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ARCH 7, 1846. 9 " -- , | _ g,,, ipyii ?!!???? PUBLtHMfSD JBV ?J?JTf * MM&MTOJYl TERMS: ** frmiH a year; or On* Dolus for the first regular session of each Congress j and Firrt Currs for the final sc? wo* ?*?* Conjreaa; ssd the same for each Extra Ses sion?payable in all eases in advanee. - - 1 ??r?z ? ? I I. i i THE GOVERNMENT PRJ588. [rao* our sailt ripiR or TUXKDir.] The " Union " of Saturday night laat contains an article of a column or two in length, in reply to ours of Friday, parte of which are in a tone as high and fierce an though the Administration and ite organ, instead of having placed the country in a position of imminent danger by the final rejection of the proffered reference to Arbitration of our dif ferences with Great Britain, without presenting any substitute for it, had accomplished some desirable and laudable object. To the remonstrance against this course on their part they disdain to answer us their fellow-riUieua i* any other langqage jth?n tfcat of defiance and insult. With persons thus infatuated ^ is useless to attempt further argument. We leave them, there fore, in regard to this matter, to their responsibility to their conscience, their country, and their God. We cannot, hpwever, let the article in the gov ernment paper pass without a brief notice of the points which it undertakes to make with the Na tional Intelligencer. 1. The "Union" denies having "vilified" the Treaty of Washington, and ite negotiator. Let us turn back to the terms employed by that paper in speaking of both, and, as* we said before, im pliedly of those Senators who voted for it. What is the meaning, for example, of such language as the following, taken from the article headed " The Arbitration Scheme," in the " Union " of the 13th of last month ? "It in not enough that some men 4 ol the Whig party, already staggering under ? THE odium of the odious portions of the Wash 4 ington treaty, have yet been foolhardy enough ? to stand up on the floor of Congress, and else ? where, and heap dishonor on the title of America ? [to Oregon] and proclaim the force of the tide ol ? Great Britain," Sic. Whom the " Union" meant by ? some men" in this case no one can mistake; for, except the distin guished negotiator of that Treaty, there were no men of the Whig party more responsible for it?or, as we should say, more entided to the honor of it? than those of the Democratic party then in the Senate who " advised and consented" to its ratifica tion. Of that party ten Democratic Senators voted for that Treaty, and we give their names, that it may be known who they are who share with the Whig "men" the denunciations of the govern ment paper: They were Mr. Calhoun, Mr.Cuth bert, Mr. Fulton, Mr. Kino, Mr. Sevier, Mr. rAP!y4M, Mr. Walker, Mr. Woodbury, Mr. -and 4fc.XMU(Q. ^ w 2. But the " Union" intended no assault upon the independence and dignity of Congress when it broached this idea of an "Arbitration plot." ? The extract quoted from our article," says the Unon, "does not say one word, either expressly ?or impliedly, of Congress; of either House ol 4 Congress; of the majority in either House of Con ? gress; of the minority in either House of Con 4 gress ; nor of any action whatever in either House ? of Congress." What, then, was the meaning of the following further reference to the ridiculous story of a plot, in the "Union" of the 13th February, in the very article announcing the pretended plot? " But that PLO r, in the hands of those who are 4 responsible for it, was nothing more nor lees than 4 adeliberate and systematic effort of factious oppo sition at home, rallying in secret conclave on a 4 controversy between our country and England, to 4 force an Administration charged with our national 4 interests and honor, without its consent, in oppo ? sition to its judgment, and in transcendence of ite ? legitimate powers, to put into the arbitrament of an 4 alien, if not estranged power and policy, the ' mighty and vital question whether the Pacific ? slope of North America shall henceforth below, ? under God, to Americans!" Hho were to ?ll7 for the purpose of forcing the Administration to an arbitration, unless those who have a right to control the action of that Adminis tration in matters that concern " the national interests and honor ?" Who but Members of Congress ! The 44 Union itself, indeed, in ite own columns of the same date, avows that it was ite intention to embrace Members of Congress in this accusation of being concerned in a plot. Referring to the Editor of a New York paper, (the Courier and Enquirer,) the " Union" says that he showed " the actors who were to bring it into both Houses of Congress /" and adds the following remark : " It is not very 4 surprising, therefore, that the two nitovers of the 4 arbitration resolutions in both Houses of Con 4 gress should have taken some offence at the recent 4 correspondence, and denounced the rejection of the 4 proposition submitted by Mr. Pakenham." How can it be pretended, after this, that the at tempt to fix a stigma on those who favored arbitra tion was not an assault on the dignity and indepen dence of Congress t Obviously it was aimed at Members of Congress, and, if at any body else, only for the purpose of more highly colorir^ the impac tion upon the Representatives of the States and the People in the two Houses. 