,000,000 at the place of sale, or if the $120,000,000 of imports as valued at home cost $130,000,000 at }he place where they were purchased ? We cannot tkink there would be much profit to the merchants of the United States, although the custom-house books and the Secretary's annual statement did show that the imports exceeded the exports $20,000,000. Here would be a real balance of trade against the coun try, which the Mobile editor would find some diffi culty in convincing our foreign creditors was a 44 fallacy." But this correspondent of the Ifciion is evidently out of his depth, for he asks, 44 When was 4 the year of peace and prosperity that this nominal 4 balance of trade (the excess of imports over ex 4 ports) did not appear against us ?" We will tell him : in 1842, when the exports exceeded the im ports (specie included both ways) moro than lour millions ; in 1843. when they exceeded them nearly twenty millions ; and in 1844, when they exceeded them nearly three millions. Shall we run hazard of wearying our readers by giving one more of this correspondent's elucidations of the subject ? He say?: 441 will take, for example, a voyage from the United State* 4 the outline of which shall be founded in truth. A ship sails 4 from New York with a cargo of flour for South America? 4 coet $26,000 in New York. She sells that cargo on the ? weet coast of America for #100,000 specie. She proceeds with ? her spec ie to Canton, where she purchases a cargo of teas, ? and returns to New York, where the teas are valued at ? $300,000, and at that valuation appear in the commercia 4 reports of the Treasury Department. This voyage shows 4 how at least a ponton ol Uie Balance or trade for the year 4 184- was made op against oar country. If the country suf ? fered, it ia very clear that $175,000 (leas expenses) were ? added to the wealth of the merchants interested. This is 4 one truthful and practical result." Undoubtedly, if all the suppositions in this case could be realized, it would be a very 44 truthful, practical," and pleasing result; but it has very little to do with the point at issue?the *f.al balance of trade. It only proves, if admitted to its full extent, that the present plan of custom-house valuations and Treasury annual statements leads us into great er rors upon the subject; a fact which we are as will ing as. any body to allow. Admit, however, that the instances adduccd went directly to the point, still we would not give much for any line of argu ment which is supported by such Munehaunen-\iV.e statements and such improbable, or, if possible, such extreme, or, as the writer himself terms them, 44 ex traordinary and isolated cases.' I his is surely more than enough for a sample of Tom rough s quality. He makes, however, some sensible ob servations on the subject of custom-house valua-' tions, to which we shall hereafter recur. The Editor of the 44 official organ" himself ap pears to hold some curious notions upon this sub ject ; at least he did so in July last. 44 How can we ?export unless we can import ? I here is no prin 4 ciple of political economy better established ; in 4 deed there is no law of physical nature more cer ? tain snd fixed than that no nation can long con i tinue to export unless it can also import. Reci ? procity is its gravitating principle, the law of its ? vitality and existence. The purpose and the ef ? feet of our prohibitory tariff system, our vaunted >.1meriran #y?/rm, is to destroy this reciprocity. > ll would force our product* upon others, but levy ? such duties and taxes upon theirs as would shut ? them out of the market." The witticism of the Edinlwrgh Reviewer, that 44 what is new therein is not true, and what is true ti not new, literally ap plies to this quotation. It is merely a repetition of the vtrrrotyprti ?Hum and miireprfifnUtion of the tanff. The most curious part is the serious asser tion of the most palpable truism, thst 44 no nation ean long continue U> export unless it can aUo im port." We certainly needed no ghost from the jmve in tell us this. Was ever any one so foolish m to ssoert the contrary ' But has the Editor of the I'nion no notion that balances of exports may he paid for ia specie or in hills of exchange, when i there is no reeiprocating trade to tn equal amount in article* of commerce lietween different countries ! I 'ertainly thr I niled Htstes could not send her cot ton and her inhwen tn England, year after year, un less she received payment for them either in goods or money ; and. if our tariff was so excessive as to | abenhtfsdy