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Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, May 22, 1847, Image 3

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"Liberty aud Union, uuw and forever, oue aud
SATURDAY, MAY 22, 1847.
This paper id about to be enlarged to exactly twice iU pre
seut size, and will then consist of eight folio puges, instead of
four, an now and heretofore.
This enlargement will begin with the first number issued
after the end of the month of J uno.
The Subscription to the paper per year will be, after the
first day of July ensuing, Three Dollars per annum; being
an advance, as will be pcrceived, less by one-half than the
increase of cost of publication caused by the enlargement.
For the long Sessions of Congress (aversging eight months)
the price will be Two Dollars ; for the short Sessions One
Dollar per copy.
A reduction of 20 per cent, (or one-fifth of the full charge)
will be made to any one who shall order and pay for, at one
time, fivo copies of the Weekly paper ; and a like reduction
of 25 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one
who will order and pay for at one time ten or more copies.
No accounts being kept for this paper, it will not be for
warded to any one unless paid for in advance, not sent any
longer than the time for which it is so paid for.
will continue to be published, as usual, at Ten Dollars per
year, with this addition to its value to Subscribers : that a
double sheet (eight pages of the present size, instead of four)
will be thrown off whenever the press of Public Documents,
Proceedings and Debates in Congress, or of Advertisements,
shall require it.
will also continue to be published, as heretofore, with this ad
dition also to its value : that a double sheet will be thrown
off, probably as often as onse a week during the Session of
Congress, and at other times occasionally, whenever the press
of matter shall, as stated in regard to the Daily' paper, justify
the Publishers in incurring that additional expense.
We learn that the following appointments and
changes in office have been made by the President:
Commodore Charles W. Skinner to be Chief
of the Bureau of Construction, &c. in the Navy
Department, in the place of Commodore Charles
Morris, resigned, we regret to learn, on account of
ill health. {
Skth Barton, Solicitor of the Treasury, to be I
Charge d'Afi'aires to Chili, in the place of William
K. H. Gillet, Register of the Treasury, to be
Solicitor of the Treasury, vice Barton.
I he Richmond Enquirer seems to take it un-1
kindly that, in noticing its absurd proposition that
the desolating march of our armies into the heart
of Mexico constituted "the progress of civiliza-1
tion, we omitted the passage following this most
extraordinary position, viz:
"Already we see a press established at Jalapa,
' diffusing light and liberty around it. The in
habitants ol that beautiful region cannot but be
? devated by a contact with the free citizens of our
' Republic ; and no one can deny that the war will
4 exert a powerful moral influence upon the destinv
? of Mexico." \
We are sorry that the ? Enquirer" cannot ap
preciate kindness and forbearance, such as ours was I
in omitting this passage; which we did not copy!
only because we had no desire to expose the En
quirer to the ridicule which cannot fail to attend the
notion of a press, which is merely a follower of
our camp, and published in our language, " diffusing
light and liberty" among a people not one in a hun
dred of whom can read, and of whom those that
cmn read do not understand one word of what is
published in it. As to the " moral influence" of
War upon a people, conquered, exasperated, and
writhing under a sense of utter humiliation and de-J
gradation, can any idea be more preposterous ?
The Whigs of the State of North Carolina are
making active arrangements for the approaching
Congressional Eleclion, by bringing out good and I
able men in the districts last represented by Locofo
cos. Of the late members we are glad to see that
Mr. Barrixoer, of the mountain district, a firm and
consistent and talented Whig, has consented to stand
for re-election.
Gen. Taylor's Opinion.?In a letter to the
Hon. J. W. Miller, U. S. Senator from New
Jersey, Gen. Taylor, speaking of the revolutions
in Mexico, says : " While these intestine divisions
pre\ent Mexico from putting forth her strength in
? defensive war, it is much to be feared that they
' will equally incapacitate her for making peace."
In the course of six weeks, after effecting with
out loss the landing of a large force in front of an
enemy having a considerable number of disposable
troops, Gen. Scott has taken about eight thousand
prisoners, amongst whom were ten Generals, two
cities, two famous castles, five hundred pieces of
ordnance, and ten thousand stand of arms. Even
more: he has pursued the enemy with unrelaxing
vigor, so that the opposing army is scattered to
the winds, and their great General wanders, almost
abandoned, in the mountains, whilst the invaded
country now lies, as it were, prostrate before him
and his victorious columns.?Xew Orleans Times.
