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cannot be forgotten how sincerely every friend
of truth rejoiced in the exposure which was made of their falsity and their wantonness. We cannot excuse or palliate the course of the government paper in the case. We can make no distinction between it and the President himself. When that high functionary undertook to charge the press with treason, iu terms not quite as direct as those now applied by his organ to the Senate, we resented it as a violation of the freedom of speech and of the Press. On the same ground, as friends to the independence of the Legislative bodies, upon which depend, not the freedom of the press merely, but the conservation of every right dear to Ameri can citizens, we condemn the course of the " Union" in attempting, by means in themselves reprobate, to bring the Senate into contempt and to humble it at the feet of the Executive. We will pursue the subject no further for the present, as we learn that the resolution of Mr. Yulee is still undisposed of. The Senate debated the matter until five o'clock in the evening yester day without coming to a decision. The debate, it should be stated, however, did not relate solely to the subject of the resolution. It took, in the course of the day, a direction personal in its application and piquant in manner, not often witnessed in the Senate, but which added much to the interest of the discussion. |THE ARMY BILL. By the concurrence of the two Houses of Con gress on Wednesday in the report of the second con ference on the disputed amendments to the bill for adding ton regiments to the regular army for a limited time, that bill having since received the signature of the President has become a law. IMPORTANT FROM MEXICO. 0 ???? The Editor of the New Orleans Bulletin states, on the 3d instant, that he has seen letters of the 7th January from the city of Mexico, and from parties having access to high sources of information, which express, in decided terms, a belief that the defer ences between the two nations will very speedily be ainictbly and honorably settled. 1 he Picayune, of the same date, contains a sum mary of late Mexican intelligence, derived from let ters and papers received from our squadron off Vera Cruz, from which we extract the following in rela tion to the proceedings of the Mexican Congress ? upon the project of raising *15,000,000 by mort gage or sale of church property. It is copied from the Diario del Gobierno of the 9th ultimo : "I he basis of the project laid befoie Congress on the night of the 7th, and which consists in taking possession of the pro perty of the clergy, has been adopted. Last night the first article was adopted, and as tar as we recollect reads as fol lows : The Government is authorized to raise $15,000,000 to carry on the war against the United States, giving mort gages on the property of the clergy, or selling the same, if ne cessary, to raise the above sum. 1 he discussion of Article 1 commcnced yesterday morn ing and lasted until 5 o'clock in the afternoon, when a recess was taken until 7 o'clock. At that hour a statement was read from the Vicar General, (one of the highest dignitaries of the church,) in opposition to the project. Scnores Caserta and \ anez y Bcrricl supported his views ; Senores Beniel, Gamboa, Rivera, Lopez, and Lacunza y Pacheco took grounds against Article 1, and Scnores Canas, Juarez, and the Secre taries of State and Finances in favor of its passage. After much discussion, it was carried by a vote of 55 to 31. When Article 2 was discussed, giving Government the power to sell the church pro(>erty, Sonor Otero spoke Bgainst it, and Senor Canas in favor. The vote resulted in 44 yeas ond 35 nays. At 10 o'clock P. M. Congress aJjourned. The delate drew forth no further light, the great argument of Ministers being that, unless means were placed ut the command of Govern ment, the Vice President could not be responsible lor the safety of the country, and that he was apprehensive that with' out funds the army would be disbanded, and march upon the capital to light the torch of civil war." The Picayune says it finds nothing in its files of the Mexican Congress having touched the matter of a peace with the United Slates, in any way. In all the debates, on the contrary, the most hostile feeling appears to have been exhibited. ^ According to a despatch from the Governor of New Leon, the rear guard of Col. May, lost in the defile ol Santa Rosa, was cut ofif by a parly of twenty.five men and boys, inhabitants of San Pwdro. As is represented, almost their only weapons were the stones rolled down the heights by them. None of the rear-guard appear to have been killed, as the whole, eleven in number, were sent prisoners to San Luis Potosi. EXTRACTS FROM THE PICAYUNE. In the Indicadur of Vera Crux of the 13th ultimo Don Pedro M. Herrcra informs his companions in arms that, at his urgent solicitation, the Governor of Puebla has consented to assist the garrison of Vera Cruz in its present straitened situation with a subsidy of $100,000, Iroin $20,000 to $25,000 of it to be paid every month, and the first remittance to be made in a fortnight. 8aj*ta Asna, in answer to the committee who proceeded to San Luis to congratulate him on his election to the Presi dency, said that he had resources sufficient, out of his private means to support the war for six months, and dismissed his audience highly gratified with the information. One of the writers at San Luis describes a general review of the troops at that city on the 2d ultimo. He says : ?? They were well armed, equipped, and uniformed; it was a pleasure to gaze upon them, and they ap^ared as though it were im possible to vanquish them." It can lie done, however. The Mexican editors appear to be perfectly well acquainted with every movement of our troops. They give the number and position of Gen. Wool's division with great exactnes*, and announce the arrival of Gen. Taylor at Victoria with a promptness that shows that their spies are ever on the alert. W e add to the above a few extracts from the letter referred to,which is dated on board of.one of theshipg ol our squadron, ol!" Anion Lizardo on the 20lh January : There is a_ report at Vera Cruz that the opposition of Santa Anna to the recent decree of Congress for the sale of church property has provoked the vengeance of the soldiers, and that ha* been shot. Congress, after a long and stormy session, on the 9th in stant approved the first section of a bill which had been intro duced on the 7 th, authorizing the Government to raise $15,000,000 by the hypothecation or sale of certain goods of the church. This project was violently opposed in Congress and out of Congress, and was represented to bo nothing less than a scheme to close the churches, suspend Divine worship, and starve the priesthood and the inmates of the convents. It wss defended on the scoro of imperious necessity, ns !