3. The 44 Union " further defies us to produce proofs from ite own columns of any encroachment by th<? government press upon the independence of Members of Congress. These encroachments have consisted in the denunciation of actions or opinions adverse to those of the Executive generally, and especially of the course of those who are indis posed to plunge the Nation into war for " the whole of Oregon " after the Executive itself has proposed to relinquish the claim to a large part of it; and, generally, in presenting the Executive, or the Admin istration, as the agent for the conduct of Foreign Affairs, whose lead it is the business, if not the duty of Congress to follow, instead of allowing Members to judge, as is their undoubted right, in all such matters, for themselves. It j. nol ^ to prove a general complexion or character by particu lar circumstances or incidents; but, to comply, in part at least, with the requsstof the Editor of the 44 Union " to produce proofa, ve submit the follow ing extract* from auch numbers of the " Union" as we have been able at so abort a notice to consult, to each of which we prefix a caption, indicating what we understand to be its scope and bearing s DENUNCIATION OF INDEPENDENT SENATORS. " According to our observation-for many yean past, some 4 one or mora of the sovereign Htto* of the American Union 4 have from time to time, through'their Senators in Congress, ? been grossly misrepresented upoa important occasions ; due 4 represented by agent* accredited to the National Legisla ' ture, and bound, by the nature if the service in which they 4 are engaged, and by the spirit ?f our Constitution, to see 4 that the will of the constituent body, and not their own will, 4 if it be in conflict, shall be expreand in the councils of the 4 country. 44 We think it not altogether improbable that this sort of 4 representative treachery will b* repeated in some quarter du 4 ring the pendency of the present4 long session.' This will 4 be the case, no doubt, if opinions ascribed to cebtais 4 sexatobs are rtaUy entertained, and ahall be adhered 'to."?Union, December 29. ?I*!j HECTORING CONGRESS. 44 No public HiR .Hm hat the temerity, if he has the 4 disposition, to stem the torrent of indignation which would 4 pour upon him who would think of turning his back upon ? his country, if a war were waged against Great Britain for 4the whoie of Oregon." 44 Wo see already, in this very debate in the Senate of the 4 United States, the good effects of that national rebuke visited 4 upon such as played the laggard or the tbaito* during the 4 war of 1813."?Union, December 20. MORE OF IT. 44 Once for all, we tell the interested opponents of the Ad 4 ministration?the few selfish journalist* who yelp out their 4 denunciations of the Executive?that all their efforts to stem 4 the swelling tide of popular enthusiasm in favor of tho Ore 4 gon policy of the Government will be'uttoriy in vain." * * 44 And on all hands it is manifest that the patriotism of the 4 country has repoted its trust in the firmness and prudence 4 of the Administration. We have no fear [have we that 4 Coxgkess will not do its duty. There will be no fUnch 4 ing [will there >] from our present bold and dignified atti 4 tode.?Union, January 7. FROWNING DOWN OPPOSITION. 44 Then [whenever, as now, it pleases the Administration 4 to assume itself to be in the right in a foreign controversy] 4 has arisen the very crisis in our affairs, in view of which the 4 Federal Constitution makes us owe. The statesman, the 4 press, thle party, the policy, which then lifts a finger to an 4 noy or embarrass in the least an Administration seeking to 4 be true to its trust, as the constitutional guardian and de 4 fender of the rights and honor of the country, assumes a 4 feabful ass pox si a i lit y . An opposition has in such a ? case no rational pretext for interference."?Union, Jan. 5. DELIBERATION DENOUNCED. 44 Let no Democrat shelter his inactivity now behind the 4 TaUmonian shield of Jackson. Jackson's policy was suited 4 to the demands of Jackson's day."?Union, January 7. INTIMIDATION OF FRIENDS. 44 The Administration, limiting itself as it has. hitherto 4 done, and as we know will continue to do, to the steadfast ? sad single-eyed pursuit of the interest* of the whoie coun 4 try during the term of its existence, it destined (we humbly t-hepe, we fuaif belie?*) to tpiWtffr #t 0(W? jSAjgl* over 4 the acrimonious hostilities of enemies, and the faltering 1 hesitation of friends, if there be any cliques or cabals, and 4 personal combinations either to cripple or to cramp it. We 4 predict, with afaored and undoubting confidence, that such 4 cliqueTand combinations, if any should .unfortunately here 4 after happen to arise from any cause whatsoever, will 4 soon BE ABBBSTED, while the Administration shall hold 4 victoriously on in its proper career of firm moderation and 4 patriotic wisdom."?Union, January 26. DITTO. 44 It has become a subject of sincere regret that with so ' heavy a majority of the friends of the Adminietration in 4 both Houses of Congress, some prompt and efficient mea 4 sores have not already been taken to carry out the recom 4 mendatioti of the Message with respect to the notice, against ' which so small a comparative portion of the Democrtiic 4 party has taken ground. We cannot help considering it as 4 most unfortunate, in view of the general harmony which 4 prevails in oar ranks out of the doors of Congrees, that in 4 a body which is supposed to reflect so strongly the will of 4 the people, so many members should feel themselves com 4 polled, by the farce of their own impressions, to hesitate upon 4 the question." ? ? * 44 There are other lights in which 4 the position of the party presents itself, which we shall no 4 tice on another occasion." But we must wait 4 with some patience, and think with some toleration, too, 4 events themselves shall remove all doubts about tbe ? positiox or mex, and the prospect before us. We con 4 dude, as we commenced, with tbe exprearion of the expee 4 tation that the Oregon debate may now be terminated ia a 4 very few daya; and that with iU termination every appear 4 ance of discord in our ranks may vanish."