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Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, January 02, 1847, Image 3

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ctme in, they would come in as free States. But if, tip to the
Ume when California and New Mexico came knocking at our
Z 1? 'Uch Pfohibiti?n *** been laid upon
, the" lhey ,n,*ht Cu?> and demand admiwon, a- was
done to the ca?e of Texas, that we should take her with her
b avery, or not at all. We had preferred to take Tex a* aa she
, and we would let none diaturb her on that ground.
When Oregon wag admitted aa a Territory the proviaion
against alavery was inserted, ?rid that was the time to do it.
hen we came to extend our lawa over California, then the
aarae provision would probably be moved, and, he had not a
doubt, would be carried.
.. ?"e his ?piuion?. He repeated that the people of
ine i, ruled States were determined to prosecute this war with
the utmost vigor to an honorable termination ; and he a?sert
' ,urth*'''? that they would admit California permanently as
a State into the Union as soon as her amount of population
would justify ft. v v
Mr. (i. here said that in voting the appropriation asked for
t>y the executive, he should have preferred that the amend
ment proposed by Mr. Wilmot should not have been insert
ed, beeause lie considered it an premature ; yet, if a similar
provision should lie moved i? the case of these Mexican pro
vinces, and Mr. G. should be called on to vote, ho should
vote for it, hit pr miss, sink or swim?diffeience of sentiment
here, or no difference, he should go for the measure in
every stage.
For one, he did not believe that gentlemen of the South
meant to extend slavery to one inch of territory where it did
not exist now. He had been taught by their own declarations
to believe that they regarded it as an evil, and one which they
most earnestly wished to get rid of. That they lamented its
p!!e8en.c<'? ^ut ?? in their bosom without any act or fault
of tneirs. Mr. G. had been taught this by their speeches in
that House. They said it had l>een brought here by the art
of the mother country, without consent or fault on their part,
but that it must be borne, l>ecause the time had not come to
get nd m this foul blot, this dark internal curse on their so
cial condition. In this be might possibly be mistaken, and
they might, notwithstanding what they declared, desire to ex
tend as well aa to perjietuute the evil. But he did not believe
It. He believed that a large majority from tfce South, if their
opinion could lie candidly given, would be in favor of the an
nexation of these new Territories as free and independent
States. It was certainly foi their interest to have it s i. The
Korth would protect them in the duy of trouble ; and if these
free Statei at the South should ever undertake to interfere
with the slaveholding States, the freemen of the North would
stand by them in the defence of all their rights on this ques
tion They would never allow those rights to be distur!>ed.
But they might rely upon it, the North never would vote sol
diers or money for the extension of slavery. As this was a
question which must ultimately arise, the sooner it was met
the better. Mr. G. would be sorry to embarrass the Admin
istration in its prosecution of the war ; but he had yet to learn
that the Southern Democrats would vote with the Whigs
against all appropriations for the war, if new territory was to
be admitted only on the condition that it should be free ter
ritory.
i rr" ^ ',a(* 'n l"8 power to prove that some of the
leading Whigs opposed this war precisely because the terri
tory to be acquired by it would be erected into free States,
f hat was the ground on which the opposition of some Whigs
was baaed. In proof of this, he would read an extract from
the speech of the gentleman Iroin Tennessee, to which he had
before alluded, (one of the oldest members of the House, and
known here and throughout the Union as one of the promi
nent VV hig leaders.) [Mr. G. here quoted the speech of Mr.
UaXTBr.J Here, he ?aid, was a direct appeal to the South,
suggesting that the Northern States would not consent to the
annexation of more territory at the South unless it was to be
free from slavery, and the resolution of Mr. Wilmot was re
ferred to as being ominous of that. What was it that waa to
be put in peril' What was the great danger to the South
to which the speech alluded > The danger was, that the
.[Northern Slates would not consent to the existence of
slavery in the new Territories coming into the Union, and
hence they might expect a cordon of free Stales at the South.
Mr. G. wanted it, then, to go to the people of the North,
and to the Whigs of the North, that it was the Whig policy
and the Whig game at the South, to defeat the acquisition of
California, because it would eventuate in the establishment of
a coidon of free States at the South.
He would here tell gentlemen that he should go for the
acquisition of California and New Mexico, and that, so far as
his voice would go, those provinces, when annexed to this
I nion, should be free 8tates ; not with a view to destroy the
harmony of the South, but for its protection.
The gentleman from Tennessee dreaded abolition at the
South. He would ask if the Whigs from the good old Key
stone State, who were to a man abolitionist*, did not imme
diately border on the slaveholding State of Maryland > And
what haim had they done her > But he would go further West,
and ask whether Ohio, where the most rabid abolitionists were
to be found which the world contained, and more of them
too than were in any other State of the whole Union, did not
border on Kentucky > And what harm had these people done
to old hentuck . None. On the contrary, the danger was
the other way. Ohio herself was endangered by the rogues
and runaways which croascd over into her bounds, and which
were all absorbed into the mass of her population and proved
there, as they did every where else, a cursc. [Here Mr.
viordon s hour expired.]
The officers of the United States sloop of war Boston,
wrecked off Eleuthera, were received with the greatest hospi
tality on their arrival at Nassau, New Providence. A writer
in the Norfolk Beacon, evidently one of the officers of the
Boston, says :
The officers of the ship wtie treated with much civility
and courtesy by his excellency Governor General Mathew,
who, on the first new* of the disaster, by letter, and soon af
ter personally, in a visit to Eleuthera, tendered to them every
hospitality in his power, even to a shelter under the Govern
ment House, accompanied at the same time with the best
evidences of his sincerity fiom his cellar and his lardei ; and
on their airival at Nassau his civilities were renewed in the
most hospitable form, whilst the same sympathy for the unfor
tunate was manifested by Lieut. Co|. Cohiif. and officers of
H. M. West India Regiment in barracks at Nassau, in the
same generous and liberal-minded attentions, such as are not
likely to be soon effaced even in the ?wear and tear' of a
stormy sailor life."