eiHsdr British goods, does the govern- , ?tent editor auppose thai John Bull would slop his rtsHnn manufacture*, and Use his immense revenue upon tobaren. by refusing ta take oar raw material ? j Vi, lie would settle punnuaMv for them either in hard rvk nr Mis af exchange. He woald fromMe and >e?snslraw. na doubt. and he wnnld have a 1 rtfh< ia 4n an ; bat he wnnld nevertheless ?ake all the i aSton snd iwhaera he needed far hts profitable purpose*. The po*itM?n wheb the " IJimos" sup poses never did, never ean, eaivt. The argument based upon that impassible position proves die edi tor's darkness upon the snbie<-i. Having gH some l onfused ntoinna about a balance o4 Irade, hi seems to suppose iliat, il wh a balance he once created, rt never caa be liquidated. The editors nf the ?? f'onsUlution" also, generally acute ami sreuroto rraaanrrs as they are. although often arguing, as we think, from sirow?s pre miere, had something of a similar earn re upon this anbfeet m their paper af the 11 th nf August, where thev aay that - in l$4$, when we imported more * specie than had ever been the case in any previous * year," 44 the tariff of 1842 had put almost a stop * to imports, and compelled us to accept of #44,000, 4 000 worth of goods and 920,000,000 in specie, in * return for ?84,000,000 worth of producethus leading the reader to the inference that the United States really lost 920,000,000 by the commerce of that year. The fact, no doubt, was, that a credit to that amount, and probably a larger, owing to the addition of profits and expenses on shipment, was established in the countries which we traded with, and which would be employed either in liquidation of former obligations or in the creation of a credit on which to base future mercantile transactions. j We have observed tantamount arguments (if we may call them such) in other anti-tarifT journals, | which were we to notice we could only repeat what I we have already said. But some change seems to have come over 44 the spirit of the dream" of the editor of the 44 Union for we do not think that he is yet wide awake to the subject. In his leading article of the 18th Sep tember he says : "We are not the enemies of Ante 4 rican manufactures." 44 We go for revenue, for 4 revenue's sake. If such a ratio should furnish 4 in 4 cidental' (or, as Mr. Sevier called it, 4 accidental') 4 protection, which it will inevitably contribute, no 4 reasonable man can make any reasonable objec 4 tion to it." And again: 44 We repeat it, that we ' are not the enemies of manufacturesand then he goes on praising 44 the enterprise of our country men," and their 44 inventive genius our 44 fine ma 4 terials to manufacture, our cheap provisions, our 4 labor-saving machines, our looms, and our carding 4 and spinning apparatus,'* adding the remark that 44 a considerable portion of our population is destin 4 ed, from the nature of their position and the pecu 4 liarity of their circumstances, to engage in manu 4 fat-lures, whether they are protected or not." He then relapses into his old strain about41 high pro tection of manufacturers 44 extravagant dividends of fifteen to thirty per cent.44 taxes upon far mers, merchants, and mechanics for the benefit of manufacturers44 farmers making only four per cent, on their .farms;" 44 oppressive tariff44 reve nue standard," &c. The lucid interval was a short one, but it certainly occurred. Whose hand ad ministered the alterative medicine we presume not to say ; but, by. whatever hand, a repetition of the dose may be safely recommended. But, in our desire to notice these favorable symp toms in the case of the government paper, we are losing sight of our subject, the balance of trade. Ami on this point the sum and substance of what we wish to say is briefly this: The doctrine that the balance of trade is shown by the Treasury state ment of Exports and Imports, we, in common with many among both friends and opponents of the pro tective system, hold to be exploded. But we hold, with the advocates of the tariff, that the real balance of trade, as we have endeavored to define it, is a most important item to be ascertained ; for, when as certained, it would form an accurate measure of our commercial prosperity, and a good guide for the re gulation of our future dealings. The valuation of exports and imports at the home custom-houses, although it furnishes the basis of the annual Treasury statement as to their amount, is of no service whatever in enabling us to ascertain the real balance of trade ; which real balance of trade, be it remembered, is