?Union, Feb. 3. RIDICULING THE FRIENDS OF PEACE. 44 But we hsve, we do believe, treated this anti-war outcry 4 with greater deference and ceremony than it merits. We 4 regard it as altogether unsupported by facts- In one respect, 4 however, the outcry is a favorable sign of the times. It af 4 fords conclusive evidence of the firmness and patriotic im 4 pulses of the Administration. If the slightest tendency to 4 shrink from the maintenance of the national right and na 4 tional honor had been, manifested?if any symptom of timi 4 dity bad been exhibited, wW a swelling tide of indignation 4 would have cast up against it the charge of pusillanimity and 4 cowardly desertion of our rights ! Let the Opposition, then, ? scream as loudly as they may, 44 war"?44 war"?44 war." 4 / thank thee, Jew, for teaching me that word.' "?Jan. 10. INSULTING WHIGS PARTICULARLY AND GENERALLY. 1' Some of our statesmen are talking very loudly about A me 4 rican honor." Well, and who are they, pray, that are guihy 4 of this crying offence * Are Mr. Webster'* sensibilities par 4 ticularly aroused by that theme ? With an exception or two, 4 (the more conspicuous from being almost alone,) what 4 Win has had the generous ardor to talk as he should, with ? oot reserve, without qualification, abb witbout dbbad, ' about ' American honor V?Dec. *6. We presume it will be admitted that we have, by these quotations, made out our ease. If we courted controversy, instead of desiring to avoid it, we should have something more to say of the 44 Union" and its lucubration*. But we have objects more important to engage our attention than auch a controversy; and, so determined are we to avoid it, that we shall not retort, as we might, the spiteful innnendoe* which cluster at the tail of the article which has elicited the preceding comments and citations. MicaiOAx Railboadk.?A hill has been reported for the sale of the Central Railroads, fanning a c wporatiou, with di rectors in New York, Albany, and Boston. Tho capital stork is #2,000,000, to be paid in cash. Among other things the bill provides " that the company re-iron the road with a T-rafl as speedily as possible, fifty miles to be completed in two yesra." A vote has been taken in the House which indicates that it will pass that body by a large majority. In the Senate there ia more doubt, but it is conridored that it will pass. If the bill paaaea, private capitalist* are ready to take the road at once, re-iron it, and finish it to St. Joseph's, on Lake Michi gan-?Albany Argus. THE ADMINISTRATION AND ARBITRATION. [rROJf OUR Uilll Pit*(II OF WtBMHOAI.] 1' rom Uic temper of the article in the government paper of Saturday last, we yesterday inferred the determination of the Administration to stand mute | upon the merits of their refusal of the twice-proffer-! ed reference of our difference with England con-! cerning- the Oregon boundary to arbitration. But in the " Union" of Monday night (published yes terday morning) we find an argument on the ques tion, evidently from a different hand from that which penned the preceding article of the " Union" 011 the same subject. The only part of the argument of the government paper which appears to us to deserve particular attention is that which is con tained in the following concluding paragraphs: "That a Government is alike authorized and required by the law of natioua to maintain iu right* with firmness, but in a apirit of peace and of justice; that, in this sjtirit, it is bound to caMidw the various * mild methods' of terminating its con troversy, and to have recourse to that mode or to those modes which it shall deem, upon due deliberation, best fitted to se cure and preserve its own rights, without attack ujxm the righto of others ? that, in the selection of such modes, a na tion is free to exercise its own honest discretion, and to have all due regard to the nature of its controversy, to the extent of its right, to the nature and justice of the opposing claim, to its own peculiar constitution, circumstances, and interests, and to reject arbitration or mediation, or even compromise, j whenever either of these modes of procedure shall seem to its own candid and careful judgment unwise or unsuitable ail this is elementary, axiomatic, rudiinental in the law of na Uona. Men no more think of arguing to prove these Jirst principle*, than they make an argument to show that A is the first letter of the alphabet. "But there is one sanction of national procedure in such matters which no nation is great enough wholly to disregard. That sanction is found in the appfovifag moral judgment of those men, and of those assemblages of men in other nations, whose study, and opportunity, and disinterestedness have made competent and impartial judges. This sanction the course of the American Government in rejecting arbitration on the Oregon question has already received. In the French Cham ber of Deputies, the highest moral and political tribunal of continental Europe, the relations of England and the United 8tates have