Tub \ IRGI5H Reckvits.?The fifty volunteers so prompt
ly obtained by Capt. Smith I'.' Bawkheah in Philadelphia,
for the Virginia Volunteers, have all gone to their place of
destination in Virginia. Part of them left on Monday after
noon, and the remainder on Tuesday afternoon.?Phil. Chro.
1 he Oiiii 1" kllows.?The poorer classes ef the communi
ty during the past year have suffered much by various disas
ters, such as fires, sickness, <Jte., which has left many poor
but honest anil industrious persons to suffer, or b? dependant
on the benevolence of their fellow-citizrns. Vet, through ail
these trials, notwithstanding the immense drafts which have
been made upon them for relief, the Order of Odd Fellows
have, in all cases where any of their members were among
the sufferer*, extended a helping hand and rescued many from
misery and want. It has been a true and tried friend to many
who have been in distress during this extraordinary year, and
is still continuing on its course, like an angel of mercy and a
rescuing spirit to the fallen and downcast. We say this as a
deaerved tribute to the usefulness of the Order.?Phila. C/tron
New Gebmav Setti.bmext i* Texas.?We learn from
Mr. Johnston that the German emigrants have opened a new
settlement on the Llano, about sixty miles al>ovo Fredericks
burg, that is lapidly improving. The land in the valley of
the Llano is found to lie remarkably productive, arid the cli
mate is considered even more hcrdthy than that ofNew Uraun
fels or I" redericksburg. This region is elevated probahly
a thousand or fifteen hundred feet above the level of the Gulf.
W e understand that another new settlement will soon be
formed on the 8an Saba, which will be regarded as the capi
tal of the colony $ and the most extensive prepaiations are in
. progress to render it the great point of attraction of all the
colonists from Europe. The fertile and healthy valley of the
San Saba is considered capihle of sustaining a population of
at least half a million of souls.
OfBjmro of the Norther* Railroad.?Last Saturday
was a gala day in a portion of New Hampshire. It was the
day on which the first section of the great Northern Railroad
was opened?a road which is designed to connect Boston, by
way of the Concord (N. H.) Railroad, with Burlington, Vei
mont, and the Lakes, Ogdensburg and Western New York,
and, as some of its tno*i sanguine friends suggest, Boston
with the shores of the Pacific Ocean, the Sandwich Islands,
Canton, and Calcutta, by means of Whitney's grand Pacific
railroad ; and, however visionary this last suggestion may ap
pear to some, it is scarcely lea* so than what we now witness
would have ap|>eared five-and-tweuty years ago to us.
The Northern road commences at the Concord depot, and
follows the western bank of the Merrimac through Boseawen
to Franklin, eighteen miles ; it then pursues a northerly
course, through Andover, Oranire, Canaan, Enfield, and Le
banon, to tf.e mouth of the White River, just below Lyman's
Bridge. I'here it is to mert the Central Road, which is to
run up the White River, through the centre of Vermont, to
Burlington ; also, the l'assumpsic road, which is to run from
the mouth of the White River up the Vermont side of the
^onnecticut, to the mouth of the Passumpsic, and thence up
Lat?VV0 Canada. It will hence appear that
this Aorthern Railroad is a very important link in an extend
ed chain ) and the opening of the first eighteen miles of the
road was naturally a joyful occasion.?/Won 'IVavtlUr.
Iros I Kin ate.??The new iron steam-frigate Alleghany,
now completing in Pittsburg, will be ready for launching in
?i lrnarvj an at the same time a new iron revenue steam
cutter will be completed, of 350 tons, feet on deck, and
20 feet beam, to be called the Rohrrt Walker. She will have
side paddla-wheels, an.l an armament of one pivot-gun and
four small shifters j achooncr rigged, with three mast*.
WASHINGTON.
"liberty and Union, now and forever one and '
Inseparable."
SATURDAY, JANUARY 2, 1847.
i iie commencement ol a New Year hag always
been hailed, by every people and in every age, with
some marks ot joyful recognition. The practice
being universal must have its foundation in the na
ture of man : and we do but re-echo the feeling
which must have its place in the bosoms of ail the
readers of this paper when we tender them our con
gratulations that they have reached, in life, in
health, and with so much to make life worth pos
sessing, the opening morning of the new-born year.
For our common birthright in the freest of all
lands?our common inheritance of whatever of past
honor, of present abundance, or future hope, this
fair land may claim ; for the progress of science,
the amenities of civilized lifeand, above all, for the
blessings of our common Christianity, we are deeply
the debtors of Heaven, and should be, both in prin
ciple and practice, more thankful than we too often
are. Wishing that these, and all other things that
can fill their cup with happiness and peace, may
be long continued to our readers and friends, (not
excluding our enemies, if we have any,) we wish
them cordially a happy New Year.
Never, in the most genial of climates, did a more
bright and genial day shine than the one which yes
terday opened and gladdened the new year. Ac
cordingly, the whole world seemed abroad to inter
change the compliments and good wishes of the
season. The President's mansion was open, and
was of course thronged by a multitude of persons,
official and unofficial, embracing all parties and
conditions, who crowded thither to pay their re
spects to the Chief Magistrate and his estimable
Lady; and all was gay with official glitter, and good
wishes, and beautiful faces. The same animated
scene was repeated at the mansion of the venerable
and beloved relict of President Madison ; at the
lodgings of the venerable and respected relict of
General A. Hamilton; at the residence of the
Vice President of the United States, and in sue
cession, in greater or less degree, at various other
dwellings, including that of the Mayor, who was
honored by the calls of numerous friends and visit
ers of the city.
- *' Aid and Comfort."?A Whig member of the
Illinois Legislature, conceiving it to be his duty to
aid and comfort ' the Locofocos, particularly in
their present dilemma, recently introduced the fol
lowing resolutions into that body :
''Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Illinois,
1 hat we heartily approve of the message of the honorable
Jamm K. Polk, President of the United State*, vetoing the
i . pasKL'li at ,he last session of Congress of the United States,
making appropriations for the improvement of rivers and
harbors.