" The two armies of Scott and T*tu,*, it j, wj||
' celebrate the declaration of American Independence in Mexi
' co on the 4th of July next"? Wankingtnn Union.
I pon this on dit the Louisville Journal makes
the following pungent remarks:
" W e know not how others may feel, but for our
seivcs we confess that we should have no heart
for the celebration of the anniversary of the Inde
pendence of the United States in the conquered
? capital of a sister Republic?the fallen capital of
the only great Republic besides our own upon the
4 face of the earth?conquered in one of the most
? iniquitous wars recorded in the dark and bloodv
' annals of mankind."
The Messrs. Barinos's Commercial Circular,
dated at London on the 3d instant, remarks, " that i
' <he liberal contributions forwarded and still to |
; 7,me from the citizens of the United States, for
' the relief of Ireland, have not only been acknow
' ledged in Parliament, but highly appreciated by
the country at large ; and, besides the actual be-!
nefit conferred upon our suffering fellow-country-!
' J".?' "how feeing? of sympathy which cannot
fad to be reciprocated on this side, and to draw
? closer the ties of peace and good will between i
' the two nations."
Transfer of Fund..?'The officers of Govern
ment, finding that they could not untie the knot of
the snbtreasury law, have cut it. Corning At Co '
of the city of New York, have transferred a million 1
of dollars to New Orleans, taking the money there
and a commission for the service.?Jour, of Com.
In another part of this paper we estimate, in round
numbers, at one hundred thousand men, the Mili
tary force which it would be necessary lor the
United States to place and maintain in Mexico, in
the event of its being determined, as proposed, to
overrun that whole country, and retain possession
of what we may thus occupy. It is a remarkable
coincidence that the Editors of the " Cincinnati
Chronicle"?more accurately informed, probably,
of the statistics of Mexico than we?close their
consideration of the subject, in the subjoined arti
cle, with an estimate of precisely the same amount.
" If we are to conquer and occupy all Mexico,"
say they, " we nhould have one hundred thou
sand men in the field."
The extract of a Letter from Gen. Taylor's
camp, which we also subjoin, shows how very far
short of the necessary strength to enable him to
hold hin own, will be his force when the released
Volunteers leave him, as they are even now doing,
to return to their homes.
The War?The Amir in Mexico.?We have been vic
torious in all our movement*) in Mexico; and, as to oj>en hat
tlcH in the field, uo reasonable man could expect any other
eveut. But there is another result to which we have now
arrived, not anticipated in the plans of those who made
the war, and but little thought of by the people themselves,
and which is the worst of events for our own couutry. It is,
when, having t>cen repeatedly victorious, and conquering and
overrunning all the territories, cilies, and towns in our way,
we should at last have to occupy, defctid, and dispose of
the cities and territories we have conquered, in a tropical cli
mate, exposed to diseases worse than battles?to momentary
insuirectioris on the part of an exasperated population, and
to a partisan warfare far more fatal than the most bloody
battles. This is the scene to which we are now called, and
which demands all the wisdom and patriotism of the country
Suppo e the very best state of the case, (not peace,) where
are we ? A small and gallant armv, under Scott, enters
Mexico?what then Is the Mexican people subdued ? Was
Russia subdued when Napoleon entered Moscow Is a tro
pical climate any better to endure for men brought up in a
temperate zone than a northern winter '
The last advices from Scott's army, at Jalapa, represent a
state of things which military men will understand, but
which men unaccustomed to consider the necessities of an
army will hardly comprehend as the consequences of victory
As on the Rio Grande, so on the road to Mexico, each mile
of advance lengthens the line of communications?demandt
increased means of transportation, greater depots of provi
sions, new garrisons, new outposts ; in fine, increases in much
greater proportion than the actual distance the diflicultier
both of advance and defence. At Jalapa, sixty-eight milef
from Ve ra Cruz, and not one-fourth the distance to Mexico,
Scott is embarrassed and detained by the same causes which
arrested Gen. Taylor's march to San Luis de Potosi.