the amount left unpaid either by or to the United States at the end of the year, in addition to what has been paid on the transactions of the year in specie or bills of exchange. The cor respondent of the 44 Union," who calls himself ? Tom Tough," says : 44 If a different system of valuation were adopted, the differences of value 4 [between the imports and exports] would not ap ' pear so considerable. For example : if the amount of the sales of the outward cargoes were taken as the data of calculation, it would be found that the 4 balance of trade, as it is called, would be greatly 4 diminished, if not annihilated. The foreign pur 4 chases would then correspond with the sales in ? foreign ports, and there would be no apparent4 ba 4 lance oi trade* for political rc*moiiil?to to humbug 4 their readers with." The suggestion that44 th^ amount of the sales of the outward cargoes'4 should be taken 44 as the data of calculation" is a very good one. We do not per ceive, however, why the "foreign purchases would then correspond with the sales in foreign ports," I unless we had no credit in those foreign ports, i What is to prevent an American merchant from j shipping a cargo of produce to Liverpool, which | sells there for $40,000, and purchasing a cargo of j manufactured goods there for which he is to pay ?50,000. provided he has credit for 910,000 ? Would not the real balance of trade be ascertain ed by taking the amount of foreign sales, as above alluded to, for one side of the account, and the amount of foreign purchases, to be ascertained by the production of bona fide invoices, for the other side of the account?' And could not this be done [ with great ease, and would not very valuable results flow from the possession of these materials T There j could be no humbug, no fallacy, here ; we should j have to pay or receive, in cash, the difference be : tween these amounts. We could then talk under j standingly, and legislate wisely, upon tariffs, manu factures, protection, and revenue. A-WAR SONG. PROM BTKOKo's riCTOIIAL Ul. Awfully were we frightened a day or two mince on receiv ing a notice to appear " armed and equipped aa the law di recta" for inapection, review, and drill, in the 99th Brigade, 999th Regiment, New York State Infantry. Here, thought we, acratching our editorial head, ia "bella hnrrida hrlla1 juat aa we are getting the Age in the full tide of successful prosperity, we are to be draughted in cool blood for Texas, to be made mince meat of by the rascally Mexicans ! Brighter thought* noon came. Vision* of glory anon darted before our eyes, " hair-breadth cacapes i' the imminent deadly breach," chapeaus ami epaulets, gold-hilted swords and medals, promotions, thanks of Congress, cheers of the multi tude, smiles of beauty, Ac. thronged ao fast that we involun tarily shouted 44 Huzza for the halls of the Montezumns !" who's afeard ' Seizing our pen we wrote the following war song imtanter : Aft?"Draw the Sivord, Scotland." Shoulder arms, Gotham ! Gotham ! Gotham ! From Batt'ry to Bullt-Head hath squeaked the loud fife: The drum-sticks are beating, beating, beating, Who hears Yankee Doodle will fear for hi* life > The militia are gathering, gathering, gathering. The militia are gathering by hundreds and more : The flag* are flying, flying, flying, The flag* are all a-flying, and the six-pounders roar. Shoulder arms, (iotham ! Gotham ! (iotham ! Charge as the Hank* charge when they lend cash \ Strike up, Jim Crow ! Jim Crow ! Jim Crow ! Who "cuts hi* stink," break hi* notr with a *ma*li. Siark arms, Gotham ? Gotham ! (Jothsnf ? Staek arms, Gotham ! for over is the fight; The Mexicans are running, running, running. Let the rogues run and they'll soon be out of sight. The skrlmmagr is over, over, over, The tkrimmagr is over, Texas we've won ; ller*'* brandy for the wounded, wounded, wounded, AikI glory for all that away did not run. f Stack arms, Gotham ! Gotham ! fiotham ! With cabbage-leaves our hats let us twine, tirem let them flourish, flourish, flourish, And pass down the garland to each son of thine. Thaar ' if the Mexicans stand that song, thought we, when we approach at the head of our army, they can stand any thing. Hut, alaa, oar dreams of glory all faded when we came la remember we were only a priratr, mere 44 food for powder," nothing mora. We shall not go to Texas this cam paign, neither the ?? humane society" nor the Age willallow it. MiiiTAat.?The steamer Cecilia, from St. Peters, bound Jeffrmsi Barracks, with four companies of United States Infantry on board, stopped at St. !?ouis