" Jimoleed further, That the courso of the President of
the L nited Stales in compromising the Oregon controversy,
and in fixing the line of boundary on the forty-nwitb degree
'T assorting that our title up to fifty-four degrees and forty
minutes was 'clear and unquestionable,' meets the entire ap
probation ol the General Assembly of the State of Illinois."
I his applause of two of the main acts of Mr.
Polk's administration operated like a fire-brand
thrown into the midst of the ? faithful"?they im
mediately adjourned, and at the next meeting laid
them on the table.
1 he late arrival from the Gulf Squadron brought
no news from the city of Mexico. An opinion pre
vailed in the squadron, founded probably upon fly
ing reports and rumors, that a quorum of the new
Mexican Congress could not be got together at the
time appointed for its opening, the 5th of December.
Debt of Pennsylvania.?On the 30th Novem
ber, 1833, the State debt of Pennsylvania was
?21,627,786.32. It is now, after a lapse of thirteen
years, $40,<89,577. The revenue of the past year '
has equalled the expenditures, an event which has
not before occurred for a long period. There is no
reasonable doubt that the February interest will be
punctually paid.
Tiib Baltimore Battalion in Mexico.?Wchaveseen
a letter from an oflicer of the Baltimore and Washington Bat
talion, now at Monterey, dated on the 9thof last month, which
says : " We have lost a gn at many men by deaths and dis
' charge. The aggregate of our battalion is only 377, having
' lost 206 men since we arrived at the Brasos." This shows
a terrible falling off.?Baltimore Sun.
War is a cormorant of human life. The Haiti
more battalion has, perhaps, not suffered more than
any other corps of volunteers. In all campaigns
the number of deaths on the field of battle, or of
wounds received thereupon, bears but a small pro
portion to those which result from other causes.
We learn from an authentic source that the number
of deaths in the British army, during the last three
years of the Peninsular war, amounted to sixteen per
cent, per annum, and of those but four percent, oc
curred in battle. Spain, or at least that portion
which was the scat of war, is a healthy country,
and the army was as well furnished in the commis
sariat and medical departments as any that ever took
the field ; yet the number of men in hospital usually
averaged one-fourth of the whole. In three years
and a half, the Iiriiish army, the average strength of
which did not exceed 61,500 men, lost 34,000, of
which not more than one-fourth died by the sword.
From these facts it will be seen that it required a
yearly sacrifice of 6,400 lives to keep in the field an
effective force of 50,000 men. Applying this ratio
to an army of 20,000 men, which is about the force
operating against Mexico?to say nothing of its be
ing a country less favorable in point of health than
Spain, and subject to malignant fevers?we may
expect an annual mortality of about 3,200, whilst
perhaps double that number will contract diseases
which are to abridge the length of their days, and ,
embitter existence while it lasts.
{Lytichburg Virginian.
Clonk of the Vaw Ness Cask.?On Wednesday, after the
preparation and waling of twelve bills of exception on the
part of the plaintiff in this ca*e, Mr. Hrent askpd the privilege
of addressing the Jury upon the evidence of the case. The
Court denied that there w?? any evidence before the Jury, and
refused to hear further argument upon the testimony. One
of the juror*, Mr. Ea*by, asked leave to lie absolved from
rendering a verdict agreeably to the instructions of the Court,
ns he stated that he could not conscientiously do so. The
Court said that no evidence was before the Juiy, and the re
sponsibility rested with the Court. After some consultation,
the foreman of the Jury asked the Court if eleven jurors
could make a verdict. The Court said they could not. Mr.
Easby was then allowed to retire from the jury-box, and the
remaining eleven jurors returned to the Court a paper, slating,
in the form of a verdict, that, under the instructions, they
find "that Mrs. Mary Ann Van Ness is not the widow of
John P. Van Ness." The return of the Jury was then re
corded, and the jury discharged.
I he Jurors then informed the respective counsel in the case
that, without the instruction of the Court, they stood, seven
for sustaining the marriage, and five in opposition thereto.*
Thus, for the present, ends the " Van Ness case," having
occupied the unremitting attention of the court, jurors, and
counsel for forty-three days.
* Messrs. Jones, Craig, P. Hepburn, J. Hepburn, Triplet!,
Easby, nnd Bird?7.
I Messrs. Orme, Storm, Stewart, Suter, and Trunnell?5.
WAR TAXES.
We are indebted to the government paper of
1 hursday night for the following copy of a Letter
which, it appears by the date of it, was addressed
by the Secretary of the Treasury, ten days ago, to
the Committee of Ways and Means of the House
of Representatives :
TmtAHLHT Department, Dkcembeh 21, 1846.
Si a : Permit ine moat respectfully to call your attention to
the view* submitted in my last annual report in regard to im
posing duties on tea and coffee.
I heae duties were suggested in view of the necessity of ob
taining the loan therein proposed, and this Department feels
bound to communicate the opinion entertained by it, that, in
the absence of these duties, it will probably be wholly im
practicable to negotiate the loan on such terms as would be
permitted by Congress.
Most respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. J. WALKER,
Secretary of the Treasury.
Hon. James J. McKat,
( h^irman of the Committee of Ways and Means.
This frank and (we must say) honest Letter from
the Head of the Treasury Department, fully con
firms, as the conviction of the Secretary, what we
have already had occasion to express as our own,
viz . that unless additional taxes are laid upon ar
ticles which will immediately and certainly pro
duce additional revenue, it will probably be " wholly
impracticable " to negotiate a further loan of money
for the Government upon any reasonable terms.
1 he Secretary of the Treasury might have added,
what he will yet be obliged to say to Congress pub
licly, or privately to the Members, that, even with
the aid of the proposed new taxes, he can obtain
no loan upon any terms until the Subtreasury be
repealed, or in some way or other rendered inope
rative. I his is what Congress must come to, un
less they desire to see the War with Mexico brought
to an end by the absolute failure of ability to carry
it on.
I he organ of the Administration accompanies
this Letter with urgent exhortations to Congress to
carry the Secretary's recommendations into effect.