It is in vain to deny that our Government has entered on n
war without sagacity, and have conducted it without any pre
science as to its needs or its consequences. If the conquesi
and holding of Mexico be the thing to be done, why have w<
not double as many troops there ? Are we to conquer and
hold a vast country, with eight millions of people, with twen
ty-five thousand } That is all we have, and all we shall have,
by the 1st of July. Suppose Scott in Mexico, and the prin
cipal places taken, let us see what is necessary :
In the city of Mexico 12,000
Do Pypbla 5,000
Do Jalapa 1,000
Do _ Perote 1,000
Do VeraCruz 2,000
Line of Vera Cruz and Mexico 21,000
Point Isabel 500
Matamoros 1,000
Camargo 1,000
Monterey 2,000
Saltillo 1,000
Line of the Rio Grande 5,500
San Luis de Potosi 8,000
Victoria .1,000
Tampico 2,000
Line of San Luis 11,000
Santa Fe 1,000
Chihuahua 1,000
Detachments 1,000
Line of Santa Fa 3,000
California 2,000
Out parties 2,000
Baggage trains ; 2,000
Total army. 46,500
This is all of it wanted for the lines in which we are m,u
moving, without any occupation at all of the remaining pro
vinces of Mexico, comprehending one half the empire ! What,
then, are our Government calculating upon >
We must close this view of the subject with these plain
propositions : If we are to conquer and occupy all Mexico,
we should have one hundred thousand men in the field. If
we are not to do that, it is absurd to advance further. One
of these propositions should be adopted.
Extract of a Letter from Lieut. Corwine.
"Camp near Monteret, April 4, 1847.
" No little speculation is indulged in by the officers of Gen.
Taylor's command as to what course he will adopt sftei the
term of service of the present vofunteer force now out here
shall have expired?whether, with the small and insignificant
force with which he is to be furnished, he will remain at Mon
terey, or whether he will fall back to the Rio Grande. Some
are of opinion that he will bring up the four regiments (which
it is understood are all that have been assigned for him) to
Monterey, and such supplies as he may want, and hold the
place?throwing the responsibility of opening the line of com
munication with the Rio Grande upon the Government. Not|
a few believe that he will adopt the former course, namely,
fall back to Camargo or Matamoros. One thing is evident,
he cannot hold the country he has conquered unless he is
supplied with more troops than have been sent to him. With
the four regiments he will be able to hold Monterey, but Sal
tillo will have to be abandoned, and the whole line from Mon
terey to the Brnsos left unprotected. This would present a
mont deplorable slate of things ; the victorious leader of our
army shut up, as it were, in the enemy's country, and cut off
from all communication with his own ! Why, the foraging
parties of the enemy that have of late infested the country be
tween here and Camargo could then retnke all the towns on
the Rio Grande. What a humiliating sight ! Can it lie that
our Government will leave the old hero in this strait ' And
yet, if Gen. Taylor is not furnished with more troops by the
1st of June, one of two alternatives is left him : either to
abandon the country he has conquered, and full back on Ca
margo, or else concentrate his forces in Monterey, leaving it
to the Government to open a communication with him."
The Fourth District Settled.?At a second meeting
of the sheriffs, held on Monday last, the following result was
arrived at: For Trvino (Whig) 331, for Bocock (Loeo)
334. The latter, of course, gets the certificate, and it is sta
ted that Mr. Irtino will contest his right to it.
The Halifax District.?The Lynchburg Virginian un
derstands that Mr. Trkdwat will nut contest the election of
Mr. Floi-rnot, whose majority is 59, instead of one, Ra of
ficially reported?the votes at one ol the precincts in Patrick,
which gave Mr. F. 58 majority, having been thrown out by
the sheriff in consequence ol-the omission to qualify the com
Contribution of Vinoinia.?The barque Bachelor nail
ed from Richmond on Thursday, laden with provisions, cloth
ing, Ac. for the relief of the suffering pioor of Ireland. The
cargo is valued at altout fifteen thousand dollars, and consists
of the following articles, viz : 2,434 Imrrels ami 150 hags corn
meal, 242 barrels corn, 52 barrel* flour, 2 hogsheads and five
barrels bacon, 19 boxes and two bales clothing, and one bar
rel rice. Another vessel is to be dispatched from the same
port next month on a similar misaion.
We had occasion, in our last, to refer to the
apparently predominant sentiment in the city of
New Orleans in favor of War, Conquest, and An
nexation, as signs of Glory to us, and harbingers
of Prosperity and Happiness to such neighboring
nations as we may undertake to harry and uproot.