>eing the only means by which money could be raised to save the coun try from denationalization, the ra?e from extinction, and the very churches from being desecrated. It was said that unlew the army at San Luis Potosi could be guarantied speedy re lief and succor by tfie passing of this measure on that night, that they would dmtand in tho face of the enemy, and march on Mexico to subvert the Government. J he passage of the law has created the greatest excitement throughout Mexico. The churches are closed, and every in- ' dication of mourning and of resistance has been evinced by those who support the religious establishments. The Go vernment have addressed to the soldiers a circular, in which the most stringent measures are authorized for preserving order j and enforcing the decree. Santa Anna declared his opposition to the bill. He proba bly thought that his personal popularity with tho army, aided by promises of contributions from his private purse, would en- 1 able him to maintain his ascendency with the soldiers, that he J would enlist the support of the clergy, and last, and perhaps not least, find a popular causa of quarrel with the preaent Con grew and the administration ol Gomez Fariaa. If he had ap peased the army, and coine out aa the avowed champion of the church, hia authority in Mexico would have been para mount, and, once firmly jiossessed of power, he would have made peace. If he has been assassinated, as report has it, I am inclined to think there is little prospect of peace, except with the subjugation of the whole country. The Mexican Congrets and the Mexican press every where make this the i*me, "Scr u no ser." The administration of the country is In the hands of men who have nothing to lose by the misfor tunes of their country, and the army is conducted by generals who even hail defeat as affording them the best opportunity of filling their pockets with the public funds. It is now generally believed in Vera Cruz that an attack will soon be made upon that place, but no reinforcements have been recently introduced. There are about 1,000 men in the castle and 1,800 regular soldiers in the town, besides the militia or national guard, who may be set down at 1,000 more. I see by an official statement that there are now in the whole State of Vera Cruz 5,000 regulars. The national guard now in progress of organization will amount to 14,000 men of all arms. These last, however, are yet to be provided with arms, and are now scattered over so large a space that, even it they were properly organized, they could not be collected in Vera Cruz in many weeks. The castle has a supply of only a few days' provisions, and the garrison is supplied from day to day from Vera Cruz. During the prevalence of the northers they are olten in actual want, as the communication with the shore is then intercepted. It has been proposed by Sen. Gamboa in Congress to pro hibit entirely the exportation of gold and silver, without ex press permission of Congress, during the war with the United States. The Diario Official, of the 30th ultimo, confirms the ap pointment of Senor Mora as Minister to London, but positive ly denies that he is sent to treat of the mediation of England in regard to the war, as this business has already been sub mitted to the wisdom of Congress. LATE FROM EUROPE. The important news from Europe fills us with sorrow as well as with joy. The starvation in Ire land, Scotland, and France, with the numerous riots that ensue, it is horrible to record ; and it is only a miserable consolation td feel that, while we are freed from these frightful distresses, we are enrich ing ourselves in all branches of trade by their alarm ing sufferings. The British Government, it seems, is fully awa kened to the magnitude of its duties, and is dis charging them to the best of its ability. The navy of England is to be employed in a brighter sphere] than it ever was before, even when led by its most illustrious Admirals; and that is, in the transporta tion of food for the suffering Irish. The"Dra-, gons," the 44 Scourges," the 44 Platos," the 44 Terri bles/' the 44 Avengers," we see, are all about to be employed in the peaceful duty of transport ships. We have before us a list of no less than thirty-se ven government vessels engaged in the conveyance of provisions to the famishing populations of Ire land and Scotland, viz : Number. Tons. Iieland at present 1G .8,212 Scotland ... .do 7 4,459 Ordered on service .11 9,650 To be appropriated 3 2,000 37 24,321 Of which twenty-eight will be steam vessels, whose collective horse-power is about 7,000, and the uni ted complements of the whole number will be about 3,000 officers and men. The British Ministry, it is also stated, have de termined? 44 To suspend the Navigation Laws, so as to allow the vessels of every country to bring provisions to the British shores. 44 To repeal the duties of the last session on the importation of grain, which, under the present emergency, have not only been useless, but positively mischievous, by holding out apie mium, to the same amount, in favor of France and other coun tries where corn is wanted. And to prohibit the use of grain in breweries and distille ries, and permit the use of sugar and molasses, under certain restrictions, so that the great quantity of human food required in the distillation of fermented liquors may be saved to the nation. This arrangement, it is said, will not only serve the public, but also be the means of materially increasing the re venue." It is to be hoped that these measures will stop all further rise in the price of food, and even depress it. We have no wish nor heart to profit any more upon European calamities, and we are sure the most pleasant news that the mass of our countrymen could now have, would be a reduction in the price of fbur. Indeed, it is a question whether we are gain ing by the enormous price of food, because what we gain in corn, wheat, and provisions, we must lose in the end in the fall of our great staple cotton. It is impossible that Europe can purchase freely of cotton made goods, when all its re sources are necessary for the priiniry article of life?that is, bread. OPENING OF PARLIAMENT. The British Parliament assembled on the 19th ultimo. The (jueen's spet ch had a favorable effect upon the funds in Lon don, and was expected (we don't see why) to lower the price of fool, and thus to alleviate suffering in Ireland. Parliament, on that very day, entered upon a discussion of the condition of the Irish people, and among others who spoke was Lord John Russell. Mr. Laboucherc, in the course of his remarks, said? 44 If the Government chose they might themselves purchase corn in America and bring it home in ?hips-of-the-line, each of which would carry two thousand tons of corn, and thus eight ships of-the-line would bring home corn sufficient to feed the people of Ireland, and would bring down the price of grain." The speech was delivered by the Qpeen in per son, and is as follows : 44 My Ijnrds and Gentlemen: It is with the deepest con cern thpt, upon your again assembling, I have to call your at tention to the dearth of provisions which prevails in Ireland and in parts of Scotland. 44 In Ireland, especially, the loss of the usual food of the ppople has been the cause of severe sufferings, of disease, and of greatly increased mortality among the poorer classes. Out rages have liecoine more frequent, chiefly directed against pro perly ; and the tiansil of provisions has been rendered unsafe in some pasts of the country. 