bees most exhaustively and thoroughly discussed. Throughout that discussion the fact uxu taken fur granted be forehand?before the action of our Government uxu known? that an offer of arbitration would not? be, and could not be, from the nature of the cate, accepted. From the speeches in the French Chamber, which we have published, and from those which we intend in a day or two to publish, we shall show that what we now assert is true to tbe letter." * These paragraphs are in a far different spirit from that in which the friends of the President and the Secretary of State have yet spoken, through the press, on this subject; and we receive with an im proved opinion of their real intentions the admis sions which the first of them contains. The ad mission, for example, that it is the duty of nations to maintain their rights in a spirit of peace and justice i that they are bound to consider the various 44 mild methods" of terminating controversies in tfhfch thtey are engaged, and to have nemmto that which appears to be most expedient, are con cessions of what the government paper itself has hitherto denied. Witness the following remarks on the subject in the "Union" of the 13th of last month, repeated and re-asseverated in the same pa-1 per of the 19th of the month : 44 Under the very mostJavorable circumstances, ' Arbitration must always be an exceptionable and 4 suspicious mode of adjusting territorial ques 4 tions** Ac. * * * "In view of all these facte, ' a resort to arbitration by our Government on a ' question like the question of Oregon, seems to be ? a responsibility which no Administration, mindful 4 of its relations and of its duties to the people, can 4 permit itself in any manner to assume." The inconsistency of such doctrine as this, re cognising no obligation of this Government under the law of nations, with the express recognition of that obligation now made in the same paper, must be too obvious to need to be dilated upon. We are happy to find this error of a total disregard of the law of nations, which we endeavored to expose, now explicitly acknowledged by the authority of the press and party which promulgated it. Had the same language been held heretofore in the same quarter, we should certainly have held our tongue on the subject. The qualifications, in the paragraph quoted above, of the duty of nations to consider and choose from among the " mild methods" of terminating contro versies, seem to refer to an objection which has been taken to subjecting a question of territorial right to arbitration, (the next prescribed mode to negotiation.) There is one answer to that objec tion which appears to us to be conclusive. No one pretends that territorial rights mly not be made the subject of adjustment by negotiation. That is the mode of adjustment which the present Admin istration has freely resorted to, and to decline which, in a case of conflicting claims of right between na tions, would be tantamount to an act of war. What, then, we ask, is negotiation, but arbitration by and between interested and antagonist parties? And in what conceivable aspect is such arbitration less wise or less likely to lead to a just and peaceful result than arbitration by disinterested and mutual friends ? Aa.for the second of the paragraphs which we have quoted above, it is curious enough to see an appeal made by the organ of the Executive from the principles of public law, embodying the wisdom of ages, transmitted by nation to nation, and carefully handed down unchanged from generation to genera tion in all the nations of Christendom, to random opinions expressed in a debate in the French Cham ber of Deputies. The ".Union " might as well ap peal to the late debate in out own House of Repre sentatives as a law to govern the nations of the earth, or to the contents of the daily press. The de bate in the French Chamber, moreover, had re gard?we presume, not having read it to the ubjertion which would probably arise on the part 'of this Government to a reference of the matter to any crowned head; the Deputies themselves un doubtedly not foreseeing that this only possible dif ficulty in the way of arbitration would have vanish ed before their debate upon the subject could cross the Atlantic. The Hteam Ferry Boat between Alexandria and the Mary land shore has resumed her regular trips. FROM OL'R EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT. ParIs, January 31,1840. Prince Polionac, the famous and last Premier ol Charles X, and the author of the ordinances which occasioned the Revolution df Ju'y? resided for some years in the town of Saint-Geriflain, and em ployed himself in writing memoirs, politico-philo sophical essays, and apologies for his fatal mea sures, in reply to the upbraidings of the Legitimists of this day. He has permission from the Govern ment to remove to a splendid inaflsiori atitd domain which he rocendy purchased, and which belonged to the sister of LouisXVI. At the period of Polig nac's trial it was with extreme difficulty that Gene ral Lafayette saved him from the vengeance ol the mob. The accused Ministers owed their lives to the humanity and adroitness of the man whom they wguld have willingly sent td Uic scaffold. Polionac enjoys the quiet range of the most mag nificent of royal cities ; die Prince of Peace, so lotig the master of Spain, and Often so near being torn in pieces by the mob of Madrid, lives, in a very modssfc. way, hi my Mighbodiood iii Paris, and is remembered ohly when he is recognised on the Boulevards. Having mentioned