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THE GREAT QUE8TION OF THE DAY. The subjoined Essay from an eminent citizen of great experience in public life?though now in re tirement from it?deserves a conspicuous place in our columns, on account both of its source and of its substance. The general correspondence of the views of the writer with those expressed in an Edi torial article of some length in our paper of Friday last, whilst it gratifies us in a high degree, might al most induce a belief of a previous understanding on the subject between the writer of this Essay and i the Editors; the fact being, however, that its dis tinguished author had, when he wrote it, had no op portunity of reading the article referred to. FROM A DISTINGUISHED CORRESPONDENT. The Mexican War.?No intelligent and impar tial man has examined the origin of this war that does not believe it was provoked and brought on by the Administration for party purposes. This, I have reason to believe, is the solemn conviction of a very large proportion of the intelligent men of this country, without regard to party. 1 do not mean to say that we have not suffered great wrongs from Mexico; but has our conduct towards her been without reproach? In violation of our own laws, did not our citizens essentially contribute to begin and consummate the revolution in Texas The message of the President, which attempts to 9how that the war was commenced by Mexico, is undignified, weak, and erroneous. It has the cha racteristics of a county electioneering document? is without force, and many of its facts are wholly unfounded. What could be more undignified in the President than to go behind the solemn adjustments of exist ing difficulties between the two Governments ? This he has done, as though all the wrongs com pi,lined of by our Government were still open and unadjusted by Mexico. Whereas injuries com plained of have been settled, and an indemnity agreed to be paid by Mexico, in part ascertained and in part to be ascertained. Several of the instal ments due under this arrangement were not paid, because Mexico was unable to pay them. Dis tracted by party divisions, its resources exhausted by internal wars, with a destitute population, with out any of the recuperative energies of our own country, the Republic of Mexico stands a spectacle to the civilized world. Its population is not en lightened, and many of its principal men are desti tute of virtue and patriotism. Self-respect, it would seem, should have prevent ed the present Executive from complaining of the non-payment of the instalments by Mexico. More than half the States that voted for Mr. Polk in the late election are equally in default. And some of them have repudiated their debts, at least in part. And it is worthy of remark that no Whig State has failed to meet its engagements. This is a subject for the deepest consideration by the thinking men of our country?by men who have something to lose and something to protect; and also by those whose enterprise may justify the expectation of fu ture acquisitions. That territorial conquest was the principal in ducements to the war no one can doubt. To at tend to prove this, after the facts which are now before the country, would insult the understanding of your readers. To "conquer peace," meant no thing more nor less than to get glory to the Admin istration by territorial acquisitions. And these, there is ground to lear, in proportion to their extent, will be calamitous to our country. This must arise lrom the lives which will be lost, the immense debt that will be incurred, the general sterility of the territory acquired, and the wretched inhabitants it ?ontains. Are the People of the United States blind to the imminent danger of territorial aggrandizement ? We have territory enough for a population of Two Hun dred and Fifty Millions of People. Is-not this larg^nough to satisfy the most extravagant desires for tflfr future? Has history spoken in vain ? Shall we shut our eyes to all its admonitions and exam-, pies ? This very principle, inherent in our nature, if unrestrained, will ruin our Government, as it ruin ed all the free Governments of antiquity. Are we content to be taxed to maintain the an nexations proposed ? To consider them as an in demnity for wrongs, real or imaginary, would be absurd. They will be burdensome, and Must greatly increase the expenditures of the Govern ment. And the people inhabiting these territories cannot be governed by our laws, as they cannot be made to understand them for several generations. Even Texas, rich and fertile as it was declared to be, will add much to our public burdens. The cre ditors of that State are already asking payment of this Government; and this was predicted by the Whigs. How many millions will be paid on this account time only will show. But if these claims be added to the expenditures of the Mexican war, and the increased burden by further annexation of territory, we shall have an amount approximating, if it shall not equal, the debt of our independence. From this view, portentous of so much evil to our country, I turn with alarm, and would find il I could a ground of hope for the future. But there is no hope except in the good sense, virtue, and patriot ism of the people. And I seriously and earnestlv call upon them to consider their own and their country's interests. We are engaged in the war, and how shall we get out of it ? This is a grave question, and one that involves our national character. It is a great misfortune to have weak and wicked rulers. They precipitate the country on its evil destinies, and be come, in the estimation of the world, identified with it. Our party contests are not understood and can not be appreciated by foreign nations. We must stand by our country. We must keep its flag aloft, and maintain its stars and stripes at any and every expense. But, at the same time, we should be jus', and we can afford to be magnanimous. Our enemy has yielded to our military prowess in every en gagement, having double our numbers. This shows our great superiority, and it has given to our arms no common renown. Is not this glory enough ? Does the nation desire more blood ? 1 believe not. Let, then, an honorable effort be made by our Government to terminate the war. By giving to our weak and comparatively prostrate enemy hon orable and just terms, wc elevate our own charac ter. Let such an effort be seriously made, and I trust it will be met in a proper spirit by Mexico. It does not become a great and powerful nation, in treating with a weak one, to stickle about smaj matters. Punctiliousness may be allowed to a pros trate adversary, conscious of his weakness, yet jealous of his honor. But our country stands in no need of these forms. We can be just, magnani mously just. The company for Rocket and Howitzer service in Mexico arrived at Haiti more on Friday morning from Philadelphia, in charge of Col. Talcott, of the engineer department. The company mustera ninety-two picked men, able bodied, young ami athletic in a more than ordinary degree. Twenty-five privates, to be attached to the siege train, left Bristol (R. I.) last week, for Old Point Comfort, where they will be disciplined. The fine steamer Mohegan was wreckcd on Saturday in Long bland Sound, on her trip from Bridgeport, Connecticut, to New York. She struck on Gangway Rock, fcbout amid ahips, and the concusaion was so great that she filled to the hurricane deck before reaching the beach. The crew and pasaengers were saved in three small boats. 