44 With a view to mitigate these evils, very large numbers of men have been employed ami received wages, in purcuance of an act passed in the last session of Parlisment. Some de viations from that act, which have been authorized by the Lord Lieutenant, in order to promote more useful employment, will, I trust, receive your sanction. Means have been taken to lef^ien the pressure of want in districts which are most re-1 mote from the ordinary sources of supply. Outrages have been repressed, as far as it was possible, by the military and police. It is satisfactory to me to ol?serve that in many of the most distressed districts the patience and resignation of the people have !>een most exemplary. 44 The deficiency of the harvest in France and Germany, and other parts of Euro|?e, has added to the difficulty of ob taining adequate supplies of provisions. " It will be your duty to consider what further measures are required to alleviate the existing distress. I recommend to you to take into your serious consideration whether, by in creasing for a limited period the facilities for importing com from foreign countiies, anil by the admission of sugar more freely into the breweries and distilleries, the supply of food may not lie beneficially augmented. . " I have likewise to direct your earnest consideration to the permanent condition of Ireland. You will perceive, in the absence of political excitement, an opportunity for taking a dispassionate survey of the social evils which afflict that por tion of the united kingdom. Various measures will be laid before you, which, if adopted by Parliament, may tend to ntine the great rnas* of peoplt in comfort, to promote ajrricultur*, and to lessen the pressure of that comjietition for land which has been the fruitful source of crime and misery. " The mntriage of the Infanta liouiwi hernancl* of Spain to the Duke de Montpensier has given rise to a correspondence between my Government and those of 1" ranee and Spain. "The extinction of the free State of ('rncow has appeared to me to be so manifest a violation of the treaty of \ lenna, that I have commanded that a protest against that act should be delivered to the Courts of Vienna, Petersburgh, and Berlin, which wero parties to it. Copies of these several papers will lie laid before you. 441 entertain confident hopes that the hostilities in the .river Plats, which have so long interrupted commerce, may soon lie terminated i and my efforts, in conjunction with those of the King of the French, will be earnestly directed to that cud. 44 My relations generally with foreign Powers inspire me with the fullest confidence in the maintenance of peace. 44 Gentlemen of the Houte of Common* t I have directed the estimates to be prepared with a view to provide for the effiaency of the public service with ? due regard for economy.' My Lords and Gentlemen: I have oidered every requi-' .tie preparation to be made for putting into operation the'act of the last se?.ion ol Parl.a.nent for the e.tabli.hment of local court, for the recovery of .mall deb(t, Jt i8 my . ^ (he enforcement of civil right. in all pari, of the country to which the act nlatea may, by thw measure, be materially facilitated. I recommend to your attention measure. which will be laid before you for improving (he health of towns, an object the importance of which you will not fail to appreciate. ? ec''|^ ?enJlU? of the ble.Minge wlych, after a season of calamity, have been so often vouchsafed to thiw nation bv a to^ou'r - Prov^eMce'.1 confide these important matters to your care, in a full conviction that your discuwions wi I be guided by an lmpsrtial spirit, and in the hopo that the present conditiim , '"hl*"Upl? ???d that their futuie condition may be improved by your deliberate wisdom." The reply to the Queen's speech was moved in the House of Lords by Lord Healherton in a speech of some length, the leading topic of which was the condition of Ireland. The Montpenskr marriage, the difficulties in the Rio do la Plata and the annihilation of Cracovia were touched upon. Lord lleatherton remarked that he hoped the commission for facili tating the transfer of real property would meet with every assistance to enable them to accomplish the object for which they were embodied, calculated he thought in u great degree to relieve the existing distress of the sister island. Lord Carew followed, and he was succeeded by Lord Stanley, whose speech occupies in the Times more than three dose y printed column.. Lord. Lansdowne and Brougham, the Duke of Richmond, Lord. Fitiwilliam, We.tmeath, Ro den, Hardwicke, and Auckland also addrewed the Hoiue bt length. In the House of Commons the engrossing subject of course was the d,strew of Ireland, and the debase on it and the other matters treated of in the Queen's speech occupies eighteen and a half columns of closely printed matter. MEXICAN PRIVATEERS. As important new. as any that meets our eye. in the Lon don papers, is the announcement of the fact that the Mexican Government ha. opened an office in London for the sale of letters of marque and reprisal against vewels of the United State.. The London Time, says : " The terms on which these letters are to be granted, so far as we are able to judge from a cursory examination are not inconsistent with the recognised practice of international law. rso open attempt is mide to enlist the services of other than Mexican subjectsi; and the second article of the official ordi nance expressly declares that the patent, will be granted only to vessels of which the caplain, officers, and1 other individuals appointed thereto are Mexican citizens according to the laws o? the Republic. But, adds the Times, ? Certificatesof J1"rU '",t'?.n Probttb|y t,ow lying at the office near the Tow whorl, b?.ffranled t0 any W'cant, of whatever country, who can pay hi. money and give the required security in ac cordance with the published ordinance. Thus a SpanUrd, ? a. Portuguese, or ever, an Englishman, may fit out a priva teer to cruise against the vessel, of the United States ; and in piZlXcLZZ'"""" 10 l'n,d''c,"" ce"ia':"?'10 It is but justice, however, to say that the Time, discourages, and rather denounces, any enlistment under these letters of marque, and hints that the Government itself, by an order in council, should put a stop to the business, while a correspon dent m the same paper vigorously denounces the act as no better than piracy. It can hardly be doubted that, if the English people or Gov ernment were to favor such letters of marque against our commerce, infinite mischief might be done, but we appre hend that there is too much good sense and good feeling in England to tolerate such a proceeding in behalf of Mexico. Some of the papers state that three privateers have actually willed rom London ; and, a. confirming thi. report, we find the following important notification in the New York Com mercial Advertiser, transmitted by its " London correspondents of the Commercial List," under date of "Loxuo*, Jani-aiit i9, 1847. ' hree privateers wiled from the port of London on the 9th of January, 1847. They are British ship,, but have been renamed according to Spanish regulations, and they carry letter, of marque. The name, are a. follows : Remade Castilla, Capt. Moody, 214 tons, 30 men. Sebastian del Cano, " Smith, 153 ?? 