It trusts " that the recommendation of the Secre
tary of the Treasury will meet at once the favor
able attention of Congress," &,c. If it be true that
there is, as the government paper says, " but one
feeling among the Democracy on the subject of the
prosecution of the War," why has not the recom
mendation, made by the Prssident in his Annual
Message, and repeated by the Secretary of the Trea
sury in his Annual Report, four woeks ago, receiv
ed at an earlier day the sanction, in some form or
other, of the Representatives of the Democracy in
both Houses of Congress ? In each House they
greatly outnumber the Whigs; and they are re
sponsible to the country for getting us honorably
out of this War, into which the Administration of
their choice has plunged us, and about the prosecu
tion of which it seems there is, among that party,
" but one feeling." It is an odd sort of manifesta
tion of that feeling, that, with the knowledge that
the War cannot be further prosecuted without the
provision of further means for carrying it. on, an
entire month of the session has been suffered to
, pass away without the first step having been taken
towards this object in the House of Representatives,
to which House belongs exclusively the right of
originating bills for raising a revenue. Nay, not
only has no step for that purpose been taken by the
House of Representatives, with its overpowering
Democratic bias, but its Committee of Ways and
Means, consisting of three Whig members and Bix
t other members selected for their supposed political
i devotion to the Administration, has to this day re
fused or neglected to report any bill conformable to
thejoint recommendation of the President and the
Secretary of the Treasury at the opening of the
session ; this refusal or neglect continuing also for
more than a week after receiving the information
from the Secretary that the laying of these taxes
on 'Tea and Coffee are indispensable to the pro
secution of the War.
Upon these facts one of three things is clearly
predicable: either that the government paper is
mistaken about the unanimity of opinion among the
Democracy in all parts of the country upon the
subject of the War ; that the Secretary of the Trea
sury himself is entirely in error in supposing addi
tional revenue to be indispensably necessary to
carry on the Government; or that there is in the
Committee of Ways and Means, if not in the ma
jority of the House of Representatives, a manifest
indisposition to sustain the Administration in the
present emergency.
Without remarking more particularly upon this
state of things, having accomplished our present
purpose by directing the attention of our readers to
its existence, we leave what there is incompre
hensible about it to be explained by the light which
time will certainly throw upon it.
Desertions from the American Army.?A cor
respondent of the New Orleans Tropic, writing
from Monterey on the 27th ultimo, says :
Arkansas Congressional Election.?The New
Orleans " 'Tropic" of the 24th ultimo has the fol
lowing :
" The election for a member of Congress in the State of Ar
kansas took place on Monday of last week. VV e yesterday
gave a letter from a coi respondent at Little Hock, dated the
17th instant, in which the writer expressed the opinion that
Newton, the W hig candidate, had succeeded. We are now
in receipt of the Little Rock Democrat, of the 18th instant,
which contains returns from several counties and precincts,
the complexion of which encourages us to hope that Thomas
W. Newton (thoroughly and ardently Whig) has run ahead
of his competitor. Newton is a native of Alexandria, Vir
ginia."
Naval.?The frigate Ciimbcrtand, Capt. Gre
gory, in twenty-four days from Vera Cruz, arrived
at Norfolk on Wednesday.
. From Soith America.?By the arrival of the btig Bran
dywine at Philadelphia, from Rio de Janeiro, advices from
that port to the I Ith of November have been received. The
U. 8. frigate Columbia had arrived ; officers and crew all
well. The razee Indtptndencc, Capt. Latalette, sailed on
the 1st for California. Nothing later from the Riode la Plata.
MILITARY MOVEMENTS.
In the steamer Alabama, which left New Orleans on the
2.K1 ultimo for the Rio Grande, and on hoard of which (?en.
Scott and his Stafl were passengers, there were also embark
ed five companies of the United States Mounted Riflemen, as
follows : Company A, Capt. Loring and Lieuts. Morris and
Palmer; Company B, Capt. Sanderson and Lieut. Cordon i
Company D, ('apt. Pope and Lieuls. Claiborne and Haw
kins ) Company E, Capt. Crittenden and Lieut. May ; and
Company G, Capt. 8imonson and Lieuts. Russell and ( ?iblm,
all destined for 1 ampico?- the whole under the command of
Major Sumner, Major Burbridge being compelled to remain
at New Orleans in consequence of illness. Lieuts. Newton,
Tipton, Taylor, Lindsay, and Ewell, with a detachment of
men, were also left behind for some days, to superintend the
shipment of the horses belonging to the companies, which are
to be dispatched at the earliest possible moment.
TROUBLE IN THE WIGWAM.
The Administration is assailed by the press with
great vehemence in a quarter where, certainly, if
any where, it ought to find nothing but unwavering
and unscrupulous support ; that is to say, in a quar
ter to whose interests those of the whole of the rest
of the United States have been made by the present
and the last Administrations secoudary, subservient,
and tributary. Wo refer, of course, to the press of
the State of Texas. Without entering into the
feelings of our fellow-citizens of the Gulf State,
much less adopting all their griefs, it is proper that
we should let our readers know, in their own lan
guage, what the grievances are of which they com
plain. For which reason we copy from their pa
pers of the latest dates the following : *
FROM THE <j A L V'ESTO.V CIVILIAN.
An act to define the boundaries of the Republic of Texas,
approved December 19, 1836, fix en those boundaries as fol
lows :
" Beginning at the mouth of the Sabine river, and running
' west along the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, to
' the mouth ot the Rio (irande j thende, up the principal
* stream of said river, to its source; thence, due north, to the
* lorty-second degree of north latitude ; thence, along the
' boundary line as defined in the treaty between the United
* States and Spain, to the beginning."
A reference to the map will show any one that these boun
daries include most of the country known as Santa Fe.