8h# had a very valuable cargo on board. THE " MONARCHY IN DISGUISE." | We entreat our readers to give their whole atten tion to the following striking article: >HOM THE MEW TURK ?XPUK88. The Slow but Sure Steps of a Monarchy.? Mankind seems naturally to run after a monarchy, and hence monarchy has become the prevailing government among mankind. Perhaps there is no help for it; but a great effort was made against it by Washington and other Fathers of our Republic, aud will yet be made by all who have imbibed their spirit. The phrase one-man power, which, we believe, is of our own coining, more expressively defines what is understood by monarchy than any other definition we know of, and hence we shall continue to use it, while we call attention to its " progress (die only sort of progress we have made these late years) in the United States. Our one-man power is named President, which is now synonymous with Emperor or King, although never intended to be so in our constitutional Republic. Thus the power to declare war,existing in Kings and Emperors, now, ii is contended, by what calls itself Democracy, exists in our President. It is not, to be sure, so contended in express words ; but the principle is laid down tliat, in the armed occu pation of the territory west of the Nueces without an act of Congress?x disputed territory?Mr. Folk was right, although that occupation necessarily in volved us in the war with Mexico. So, when our Government has a dispute with another Govern ment, it is now settled as a democratic principle, that an Executive can go to war about it, without consulting Congress, even though Congress be in session. The power to involve us in, that is, to de clare war, therefore, now exists in our President, just as it does in a King, or Emperor, or an Auto crat. It is a tolly, then, hereafter to speak of our country as a Republic ; it is a monarchy, but the head of it is softened down by the name of Presi dent, because King is unpopular yet. War thus existing, in spite of Congress, but ne cessarily waged by Congress, when the nation is thus forced into it by its monarch, it is again laid down as democratic principle, that what is con quered is annexed, and thus becomes part and par cel of our Union. Hear Mr. Douglass, of Illinois, a noted Democratic leader, when speaking in Con gress on that point. We quote from the Union : " Now he (Mr. D.) maintained that that territory (New Mexico) was a part of the territory of the United Spates lie fore the General (Kearney) issued the proclamation at all. It was a part of the United States by virtue of the act of Congress uhirhannexed it. It required no proclamation 5 it required no other act than that of conquest itself. And he maintained furthermore, that if a treaty of peace were made with Mexico without establishing her limits, all these conquer ed provinces were part and parcel of the United States by right of conquest, and must so remain forever, unless ceded back to Mexico, or unless reconquered. It was, therefore, (he act of conquest which annexed the territory, and it did not require the proclamation of General Kearny or Commodore Stockton. They merely declared th> existence of a fact which had previously occurred." t ," Conquest is annexation ; and thus Tamaulipas, New Leon, Coahuila, Chihuahua, part of Vera Cruz, New Mexico, and the vast territory of Upper and Lower California, not only become " part and parcel" of the United States, but are annexed to the United States. Here we sec, first, the mon arch starting a war on his own authority, and then, under that war, annexing to the Union territories as vast as the Union itself, and all without an act of Congress. Reasoning in this spirit it is that Mr. Polk, in his message, says : " It may be proper to provide fur the security ot these im portant conquests, by making an adequate appropriation for the purpose of erecting fortifications and defraying the ex penses necessarily incident to the maintenance of our pos session and authority over them " Here the monarch speaks as all monarchs would speak of conquered territory they intended to keep, (in the vein of Frederick the Great or a Napoleon,) and expresses his desire to have permanent lorti fications erected at our expense, for the permanent " maintenance of our possessions and authority over them." The violence done to free government in such as sumptions by the one-man power as these, Mr. Polk himself has become so aware of, that it is painful to him to hear a discussion of them. Hence, in his message, he says : I' The war has been represented as unjust and unnecessary, and as one of aggression on our part upon a weak and in jured enemy. fSuch erroneous views, though entertained by but few, have been widely and extensively circulated, not only at home, but hive been spread throughout Mexico and the whole world. A more effectual means could not have been devised to cncourage the enemy and protract the war, than to advocate and adhere to theii cause, and thus give them 1 aid and comfort.'" This imputes treason to-any man who has dared to question the propriety and justice of the manner in which the Executive had originated and carried on the war. Mr. Polk has quoted the words "aid and comfort" from the constitutional definition of treason, with the evident intention of intimating that no man could question, or in the remotest man ner express a doubt of, the propriety of the war, or the manner in which it has been waged, without proving himself a traitor to his country, and dis posed to "aid and comfort" its enemies. Let us pause here, and see the strides of monar chy in the Republic. First, the Executive creates a war, then under it annexes his conquests, and, af ter all is completed, he tells us it is treason to dis cuss his doings, because, we presume, the American monarch has the presumptive prerogative of other i monarchs, that of doing no wrong. i Monarchy is thus complete in its alleged prero gatives in these United States. The King can do no wrong, and it is treason, therefore, to impute wrong to him. War exists in consequence of his orders, and there must be no discussion of it. The old diirteen States of the Union, that formed aeon, stitution for their own government, are swamped by the annexation of vast territories they had never heard of. When their constitution is violated, and when they are sinking, they are told it is treason to I complain of the causes that have