30 ?? Magallanes, " Lash, 153 " 20 ?? " 1 hesc three vessels cleared out of the port of Londoa for ? Manilla, but are really for privateering on the broad Atlantic." MEETING OF THE LANDLORDS OF IRELAND. 1 * ^8% important meeting of the landlords of Ireland wa? I . Dublin, on 1 hursd.y, the 14th of January, the Mar j qui. of Urmond presiding. The object of the meeting wai to i Ml,re8a ,h? opinion of the landed gentry with regard to the ! Hflfnrm allevu.t'n*the sufficing, of the people. On the sair.e j platform ware Daniel O Connell and Mnith O'Brien, noble men gentlemen and clergymen from every county in Ireland: Call W' , ^ a,Ul the Kepe,ler 5 lhc Protestant, the Catholic, and the Dissenter, all as,embled together, cordially co-operating for the common object of forming an Irish party, for purely Irish purposes. 1 1 The resolutions adopted l.y the meeting call upon the rep resentatives of Ireland to co-operate cordially in Parliament for the advancement of the interest, of that country, and uiwn the Government to secure local supplies of food, sufficient to keep the people alive, a. well as to suspend the navigation law.-, an.l the duties on corn, temporardy, in order to lit in supplies freely. 1 hey also call ujwi the Government to em ploy all the surplus laborers; at the same time affording all (tosBible facilities for private employment, and to establish a scheme of systematic colonization. The Government are also called upon to establish seed depots. Daniel O'Conitell make a few remarks on seconding one of the resolutions. He said that what the people wanted was food-food : it was idle to talk of thorough draining and sub a-.ilrng , they were very good under ordinary circumstances, but at present the first object of "the Irish party" should be to compel the Government to give food to the Irish i?eople. Mr. > Connell, in the course of his remarks, denounced the London imes without stint, and charged that journal with calumniating the Irish people, by saying that their landed gentry are the worst aristocracy in Europe 5" that the th? lowe8t wr'"'" on the habitable globe, and that thfe middle classes are dishonest, mean, and servile. CONDITION OF IRELAND. We have room only for a few of the cxtract. which por tray the wretched condition of the poor of Ireland. A ??"? in the Iiondon Herald, dated at Dublin the of Januuary, .ays : " The account, from all parts of Ireland arc thi. day heart rending. Death from starvation i. now so common that it scarcely excites notice. One gentleman, from Mayo, writes: ? Death is now so common that wakes are seldom attended, and the bodies are conveyed silently by a few friends to their graves?the followers being, in appearance, as ghastly as their departed relatives or friends.' It fs impossible to do sufficient justice to the patient endurance of the- jieople under this truly awful visitation." John Coghlan, parish priest of Kilkelly, county of Mayo, has addressed a letter to the London Times, in which he says: Two months ago my parishioners exceeded 6,000 souls ; they are now considerably red need below that number?death '3 'JV, m*"'" ??? ?"-rf.il ravages. This week two persons have died of hunger, one a girl named Mary Dodd, of BarcoII, aged 16 yeaia, the other a man named Jame. UUoniwM, ol Sownaclane, aged 53 year.. I attended another last night, named William fallen, dying of starvation. Of TT 7* abOU' 6,950 now ,ivin*' 1 "olemnly de clare, to the best of my opinion, that not more than 200 of hem have more to support nature than half a meal in the we,.ty-four hours, i'he corn i. all gone , not even the seed ?.r the ensuing year remains. The turnip, are all use,!. We have no Indian meal. The very small quantity of oatgieal 0 be found ,. selling at 28s. per 112 pounds. "Indian meal IS not to be had in Sligo for less than j?19 per ton. The people on the public works are not permitted to cam more an ,V P*rfWe*k- ]th|,y ?*arn more if permitted to I r ng their families. Such a rational course the Boar,I of W orks will not permit. Oh, sir, if ever suffering humanity I commanded your sympathy, the dying destitution of my pa ! lor food"1" 7. and n'ght 1 nm '"POrtuneJ Pho accounts from Mayo given in the Freeman's Journal are very psinful. In the parish of Cong, 27 death, oc curred w.thin a week. In a neighboring parish a like nilml-er, in three weeks. Rev. Patrick Fitzgerald, Roman Catholic 1 curate of Kilgeever, thus illustrates the intensity of the famine : j " I shall never forget the imprewion made on my mind a tew days ago by a moat heart-iending case of starvation. I ' Tn ! Trr ,molh,,r of in fami,y ,",ndini h? le children, almost lifeless from hunger, to bed, and, de spair,ng of ever .eemg them alive, she took her la<t leave of . ,hr, n,orn'n*? her first act was to touch their lips with her hand to see if the breath of hfe still remained ? but ; the poor mother . fears were not groundless, for not a breath could she feel from some of her dear little children , that night buried them in the night of eternity." 1 The Cork Examiner .urns up the state of things in the neighlmrhood of Skiblwreen 1 " In the parish of Kilmoe 14 died on Sunday , three of these were buried in coffin., eleven were buried without other covering than the rags they wore when alive. One gentleman, a good and charitable man, speaking of thia case, says : ''Ih# distress is so appalling that we must throw away all feeling of delicacy.' And another saya s ' I would rather give Is. to a starving man than 4a. 8d. for a coffin.' ?? 140 died in the blybbcreeii workhouse in one month ; 8 have died in one day ! And Mr. McCaithy Downing slates that ?they came into the house merely and solely for the pur nose of getting a coffin.' ?? Rev. Mr. Clancy visits a farm, and there, in one house, ? he administered the last rites of religion to six persons.' On a aubscquent occasion, he ? prepared for death a father and a daughter lying in the same bed.' ?? Kev. Mr. (Jaulfield sees ? 