We find in a popular paper of that city, which has
since reached us, further evidence of the fact, in the
publication, without any expression of dissent, of a
letter from Brasos, under dale of May 3, from which
we extract the following :
" Does it occur to you that this is the anniversa
4 ry of the glorious 3d, when our batteries first
4 opened on the Mexicans ? Of course you have
4 (3 P. M.) your decanter at your side. Your good
1 health, Messrs. Editors ! and here's to the meino
4 ry of4 the days of May, 184(5,' &c. &c.
44 Let me fill your glass again, Messrs. Editors.
4 Here's to the destiny of our country ; it mubt be
4 accomplished. Is not the progress of our arms
4 but forming, as it were, a broad high-road on
4 which shall travel civilization and liberty ??a
4 broad high-road, which, sweeping across the
4 mighty continent of the western hemisphere,
4 shall continue to enlarge until, binding nation
4 with nation, language with language, hemisphere
4 with hemisphere, it shall havk performed the
Will our readers wake up now ? Will the Peo
ple rouse themselves, Bhake off their lethargy, and
uphold and protect their institutions, their rights,
and their liberties, whilst it is yet in time ? Or
will they continue to slumber in sloth and apathy,
until, under the influence of this mad Ambition and
this rage for Conquest, every thing in this Govern
ment that is worth preserving will be swept away
by the Tornado which already glooms and growls
in the horizon.
As a contrast to these baleful doctrines, the natu
ral growth of War, which have sprung up to view
only within the last few weeks, we have pleasure
in placing before our readers, in the subjoined ex
tracts, the calm, sagacious, and truly constitutional
views of those veterans of our profession who,
when they speak advisedly, always speak well and
wisely. We wish we had room to day for more of
The new chapter which iu opened in the history of our
country contains ntrendy many atrnnge passages ; and none
are more so, none are more startling, none more calculated to
arouse the attention, if not fears, of reflecting and right-judg
ing men, than those which relate to the acquisition and an
nexation of the vast region on the other side of the continent,
hitherto belonging to Mexico, and of tho nature, extent, and
use of which we are as yet so little acquainted. Already
these far-off provinces of this vast empire?Republic seems
rtow hardly to be the proper word?are placed under the con
trol of our pro-consuls and (Jovernment officers, with military
titles and command, uniting in their own persons civil and
military power, and ruled with an authority not known or re
cognised by our constitution and laws. Communication be
tween them and tho Government at home is tedious and diffi
cult, and the transmission of orders slow and interrupted.
No one can see what will lie the end of all this. It is at best,
all must admit, an experiment. These far-ofVprovinces may
attach themselves firmly to our country ; and they may not.
That is yet to be determined. But the question recurs, with
a force not to be resisted, how came they to l>e annexed ; and
what is to prevent the annexation of every thing else that
may be desired, in the same manner, and on the same terms'
Let us pause, and look into the future, with calm judgments.
Is it too late } Are we so far on the road of progress that wt
cannot halt ' Are we hurried on by an irresistible impulse,
which patriotism itself cannot impede ' We trust not. " We
will not despair" of our country, nor think yet that it is to be
doomed to a fatal expansion from the lust of dominion, and
the love of conquest and acquisition. We invoke here, as we
do upon all occasions in these days of rcckless improvidence,
the truo ffkervatire ^eling of the country.
If any thing could excite our surprise in these days, it
would be the remarks of the New York Sun of Monday last,
on the question, " What are we to do with Mexico '" It
says : 44 We believe there is but one course to pursue, and
that is, the entire occupation of the country, taking its reve
nues until the expenses of the war, including all bsses sus
'ained by our commerce and otherwise during the war, and
our old debt, principal and interest, with all expenses of col
lecting the same, are paid. No treaty should be luadr short
of exacting all this, and insisting upon such a disposition of
things for the future in Mexico as will promote our interests
without abridging hers." This would be a nominal seizure
for indemnity, but a real and perpetual annexation of Mexico
to the United States?an act which would !>e inconsistent
with the principles of justice, and revolting to the moral feel
ing of mankind. It is downright hypocrisy to talk of holding
possession of Mexico until we shall I* fully indemnified for
"the ex (lenses of the war, including all losses sustained by
our commerce and otherwise during the war, and our old
debt, principal and interest, with all expenses for collecting
the same and of then Testoring her to the free enjoyments
of her rights. Our bill of costs would never be liquidated,
nor would Mexico ever be liberated. The worst and most
dangerous feeling which can lie entertained by the Govern
ment and people of the United States is that of conquest. It
has no limitation to its desires, nor would it ever be satisfied.