a short time on the I 33d instant These troops are from Forts Crawford, Hnell- | ?ng, and \trhison, and are under the command of Col. H. W| lm?, who haa been ordered to proceed to Jefferaon Bar rarks t and the order further say*, to hold himaelf and them in raadinaaa for active service. Fort Winnebago and Fort Crawford have been abandoned. At Fort Snelling there are two companies of Infontry, and at Fort Atchison hut one com pany of l>ragoons. THE CITY OF NEW YORK. CENSUS OK NEW YORK?THE FIFTH CITY IN ! THE WORLD. With incredible labor and at great expense we have procured the district returns of population un der the State census, and from them compiled a com plete census of the city of New York, which may lie fully relied on for perfect accuracy. We have coin pared each Ward with the returns of four previous censuses, viz. the Suite census of 1825 and '35, and the United States census of 1830 and '40: Census of the City of Ntw York. ^^BT~I8?a. | 1880. ! 1836. ! 1840. I 1845. 1st 2d 3d..... 4th. 6th.... 6th 7th.,.. 8th 9 th 10th 11th.... 154th. ... 13th'... 14th*... 15thf... 1 tilh; . . . I7th?... Total . 9,929 9,316 10,201 12,210 15,093 20,061 14,192| 24,285 10,956 23,932 7,344) 7,938 166,086| 11,331 8,203j 9,599 12,705 17,722 13,570 15,873] 20,729 22,810 16,4:18 14,095 11,808 12,598 14,288 202,589 10,380 7,549 10,884 15,439 18,496 16,8271 21,481 28,570, 20,618! 20,920 26,8461 24,437, 17,130 17,306! 13,202 10,629 6,394| 11,681 16,770 19,159 17,198 22,982 29,073 24,795 29,026 17,052 11,652 18,517 20,236 17,765 22,273 18,6.19 270,0891 312,710| ?1,889 6,895 11,800 20,974 20,362 19,128 25,335 30,353 30,896 20,998 27,265 13,373 22,411 21,103 16,435 40,323 27,247 366,785 ?These two Wards were constituted in 1826?the Thir teenth from the Tenth, and the Fourteenth front the Sixth aud Eighth. t Set off from the Ninth Ward in March, 1832. | Taken from the Twelfth Ward in 1836. fj Taken from the Eleventh in 1837. In the short period of one hundred and twenty-five years, the Emporium of America has risen to the sixth rank in the commercial world. She stands, as compared with the leading citics of the world, according to late enumerations, as follows: London 2,560,281 Do proper 125,008 Paris 900,000 St. Petersburg 685,000 Constantinople 550,000 New York 366,786 Yienna 360,000 Moscow 305,631 Berlin ..290,797 Hamburg 115,000 Havre 25,618 Livei pool 286,487 Glasgow .285,000 Dublin 240,000 A msterdam 207,000 Madrid ; 200,000 Lyons i 200,000 Rome 148,903 Mexico. .1 150,000 Edinburgh 133,692 Havana .112,000 Bordeaux 95,114 The population of London proper, it will be seen, is but 125,000, but with its suburbs amounts to 2,560,281. The suburban population of many of th^bther citics of Europe is included in the returns. If we embrace Brooklyn as the sub urbs of New York, which it really is, inasmuch as that its population is com|>osed of those who do business here, and move over there for convenience?the population of Brooklyn being now 59,925?the population of New York proper would amount to 426,710 souls, and give New York the fifth rank in the commercial world. She haa attained this rank al most altogether through her natural advantages, unaided by any of those extraordinary enterprises which have of late given such an impulse to the prosperity of Boston. KROM THE V SITED STATES GAZETTE. One of the visitations which annoy the printer more than every thing else, try his patience, and subject him to all sorts of temporary trouble, we mean the knocking of a "form" into pi," occurred to the editor of the Natchez (Miss.) Weekly Courier a few days since. One of the forms being, in tech nical phrase, "made up" and ready for the press, suddenly tell from its confining bonds into a shapeless mingled mass of types. The catastrophe evidently did not overcome the good humor of the editor, however, for he discourses of it in the following cheerful fashion : " A bad beginning makes a good ending," according to the adage, and we must accordingly hope for " better luck next time," as Jacob Faithful did in most of his mishaps. And if this was aw unlucky accident to us, there were many others concerned who did not get off unhurt. " The massacre of the three hundred Arabs" caved in. The " Five Points" reach ed a point not before attained. " Locofocoism" fell to the ground. " Gen. Gaines and his Requisition" were knocked into several cocked hats. The " Cotton Crop" looks very badly and will have to he picked out as soon as possible. ??Tb? Vni?n" was dissolved. " The single people of Florida* were amalgamated. "The Adams Li^ht Guard" turned out.