13 members of one family lying down in fever.' , . ?? Rev. Mr. Fitzpatrick retires to rest at 3 o clock in the morning, end rues after a couple of hours' heavy sleep. It is the same with his coadjutors. . . ?? Dr. Donovan solemnly assures a public meeting that the people ate 4 dropping in dozens about them. ^ "Mr. Marmion says that work on the public road ;a even more destructive than fever; for the unfed wretches have not energy enough to keep their blood in circulation, and they drop down from the united cffecta of cold and hunger, never to rise again." Great exertions were made in England to raise a large fund for the relief of Ireland. The Queen had subscribed ?2,000, Prince Albert ?500, several Dukes and bankers ?1,000 each, Lord John Russell ?300, Sir Robert Peel ?200, See. IMPORT OF CORN INTO LIVERPOOL. The exports of Indian corn to Ireland are but trifling com pared with the large quantities daily arriving here. It is there fore certain that the article is getting more and more into the hands of speculators. Certain it is that nothing but the (ear of their own pockets sullering will cause them to sell food to the destitute and starving. The quantity of Indian corn now in Livcr|>ool is immense, and daily increasing. We all know that it can only be intended for Irish consumption ; the, rea son for ils being withheld is therefore obvious. During yes terday and to day the following quantities have arrived, de spite of adverse winds: Forty thousand two hundred bushels, four thousand seven hundred and fifty sacks, and one thousand bags of Indian corn. Two thousand sit hundred barrels of flour. F ft eon hundred bags unil five thousand five hundred bushels of rice. Nine thousand two hundred bushels of wheat. Five thousand two hundred and seventy minots of wheat. Six thousand one hundred bushels of barley. Six hundred boxes of cheese. Five hundred barrels of Indian corn meal. LIVERPOOL CORN TRADE, Jahvart 19. The trado during the past week wns very animated, and a large demand was experienced daily for every aiticle. The amount of business in wheat was a good deal restricted by the absence of suitable qualities, most of the Mediterranean soft arid nearly every sample of hard having been cleared oil, and the finer descriptions of which our small stock now consists wcro taken for Ireland and by our local dealers, at a further advance of 2d per 70 lbs. Outs were 2d to 3d per 45 lbs. Barley, beans, peas, and Indian corn each Is to 2a per quarter higher. Danlzic boiling peas have been sold at 70a per 504 lbs. Yellow Indian corn 74s per 480 lbs. Flour was 6d to Is per barrel, and Is to 2s j>er sack dearer. Oatmeal firm, also Indian corn meal at last quotations. , , , Of bonded wheat two large parcels of A merican have changed hands at llsfid and lis 2d per 70 lbs.; and ol flour large quantities, both on the spot and to arrive, at 43s per barrel lor Western. SPEECH OF THE KING OF THE FRENCH. The King of the French opened the Chambers on the 11th ultimo with the following speech: " Messieurs Peers and Deputies: In summoning you to resume the labors of the session my first wish is that you should afford my Government your best co-operation to re lieve the sufferings that this year weigh upon a portion of our population. I hilve hastened to order measures best calculat ed to attain that object. I trust that by the firm maintenance of order, by the liberty and security of commercial transac tions, by a judicious application of the public resources, effi ciently seconding the zeal of private charity, we shall nuu gute those trials with which Providence sometimes visits the most prosperous States. , ?? My relations with all the foreign Powers give me the firm confidence that the peace of the world continues secure. " The marriage of my beloved son, the Due de Mont pensier, with my beloved niece, the Infanta of Spain, Louisa Fernanda, has completed the satisfaction and consolation which Providence has vouchsafed me and my family. 1 his union will be a fresh pledce of those good and intimate rela tions which have so long subsisted between France and Spain, and the maintenance of which is as desirable for the prosperi ty as for the reciprocal security of the two States. ti J have reason to hope that the atiiirs of the River Plate will before long, he settled conformably with the views adopted by my Government, in concert with that of the Queer : of Great Britain, for the establishment of the security of out commercial relations in thi?e countries. i "I have concluded with the Emperor of Russia a trcatj of navigation, which guaranties to us by a just reciprocity in our maritime relations with that Empire, advantageswhict it is important lor us to secure. ... . r ,v ?? An unex|>ected event has impaired the state ?f things founded in Europe by the last treaty of Vienna, [he Re public of Cracow, an independent and neutral Mate, has been incorporated with the Empire of Austria. I have protested against that infraction of the treaty. "At home the constant progress of the public revenue, despite the cause* which might have checked it, proves that the activity and resources of the country continue to increase. The financial laws and various laws relative to important im provements in the legislation and administration of the king dom will be submitted to your deliberation. The great pub lic works which we have undertaken shall be completed with the perseverance which the interests of the country command, j and with the prudence indispensable to the maintenance of public credit. | ?? You will also have to direct your attention to measures calculated to second in our African (Algerian) possessions the I progress of colonization and o! its internal prosperity. 1 rap quillity, SO happily restored to Algeria by ihc valor and devot ; edness of our army, enables us to examine maturely that im? 1 portanl question, respecting which a special vote will be pre \ sented to you. _ ? I "Messieurs: A common feeling animates us. louare 1 all, like me and mine, devoted to the happiness and Brandeur of our country ; and already long experience has enlighjen^ us as to the policy best suited to her ,nor*,0"^'r^y, and the terests, and which must wcuw fulure de8(ilIies. I pacific and yo ur patriotism and wisdom, the ^olieration neceasarv to the accomplishment of this great task. Let us assist each other in supporting the burden, anil France will reap the fruit of our efforts." I The Chaml?er of Deputies met on Thursday, in its standing committees, to elect the meml-ers of the commission who were to draw up the address in reply to the Kin* s speech. I he debates were long and animated, and the Ministers, and mos of the leaders of the different political factions of the assembly, I took part in them, except in the second committee, where M. , Thiers and hisiriends abstained from all opposition. I lie fir.t committee had not terminated its operations at the hour of I post but the eight commissioners electtd had all approved ? conduct ol the Ministry in respect of the Spanish mamages ; and the affair of Crarow. These were Messrs. d HausaonviUe, Muret de Uord, de Bussieres, Sannac, de Carne, V lU-t Pey 1 ramont, and Desmounaeaux de Givrf. , ,, I A numerous meeting of the Opposition deputies was held on Wednesday evening in the salon of M. Billuult. The schism I ao much talked of lately was the object of a long and serious conference, and was openly admitted by Messrs. billault an Dufaure, who stated to their colleaaues the diffeient points ot their political programme. These two distinguished orators j are, it appears, determined ? to separate themselves from M. Thiers, and renounce the petty warfare of intrigue which had brought the constitutional opposition into so much disrepulo. I Count Mole had been appointed President, and M. Uor ti e Reporter of the commission of the Chamber of reers which was to draw up the address in reply to the King s speech. The nomination of Count Mole caused some scusa tion among the fiiends of the present Ministers. The Chamber of Peers assembled on Saturday in Commit tee, to