As u custom, uniform und long-established, it is well known
that, when a State applies for admission into the Union, it
does so with its boundaries ready defined and understood, and
that these boundaries are sanctioned und recognised by the
General Government, by the act of admission, either as pro
posed by the State, or with such alterations on the part of Con
gress as the State applying lor admission is willing to consent
to before the consummation of the measure. The recent case
of Iowa is well known, where Congress conditioned the act
of admission with an alteration in boundaries, to which the
State objected, so that measure was defeated for the time
being.
Now, the resolutions of the United States Congress provid
ing for the admission of Texas into the Union stipulated that
the General Government of the Union should have "the ad
justment" of all questions of boundary that might " arise with
other Governments but at the same time expressly guaran
tied that?
"Said State (Texas) should retain all the vacant or
unappropriated lands lying within its limits, to be applied to
the payment of the debts and liabilities of said Republic of
I'exas, and the residue of said lands, after discharging said
debts and liabilities, to be disposed of as said State may di
rect." These resolutions also provided that "new States
may hereafter, by the consent of said State, (Texas,) be
formed out of the territory thereof. '
? In the face of these facts, Gen. Kearny has announced to
the people of Santa Fe that he is authorized to establish a Ter
ritorial Government?has proceeded to establish such a gov
ernment temporarily?and ordered the election of a local le
gislature, to select delegates to represent the country in the
Congress of the United States.
Having thus summed up the facts of the case, we leave
others to make the comments. The Austin Democrat says :
"The United States'Government has seen proper to treat
this portion of the State of Texas as a territory acquired by
conquest, after having in the most solemn manner recognised
it as composing an integral part of the Republic of Texas.
When Gen. Taylor was ordered to take his position upon the
Rio Giatide, what was argued in justification of the proce
dure ? The very law and facts above quoted, and the treaty
? made with Santa Anna. Now, if these availed, if they proved
any thing, it was that Gen. Taylor had taken possession of
the territory acquired by annexation ; and, if Santa Fe is not
thus acquired, it is a territorial acquisition, by conquest: so was
the teiritory west of the Nueces and east of the Rio Grande ;
they stood, and still stand, in the same attitude towards
Texas.
"IfSanta Fe is a province taken by force of arms from
Mexico, so was the country between the Nueces and the Rio
(irande.; and the very moment Gen. Taylor set foot on the
western bank of the former stream, he committed an aggres
sion upon a foreign soil, and hostilely invaded a country with
which his Government was at pcace. If Laredo was ours, so
was Santa Fe ; if Santa Fe was not, neither was Laredo.
" Should theGeneral Government persist in the high-hand
ed tyrannical course it has commenced, the groundwork, the
main prop upon which the rectitude and justice of the war
with Mexico can be defended, will be swept away. The Go
vernment will be estopped from pleading them ; but Texas will
not. This State contends, and will ever contend, that the
tenitory included within the boundaries as laid down and de
fined in the law of 1836, rightfully belongs to her, and to her
alone, and any attempt to establish a territorial or other gov
ernment within those limits is an infringement of her rights
as a sovereign State, It is 9 violation of the compact of an
nexation, because it is a lawless, unjust, and forcible seizure
of our public doinqjn, which is secured to the State tor the
benefit of its creditors ; because, in the event of a relinquish
ment of the right of soil by this State in favor of the Govern
ment of the United States, the latter would not then acquire
aright to establish a Territorial or State Government upon
the soil so cedcd, unless by the express consent of the State
which has the sole light to form new State-", as will be seen
by reference to the joint resolution of annexation."
The New Era uses language far morc"?*xcited ; in fact, a
portion of its remarks are of such a character that we (the
editors of the Civilian) cannot repeat them in our columns.
The following will bear repetition, though some of the harsh
terms and the prediction at the conclusion might perhaps as
well have been spared :
" We have always claimed, since the declaration of our in
dependence in March, 1836, the whole of the territory this
side of the Rio Grande, and our claim has long been recog
nised and admitted by the United States, as well as several of
the nations of Europe ; consequently, all that portion of New
Mexico lying on this side of that river, is as much a part and
portion of the State of Texas as the country between the Rio
Grande and the Nueccs, and should lie placed under the im
mediate jurisdiction of her government and laws. Indepen
dent of the recognition by the United States of our indepen
dence and boundaries as a separate nation, she acknowledged
the Rio Grande as our western boundary in the joint resolu
tions passed to provide for our annexation, and consequently
recognised our claim to Santa Fe, and all that portion of New
Mexico on this side of that stream lying north of latitude 36?
30'. It belongs to the Legislature of Texas, and to it atone,
to point out the mode of electing civil and military officers
within its legitimate jurisdiction, and to designate their respec
tive duties, in accordance with the provisions of the State con
stitution, and anv attempt to wrest from this or any other
State a |>ortion of her sovereignty or soil, is a direct and gross
infringement of her reserved and constitutional rights ; and,
if countenance lie given by the General Government to such
I palpable and treasonable outrages, there will ere long a politi
cal simoom sweep through the land, leaving nought but the
sad vestiges of a national dissolution to mark its course and
indicate its effects."
GENERAL SCOTT.
This distinguished officer left New Orleans on
the 23d ultimo for the seat of war. In noticing his
departure, the "Delta" remarks that "he goes to
Mexico with full powers to control the operations of our army
there. If negotiations are opened with Santa Anna, the hero
of Lundy's Lane will undertake the more difficult duties of
the diplomatist. We trust that in this latter sphere he will
be more successful than our previous negotiators. General
Scott will proceed to Cainargo and organize the forces there,
and about the 15th January he will depart for Tampico, with
such forces as can be drawn from the Rio Grande, and with
?uch of the new levies as can reach him by that time. From
Tamf?ico he will take up Ihe line of March to San Luis, and,
effecting a junction with Taylot's force, he will commence
the siege of San Luis with a forcc of fifteen or twenty thou
sand men. If Santa Asj?a is disused to peace, the terms
will there be agreed upon; if he is determined to fight, then
there will be a considerable explosion of 'villanous saltpetre'
in and about the walls of San Luis."