- " A nice young man" got loose in hts habits. A " petty larceny thief" was not chaeed as long as he ought to have been. " English bread-stuffs" crumbled and became indi | gestible. " Ten pinsin Pittsburg" got knocked down. " The meeting in Cincinnati to sympathize with C. M. Clay" got into I a considerable confusion. " McNulty's barbecue" did not wait till Saturday to be furnished with the necessary quantity | of pastry, and " The famine ip South Carolina" is now being relieved by an involuntary contribution of pi from us. ' THE SALTPETRE EXPLOSION. The Journal of Commerce says that the report of the Joint | Committee instructed by the Common Council of New York to investigate the cause of the destructive explosion at the great fire in that city on the 19th of last July, is published in a large octavo volume of three hundred and fifty pages, com- | prising a akilfully-digested and judiciously-arranged compila tion of all the facts bearing upon the subject and essential to elucidate its oliscurities, and evincing an incredible expendi ture of labor and energy in the conduct of the investigation and the preparation of the f%port. The object proposed to bs accomplished by the committee was to ascertain? First. In what building or buildings did the explosions at j the fire, or any of them, occur > Secondly. What were the character, extent, and conse quences of those explosions > ? Thirdly. What was the cause of those explosions > Their examination resulted in the following conclusions, fully sustained by evidence recorded in the report : |1. That all the explosions at the fire originated within the store of Crocker & Warren, 38 Broad street. 2d. That there were thirteen explosions, at intervals of i vers I seconds, until the final explosion, which destroyed seven buildings and scattered the fire in all directions. So that the fire, but for these explosions, would have been confined to | two buildings, whereas it destroyed two hundred and thirty buildinga. 3d. There was no other cause for the explosion whatever | than the saltpetre in Crocker dt Warren's store. DEFECTIVE TEETH AND OFFENSIVE BREATH. M rs. L. Maria Child, the celebrated authoress, gives the following directions for the prevention of defective teeth and offensive breath : Nobody need have an offensive breath. A careful removal of substances from between the teeth, rinsing the mouth after meals, and a bit of charcoal held in the inouth, will always cure a b?d breath. A lump of charcoal held in the mouth, two or three times a week, and slowly chewed, has a wondeiful power to pre serve the teeth and purify the breath. The action is purely chemical. It counteracts the acid arising from a disordered stomach, or food decaying about the gums < and it is this acid which destroys the teeth. A dear friend of ours had, when about twenty years of age, a front tooth that turned black gradually, crumbled, and so broke off piecemeal. By frequently chewing charroal the progress of decay was not only arrested, but nature set vigor ously to work to restore the breach, and the crumbled portion grew again till the whole tooth was as sound as liefore ! This I know to be a fact. Every body knows thst charcoal is an sntiputrescent, and is used in boxing up animal or vegetable substances to keep them from decay. Upon the same chemical principle, it tends to preserve the teeth and sweeten the breath. There is no danger in swallowing it? on the contrary, small quantities have a healthful effect on the inward system, particularly when the body is suffering from that class ofcom plaints peculiarly incident to summer. It would not be wise to swallow it, or any gritty substance, in large quantities, or very frequently ; but onee or twioe a week a little would be salutary rather than otherwise. A bit of charcoal as big as a cherry merely held in the mouth a few hours without chew ing has a good effect. At first, most people dislike to chew it, but use soon renders it far from disagreeable. Those who are troubled with an offensive breath might chew it very often, and swallow it but seldom. It is peculiarly important to clean and rinse the mouth thoroughly before going to bed, otherwise a great deal of the destructive acid will form during the night. If these hints induce only one person to tske better care of the teeth, I shall !