hear the draught of the Address read. It is of course an echo of the Speech from the Throne. The debate in the Chamber was to lie opened on Monday, by the Due de Broglie, who will, it is "aid, discuss the question of the application of the Treaty of Utrecht lo the Monlpensier marriage. M. C.uizot M not e*|tectcd to speak until Tuesday. Paris, Ja*i-aht 8.?A Council of Ministers was held yesterday at 12 o'clock. A Ministerial despatch direcU the intendants of the military divisions not to permit their agents, until further orders, to purchase wheat in the public markets of their departments, the quantity required for the bread of the army being assured by other channels. Paris, Jauvaii* 9.?The Constitutionne' says : After long hesitations tho affair of the French mission in China has U en thus regulated. The Consulate of France at Canton is sup pressed. A post of Chsrg* d'Affaires of France to the Gov ernment of tho Celestial Empire has been created, and this post has been given to M. Fort Rouen, who is to reside at Canton, whoro the Viceroy, the legal representative of the Emperor with Europeans, always remains. At a later period, if foreign agents are admitted to Pekin, our representative wil l assume the title of Envoy Extraordinsry and Minister I'leni-^ potentiary to China. An interpreter, a secretary, and a chan ?: cellor sre to be attached to the mission to China. 1 THE CAPITULATION OP MONTEREY. The question which has been lately raised, about the propriety and expediency of the capitulation granted by the Commanding General at the capture of Monterey, is effectively settled, beyond all future doubt or question, by the Letter of Col. Jefferso* Davis, of the Mississippi Volunteers, to which, with the clinching appendant statements of General Worth and General Henderson, in the following columns, we have pleasure in directing the atten tion of our readers. OFFICIAL PAPERS AND LETTERS. FKOM TIIE " VITIOH" OF WKDMIHDAT HIQHT. Victoria, Tumaulipas, Mexico, Jan. 6, 1847. To rio. Editor or the Utrioa.?Dear Sir : After much ?peculation and do little misrepreacntation about the capitula tion of Monterey, perceive by our recent newspapers that a discussion has arisen aa to who is responsible for that transac tion. As one of the commissioner* who were entrusted by General I ay lor with the arrangement of the terms upon which the city of Monterey and its fortifications should be delivered to our foices, I have had frequent occasion to recur to the course then adopted, and the considerations which led to it My judgment after the fact has fully sustained my decisions at the date of the occurrence 5 and feeling myself responsible for the instrument as we prepared and presented it to our com" manding general, I have the satisfaction, after all subsequent events, to believe that the terms we oiTered were expedient, and honorable, and wise. A distinguished gentleman with whom I acted on that commission, Governor Henderson, snys, in a recently published letter, " I did not at the time, nor do I still, like the terms, but acted as one of the commissioners, together with General Worth and Colonel Davis, to carry out General Taylor's instructions. We ought and could have made them surrender at discretion," &c. From each position taken in the above paragraph I dissent. The instructions given by General Taylor only presented his object, and fixed a limit to tho powers of his commissioneis; hence, when points were raised which exceeded our discretion they were referred to the commander; but minor points were acted on and finally submitted as a part of our negotiation. We fixed tho time within which the Mexican forces should retire from Monterey. We agreed upon the time we would wait for the decision of the respective Government?, which I recollect was less by thirty-four days than the Mexican com missioners asked?the period adopted being that which, ac cording to our estimate, was required to bring up the rear of our army, with the ordnance and supplies necessary for further operations. I did not then, nor do I now, believe we could have made the enemy surrender at discretion. Had I entertained the opinion, it would have been given to the commission, and to the commanding general, and would have precluded me from signing an agreement which permitted the garrison to retire with the honors of war. It is demonstrable, from the position and known prowess of the two armies, that we could drive the enemy from the town ; but the town was untenable.whilst the main fort (called the new citadel) remained in the hands of the enemy. Ueing without siege arullery or entrenching tools, we could only hope to carry this fort by storm, after a heavy loss from our army ; which, isolated in a hostilo coun try, now numbered less than half the forces of thft enemy. When all this had been achieved, what more would we have gained than by the capitulation ? General Taylor's force was too small to invest the town. It was, therefore, always in the power of the enemy to retreat, bearing his light arms. Our army?poorly provided, and with very insufficient transportation?could not have overtaken, if they had pursued the flying enemy. Hence the conclusion that, as it was not in our power to capture the main body of the Mexican army, it is unreasonable to suppose their general tfould have surrendered at discretion. The moral effect of retiring under the capitulation was certainly greater than if the enemy h id retreated without our consent. Uy this course we secured the large supply of ammunition he had collected in Monterey?which, had the assault been continued, must have been exploded by our shells, a* it was principally stored in " the Cathedral," which, being supposed to be filled with troops, was the especial aim of our pieces. The destruction which this explosion would have produced must have involved the advance of both divisions of our troops ; and I commend this to the contemplation of those whose arguments have been drawn from facts learned since the commissioners closed their negotiations. With these introductory remarks, I send a copy of a manuscript in my possession, which was prepared to meet such necessity as now exists for an explanation of the views which governed the commissioners in arranging the terms of capitulation, to justify the commanding general, should misrepresentation and ralumnv attempt to tarnish his well earned reputation, and, for all time to come, to fix his truth of the transaction. Please publish this in your paper, and be lieve me your friend, &c. JEFFLRSON DAVIS. Memoranda of the transactions in connexion with the capitulation of Monterey, capital of Nuevc Leon, Mexico. By invitation of General Ampudia, commanding the Me-ri can army, General Taylor, accompanied by a number of hit officers, proceeded on the 24th September, 1846, to a Jioum designated as the place at which General Ampudia requested an interview. The parties being convened, General Ampudia annoupctd as official information that commissioners from the United States had been received by the Government of Mexi co i and that the orders under which he bad prepared to de fend the city of Monterey had lost their force by the subse quent change of his own Government; therefore he asked the conference. A brief conversation between the commanding Generals showed their views to be so opposite as to leave little reason to expect an amicable arrangement between them., General Taylor arid he would not delay to receive surh pro positions as General Ampudia indicated. One of General Anipudin's party, I think the Governor of the city, suggested the appointment of a mixed commission. Thia was ??? ,J and Gen. W. G. Worth, of the Unite-' ?