The conquest of Mexico would beget a thirst for new territo
ry, and we should seize upon our weaker neighbors in mere
wantonness of spirit. Heaven forbid that the advice given
by the New York editor should he adopted by our Govern
ment i for it would strike a fatal blow not only at the liberties
of Mexico, but at the existence of our own Government, at
the same time that it would bring upon us the scorn of man
kind. No?let us not stain our fair character by an act so
atrocious, but, on the contrary, endeavor to regulate our con
duct by the golden maxim, 44 Do as we would lie done by."
Whatever difference of opinion there may lie about the
origin of the war, all parties must begin to feel the necessity
of putting an end to it as soon as it can Ite done consistently
with existing circumstances, without reference alone to the
consent of Mcxico. That wretched country is now in a con
dition, when chastisement must ere long degrade the party
inflicting it. as it would an individual who has l?een provok
ed by tho insolence of a loafer to knock him down, and still
continues to pummel him while he is no longer able to resist,
though he refuses to beg for quarter. And what good are we
likely to derive from continuing to harass Mexico ' Torn as
she is by domestic factions, which are only prolonged by the
war, we only diminish her capacity to make peace by caus
ing a diminution of the responsibility of her (Jovernment.
Probably at this very moment the nation is without a head.
Her valorous chief, the redoubtable Hanta Anna, is now dri
ven to his last shift, like his prototype, the hero of Gadshill,
but, unlike him, without any hope of getting off by subter
fuge and lying. How will he face the indignation and ven
geance of his abused and betrayed countrymen ' He must
infallibly flee his country, or suffer tho penally of his base
cowardice and corruption. As long as this state of things
exists in Mexico we cannot have peace. What, then, are
we to do ' Shall pre occupy her capital and all her fortified
places, her coasts and harbors?in a word, shall we hold the
Republic of Mexico, 44 from Dan even to Beersbeha," as a
conquered province, and extend our jurisdiction over the coun
try, so as to enforce her people to pay the expense which we
shall incur in keeping her in thraldom ; or, continuing to oc- i
cupy her sealioard on the Gulf and the Pacific, withdraw our ,
armies from the interior and take up a line of occupation
along what we intend to lie the permanent boundary between
the two Republics, namely, from the mouth of the Rio '
Giande to the Passo del Norte, and from the latter to the Pa
cific ' We shall thus leave the Mexicans in quiet |x>micasion
of their country, with the exception of their seaports, with
full leisure to form a regular and stable government, if thry |
should be so disposed, competent to make a treaty of peace i
and amity with ua ; which they would not l>e slow to do, !>e- i
ing taxed through their imports for the expense which we i
were inclining in the employment of our army anil navy on i
her borders. And it is not improbable that 44 to this com- i
plexion we shall come at laat." I
Our friend uud correspondent at New Orleans
informs us of llie arrival there of the steamer James
L. Day, from Vera Cruz on the Oth, bringing among
her passengers Gen. Pillow and Col. May, the
latter having got on board at Brasos.
The city Of Pueblahad sent a deputation to (Jen.
Scott, and will make no resistance to his occupa
tion of that place.
Arrangements had been made to defend the capi
tal, but after Gen. Pillow was on board at V era
Cruz he received a message from shore stating that
an express had arrived with intelligence that the
Mexican Government had abandoned the capital,
taking with it the archives, and that the citizens
had sent a deputation to Gen. Scott to advance
and afford them protection.
Proclamations were being circulated by the Mex
icans calling for the organization of guerilla regi
ments, which plan of warfare was to be adopted on
an extensive scale.
In consequence of sickness, death, and loss in
battle, it is said that Gen. Scott will not have left
in his army more than about 5,000 effective men,
after the return of the volunteers whose time shortly
expires, and whom Gen. Pillow states will return
almost to a man. Of. the seven regiments, he says
not a company will remain.
Santa Anna's army was entirely dispersed, and
he, wholly without power and influence, was seek
ing to leave his country.