Gen. Lafayette, I may add that his worthy son George, the head of the numerous and estimable family, possesses excellent health, and regularly attends in the Cham ber of Deputies to vote for all liberal measures and against every kind of public wrong. You will see that the British are determined to have the most, if not the best, of the argument in the Oregon question. Mr. Falconer, who is con nected with die Foreign Office in London, publish ed in the newspapers a rejoinder to Mr. Buchan an's able reply to Mr. Pakenham. Mr. Tra vers Twiss, D.C.L. and F.R.S., Professor of Poli tical Economy in the University of Oxford, has put forth an octavo (with two maps) entided The Ore gon Question Examined. The Hudson Bay Com pany have plied the subject incessantly through one or other of the chief London organs. The titles of two more of the boo"ks will suffice to show the rife ness of the dispute : " Just ready, in 8vo., price U., Th* Obkook Tehkito *t. Claims thereto of England and America considered ; iU Condition und "Prospects. By a late resident there. Non eiyo , sum mla, ned priaci cunxciM aevi. By Alex. Simpson, Esq." "The Oregon Question determined by the rules of inter national law. By Edward J. Wallacc, M.A., Barrisler-at Law, Bombay." Wc were present on the 29th at a very crowded and brilliant meeting of die French Academy for the reception of the new member, Alfred de Vigny, author of historical romances and romantic dramas? one of the heads and idols of the romantic school, and a literary foe of the Napoleon imperial rule. Count Mole, in the chair, was of course to autfwer the elect's address, and the Count is austerely on the odier side in those matters. De VioNY,?a dapper gentleman, between thirty-five and forty years of age, holding a gold pencil lightly between his fin gers, delivered himself in too low and unequal a voice, and radier tediously on the whole. Mole replied, with a clear dignified elocution,exciting the liveliest interest in the whole assembly ; he criticised the works and repelled the opinions of de Y iony ; in short, lectured him and his school on the nature, taste, and tendencies of their productions and ca neou wate<. lhe~?MMV p<>Uu> ??perity and empiuUip magistrality. The Journal des Debate has furnish ed the whole reply. On Tuesday evening last I wpnt to the regular soiree of Mr. Gcizot. It was unusually thin. The Minister said a few words to me concerning the various and extreme difficulty of Sir Robert Peel s situation. Mr. Guizot himself, though kept in con stant and anxious effort, is comparatively, as I told him, in smooth water. He has a fatigued, wont aspect, but retains prodigious vitality in his small ( frame. The Apostolic Nuncio, with his two cleri cal secrefciries, was presenL Monsignor Pornari resembles Dr. Stauqhton, the eminent Baptist minister of Philadelphia ; only more corpulent; his attendants are a contrast in their slim persons. Nearly all the corps diplomatic, excepting the en voys of Morocco and Tunis, duly appeared. Greater curiosity than concern has prevailed here in regard to Sir Robert Peel's revelations, and his new srheme of duties on imports. You will find enclosed some ol the opinions ol the Paris press on the advantages of the proposed reductions of the British tariff to French trade and production. Doubt less they will be considerable, as well as to the American. Neither Sir Robert nor Ix>rd John Russell has risen, in my humble opinion, bv the late transactions. The credit of courage, which can be denied to Lord John, must, however, be con ceded to the Premier. It is remarked by the editor of the Stifle : 41 Sir Robert never changes doctrine or course but under the pressure of circumstances." He encounters and uses circumstances with won derful intrepidity, confidence, plausibility, and (hi therto) the happiest success. His amende honor able, in his second speech, to the " proud aristocra cy," is perhaps the result of calculation rather than of favorable 44 second thought." During and after the ministerial crisis, how he was reviled and scorn ed by that aristocracy at the Protectionist meetings, and how little spared by the orators of the League! At the Chichester agricultural meeting, IjOrd Wil liam Lennox said : 44 The greatest political scoun drel that ever existed was a mild term to some that j he had heard applied to Sir Robert Peel. D Is raeli is called here the representative of the Pre mier's personal enemies in the House of Commons. The venom of the spouter is apparent and exube rant ; yet it is impossible to deny that there is some truth in his sarcasms?some foundation for the^ I ory complaints and invectives. Ih: Lamartine, the celebrated poet, has sent me a complimentary letter for Richard H.Wilde, Esq., now of New Orleaus, in reference to his work on the Ia>vc and Madness of Tasso. Mr. Wilde is eminently successful in his translations of the Ita lian verse which he has so frequently and happily introduced. Mr. Washington Irvino, without knowing how much I relished these translations, observed to inc, 44 Arc they not faithful and beau tiful!" Let me report to you a little passage ol arms be tween Professor Michel Chevalier and your cor respondent. The National Intelligencer of the 11th ultimo contains a series of my Random Notes, da ted 12th November, in one of which there is an account of a most opprobrious representation, sign ed by Mr. Chevalier, of American political condi tion and social character. The onslaught is de scribed as of less consequence, by reason of die known