overwhelmed them. A very able discussion is going on in the House of Representatives respecting the proclamation of (ieneral Kearny and Commodore Stockton. Mr. Polk has undoubtedly stimulated, and probably sanctioned them. The monarchists there are sus taining all that has been done, in the spirit of the 1 language we have quoted from Mr. Douglass. Such is " progressive democracy." It knows no medium ! of a constitutional Government; but, as a pendu lum, is ever vibrating from anarchy to despotism, and from despotism to anarchy. ! Tur. Mocktbd Uifi-exk*.?This regiment, to Ik* com manded by Col. P. F. Smith, raised undei an act of Con gress at the last session, is now complete. Three companies are already with the army in Mexico, and of the remaining companies, six or seven in number are now in New Orleans, I Major Huinbridge t>eing in command of them. -? " Rxilrom) Inow.?The manufacture of this article has been j commenced in this eountry sincc 1H44. There are now six teen establishments in operation, which make from six to nine thousand tons each pet annum. Together they are estimated I to be of sufficient capacity to make one hundred and nineteen ' thousand tonif per annum, or three hundred and eighty-two ! tons per dav- Eight of these establishments are located in 1 Pennsylvania, two in Maryland, one each in New Jersey, Rhode Mand, and Connecticut, and two in Massachusetts. ? The line of Magnetic Telegraph between Toronto and 1 Hamilton, Upper Canada, is now complete. It is expected that by the end of the first week in January the line will l>e , continued to Buffalo, crossing the Niagara river at t^ueens town. At Buffalo of course it will connect with the line stretching southward to Washington, eastward to Host on, and westward to. Pittsburg. When the line from Pittsburg iacon tinued through to New Orleans, as it will be, information may l>c transmitted from Toronto, atone end of the country, to the Creacent City, at the other, in lew than an hour. CONGRESSIONAL. debate in the house of representatives. The House being in Committee of the Whole, and having t under consideration the resolution* proposing to refer the Pre sideut'g message . ? , Mr. BAKER, of Illinois, expressed his sincere acknow ledgments to those gentlemen on both sides of the House who, he knew, had been anxious to obtain the floor, but had kindly consented to yield it to him, that he might have the opportunity of addressing to the House a few hatity remarks before he should return to the army in Mexico. While he thanked gentlemen for this act of kindness, he be gged leave to say that he understood it to be intended by them, arid so it was received by him, as a tribute to the gal lantry ol the brave men with whom he was associated. For himself, he must say, that he felt humbled, abashed when he remembered how little he had done to deserve such kindness or to entitlo him, personally, to any such mark of regard'. He could wish it had been the fortune of the gallant Davis, formerly a member on that floor, but now far distant, engaged in lighting lor 1ns country, now to stand where he did, and to receive from gentlemen on every side the congratulations so justly due to him, and to listen to the praises of his brave compeers. For himself, he could pretend to no merit he I had unfortunately been left far in the rear of the war. And if he now ventured to say a word in behalf of those who had endured the severest hardships of war, whether in the bloody streets of Monterey, or in a yet sterner form on the banks oil the Rio Grande, he begged gentlemen to believe that while he elt this to be in some respects a most pleasant duty, it was in others a duty full of pain; for he stood here after ? x ,?S .. a volumes, h.,i?g ,een ?? aflu., Mr. B. went on to say, that it was not without the most profound astonishment that he had observe,1 the course ofUu (.resent debate as it had thus far pioceeded. He was verv |>ure that it was not imagined, and would scarce be believed by his gallant companions in Mexico that in ihi? ih th i week of ,h, ,h. A.u.nc.^^ debate on the subject of mobs in Ohio, and by what numeric;!I majorities certain individuals had been chin to the Tex Congress. The men who had fought at Pal. Mm ? i) atjd at Monterey, had not expected thi!Tht men w" o^v whose fault he would not pretend to say, or whetheT by tile fault of any one) had endured on the banks of the Rio Grande all that tierce diseases, aggravated by the want of ffSansST' rwiether of.wur ?r 01 me,e ***? ce' lalt clothed, hardly fed, were looking from Matamoros or from ampico, with all the earnestness of their souls for'the moment of advance, whose eyes were looking alternately forward to the foe, and backward for aid, suppor and en couragement from Congress and their friends at home ? tin s, ST,^m?b hdi?d'? r-f, Mr' V" had had the pain to witness, and must suULr he still greater pain of declaring to them Mr B said h > was constrained, by what he saw" and he^, to bet "lhat Mexico?1 tzjzztsj: sr z'tr:v" 11?? uThL? purut,.ra,"'elfu"??tle'lim" like oolitic I urJ,ose to engage for a moment in any thing I ke political or party controversy?where his sympathies had once been he need not state; and where thpu ho i i .1 they still were, and there they would remain, through gllod could noT,l.rceWe t?atTe SSw^DeKS'hlj ssussftittsri to urge the members of the House, without regard to?paTty dis tinctions or diflerences, to act immediately?to act cffidently? to act at once?to act.vow?in behalf of the gallant army now toiling, bleeding, suffering in a foreign land. I nJwLi'8 faret plac<*, h.e W9uld that lhe army in Mexico! needed more men and more money ; and thev neeiW it Without delay. He had been informedtiS 1 r S now in the field, including Taylor's colum^ But"er'7 ?,v ! 8 U,mr' antl Patter"?n'" division, was not over two nfl niCn' "X g |)erha'w (Jates'8 artillery battalion and Zlh Y regUacaUt '"w bruiting, and some troops which migfrt have arrived by this time at Tampico. Wk^ this amount of force there was an area of country to be covered which it was difhcult to describe. Commencing at VI,.nt >r. ? CoaXhmlded '?. ?"ltllld> Monteinoreloz, Matamoros, Camargo' Coahuda, and through Victoria to Tampico itself and as mui h further as we might be able to |>enetrale. Of this nam ber he was understood to say that it would require at b ust 3,000 to garrison Saltillo and Monterey, and thus to hold th. ?? h.,1 lv m<Jl. in ^.?2^ tohjUI ,h. Ch.hu.hu., Santa F?, and Udlfaoi., and bSfeTrtS I i ,n order ?o garrison the various other post. rrhi? r, , - W her for ?>e"ceful or military purpLes i rhb statement was very rapidly made by Mr. B an<W sibly it may not be given with entire accuracy by the K He caught what points he could. 1 ^ Mr. B. weot on to say that he understood that ito. r ^ . ,b,U?US,r .nJ .heiwiT^S Mates, kindled into ardor by the uWri,. ,,. the national eagles, were longing for newconquestsTiulpanf8 ng to witness fresh triumphs of our arms. In that boile he hZIieflhe ruld pre" rnlhp of Mexico either by the way of FortJuan'orliy "that"of "tr ue.? to Itio c toTOtorfSl? ' ESr 7't"; ??? d.mdeu?" bu. hV^AI 2 " :a" w"h ,h"?"