Gen. Taylor remained at Monterey, and the
main body of his ariny at Buena Vista, without any
prospect of an immediate advance. All the new
troops recently intended for him were, under a new
order, to be sent to Vera Cruz.
A party of Americans arrived at New Orleans
on the 10th instant from Chihuahua, by way of Red
river. They set off, about thirty in number, under
the command of Major Campbell, of Springfield,
Missouri. They travelled by the route of the Pre
sidio, having left Chihuahua on the 15th of March.
They suffered incredible hardships on the march,
and had several skirmishes with the Camanche In
dians, who always showed themselves timid when
opposed in earnest.
Col. Doniphan was, in the absence of instruc
tions, at a loss to know what course to pursue. The
term of service of his regiment expires early in
June. The command was in the enjoyment of ex
cellent health.
The brig Mary Ann Jones arrived yesterday from
Havana, having sailed on the 2d instant.
From Central America news had been received
by one or two arrivals, and of some importance.
President Carrf.ra has withdrawn Guatemala alto
gether from the Confederation of Central America,
and declared her a separate and independent Re
public. The States of Salvador and Nicaragua are
laboring to effect a political union on the plan, it is
said, of our own Union. Commissioners have
been appointed from both States, who are to meel
at the port of La Union, in the bay of Conchagua,
to endeavor to effect the desirable event. A mani
festo appears from Gen. Carrera, assigning reason?
for withdrawing from any more attempts of thif
kind. It is an able document, but quite too long
for us. He evidently is jealous of designs whicl
he suspects the United States entertain of obtain
ing command of the Isthmus at some point, am
alludes quite pointedly to our designs of conques
in that direction.
All Central America appears to be quiet. Costj
Rica, it is thought, will follow the example ol
Guatemala, and declare herself independent.
At length we are able to speak with certainty in
relation to the negotiations for the completion of the
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. On Tuesday last
they were successfully concluded in the city of
Boston. We do not think it necessary to enter
into details, but will state that the amount required
for the completion of the canal will be obtained
from the following sources :
$300,000 from Virginia ;
300,000 from the Barings ;
100,000 from Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria
200,000 from capitalists in Boston ;
200,000 to be taken by the contractors.
Making $ 1,100,000?the aura required for the completion of
the canal to Cumberland.
It is with the deepest satisfaction that we make
this announcement. We hope in our next to an
nounce the arrival of the contractors for the imme
diate commencement of the work.
The latent account* received from Santa Fe are to the 3d
of April. Col. PaicR, with about 450 troopa, was in Santa
Fe; the remainder of hit command was Mattered through the
country, aome guarding the horses and stock, and other* gar
risoning posts. The volunteers were enjoying better health
than they had previously done ; still very few of the whole
number had escaped sickness.
Nkw Orlraxs, Mat 10, 1847.
Thr Crrvasse ?We regret to state that a crevasse occur
ed in the levee at Algiers, opposite the city, on Saturday,
altout 11 o'clock. It was occasioned by a landslide, in which
some thirty or forty feet of the levee was at first included, but
which rapidly extended, and when we raw it, late in the af
ternoon, it was one hundred and twenty to one hundred and
fifty feet wide. The river, unfortunately, is extremely high,
and the country in the rear is from six to eight feel lower than
the surface of the water; the flood, consequently, rushes
through with the velocity of a mill-tail. The town and coun
try around are already covered with water, ami there is at
least three feet on the race track.
The old hull of a large steamlntat, full of water, had been
place*I aero* the aperture, but without any good effect, aa
close down by her inner side, where the levee existed in the
morning, there is one hundred feet water, and the current, of
course, pasaea under the bottom of the boat without any in
This crevasse, if not checked, will probably overflow a
large portion of the plantations below the city down to the
English Turn, and also those at Barataria. The only regu
lar outlet for the water will be Bayou Barataria, which of it
sell will l>e unable so disgorge it without overflowing its banks
and flooding at least all the lower portions of the plantations,
all of which we believe are, with one exception, unprotected
by private levees in the rear of their cultivated ground. It is
possible that the very low grounds, which exist to a large ex
tent through that district of country, may enable the water to
work its way into Lake Ourcha and Little Lake, and so on to
the ocean, without rising so high as to flood the whole surface
of the country. We sincerely hope, though we have not
much confidence, that this will be the case. ? Rullrtin.