time-serving policy of the writer. Mr.CwE vai.ibr reads the Intelligencer. He took violent of fence, and addressed to me at once a note breathing keen resentment, and renouncing all future personal intercourse, on account of the personality. My re ply, which I subjoin, was instant, and accompanied by an extract from a letter of his countryman, the editor of the Courrier des Etats I nis, wherein his defamatory article is treated in the same vein as that of my sentence. "Pahis, Jawpaut 6, 1846. '?am ? I have just received the noie of yestonlay which you have been plewcd to addre- to me. Wb?w and wherever I find my country calumniated, I think it my duty tp adduce all the circumstance* which, according to my know ledge and belief, explain the motive* and destroy the aulbori* ty of the aggrrmion. To traduce a whole people seem* to rne worse than a mere personality, challenged, as it were, and t(tU* warranted, by the signature of the accuaer. My para graph concerning your article wan written under the imme diate excitement of what 1 deemed grow injustice, and flagrant inconsistency. Afterward* I read the aamo judgment and con struction m two of the Paris Joumala. It has not l>een my habit to alio* political quertionn and conduct to break up so cial relationa , but I ?an never be loth to ratify an estrange ment originating in the acoteness of my national feelings. With regaid to my general eulogy on President Jackson, to which you ladrrtingty advert, you must have seen in the Arae can papers reports of v*iry particular and comprehensive pane gyric of his character and care** hy Mr. Wimw, ami moat of the chief adversaries of his admflfifoWation. The tribute which I paid to his memory was strictly du#." The present Minister of Public Instruction, Sal vaNuy, is not of the philosophic and anti-christian school. He has Jong viewed the sect of Eclectics with an unfavorable eye ; he would even have spared the Jesuits o? FranCe, a* valuable itrttfu*K*s of jroifth and zealous preachers of religion. In the College of France, Monsieur Qi mrr, who held the chair of the Languages and Literature of the South, was chiefly employed in assailing all the moderi religious creeds, and emblazoning the anti-christian results of the FVench Revolution. Salvandy sum moned him to return to tfce limits of his chair ac cording to its title. After an interchange of pun gent epistles, Quinet suspended his lectures; his hopeful pupils paraded the city, delivered public and seditious rfddrCsses, sud were worsted in a street conflict with the armfed police. J h^ substitute or Mr. Guizot, Monsieur LfcAottMANt, irt W? chair of Philosophy, leaned to the Catholic cattee, and vin dicated, in his teaching, the doctrines ahdf anwals of Christianity. QuInet's disciples, with a rabble of young free-thinkers, resolved that, while their mas ter deemed himself under interdict, there should be no lecturing of an opposite purport in the college.. They therefore undertook to disturb and silence Lenormant } and several riots, which called for the | gendarmerie, occurred in the Professor's hall. -He has absolutely resigned, because he could not ob tain from the authorities of the college the degree of countenance and other necessary aid for ft mani festation of his real scheme of lectures, and the maintenance of order. The heads of the college faculty are inclined to eclectic philosophy j the Government prefers that all teachers whose opin ions afford pretext and occasion for tumult in the halls should set themselves aside. Salvandy had a greater difficulty than with either of the chairs. The TJniVersity was areated under Napoleon, with a grand master of direct extensive power, and with a plan of administration advantageously contrasted with the general spirit of his despotism. Under the Restoration, a change was wrought which threw all substantive rule and agency into the hands of a special council of public instruction. Monsieur Cousin, chief and oracle of the Eclectics, seized entire sway in the council, and dictated professor ships, courses, manuals, and the choice of function aries, throughout the colleges and other branches of the University in every part of the realm. The Minister, Salvandy, felt that he was a shadow or i eSiwrc iaatruifent. By royal ^rdiuajjC4S-?Lou is Philippe being with him in sentiment?he substi tuted the. original council-plan, and swamped .the Cousin-junto by some twenty new members of In dependent or Ministerial notions. A clamor was immediately raised by the votaries of Cot'sts and two divisions of the political opposition out of doors; reproaches of violence, bigotry, illegality were lavished against Salvandy ; the Catholic and clerical parties, and most parents of any Christian predilection, rejoiced in the change, whether arbi trary or constitutional. The subject was entertain ed in the Chamber of Peers, in the beginning of the session , the late Minister of Public Instruc tion, the celebrated writer, Villehain, sided ably with the swamped council; Couiscf exerted all his faculties in defending his career, and Salvakdy proved that he could make head, whoever were his adversaries. The rhetorical tournament, as it was called, between the two exes and the present Minis ter of Public Instruction, in which several orators, Catholic on one side, Liberal on the other, took a zealous and brilliant share, deeply engaged the attention of the Peers and the press. The subject is now under discussion in the Chamber of Depu ties, where Salvandy, who has just risen from a tit of the gout, is