> ,r. to praecuto .heir .,l?.nce, md h.ve U JT.rkeJ ..T. li. been, ??l, ?ith ,lory ;?j JJ?," """"J. ?I- ,hu. i'? ?e'U'ouTl". ,'1"" OU' "'?lJ?"lo?er the eil" o heforeti had comm a an aUack on wha( w(> , ^**0 far as it rou'! m"flt (?lorioH* to the American arms. Ho ourlier to lalh^n V'r UP?n ,He '>Ce,n- we hsd it in ur f?ov?.r to laugh all opposition to scorn. \ war of inv, :r 1. ,0 t wlts :,zr5s e.r,;!;i,o,:'" K- ""m; ^ ^ u? *',1 "" "?r<ton Of E, <lrrlaratinn thai A? ?t ? from 1 icing weakened Mex?w?\ rnom<,r"' 1-;:^ t" hc h"j ^ ?? ! il "uU hTlJ ?n?"?er'to'r? ? T" h"" pmlir' felt, a?,| n|?,1Vl. h.(, tLT.u T ,r 10 con1?'" thrm. They cities we had stormed', the townswTSl J*" nVPrrm)' tho, toted but romparativelv an 1 UP?". consti ?nd were in ''T""' ^ ?f "'?ir f0Untr-v. ception that w, ha,I i,il? 1 t'' FK,Wer? With 'he ex blockade, if he had ho*. 1 l , !piI (and even this ( more earnestly talked i.'l.ouf'V * V,""1, ,ha'1 hrftn ,nurh 1 done nothing as yet whwf ! enforced,) we h^l Mexico at i,v I rr,PI,le'' ^e resources ofi stood by the Renortpr CHF"1 u!stion which Mr. B. was under just and wise th# \fLi, ?,,rrr(' *> ^?ve l*en (K?th j with aliriONt all their .^^7^ ^ rr,;rf',, from Monterey had left l*.b,n 1 ,7 ar"1 '"""it'ons of war. What they I w^n?H ,he wlTJ0,,^r uc,,iertv of ,hat IS? Mr. B. referred to this rr l ' Y* C?"Id furn,,,h 'he most. the House the fact thnt we h T' * *T ?f imPrr,urin? "n enabled us to coler . V? ',0ne ^ which * a peace, i he war aeemed yet to be accomplished. And how ? Mr. B. said he understood, and he presumed it nu correct, that the President had called tor leu additional regiments. Was itao f [Voices : " Yes ; he has."] Mr. B. beheved that one of these regiments had been ordered from Louisiana, another from North Carolina, another I from Virginia, and one from Massachusetts, but that they had ' not yet set forward. Massachusetts and Louisiana, he under 1 stood, were not yet ready. North Carolina was just begin ning to get awake. But, suppose all the regiments ordered should be forthwith filled up, and all should march; and sup posing (what was not always the casein volunteer regiments) there were no men of straw, when would they get there ' And when they did arrive, how many men would they be able to concentrate to be added to those who were to make the ad vance to the city of Mexico, whether they went by the south ern route, by way of Vera Cruz, or the other, by the way of j San Luis Potosi > Mr. B. said he understood irom authority I on which be believed he might rely, that Santa Anna had at this time about 25,000 men, well drilled, and in a high state I of military preparation. The clergy, the landholders, the men of the old revolution, and, above all, the Mexican wo men, seemed kindled into a highstaU-of patriotic enthusiasm, and burning to meet and to repel the invaders. Then there was another thing which ought to be well con sidered. Whatever the advance of our forces, it was to be made during this coming winter; the reasons must be obvi ous. Less than six months ago Congress ha^eent into the lield as many as twenty-six regiments ot volunteers, all burn ing with the most exalted hops, and teady to peril their all, health, reputation, life itself, not in a defensive, but in an in vasive war; a war not undertaken to delend their own homes and firesides, but for the glory of the American name and arms. Alas! how many of these fine young men, who had never seen a battle, never had cast their stem glance on the countenance of an enemy, were now sleeping their lust sleep on the banks of the Rio Grande ! Once their heart heaved high with a soldier's fondest hopes; proud and light had been their measured footsteps as they marched in all the buoyancy of youthful ambition. But now? *; " Where rolls the rushing ltio Grande, How peacefully they sleep ; They did not tall in bloody strife, Upon a well-fought field. _ ? Not from the red wouud poured their life, Where cowering foemen yield, Til' archangel's shade was slowly cast Upon each polished brow ; But, calm and fearless to the last, They sleep securely now." The bones of nearly two thousand young men, in whose veins flowed some of the best blood of this country, were now resting in the mould on the banks of the Kio Grando, who never had seen the face of an enemy, and who never had nan the opportunity of striking one manly blow in behalf of their country and their race. For this Mr. B did not feel inclined, at this moment, to blame any body. It was quite impossible to appreciate fully the difficulties of a campaign : especially was this impossible to those who sat at ease, far from danger and alarms, in the security of home. They could imagine little of the horrors of a campaign in an enemy's country a country almost entirely unknown, with a sickly climate, and in an unprepared condition. The regiment with which . "r. B. served had gone t.S the field with 820 men, young, hearty, gallant, ambitious, adventurous, and bold : ot these at least 50(> were young men who came from homes of their own, acquired by their personal labor and economy, or from the domestic circles of their parents' dwellings, who lived m the same independence. Seven hundred of them could with case have earned three times what the Government promised them as pay. Out of these 800 men nearly 100 now slept on the banks of that doleful river, while 200 of them had return ed mere skeletons and shadows, to find in the bosom of their friends and the embraces of their anxious families that rejwse and renovation which their shuttered frames and dejccted tfpiriU so greatly needed. The same waa true of the other regiment*. It was true of the other regiment from Illinois : it was true of the Kentucky regiment: it was true of the Alabama regiment: it was true of the Indiana regiment : it was true of every one of the regiments which had encamped on the fatal banks of the Kio Grande. They all had fallen victims to the diseases incident to the climate, to the waters, to the change of food, and to a hundred other things which combined to depress and dishearten the devoted men^who had fondly sought glory on the field of their country s cause. Mr. B. did not refer to these things in any spirit ot reproach or of complaint: he should not be worthy of the honor of being the representative on this occasion of those brave men in whose behalf he ventured to raise his voice in that hall if he would condescend to complain. What they had done, they had done from the love of country ; for the love of glory , for "the hope of such an immortality in their country a annals as would be shared by Worth, by Davis, by Campbel, by McNeall, by Ringgold, byMcClung, by McKavett, and hun dreds more, their brave and chivalrous companions in arms. They had done it that they might be honored while they lived, lamented when they