Tint Crkvassr.?The New Orleans papeis of the 14th
state that the break in the levee opposite that city was nearly
overcome, and that by the next day the new levee would be
extended acroea the opening. There had l>een nearly three
hundred men at work upon it for the last three dav?.
From a communication in the Cincinnati (Jaxette, we find
that the late frosts have proved so destructive to stone-fruits
that of lVathes, Nectarines, and Apricots not one blossom in
ten thousand is supposed to have survived them, and not more
than one in a hundred of Pears, Cherries, and Plums. The
iame failure of the fruit crop is general in this neighborhood,
though there are in particular localities a few exceptions to the
general fact.
Messrs. Gales & Heaton : Permit me to avail myself of
your columns, which have Utii freely thrown open to ducus
sions of the discovery and of the orbit of the new planet Nep
tune, to make known to the public the complete confirmation
of the re-diacovcry of it, for the date of May 10, 1705, (a* a
now Hawing star in the Histoire Celeste Pranvaiae,) made by
me on the aecond day of February last. This was announced
to the public in the Union of Fabiuary 9,* by Lieut. Mti'm,
Superintendent of the Washington Observatory, in a letter,
dated February 8th, addressed to the Secretary of the Navy.
A more full account of the step* which led me to it has alrea
dy appeared in your paper of April 15.
The only circumstance that then caused the least doubt qf
the certainty of the discovery was a colon placed against the
puUinhed on try in the Histoire Celeste, indicating that the
star's place might be doubtful to the amount of five minutes.
It appears from the European journals received by the last
steamer, and by private letters, that the same discovery was
made at Altona by the assistant observer, Dr. Petersen,f
some time in March last, (more than a month after the date
of mine.) The two announcements from Washington and
Altona reached Levkrkiku at Paris at the same time. In
his communication to the French Academy he speaks of the
discovery as une idei ingeniewte. As might have been ex
pected, the precious depository of the manuscripts of Lalande
was examined, 4 when one more wonder was added to the list
of Strang?events in the history of Neptune. Ijalaniik ob
served the star twice, viz. on the 8th and 10th May, 1795.
As the two entries did not agree, he suppressed the former, and
in his printed book marked the Utter rhmbtful. Had La
linde, on comparing the entries and perceiving the discre
pancy, adopted the course pursued by Piazzi (und now pur
sued at the Washington Observatory) of promptly resorting
to a third observation to solve the mystery, (he most brilliant
discovery in the history of the world would not have been re
served for a Leverrier or an Aiiams. There is no doubt
ful mark in the original manuscripts, and there should be
none; for two better observationsLalande pever made. I
subjoin the entries as they are quoted from the manuscript :
Clock time uf trail nit. Zenith dint.
May 8, 1795, star 7.8 mag. t I4h. Urn. 36.5a. ; 60? 8' 17"
May 10, 1795, Mar 7.8 mag. , 14h. 11m. 2:j 5s. ; 60? 7' 19"
Two days' motion retrograde; 13s., north 58"
These observations, after being corrected for the error of
clock and quadrant, and referred to the mean equinox of- Jan
uary 1, 1847, give the planet's place.
May 8, 1795, R.A. 14h. 14m. 44.10s. 8. dec 11? 34'50.4"
May 10, 1795, II. A. 14h. 14m. 34.14s. 8. dec. 11? 34'04.1"
Two days' motion retrograde ,? 11.96s., north 52.3"
The actual motion in the same interval, according to my
ephemeris of Neptune lor May, 1795, was retrograde 12.13s.,
north 62."8.
Here, then, is the key to the mystery. The doubtful star
(now no longer so) was Neptune. The two observations
uive for the 9th of .May, 1795, a normal placc of the planet,
which restores fifty-two years of observation, and enables us
to perfect its theory. I quote from the report of Lieutenant
Macrt, of February 8th, my elements III of Neptune,
computed on the 6th and reported to him. I append also
Elements V, completed by me on the 2d of May.
Elements of Neptune referred Elements 111.
to Greenwich mean noon, and computed
to the mean equinox of Janu- Feb. 6,1847.
ary 1, 1847.