baited with fierceness by a motley band, but where he has been accustomed to ardu ous contests. The main cry is for an organic law which should determine all the disputed points of jurisdiction, internal economy,doctrinal instruction, and so forth. This University is a State-monopoly, likened to the establishments of judicature, army, and navy ; the State teaching, as the 8tate judging or fighting; it is peculiarly beneficial in some re spects, and the condition of the people, on the whole, may produce a doubt whether a free system would be preferable, as in our fortunate country. In the debate of the 27tb, Monsieur Bovillaod, an eminent councillor and savant, said: ** I was dis ? tressed at the remark of a distinguished Deputy, < that the level of studies has been lowering in ? France for some years past. 1 assert, on the eon ? trary, that they have made more progress, in ? the quarter of a century just elapsed, than they ' had done in the preceding centuries : perhaps spe ? culative phdsophy has not materially advanced, ' but true philosophy, that which is based on ob ? servation, has not lagged ; in this, France is queen 4 of the world, as she is in letters and the arts : ? throughout Europe, justice is rendered her on this ? head : if France, in polities, be no longer mistress ' of the world, at least, in instruction and civiliza ? tion, she remains supreme." The supremacy mighj he earnestly .questioned; and the query could he ventured whether education in general has been essentially improved for a century or more, except so far as the advances of science, mechanics, discov ery, invention, have extended and facilitated studies. The old themes of electoral corruption and elec toral reform have been again hammered in the Chamber of Deputies. Many unequivocal instances of corrupt action or undue influence are cited ; the unscrupulous agency of Government, and frequent unprincipled coalition of extreme parties, are scarcely denied. The Government has the disposal of a budget of three hundred millions of dollars, and of some three hundred thousand places, a num ber considerably larger than of all the voters of the kingdom : where its adherents are not chosen,local interests govern the el-ctions more than political bias. Opposition Deputies are chosen on the very ground of the favors they are particularly likely to procure from the Government for their districts : the processes of election facilitate every kind of warping and deflection. The Opposition have been defeated in their proposed amendments to the Ad dress, on this subject, by a Ministerial majority of some forty and sixty. It is wonderful that there is always so strong a minority in the Chamber of De puties, considering the means of the Cabinet for sway over the electoral colleges. , Spanish Cortes wan iyadc up by the interven tion of force to keep away malcontents and to brinir adherents to the polls: only one ProKrc**iat of any note appeared ; and, nevertheless, it i8 already divided in an extent annoying for the Minister : Narvaez has been obliged to employ the tone of a military dictator in the debates; Martinez dk la Rosa to explain, excuse, promise: they found all the proceedings of the Ministry severely scanned. They have cited as conclusive proof of the good will of the Pope, that his Holiness has addressed a letter to Queen Isabel beginning " My dear Daugh ter." It is stated by the Spanish Minister of Fi nance that, of the dotation of one hundred amlfifty nine millions of reals, voted by the Cortes to the clergy, one hundred and fifty-three millions have been paid to them. Two matters have precedence of all others in a dilapidated, disorganized, retro graded kingdom of from thirteen to fifteen millions? the relations with the Papal See, and a match for a girl Queen, not one of whose four or five suitors would be capable of a useful part in the direction of affairs and the regeneration of the country. THE LATE JOHN H. PLEASANTS, Esr. fBOM TBI RICHMOND WHIG. We announce thin morning, with a sorrow which we have scarcely words to express, with an anguish in which this whole community and the people of this entire Commonwealth will share, the death, the ontimely death of Jon* Hammer Pleasants, Esq., late senior editor of this paper. About two o'clock on Friday morning, in perfect calmness and re signation, he yielded up his spirit to his God. Upon the melancholy circumstances which have led to this :ieart-rending result, we need not say a word. They are Familiar to every mind. They require no comment. So sud ien, so appalling has been the stroke, that we can even now icarccly realize the dreadful truth. We are in a measure ftupi/itd i we know not how to believe it possible. Yet, alas ! t ifc too true ! The hand which has so often rested upon the able where we sit, and wielded a mighty power over the public nind?which, in "thoughts that breathed" and "wordsthat jurned," has enchained thousands of admiring hearts, is now :old and motionless A gifted son of genius been stricken down in the mid-heaven of his career. John Hampden PWa aants is no more ! Mr. Pleasants was the eldest son of the late James Plea sants, a Conner Governor of Virginia, and United States Sen- , ator from this State. In the spring of 1824 he the Richmond Whig, and devoted to it ten jean oL\he most un wearied labor before it yielded him even a living compensa tion. Since that period the paper became the organ of the Whig party, and made its way to popular favor and a reason able patronage. A more powerful and bnJliant pen than