died, and remembered ever after. But as a representative of the people (and he spoke apt ,K.w as an officer) he would say that it was cold-blooded cruelty to desire again to expose these men to a summer s cam- | pai:n, when by zeal and energy manifested now, the war might be ended before next April. j | Mr. B. was not here to discuss the question how these troops could lie raised or how they could be supplied with mo ney. If he should ask a question like that, sure he was that from every quarter of that hall would spring the spontaneous reply, " these United States can raise all the men and all the money which the cause and glory of the country might n quire." Pennsylvania, he understood, was ready with more men. Illinois, after sending :?,000, could send 3,000 inore^ If the war could be ended now, why should we hesitate What would he gained by delay ' W as there ever to l>e a peace ' Were we ever to obtsin peace upon honorable terms ' Was it to be by advancing or receding ? \N ere we to go for ward or to retire > In God's name, if we were to retire, let us know it at once. If we were to dictate a peace to the ene my, why could we not as well do it by next April as by next December ' Would it cost any more to send 30,000 men now than to send the same number next season to wither and waste away beneath the scorching t>eams of a Mexican sun No. He asked them, with all the earnestness of his nature he asked it?on whatever else gentlemen here might difler whether they chose to blame the Whigs for refusing to sup jxirt the war, or blame the Democrat* for beginning the war without necessity, (and he should not engage in any discus sion of that point,) he asked the House, in the name of those who had suffered, of those who had fought, and were yet wil ling and eager to fight the battles of their country, to send them aid?to send them comfort?subsistence?support?sup plies?munition* of war. He besought gentlemen to let our brave army take the advance and keep it, till they should ob tain their hearts' desire, by spreading the nation's banners over the city of Mexico. Either the army (if well supported) could do this before April next, or the war promised to be in terminable. For himself, he wan not one of those who deem ed it an easy task to conquer a nation. He believed it had lieen said by Madame de Stael (the very distinguished gen tleman from South Carolina before hitn, who knew every thing about these thing*, could correct him if he wan wrong) th*t " a nation true to itself never was conquered." Mexico was snid to have a population of eight millions, sparsely spread over a country more difficult to l? invaded and more easily defended than any other he knew of in the world. Their cli mate?the very elements?fought for them. Lven the steril ity of their soil was in itself a defence. An invading army found no subsistence. The habits of their population?the training of the Mexican from his youth, enabled them to en dure what no people not so trained ever could undergo. A Mexican soldier would live and grow fat where an American soldier would starve to death. Their horses wanted no food, [a laugh ;] while every barrel of oats which our horses requir ed must be brought at least 2,000 miles. In reply to many jokes around him, Mr. B. begged that gentlemen would not understand him quite literally when he taid Mexican horses needed no food?eat they did. If it was necessary, he would make a personal explanation oh that subject afterwards. [A burst of laughter.] But they were so used to the scanty sub sistence they picked up on their own barren soil that they could live upon a "range," (as it was called in the West,) where our American horses would perish. Mr. B. went on to say that the national feeling of the Mex icans was beginning to kindle, and would soon burn with an intense (lame. He was free to confess that he felt somewhat doubtful ns to the result, provided their strong country was de fended as it might lie defended, unless an adequate amount of men, with full supplies and munitions of war, should speedily he sent into the field to reinforce our brave army. Of one thing he was very sure, however, and that was, that the Ame rican people and the American army were all in favor of a sharp, sudden? brilliant war?they went for advance?for con stant, unceasing, victorious, triumphant advance. Mr. B. spoke in behalf not only of the regiment with which he was connected, but for all those other regiments of volunteers who had perilled every thing on the banks of the Rio Grande with out seeing the face of an enemy, when he said that they all desired war. They panted for the battle ; and they waited eagerly for reinforcements, so that they might at least strike one hard blow before the period of their enlistment expired. Mr. B. said that, independently of raising more volunteers at home, that the regular army in the field, as well as the vo lunteer force, desired not only but deserved, (ah! far more did they deserve than desire,) but they Injth desired and de served more of support, aid, and comfort than they yet. had received at their country's hands. He had he;ird, and believ ed it was true, that the other branch of the Legislature had received favorably a proposition to allow the army three months extra pay in advance. He hoped this would be done. It would be preferable to them, anil, as he believed, far more useful and necessary for them, to receive this allowance now than to receive the saino or even more prospectively, in any ?ha|c whatever. The volunteer regiments?many ?f them at least, he l>elieved m'>?t of them?had not received any pay for six months. This hiul been the case with the Illinois re giment. When at last they did get their psy, a private ro oeived srvrn dollars n month and was compelled to pay f<?T articles indispensable to him the most exorbitant prices. He bad seen the brave youth who had left the bosom of his homo m>u an iu> ouiuiuwiKf, ui uie luu xuw^ill 01 opening nun hood, now worn down and wasted by disease, purchasing (having borrowed the money) at fifty cunts a pound at a out ler's store, a morsel of cheese to moisten his lips parching witli lever, having no other provision allowed him but salt pork ami hard biscuit, which he had scarce remaining strength to mas ticate. He had seen him obliged to pay twenty-five cents u pound for bacon, and ten cents a pound for what was calico baker's bread, twenty cents u pound for sugar?expenditure! which were rendered necessary by the state of his health. Mr. B. was not to be told that a soldier ought to be con tent with the army rations, and confined to them. In a case of necessity the volunteers were willing to be restricted to this, and they never grumbled at it. But he would say, in theii name, if Congress would say they had behaved gallantly?had done their duty well?and would at once give them three months' pay, they would regard it with gratitude ; while, at the same time, Congress would have done no more than an act of sheer justice to their merit, in acknowledging that they had done more than could justly have been expected from any mere volunteer soldiery in the world. Mr. B. did not care a cent whether this war cost thirty millions or one hundred mil lions, or any 'Inrger suin : so long as the war continued he would give liberal supplies of money. It had been strongly doubted in some quarters whether volunteer troops ever could be mado into ellcctive soldiers , but all such doubts had been dissipated forever. The volunteer regiments that had stormed Monterey could do any thing. The volunteer regiments who had endured on the banks of the Rio Grande could suffer any thing. And was it not in doing and in suffering that all con sisted which went to make up the soldier ' Let the war cost what it would, it had demonstrated to ourselves and demon strated to the world that, incase ol the country's necessity, she could command thirty, ay, a hundred thousand?yes, five hun dred thousand?a million and a hall ol men capable ol making the !