A Railroad from thk Lakes to the Missinsi ppi Ki v tn'
The citizens of Milwaukie are about to organize a Company
to make a railroad from Milwaukie to the Mississippi. The
country over which the road is to pass is said to bo very favor
able for the construction of a road, having but slight eleva
tions, and but few rivers to cross. It would pass through a
section of country illimitable in its agricultural resources, and
which is now nearly worthless, for the want of a market for
ita products.
The Prkskvt Year.?The observer of signs may look
upon 1847 with a fearful face. The year begins with Friday
and ends with Friday?that very unlucky day. The fourth
of July comes on Sunday?very unlucky. For the first time
in the "recollection of tho oldest inhabitant," there will l?e
no full moon this year in the month of February?unlucky
month. Our national |>olitical day liegins 011 Sunday, the 4th
of March?unlucky day. There will be 110 eclipse visible in
the year?unlucky for star-gazers. But, as an offset for the
whole, January is to be blessed with two full moons, and
March with a like numtwr?this will be lucky, and will per
haps throw light enough over the daik features of the year to
overcome all evil prognostication*.?Portsmouth Journal.
v /V t '/ j/ j u d
LATE FROM THE GULF SQUADRON?LOSS OF
THE BRIG 80MERS.
The New Orleans papers bring us accounts l'rom
the Squadron off Vera Cruz to the 13th ultimo,
with the melancholy particulars of the loss of the
brig Sotnern, under the command of Lieutenani
Sf.mmks, while engaged in blockading that port.
This unfortunate event happened on the morning
of the 8th ultimo, off Green Island. At the time ol
its occurrence the Somers was under way to ascer
tain the character of a strange vessel then in sight,
and, being struck by a heavy squall, she capsized
and sunk in twenty or thirty minutes. I here were
on board of her about eighty persons, ol whom
twenty-four perished, and tilteen drilled ashore on
spars, hen-coops, <fcc. and were taken prisoners ol
war by the Mexicans. Among the lost are acting
Master Clemson and Passed Midshipmen Hynson.
The remainder of the officers and crew were sav
ed by the gallantry of the officers of the English
and French vessels, lying under Sacrificios, who,
notwithstanding the danger which attended their
efforts, nobly risked their own lives in open boats,
during a heavy gale, in order to render every pos
sible assistance.
Previous to this disaster to the Somers, several
of her officers had been engaged in a reconnoissance
of Vera Cruz, with the intention of ascertaining
the locality of the magazine and the feasibility ol
an attempt to blow it up. At the head ol this ha
zardous undertaking was Midshipman Rodokrs
and Surgeon Wright, who, for two nights, favored
by darkness, had successfully pursued tlieir obser
vations ; but on the third night, while returning to
their boat, they were surprised by a small party of
Mexican lancers, Anil Mr. Hodgers and one seaman
were taken prisoners. Dr. Wright made his escape
to the shore, where, joining the rest of his men,
they pushed off and reached their vessel in salety.
Commodore Conner arrived at Anton Lizardo
on the 13th instant. He was on the Princeton,
but went on board the frigate Itaritan as his flagship.
The sloop-of-war John rfdamx was blockading
Vera Cruz. The frigate Potomac arrived atGreen
Island on the 13th instant. The frigate Cumber
land sailed for Norfolk on the Oth instant.
Annexed is a list of the men supposed td have
been lost in the wrecking of the Somers, from
which must be deducted the fifteen who, it has
since been ascertained, drifted ashore and were
taken prisoners by the Mexicans :
List of OJficcrs and Men last.? Henry A. CIcmson, act
ing Master; John R. Hynson, Passed Midshipman; Win.
G. Brazier, Ebenczer Terrell, Charles H. Haven, James
Ryder, James Thompson, Charles Lowe,. Thomas \ oung,
William Gillan, Matthias Gavel, Major Cain, Dennis Kelly,
Alexander Anker, Charles McFarland, James Fennel, Chas
True, John Day, Wm. Purdy, Edward AlcCormick, Wm.
Elmsley, Wm. Quest, John liargrave, Wm. MtCardy, John
Christopher Myers, Clement C. Willen, Thomas McGowan,
Joseph Antonio, Adolph Bidmente, Manuel Howard, Wm.
j W. Powers, Henry W. Spear, James Chapman, Lewis
Johnson, Jonatius Leopqld, Thomas Jefferson, William H.
Rose, Peter Hernandez.
List of OJfictrn and Men saved.?R. Scmmes, Lieutenant
Commanding; M. G. L. Claiborne, John L. Parker, Lieu
tenants ; J. F. Steele, Purser; John H. Wright, Passed
j Assistant Surgeon; Francis G. Clark, Midshipman; Ed
| tnund T. Stevens, Purser's Steward; Jacob Hazard, \ eo
| man ; Amos Colson, Wm. Johnson, Mathew Buck, John
j McCargo, John G. Van Norden, Charles Seymour, John
Williamson, John Pollen, John Smith, Henry Strommell,
Thomas Mulhollen, Geo. Wakefield, Y\ m. Keys, 1" rancis
Hairc, Wm. 'Poland, W m. F. Thompson, Chiistopher Law
rence, Joseph Todd, Stephen Maynard, Samuel Bennett,
Thomas D. Burn*, Wm. Power, Joseph Skipscy, Joseph
Jones, Charles Nutlee, Washington Cooper, William Dix,
Francis A. Waldeon, James Chambers.
We have been favored with the following Letter
from an Offtcer of the late brig Somers to a Mem
ber of Congress, received last evening :
U. S. Frio ate Raritam, December 13, 1846.
Mt Dear Sir : You will simultaneously with this receive
an account of tbo nwUnohol^r loss of the Tj nited States brig
Somers, which was capsized in a norther off the harbor of
Vera Cruz. As the narration which has been wntten is very
full in its details of this awful occurrence, I will not occupy
your time by a repetition of it.
My object in writing you at this time is to call your atten
tion particularly to the daring and devoted conduct of the offi
cers and men of the foreign men-of-war lying at Sacrificios,
who risked their lives in successful efforts to rescue our men
from the occan, and to succor those who had gained Green
Island, where they would otherwise have remained several
Jays without food or water, and finally have been made pri
soners. The narrative which you will see in the newspapers
is every way authentic, and will give you a just, but still an
imperfect idea of the exertions of these brave and generous
men.