that of Mr. P. has never been enlisted in the editorial ranks of this country. A more sincere advocate of the great eause to which his efforts were devoted never breathed the breath of life. A more true, gallant, and generous spirit never dwelt - in a hu man breast. Honest, straight-forward, full of impulse, he looked at the right, and never counted consequences; he trampled under foot with noble scorn all sordid considerations of self^ and made the "press which he conducted a bright perfect mirror of his manly heart. Mr. Plbasarts would have been forty-nine years of age some time in March. He haa left an aged mother, two chil dren, several aistars, two brothers, and a large circle of devot- ' ed relatives and friends, to lament his loss. Our deepest sym pathies are with his bereaved household ; with the helpleaaor* , cheerless world; with the fray-haired mother,Trdtn whose trem Wing hands has been torn the staff with which aha sustained her footsteps down the vale of years, and from whose lips the sgoniaing cry is forced, "My son / my son ! would<to Ood that I had died for thee !"?with all wfaee hearts are Meedir^ under this dire calamity, we most aincerely mourn. But it is idle to whisper now a word of condolence to the bereaved. No human lips can- alleviate their unspeakable sorrow, The balm for grief like theirs can be administered alone by a Di vine Physician, and to him, in humble reverence and adoring faith, we know they will look for light in their darknew, and hops in their despair. Tai Iaojr Stean-bcboorer Hi*rteb arrived aafoly at New Orleans on the morning of the 15th ultimo. A letter written on board states that die trip was made without accident of any kind, every thing in the vessel working to a wonder. " I do not see (aays the writer) how the vessel can be improved. We have averaged forty pounds of steam, and our greatest number of revolutions have been forty-two. We have run along thirteen and a half miles per hour, readily, with the cur rent. The pilots say the strength of current is to 4 miles per hour, I judge about 3?." A New Comet.?On Thursday evening a new telescopic comet was discovered by Mr. G. P. Bsjrn, of the Cambridge Observatory. ? Its place, at 9 P. M., as deduced from neigh boring stara with an annular micrometer, waa one hour and twenty-aix seconds in right aacwtsion, and two degrees eigh teen minutes north declination. Gbeat Lard Sale*.?Gebbit Smith, of Petersborough, (N. Y.) offer* to sell his immense landed property at auction, in the months of June, July, and August next The lands lie in forty-five of the fifty-nine counties of the State of New York, and comprise about 750,000 acres. The auction will be held at fifteen different places, on as many different days. DkAra or a MailRobseb.?Dr. Bbadlee, convicted of robbing the mails, and imprisoned for the offence in 1841, died in his cell at Pittsburg on Friday week. Previous lo> his death he confessed his guilt. From New Zealabd.?We have received the Auckland Times of September 13, 1845. Our readers will recollectthat several skirmishes had taken place between the Natives and the British troops sent to protect the colonists, and that the troops had suffered severely in attempting to storm a stockade. The paper before us states that up to the 12th of September no decisive intelligence had been received from the seat of war, but that both parties were preparing for renewed hostilities Three vessels of war, the Hazard, North Star, ahd Daphne, were at the Bay of Islands, and troops were expected daily from Sydney, N. 8. W. When they arrive the war will he prosecuted on the part of the British with vigor. The natives were encamped in the mountains, preparing to act on the de fensive, having found that mode of warfare, on sever* I pre vious occasions, the most advantageous.?Host mi P<mt. Railroad Divinmns.?From the annual reports of Mas sachusetts rail road a, we gather that upon the Lowell road a nett income of $177,025, or nearly ten per cent, upon its capital, waa realized during the la* year ; on the Maine, $ 132,984, or about seven per cent, upon its paid up capital; on the Providence, $ 197,827, or over ten per cent, i on the Worcester, $237,728, or a shade over eight per cent. ; on the Eastern, #238,309, or over ten per cent. ; on the Naahua, $84,680, or thirteeu percent. ; on the New Bedford, $48,728, or twelve per cent. ; on the Norwich, $70,079 for eleven months, or four and a half per cent.; on *the Taunton, $15,847, or six per cent., after the purchase of new engines, new depot, Ac. On the Western road the nett earnings were, exchiatve of interest, $442,858 upon a coat of $7,T41,754, or nearly six per cent. On the Fitchburg, to February 1st, nearly ten per cent, for the year. BaiTisH Vessels roa tbe Columbia Riteb.?The Glasgow Courier mentions a report that the British ship " Amencs," 50 guns, Com. John Gonlon, with a steamer and brig, had been dispatched by Rear Admiral Sir George Sey mour to the Columbia River, Oregon ; and the ship Crampus was about to be sent there immediately on the alteration of her magazine. Asotseb Jaassr Blce Go**-?Jeremiah Howell died at Paraippanv, Morria county, on tbe 18th instant, aged 08 years and 6 months. He was at the battle of Monmouth, and par ticipated in other scenes of strife and glory in oar golden age. Abu Still Arotmeb.?*Vc bear, just as we go to press, that Abijah Harrison, a venerable citixen of Orange, and, we presume, the oldest man in the ceunty, died this morning at die advanced age of 98 years.?I^ctoark Adeertuer.