>est infantry, the best artillery, the best cavalry, the best every thing in the Wbrld. The solution of that problem was worth all the cost of the war and ten times more. He be sought gentlemen?ho earnestly implored them, as one who hud seen a little and but a little of this war?nothing of bat tle, but a little of its privations and trials?he implored them, as one of the Representatives of the people, as one connected with the Government of this great and glorious country, that they would send speedy aid and comfort to their volunteer troops, who were pressing for the advance, longing, panting to meet the foe : he entreated gentlemen not now to delay to deliberate on points of minor importance. He said this to gentlemen oqJeltl sides of the House : not to any one political party did he#ldress this appeal; not to the Whigs, for he knew them far too well todoubt of their patriotism : they hail proved it on every occasion : men who differed from each other as to whether Henry Clay or James K. Polk was the better man ; who differed about the tariff?who dillered about distribution?who differed about 49 or ? * * * *. Ah ! [A sudden burst of merriment at this pause. ] " Oh breathe not its name, let it ?leep in the shade." [Renewed laughter.] But surely differences like these should not be permitted to affect the heart of an American, nor palsy his hand at the hour of his country's need. In the army we are all Whigs, and all Democrats, (as Mr. Jefferson once said.) It was said that Mr. Wkhstkh, on a late occasion at Philadelphia, threw out strong doubts as to the justice ot this war; yet he had a son who had already inustred a company for the field, and Mr. B. did not believe the younger Webster to be any more of a patriot than his father. Mr. Calhoun, too, he believed, hod declined to vote on one important ques tion touching the war; and yet he, too, had a gallant son at the head of a New York regiment, who was panting for the field. From Illinois, his own beloved State, two Whigs and two Democrats commanded the regiments from that Stale; and at tine storming ol" Monterey there had been a contest between a Democratic regiment under Davis, and a Whig regiment under McClung, not who should hold back or avoid danger, but who should be the first to court it in the " imminent and deadly breach." Then there was Mr. Ciutteniiev, than whohi a braver soldier never set his foot in the field, had given t j this war two sons?the one at the head of a company, the other seeking glory on his own hook?where his father had found it in the war of 1812. How could it be otherwise than that we who had been privileged to draw our first breath on the broad bosom of this land of freemen should love our country * There might he a very honest difference of opinion as to the origin of this war. Many gentlemen might very sincerely think that our relations with Mexico had not be?n altogether well managed before the war commenced ; and others might have doubted the policy as well as the expedi ency of pointing our cannon over Matamoros, and bullying and attacking Mexico, a weaker republic. But need these honest differences of opinion interfere with our action in be half of the country ? Many entertained these differences who nevertheless fought side by side at Monterey. It was more than we had a right to expect of human nature, that men should agree perfectly on every subject. The thing was not possible. But ought we on that account to indulge in mutual crimination and recrimination } He hoped not; he begged not; he entreated that instead of this, gentlemen would agree in giving aid to our army. Send them aid, comfort, succor, and support. I.et the eloquence of gentlemen be what one gentleman in the debate had quoted from Demosthenes : let it be action ! actios !! actios !!! As a Whig, did Mr. B. still occupy a place on that floor, he should not think it worth while to reply to such a charge as that the Whigs were not friends of their country, because many of them doubted the justice or expediency of the present war. Surely there was more evidence of the patriotism of the man who, doubting the expediency and even the entire justice of the war, nevertheless supported it hecnuse it was the war of his country, than of the man who was fully convinced that it was both just and evjtedient. In the one it might be mere enthusiasm and an impetuous temperament; in the other it wa3 true patriotism and a sense of duty. Homer represented Hector as strongly doubting both the expediency and the jus tice of the war against Greece; gave his advice against it; had no sympathy with. Paris, whom he bitterly reproached, and still less, probably, with Helen. Yet when the war came ; when the Grecian forces were marshalled on the plain, and their crooked keels were seen cutting the sands of the Trojan coast, Hector was a flaming fire, his beaming helmet was seen ever in the thickest of the fight. ? There were in the American army many men who had the spirit of Hector ; who strongly doubted the propriety ef the war, and especially of the manner of its commencement, who were at all times ready to pour out the best blood of their hearts like water, and their life with it, on a foreign shore in defence of the American flag and of American glory. From what Mr. B. knew of our people generally he felt assured that all such attacks would pass them as the idle wind. The charge was not true ; it could not be true in the nature of things. We all loved our country, and it was utterly useless for one party to charge the other with a want of patriotism Mr. B. was proud and happy U> be able to say that there were Whig* in the front of our army who had deported themselves as bravely on the day of battle as the bravest of opposite opi nions. Whether this war should be ended in April or not, should our regiments be again and again decimated as they had been, whether in battle or in the contagion of a camp ; whether acting or suffering ; whether in the heart of