>e more than rewarded for the trouble of writing. I am continually pained to see young people losing their teeth merely for the want of a few ample precautions ; and one cannot enter a stage or steam car without finding the atmoepheie polluted and rendered absolutely unhealthy for the lungs to breathe, when a proper use of water and char coal might render it as wholesome and pleasant as a breexe of Eden. t- ... ? j ASTRONOMICAL DISCOVERIES. mo* th* cmciMSATi Biimi. THE REVOLVING STARS. Cincinnati Ohmkkvatumt, Sept. 22, 1845. Meaar*. Editoms I have already adverted to the great catalogue of double Hture presented u> the world l>y M. Struve a* the result of hit* examinational of the heavcua with the ce lebrated Dorpot Refractor. lit attempting u. ascertain the physical union of a pair of double atara, a long aeriea of accu rate observations are requiaite for the purpose of determining that there it motion in the ayatem, and then to obtain the amount of motion in a given time, and the position of lite plai.e in which the motion Itaa place. Struve'* ft rat object waa aim ply to fix the place of those atara whose proximity warranted the auapicion that physical union might exiat. All the atara entered on his catalogue were divided into four clasaes. 'J'he first class included thoae whose distance does not exceed four ?econds of are \ the second class comprehended thoae in which the distance between the two companions waa greater than four second, and less than eight seconds; the third claas in cluded all stara whoae distance waa between eight aeconda and sixteen seconds ; while the fourth class comprehended those whose distance was between sixteen seconds and thirty-two seconds. 1 heac distances are all ao minute that they cannot be discovered with the naksd eye, and indeed the greateat, thirty two seconda, ta not ao great as the apparent diameter of the planet Jupiter. Struve, in swiping the heavens from the north pole to the parallel of latitude fifteen degrees south of the equator, an area equal to about two-thirds of the entire sphere of the heavena, has marked down the places of no less than three thousand double stars. The inquiry may here arise as to the probability of the apparent close proximity of these stara being occasioned by an accidental location of the one far liehind the other. This matter presented itself in the outset to Htruve's penetrating mind, and by an application of the Calculus of Probabilities he xrrived at the following re markable results. A mong one hundred double stars of the first class, the proximity of only two out of the hundred can be attributed to mere position or place in the same right Una, as seen from the earth. Among the hundred double stars of tlte second clasa, the places of ten may be attributed to accident, leaving ninety out of the hundred in which there is every reason to believe that a physical union exists. The proportion of course seems higher in the other clasaes; yet even in the fourth class a large number remain to be accounted for on some other hypothesis than a mere accidental distribution. When it ia remembered that physical unian is to be looked for, especially among the double stars of the first class, and that the cloaest can only be separated and meaaured by instru ments of the very highest class, it is not wonderful that so few binary systems have as yet yielded the causes of their intimate connexion. After fixing the position of more than three thousand double stars in abeolute space by their right aacensibn and declination, Struve then undertook the more laborious and difficult of fixing their poaitioua with reference to each other. This ia done by measuring accurately the distance by which the atara are separated from each other, and also their cmgle of position. This is the angle formed by the right line joining the two atars, with a circle of declination passing through one of them. A catalogue once formed of distances and anglea of position, the data are at once obtained for detecting any changed which are going on in any double system by a comparison of these pri mitive positions with any subsequent ones. These compari sons have led to the detection already of a large number of systems in which physical union is certain to exiat. When we remember that only a few years have elapaed since these examinations commenced, and the very few instruments of a power capable of resolving the double atara of the closest order, and the immense periods in which these suns generally cir culate around each other, it is surprising that so much haa been already done. Maedler, who succeeded Struve at Dorpot, and who haa prosecuted with great ardor the perioda of the double atara, gives us the following remarkable results. Among 102 binary systems there are 7 whose periods