*-"'ea army, (ten. J. Pinckney Henderson, of ?.*??. "T*". volunteers, and Col. Jefferson Davis, r/ '" "l'""""PP' riflemen, on the part of Gen. T""' ' ^ Gen. J. Ma. Ortega, Gen. P. Kequena, ..u oenor the Governor M. Ma. Llano, on the part of Gen. Ampudia, were appointed. Gen. Taylor.gave instructions to his commissioners which, as understood, for they were brief and verbal, will be best ahown by the copy of the demand which the United States commissioners prepared in the conference-roorn, here incor porated : Copy of demand by United States Commiuioners. " L As the legitimate result of the operations before this place, and the present position of tho contending armies, we demand the surrender of the town, the arms and munitions of war, and all other public property within the place. "II. That the Mexican aimed force retire beyond the Rin conada, Linares, and San Fernando on the coast. "III. The commanding General of the ariny of the United j States agrees that the Mexican officers reserve iheir side arms ; I and private bagcage ; and the tro >p? be allowed to retire under I their officers without parole, a reasonable time being allowed j to withdraw the forces. "IV. The immediate delivery of the main work now occu pied fo the army of the United Slates. " V. To avoid eolljsions, and f <t mutual convenience, that the troops of ihe United States shall not occupy the town until the Mexican forces have been withdrawn, cxcept for hospital purposes, storehouses, &c. " VI. The commanding"General of the United States agrees not to advance beyond the line specified ill the second section Itefore the expiration of eight weeks, or until the reijicctive Governments can be heard from." The terms of the demand were refused by the Mexican com misaionera, who drew up a counter proposition, of which I only recollcct that it contained a |*rrni*aion to t ie Mexican forces to retire with their arms. This was urced as a matter of soldierly pride, and as an ordinary courtesy. We had reached the limit of our instructiona, and the commission rose to report the disagreement. Upon returning to the reception-room, after the fact hnd been announced that the commissioners could not agree upon terms, General Ampudia entered ath ngth upon the question, treating the point of disagreement as one which involved tho honor of It is country, H|>oko of his desire for a settlement without further bloodshed, and said ho did not care?ahout the pieces of artillery which he had at the place. Gen. Taylor responded to the wish to avoid unnecessary bloodshed. It was agreed the commission should reassemble, and we were instructed to concedc Ihe small arms ; and I supposed there would be no question about the artillery. The M< xicancom- ! missioners now urged that, aa all other arms had been rerog- ' nised, it would be discreditable to the artilleiy if required to march out without any thing to represent thfeir arm, and stated, in answer fo an inquiry, that they had a battery of light ar tillery, manoeuvred and equipped as such. The commission again rose, and reported the disagreement on the point of artillery. Gen. Taylor, hearing that more was demanded than the middle ground, upon which, in a spirit of generosity, he had agreed to place the capitulation, announced the conference at an end, and rose in a manner which showed his determination to talk no more. As he crossed the room to leave it* one of the Mexican commissioners addressed him, and some conver sation, which I diil not hear, ensued. Gen. Worth asked j>crmissioti of Gen. Taylor, and addresaed aomo remarks to Gen. Ampudia, the spirit of which waa that which he muni* 1 fested throughout the negotiation, vig. generosity and leniencr. and a desire to .pare the further effu.ion of blood. The com miaaion reaaaembled, and the points of capitulation were agreed upon. After a short recess we again repaired to the room in which we had parted from the Mexican commissioners, they were lardy in joining us, and alow in executing tlJe instrument of capitulation. The 7th, 8ih, and !ith art cle. were added during t'lia session. At a late hour the English original w..s : handed to Gen. Taylor for hia examination ; the Spanish ori ginal hn ing l*en sent to Gen. Ampudia. Gen Taylor signed and delivered to rne the instrument ua it was submittal to hun, and I returned to receive the Spanish copy t\uh ihe sig nature of General Ampudia, and send that having General J aylor * signature, that each General might count-rsign ihe originnl to be retained by the other. Gen. Ampudia did not sign the instrument a* was expected, but came himself to meet th<- commissioners. He raised many pointa which had been settled, and evinced a disposition to make the Spanish dilfer in essential points fr<>rn the English instrument. Gen. Worth was absent. 1- inally, he whs required to aign the in strumei.t prepared lot his own commissioners, and the English oriLMn.il was left with him that he might have it translated, (which he promised to do that night,) and be ready the next morning with a Spanish duplicate of the Engli.-h instrument lefi with him. Dy this means the two instruments would be made to correspond, and he be compelled to admit hia know ledge of the contents of the English original before h? signed it. 1 he next morning the commission again met; again the at" tempt was made, as had been often done before by solicitation, to gain some grant in addition to the compact. Thus we had at their request, adopted the word capitulution i/i lieu of sur render,- they now wished to substitute utipulatirm for capitu lution. It finally became necessary to make a peremptory demand for the immediate signing of the English instru ment by General Ampudia, and ihe literal translation (now perfected) by tho commissioners and their general. The Spanish instrument lirst signed by Gen. Ampudia wan destroy ed in presence of his commissioners < the translation of our own instrument was countersigned by Uen. Taylor, and delivered. I he agreement was complete, and it only remained to exe cute the terms. Much has been said about the construction of article 2 of the capitulation, a copy of which is hereto appended What ever ambiguity there may be in the language used, there was a perlect understanding by the commission* rs upon both sides as to the intent of ihe parties. The distinction wo mado be tween light artillery equipped and manoeuvred as such, de signed for and used in the field, and pieces being the srma nent ol a lort, was clearly stated on our side \ and that U was comprehended on theirs appeared in the fact Uiat repeatedly they asserted their possession of light arti lei?, and said they