It is the hope of all the officers herfr that the Government
will notice in some honorable manner the devotion of these
officers. As one of the surviving officers of the Somers, I
should be recreant to my feelings of gratitude and admiration
for these gentlemen if I did not use my humble opportunities
to call the attention of every member of the Government
whom I am permitted to address to the obligation which we
owe them personally, and also the testimonials due them, not
only from the service to which we belong, but the Govern- |
ment we represent. i
I hope it will be thought proper and just to call, in a formal ,
manner, for the names of all the officers who commanded the
boats, and to award to them some honorable testimonial, ]
worthy of the country, w hich gives only a guaranty of its own '
philanthropy in manifesting a due appreciation of such devo- ,
tion in behalf of its officers and seamen, exposed to the most ,
imminent perils. t
I am writing in great haste, on the eve of the sailing of a |
vessel, and have hardly time for revision.
Yours, very truly and respectfully. I
WISCONSIN.
The Constitutional Convention has nearly concluded its
labors. Among its decisions is one extending the right of suf
frage to all foreign born residents of the Territory without re
quiring them to swear allegiance to the United States?a most,
unjust and unwise provision, which was carried by 61 to 31
votes. This provision, it is calculated, secures the State Gov
ernment and both Congressmen to the l.ocofocos. A propo
sition making the aliens so transformed into voters eligible to
office, as well as entitled to elect others, was promptly rejeet
td ayes 17, noes 08. So the aliens are to have the privi
lege of voting for their Locofoco flatterers, but not be voted
for in turn. Their mtm are wanted, but the offices can be
amply filM without them.
The Convention has done one good deed among many bad
ones : it has established the principle that the homestead of a
family shall not be liable to sale on execution for any debt
hereafter contracted. It has also been settled that the pro
perty possessed by a wife at marriage, or fairly acquired by her
afterward, shall not be liable for the debts of her husband.
We rather like this also, and hope it will work well. These
two important provisions being conjoined in one article, a
strong effort was made to strike them out, but they were sus
tained by a vote of 60 to 3t, and are now, we presume, out
of danger. Marshall M. Strong, of Racine, their leading op
ponent, has resigned his seat on account of their adaption.
Judges are to be chosen by the people at a special election
in July.
The first plan of districting the State for Congress has been
changed, and the division is to be made by a north and south
line, instead of the proposed east and west one. ? Tribune.
Baltimore Exports of Domestic PnomcB.?Lyford's
Commercial Journal states that the exports of domestic pto
duce from the Port of Baltimore, since the first of January.
1846, have amounted to : first quarter, $ 1,442,099 ; second
quarter, #1,600,595 ; third quarter, $1,482,345 ; fourth quar
ter, (estimated) $2,000,000?$0,325,039. The exports for
October were $767,000 ; for Novemlter, $627,000 ; supposed
December, $700,000 ; $2,094,000.
Exportation or Tobacco from Balti more.?The same
paper gives the amount of tobacco exported from Baltimore,
from the 1st January la?t to date, as 70,560 hogsheads, of
which there were of Maryland and Ohio, as follows To
Havre 3,863 ; Bordeaux 1,2G8 ; Marseilles 2,4<? I ; Trieste
485 ; Bremen 24,674 ; Rotterdam 8,164 ; Amsterdam 7,0i4;
Antwerp 1,856 j St. Peteraburgh 788.
r
, LATER FROM THE RIO GRANDE.
The New Orleans Picayune has accounls from
i Brasos Santiago to the 18th ultimo, anil from lam
pico to the 15th, received by the steamer Massachu
, setts. We make the following extracts :
There had been quite an excitement at Tarn pica, caused
by a report that a large body of Mexican cavalry had been
seen in the neighborhood. 01 the Urulh or falsity of lha f*po
we have no means of knowing.
The British sloop of war Alarm, Lieut. Mat* command
ing, had arrived at Tainpico from Vera Cruz.
The United States ateamei Fashion, with Gen. Je?c? ?*
'board, arrived at Brasos on the 18th instant.
Gen. Piliow left Matamoroa on the 14ih instant. He was
to go twenty-five miles, and then wait for Hen. Pattsmo*,
with the rest of his division *nd train.
We learn that Gen. Taylor was to leave Monterey ontru
10th inatant for Victoria, with Gen. Twig??'s division and ?
portion of Gen. Smith'a brigade. It is also reported that Gen.
UiinKA, of whom we have not heard of late, waa at \ ictona
with C,000 cavalry. Gen. Wool remained at Pnrras, and
Gen. Wohth at Saltillo. It was positively reported and be
lieved in camp that Santa Anna had 28,000 men at
San Luis. 1 .
The following items wo copy from the Matamoroa Flag oX
the 16th :
"Mexican Reports.?A Mexican, just arrived from
Tampico, informs us that Santa Anna is purging his army ot
all officers to whom the remotest suspicion of cowardice can
be attached, and retaining only such as he ha* the most im
plicit confidence in their bravery and skill. <>en. Ampu^
Col. Carasco, und several others, he sU.es, have been im
prisoned, charged with cowardice, and an order has n
issued dooming to instant death any officer wbo shsll di*gr.re
his flag by cowardly or unoffieertike conduct in battle. S?nta
Anna he represents as having the unlimited confidence of the
soldiery; and to such a pitch has he raised their ardor by
eloquent appeals to theij passions thai it would be tmpossue
to conceive the enthusiasm that prevail* among them. ^ A
general dasire is expressed to be led againat the invaders.
The following paragraph, in relation to the hospital at Mata
moroa, we ropy from the same poper :
" About two hundred sick have been received into the
hospital since Sunday. One hundred and thirty arrived from
Camargo, and the remainder were left by too 3d and 4th
Illinois regiments, in breaking up their encampments to com
mence the march for Tampico. Dr. Wright has had his
hands full for the last four months?the number in hospital
averaging from three to six hundred during this period, and
it shows him possessed of more than common energy and in
dustry to have managed so successfully the complicated duties
of his department. Deaths are much less frequent in hospital
now than during the fall and summer months, and patients
were all doing well.