range between 31 years and 100 years ; there are 4 systems whoae perioda are between 100 and 200 years ; 5 between 200 and 300 j 8 between 300 and 400; 22 between 500 and 1000 ; 20 between 1000 and 2000 ; 10 between 2000 and 3000 ; 14 between 3000 and 5000 ; 9 between 5000 and 8000 ; 2 between 8000 and 9450 ; and one system whose period of revolution exceeds 16,731 years. The slow and majestic motion of these mighty orbs ia not more surprising than the restless activity which distin guishes other systems. In the case of Zelo Herrulis, we find two suns revolving round each other in leaa than half the time employed by the planet Herschel in circulating about ita central sun. Since the erection of the Cincinnati refractor as much time as could be spared from other matters has been devoted to an examination of the double stars. The instrument has been applied to some of the very cloaest systems, ami has proved itself capable of eflecting absolute separation in every case which has yet been examined. A few evenings since, in company with Mr. Hamilton Smith of Cleveland, the moat difficult stara in Struve's Cata logue, Epaalon A rutin, was separated with a power of 600, although with the Dorpot refractor it had never lieen seen distinctly separate, the two stars alwaya remaining in absolute contact, even under the most favorable circumstancea. I have already remarked that Strove divides the doulde star* into four classes, the first class involving those whose dis tances do not exceed 4 seconds of arc. At the time his cata logue was published there was no example known in the heavens of a star of the first magnitude, attended by a com panion, near enough to fall within the first claas. Nearly three months since, in examining the southern heavens, I was led to suspect, that Autores, the brightest star in the con stellation Scorpio, was attended by a minute companion. As I could find no account of any such remarkable object in any of my book*, I was for some time in doubt whether I might n<* be deceived by some optical accident; but, after an exami nation of some two weeks, I called to my aid several of my friends who were the most accustomed to these minute ex aminations. There was no longer any doubt of the truth of my first impression ; the minute star was distinctly revealed, and since that lime I have seen it repeatedly, and have mea sured ita distance and angle of position. The large star ia of the first magnitude and is red, while the small star is of the 13th or 14th magnitude and decidedly blur,' these two colors exhibiting themselves with great distinctness. The distance between the two stara ia one and seveo-tenlhs sec onds of arc, placing this object within the first dan of distanemn and preaenting it as a solitary example of ita kind.* On ac count of the deficiency of my library, it would be quite impos sible for me to say whether my person ha* ever seen the com panion of Autores before its discovery at this Observatory. I have written to Europe, and in the course of a lew weeks F shall receive intelligence which will settle the question ss to whether this extraordinary object, certainly the only instance of its kind, is already known to the astronomers of the Old World. I have found many double and some re markable triple stars, of which I find no account in any cata logue now in my possession, but none in any degree approach ing in interest the duplex character of Autorea. IJ ??i vnasALisT Cowvmtiow.?The United States Con vention of Univeraalists, which was held in Boston last week, waa attended by about 5,000 persona, from all parts of the country. Of the 700 preachers now belonging to the denom ination, upwarda of 200 were in attendance; in 1840 the number was 83?showing a large increase. The occasional sermon was delivered by Rev. E. H. Chapin, from the text, ' What lack I yet '' and, applying it to the denomination, he an*we(fd, Education, individualism, and spirituality. The Universalis* have now 1,094 societies in this country, being a gain of 412 in ten years. They are said to rank, a? a denomination, in point of numbers, the fourth in the country. Railroad Accinr.xt.?The train on the Camden and Amboy Railroad, from Philadelphia, on Tuesday morning, between 8 and 9 o'clock, ran over a cow and was thrown off the track. A passenger named John (f Brim was killed, and several others (all, with him, standing on the platform outside of a car or cara) were severely injured, among wham were Mr. Nugent, of Philadelphia, and Mr. Talbot, of New Ro chelle. The brakeman also had hia thigh broken.