had one battery of light pieces. Such conformity of opinion existed among our commissioners upon every measure which was finally adopted, that I consider them, in their sphere, jointly and severally refponsible lor each and every articla of the capitulation. If, as originally viewed by Gen. Worth, our conduct has been in accordance with the peaceful policy of our Government, and shall in any degree tend to consummate that policy, we may congratulate ourselves upon the part we have taken. If otherwise, it will remain to me as a deliberate opinion that the terms of capitulation gave all which could have followed, of desirable result, from a further assault. It was in the power of the enemy to retreat, and to'bear with liira his small arms and such a battery as was contemplated in the capitulation. The other grants were such as it was honor able in a conquering army to bestow, and which it cost mag nanimity nothing to give. The above recollections are submitted to Generals Hender son and Worth for correction and addition, that the misrepre sentation of this transaction may be prevented by a statement made whilst the events are recent and the memory fresh. JEFFERSON DAVIS, . Colonel Mississippi Riflemen. Camp wear Monterey, October 7, 1846. Tho above :s a correct statement of the leading facts con nected with the transactions referred to, according to my re collection. It is, however, proper that I should further state that my first impression was, that no tetter terms than those first proponed, on the part of Gen. Taylor, ought to have been .given, and I so said to General Taylor when I found him disposed to yield to the request of General Ampudia ; and at the same time gave it as my opinion that they would ba accepted by him before we left the town. General Taylor re plied that he would run no risk where it could be avoided j that he wished to avoid the furth* r shedding of blood, and that he was satisfied that our Government would be pleased with tho tpriris given by the capitulation ; and, being myself per suaded of that fact, I yielded my individual views and wis has, and under that conviction I shall ever be ready to defend the terms of the capitulation. J. PINCKNEY HENDERSON, Major General Commanding the Texan Volunteers. I not only counselled and advised, the opportunity being offered by the genrral-in-chief, the first propoaition, but cor dially assented and approved tho decision taken by General Taylor in respect to the latter, as did every member of the commission, and for good and sufficient military and national reasons ; and stand ready, at all times and proper places, to de fend and sustain the action of the commanding general, and participation of the commissioners. Knowing that maiignants, the trcnior Iwing off, are at work to discredit and misrepresent the case, (as I hid anticipated,) I feel obliged to Col. Davia for having thrown together tho material and facts W. J. WORTH, Brig. Gen. commanding 2J division. Moxtbii*t, October 12, 1846. Terms of the capitulation of the city of Monterey, the capi tal .of N ueva Leon, agreed upon by the undersigned commis sioners, to wit, General Worth, of the United Sta'es army < i General Henderson, of the Texan volunteers; and Colonel Davis, of the Mississippi riflemen, on the part of Maj<tf Gene ral Taylor, comniandmg-in-chicf the United States forces 5 and General Requena and General Ortega, of tho srmy of Mexico, and Sehor Manuel M. Llano, Governor of J\o%va Lion, on the part of Serior General Don Pedro Ampudia, com man ling-in-chief the army of the north 0/Mexico. Aiticla 1. A* the legitimate result of the operations hefiro this place, and the present position of the contending armies, it is agreed that the city, the fortifications, cannon, the muni tions of war, and all other public property, with the under mentioned exceptions, lie surrendered to the ?????-???nng gen eral of the United States fp?? Monterey. Art. 2. TH?? ?*-" """"can forces be allowed to retain the f?ii ...iig arms, to wit . tho commissioned officers, their aide arms; Ihe infantry, their arms and accoutrement*! the caval ry, their arms and accoutrements 5 the artillery, one field bat tery, not to exceed six pieces, with twenty-one rounds of am munition. - Art. 3. That the Mexican armed forces retire within aev?n days from this date beyond the line formed by the pass of the Rincnnada, the city of Linares, and San Fernando de Puaoe. Art. 4. That the citadel of Monterey be evacuated by the Mexican, and occupied by the American forces to-morrow morning, at 10 o'clock. Art. 5. To avoid collisions, and for mutual convenience, that the troop* of the I niteii States will not occupy the city until the Mexican forces have withdrawn, except for hospital and storage purposes. Art 6. That the forces of the United States will not ad vance Iteyond the line specified in the third article, before the expiration of eight weeks, or until the orders of the reapective Governments can be received. Art. 7. That the public property to be delivered, shall be turned over and received by officers appointed by the com manding generals of the two armies. Art. 8. ''hat all doubts, as to the meaning of any of the ?preceding articles, shall be solved by an equitable construction, and on principles of liberality to the retiring army. Art. 9. I hat the Mexican flag, when struck at the cttadcl, may be saluted by its own battery. W. J. WO^TH, Brigadier General IT. 8. Army. J. PINCKNEY HENDERSON, Maj. Gen. commanding tho 1'exan volunteers JEFFERSON DAVIS, Colonel Mississippi riflemen. J. M ORTEGA, T. REQUENA, MANUEL M. LL\NO. Approved: PEDRO AMPUDIA. Z. TAYLOR, r? w ~ Maj' G*r1, U- A- commanding. Done at Monterey, September 24, 1846. Baltimore, February 12?5 P. M. The flour market is still feverish and unsettled. Small cc "n u'7frd "rrrt bram'" have Ken mad" ?* $6.3to ?6 50. Holders generally firm at the latter figures. Cry millers are not disjnwd to take *6.$0, though small transac tion. are reported at that price. Corn meal is firm at $5 per ,. 8om? Nothing done in rye flour. The in spections of flour are unusually large for the wason. . ales of good to prime red wheat at 129 to 133 cents . white do, 140 to 146. Sales today of about ft.000 bu-hsla yellow corn at 'Jo to 97 cents?an advance. 1 white do. 92 t,i . 3 ; oats 40 5 rye 78; cloversced $?!. 7.f> to S.">.06$, and in good request; flaxseed 125 to 13'I cents ; timothy seod 50 per bushed. The supply of all kinds of gram small and not equal to the demand. Tax Titles in Ir.uNots.?The following item, of some interest in this region, we find iirtho Alton Telegraph of'the lath ultimo: "A correspondent of the cjuincy Herald, writing from Springfield, states iliat Jud?e Pope, of the United States Dis trict Court, has decided that all the titles, under the sale of 1823, are void?the Audiior havinir failed to allow, the timo required by /aw l*tween the advertising and the sale. Mr. Bushnell, of Quincy, who was council for the party claiming under the fax title, tried to gain the cause in connexion with the possession for seven years j but the Court adjudged that tbe Auditor's deed being void could not protect the possession."