The Editor of the Flag holds the following language in re
lation to the movements of troops :
"The 3d and 4th Illinois regiments broke up their encamp
ment at this place on Monday last, and commenced the march
for Tampico. It is the intention, we understand, to form an
encampment at Moquete, a rancho about six leagues distant,
and await the coming of supplies, which we hear it sta ed
will take some eight or ten days to send forward. A part^ of
the Tennessee cavalry regiment marched with them, and the
remainder will follow in due time. The combined strength
of the three recimenU is not more than eighteen hundred
men?the two Illinois resiments furnishing Itule over halt the
number, sickness and death having reduced them one-third
their original strength. Gen. Patterson still has his quarters
in the city, ami we cannot venture a statement as to any fix
ed day for his departure, such information not being easily
come at?the best way to stale it is to say that he will be off
when he gets ready. It is given out that the expel.tior.pro
ceeds first to Victoria, which will lengthen the march to Tam
pico one-fourth, and make it a journey of near five hundred
miles. But wo shall see what we shall see.
? : ' ~
MEXICAN AFFAIRS.
The New York Courrier des Etals Unit of Tues
day contains some interesting particulars respect
ing the affairs of Mexico, brought in pnvile letters.
Among these are one from Santa Anna and one
from Almonte to friends now in New York. 1 lie
first is dated San Luis de Potosi, November 24, ana
the second Mexico, November 29.
The letter of Santa Anna (says the Cottmer) is of itself
a contradiction to the rumors which we mentioned in our last
number, according to which the Mexican U?neTal had quitted
San Luis, and was on his way to Victoria. No such move
ment seems to have entered into his plans, which, it is assert
ed, are conceived with great prudenco Bnd caution and a pro
found sagacity. He seems to entertain the greatest confidence
in their success, and, in the unreserve of friendly correspon
dence, thus expresses himself: " I firmly telieve now tha*
the probabilities are decidedly in our favor." The whole let
ter bears strongly upon it the marks ot dignity atffi nationali
ty. It expresses his unalterable determination to prosecute
the war to the last extremity, and to die rather than accept a
dishonorable peace. *
The other letters which havo been communicated to us,
(continues the Courrier,) and which emanate from well-in
formed sources, although not from persons in the administra
tion, state that the army concentrated under Santa Anna at
San Luis really numbers twenty-five or thirty thousand men,
ten thousand of whom are excellent cavalry. The greatest
harmony reigns amonijthe leading and influential men through- _
out the country. Congress appears to have a decided Fede
ral aspect, and Santa Anna continues to declare that he re
nounces all ideas of the Presidency, Almost* being the can
didate who possesses his sympathies and his vote.
The English Minister had withdrawn the offer of media
tion, made under the authority of his Government. The rea
son of this is supposed to l>e the little favor with which the
jffer was received at Washington some months since.
An act of unusual severity had been committed by Skin,
President ad intrrim. He has formally dcp??sed Seiior HahoT
Tamohix, Minister of Finance, for having aanctioned, with
>ut consulting the President, the usurious and burdensome
irrangement made in London by Senor Escuadon for the set
lement of the Anglo-Mexican debt. Santa Anna had ap
proved this act of summary justice.
Letters from Havana state that Santa Anna had threatened
to abandon San Luis and retire upon Queretaro unless two
million dollars were immediately sent him.?Tribune
FROM BALTIMORE AND THE NORTH.
Baltimore, J ant; art 1?5 P.M.
This is the first day of the new year. It is also the middle
of winter, and might be cold and freezing, with snow; bat
instead thereof the atmosphere is mild almost as midsummer,
I write now with my window open.
Business still continues dull. Sales to-day of about 500
Imrrels Howard street flour at $4.75. Buyer* generally are
unwilling to offer more than $4 G2} and $4.68^. Corn meal,
$3.60. The inspections of flour for the week ai* 20,745
barrels and 236 half barrels, liesides 52 barrels rye flour, and
25 hogsheads, 836 barrel*, and 100 half-barrels corn meal.
Wheat is scarce and dull at 87J a 90 cents per bushel for
good to prime red. White corn 57 a 53, and yellow do.
58 a 59?a little better; oats 31 5 rye 63 ?, whiskey 22J, in
barrels i beef cattle, $2.75 a $3 50 per 100 lbs. on the hoof $
live hogs $5,12?, and killed do. $5. IB a $5 25 per 100 lbs.?
an advance. The provision market generally is firmer. The
supply ef sugar and molasses is quite large, and prices slightly
declined, as the sale of yesterday manifested.
Sales at the Stock Board were?
$ 1,000 Maryland 6'b . .,, 73^
50 shares Bait, and Ohio Railroad, (5 ds.) 38f
50 do do do do 38$
Maryland 6'a closed at 79 asked, 77$ bid.
Baltimore 6's, of 1890, closed at9fij asked, 9C$bid
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad shares 38$ asked, 37j bid.
I.argc sales of wool, amounting to about 30,000 lbs., at
2'2 to 23 cts. p4r pound, for common washed.
The tobacco market has been quit" dull during the past
week. The demand has subsided, as the stock of good tobac
co for shipping has been so reJuoed that l?uf one or two hold
ers have any of consequence to sell, and there is no de
mand for the common and inferior grades. The inspection*
are very small this week- I continue the quotation* of last
week, but they are merely nominal, vit ? Maryland #1.50 to
$2 for inferior, ami common; 52 to #4 for good common
$4 to $6 for ?ood . $6 to $12 for fine and better qualites 1
Ohiy common to middling #1.50 to >" 50 ; good to $6 s
fine reds to $9 < fine yellow *5 to $10 ; extra kinds $10
to $12- The inspections are 448 hhd?, including 415 Mary
land and 33 Ohio.

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