Mexico or unwillingly littering on the banks of a pestilential river, they would still be found doing their duty and theii whole duty to the country so long as life endured. They loved their country. Mr. B. said he had come here charged rather with a milita ry than a civil duty ; and if he had said any thing to which, from his position, fresh as lie was from the rinks of the army, the House hail lieen disposed to listen with kind attention, he had said it mainly in the hope and desire that they would give their support to a resolution which he held in his hand, and which he proposed to offer, or get a friend to offer at the earliest proper opportunity. It had lieen drawn up, on Mh 13.'s earnest request, by the Secretary ol War, alter he had listened to a statement of the existing circuinstames of the volunteers. [Criesof "Read ! Read !"] It authorizes the Secretary of War to deliver to the commanding officers of any .regiment of volunteers such clothing as may l>e needed for said volunteers, the same to l>e furnished to the non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates at the cost sum to the Govern ment, the amount to be deducted fr?m the pay of said volun teers?the commanding officers to whom the clothitig is deli vered to be responsible for its delivery to the volunteers or re turn to the United States. Mr. B. observed that, of the twenty-six regiments of volun teers who had lieen sent to Mexico, there were but two or three who were j>ossessed of decent clothing for the campaign. He should not now stay to discuss the question whether that was their fault or not. The fact was that the Govornment had furnished to each man forty-two dollars as commutation , for clothing ; that is, they had advanced to the volunteer that, sum. Bui many had to purchase their clothing on the credit of Government, when it was uncertain whetheT.the Govern ment would pay ; hence they had to pay one-half more than. | the fair price ; and some of them had to purchase two suits, so as to lie uhiform with their regiments. 1'hen the expenses of travelling, (which Government did not pay,) snd of some necessary equipments, alworbed mo*t of the money, save a little, which he fearod they had wasted. The clothitig they | now had had been worn and slept in for six months ; of course ] it was a good deal worn ou?. And now, when the inclement season was coming on, and those Southern ?' northers ' be gan to blow, which made their way through flesh and hones, and pierced to the very marrow, the poor men were miserably > provided for. They could not buy ; and, if they could, the articles would be altogether beyond their means. The Government had been in the habit of furnishing to the regulars in advance of their actual necessity for clothes, ac conlim to the army estimates < and in this it had done pru dently and wisely. There was now at Camargo and several other places much Government clothing in depot?fatigue suits, which could be distributed to the volunteers, and received as parrt of their pay. It was the wish of Gen. Taylor that this clothing should lie so disposed of. The army desired it them selves. These |>oor fellows did not wish to go to the field like FalstafFs regiment; when they went to hurl defiance in the face of the foe, they wished to look, while they did so, some thing like decent men. It would cost the Government no-1 thing ; the clothes were on the spot, and this would be a mere advance to the toluntecrs on account of their pay. He trust - ed that, by a suspension of the rule*, thi* resolution could paaa > the Houae to-day, 'unanimously, aa ha trusted,) ao that it might be sent to-morrow to the Senate; he abould esteem it a i great favor. He wished for leave to take aa much clothing aa I might be at Camargo. The army would be under great obli - gationa to Congreaa for an act in which juatice mingled with i liberality. I, Mr. B., in conclusion, returned his lhanka to the Houae for i the attention (rather greater than uaual) with which they had | liatened to the few rpmarkahe had deemed it hiaduty to make. ' He attributed it to uothing he had done or aeen or aufiered, but merely to the fact that he had come freah from our army, and had been honored to apeak in ita name and behalf; and ha reeaiv ?, ed it gratefully aa a token of respect shown to them. In return, I: he could only say that he could pledge himself for that army that i it would do ita duty and its wholeduty lo the country. It waa burning for the jujvance ; it panted for such another conflict aa that of Monterey Deneath the walls of Mexico ; but, at the aame time, it desired peace?honorable peace,?a peace conquered I by our arms. Mr. ti. believed that, if suitably sustained, the ! army would conquer that peace, and aign it in the palace* of Mexico within four montha. At the same time, he waa moat thoroughly convinced that, if not ended within the next five months, it never would be brought to a cloae on teiina honor able to the United Statea. [Here the debate ended, and the joint resolution proposed by Mr- 13a k ch was subsequently passed, but waa reconsidered and referred to the Military Committee on the following day.] FOREIGN OPINIONS. The London Times of the 3d instant contains the annexed remarks on the state of affairs in this country. It must be confessed that the closing sentences of the article possess much force : It ia only a few montha since the United Statea had two very serious quarrels i<> hand. The one was with Great Bri tain, the other with Mexico ; the subject of the one waa Ore gon, of the other Texas ; in other respects there was a strong family likeness between the two matters. A certain peculiar notion of right divine to all that our republican cousina can lay their hands upon ; a conceit of their irresistible power, and a vision of unlimited progress, equally characterized their aspirations, whether across the northwestern or the couth weslern frontier. The sovereign people had only to return a Texas and Oregon President, and their nominee was to an swer both for the possibilities and the moralities of the two schemes. It was to t>e his fault if both these promises weie not to be realized forthwith in the substantial and agreeable shape of undisputed acquisition of territory. All that he had to do was to execute these two delicate commissions cheaply, expeditiously, and, if possible, decently ; if not, any how. It appeared lo be generally assumed that it was as easy to push the British into the Pacific as the Mexicans across the Kio Grande. If any misgiving disturbed these golden dreams of annexations, it was just a question whether it waa quite wise to attempt both at once. Happily for the States, their President appreciated this difficulty, and, perhaps, a few other consideratioiiF, not very obvious to thcjwpular understanding. He was also more fortunate in the statesmen he had to deal with at the British than at the Mexican Court. The result is, that the question of Oregon was unravelled by negotiation ?, that of Texas *'as cut with the sword. It may already lie asked, and answered with confidence, what is the judgment of history upon these several courses ? By the test of results, which of them has answered the be*t f The quarrel of Oregon is forgotten. No yide has been wounded, no one citizen inconvenienced, no source of expen diture opened. The bonds of commercial peace and union have been drawn closer. At this moment British money and manufactures are pouring into the heart and the deepest re cesses of that vast Hej?ublic, while its produce is outpoured in return to supply the terrible gap made in our harvest by the dispencalion of Heaven, and to sustain the laborious legions employed in our domestic undertakings. So great is the im petus we hive imparted to the prosperity of the States that there is actually some prospect that the blot of repudiation will at least in some instances be effaced. The two nations, which liecame two under, such lamentable circumstances, and which have experienced, and, it must l>e added, done so much to perpetuate the original feud, are looking on one another only as reconciled friends, useful neighbors, and mutual bene factors. Such are the results of negotiation. Now look to the sword as tried for the settlement of the other quurrel. It is true that Texas is annexed to the Union. There is something in the name, something in the addition of one more star, something in the removal of an eyesoie from the map. This is all that you have to set to the credit of the Union. Per contra, you have an indefinite number of new schemes, each one more ruinous than the other, opened to democratic ambition ; half a dozen armies marching in differ ent directions; precipitate advances that it takes months to support; bloody battles without result ; desultory attempts without success, and, what is more, because more significant and irremediable than all, a treasury almost without means. On every side there is danger and expense, without the pros pect of any equivalent advantage. Were the question now settled, and the balance fairly struck, the speculation would be found as ruinous as it is discreditable. Here is Gen. Taylor at the latest date still at Monterey, requiring support. Possessing a good hostage, in the shape of a rich city and fertile neighborhood, be finds a very ac commodating foe?perhaps too accommodating. They will supply him with provisions and mules for his progress. That is not wonderful when it is to take him from Monterey, and send him on to a most arduous journey acros>* mountains and deserts, about three hundred miles, to San Luia Potosi. Santa Anna has prudently determined to withdraw Ampudia'a army from SalUllo. There is, therefore, every facility allow ed for the starting of Uie republican aimy, but its route will be through a country prepared for ita reception. Habitations burnt, proviaiona carried away, tanka of water destroyed, will add to ita natural sterility and ruggedness. More money, more troops, more bloodshed, may surmount the difficulty, hut it is an attempt in which all is risk and nothing gained. The fleet meanwhile has done nothing but maintain a useless blockade, and compromise the flag of the States whenever, as twice at Alvarado, an attempt has been made. And what is to come of it ' Grant a hundred victories, grant a continental bicadth of annexation. What would twenty new stars wrested from the ancient dominions of Spain procure for the Government of Washington ' Still only trouble and expense. It would take at least a century to spread that leaven which constitutes (he real union of the State. Texas was w<*ll leavened before its formal adoption. The pear was ripe. Nothing but negotiation was wanting. The sword cut short that brief but necessary delay. But Mexico, and the vart regions that yield it a nominal submis sion, have not been leavened. It would remain for ages a subject, a discordant, a hostile, an expensive tributary. Such is ail that the sword hns done in the settlement of this quarrel, and such is all that, with the utmost aucccsa, it is likely to do. A communication in the Times (says the New York Courier) refers to the project of inducing the holders of Michigan bonds to become purchasers of the railroad by paying for it in bonds at the rate of forty per cent., and wishes to know why so low an offer is made. He refers also to the pretext now set up that Michigan never received the full value of the bonds, and asks how then they got into cir culation at all. In reply, the writer of the money article says that the history of the transaction " constitutes one of the most prominent instances of American dishonesty." He then goes on to say that in 1838 the State created bonds to the amount of $5,200,000, and appointed the Morris Canal Company to sell them at par at least. After dis posing of over #1,200,000 on these terms, the rest were sold to the United States Bank and Morris Canal Company at par, to be paid by instalments of #'250,000 every three months, with interest at six per cent. After paying several of these instal ments the bank failed in 1841 and the Morris Canal Company in 1840, leaving #2,285,630 unpaid. Upon this Michigan resolved to repudiate, and in 1843 passed an act denying her liability for all ex cept the first issue, except to the amount she had received, and claimed to deduct twenty-five per cent, from that as damages for not having received the remainder?thus reducing the entire amount to #955,902. The English holders of these bonds bought them of the bank and canal company, and the act of Michigan is said to stand forth ns a "direct and unequivocal example of fraud." The railroads may be offered low, but the writer in the Times expresses the hope that, as a general rule? " The European creditor* of the repudiating American Governments will have firmness to refuse any terms short of the payment of their entire principal. Not only is Michigan in a flourishing condition, but Indiana and Illinois, as well as the other defnulting States, are now enjoying a prosperity which, under Uie free-trade measures of this country, must increase to an almost illimitable extent. With increasing wealth the desire for something liko a decent standing in the civilized world is likely to grow up, while, on the other hand, the motive to dishonest acquisition will in a corresponding degree l>e lessened. The question, therefore, ia rnily one of time, and the day cannot lie far distant, if the parties intereat- ? ed will but wait for it with confidence, when the people of these States, at all times keenly sensible to the imputation of inferiority, will not deem it a disadvantageous transaction to lay out ten or twenty million* of dollars, or whatever may res|iectively be the amount of their defalcation*, in purchaa ing a restoration of their forfeited renpectability." A letter published in the Richmond Whig atate* that the only Whig editor in the State of South Carolina has gone to Mexico in the regiment from that State.