Perihelion point 0? 12" '25".51
Ascending node 131? 17' 35". 80
Epoch January 1, 1847 128? T 56".64
Inclination 1? 54' 5.3".8.5
Eccentricity 0 0088407
Mean distance 30.25042
Mean daily sideieal motion. 21".3260
Period in tropical years.... 166}'.38134
Elements V.
May 2, 1847.
1? 45' 32".?J0
129? 51' 13". 53
326? H I ".34
1? 45' 38". 10
3Q. 145119
Element* III were computed to teat the discovery. Elo
merits V were derived from a discussion'of eight months' ob
servation)? of Neptune in Europe and America, 497 in all.
For the use of the recent very precise observations of Profes
sor Hlbbahu with the Washington Equatorial, I am indebt
ed to the courtesy of the Superintendent. It is due to the
Professors at the Observatory generally to acknowledge theii
aid in furnishing facilities for the work. Elements V follow
the planet's observed path for the last nine months, with an
average discrepancy of only one-third of a second of space.
The modification required by Elements V, in order to rep
resent the path of Neptune perfectly for fifty-two years, are
very slight. The node should be increased 927", and the in
clination 92.5''. It appears, moreover, that the total effect of
the perturbations of Neptune's average daily motion in this
period by -all the other planets is an acceleration of 0". 020609;
With this certainty of the orbit of Neptune, astronomers
can now prepare the usual planetary tables for its ephemeris,
and determine with precision its share in producing the resi
uuai periurnanons 01 ?. ran us.
The action of the three great planets for several years past
has been such as to produce a tide, if we may so call it, of ac
celeration of Neptune's angular motion, thus shortening its
apparent period in my elements V, which are adapted to its
path in its perturbed orbit. If we free them from the effect of
this tide, the true elliptic period of Neptune will approach
much nearer to 168 32-1000 years, or the double of that of
Uranus. There is therefore little reason to doubt the correct
ness of Prof. Peiuck's discovery of the Lapl^cian libration of
the period of Neptune around the double period of Uranus,
the first yet discovered in the primary solar system.
With regard to the question whether Neptune has really
caused the greater portion of the residual perturbations of
Uranus, it is perhaps premature to express an opinion. Its
orbit certainly does not come within the prescribed limits for
this purpose.
Knowing the general accuracy of Prof. Peirce's computa
tions, and seeing now confirmed my former elements which'
he had used as his basis, I deem it but an act of justice to
state my belief, founded on his computations, that another
planet is requisite to account for these residual perturbations.
When the particulars of Prof. Peirce's computations are
made known, astronomers will see in the still unexplained
perturbations of Uranus a source of hope, and, I may add, a
stimulus to exertion for a further enlargement of the bounda
ries of the system.
i,ai.a*iik ana i^rallis are similarly circumstanced with
respect to Neptune. Both flaw it twice in their telescope*
without di<?covering it. But, if we cannot give I.alande the
merit of sagacity in discrediting hi* own observation, we must
at least admit that he was a good prophet. The following
prediction was published by him in 1801, in the preface to the
Histoire Celeste, page fl : " The new planets," says Lnlande,
| "which pernapsexist, are another important object of our work.
? Herschel has discovered one by accident, and when another
j ' (meaning another primary planet) shall lie discovered, it
I ' will be found in our fifty thousand start, thus giving at once
I ' the means of determining its period of revolution."
It is a subject of the liveliest gratification to me to have been
the insirument, under Providence, of fulfilling, after the lapse
of half a century, the latter part of this prophecy.
Yours, respectfully,
W**mwoTO!?, Mat '20, 1847.
* This and all the other official announcements of the Su
perintendent on t.iis subject aie so worded as to conceal the
name of the real discoverer, (n yesterday's notice the dis
covery appetrs to have been made by a neutral pronoun?
"it.' Talleyrand's idea of the use of language applies well
to these announcements.
?J- Not Professor Schumacher.
t I doubt whether these manuscripts were sent to the Ger
man (not Danish) astronomer Rumker, as stated in the same
Fatal AceiOtirr.?The young men of Shelbyville, Ten
nessee, undertook, on the night of the 10th instant, to fire a
salute for (>en. Hcott's late victory. A letter from that town
to the Nashville Whig says:
"On the sixth round a premature explosion took place,
which blew off the hand and one arm of Mr. A. Turrentine, 1
formerly editor of the Shelbyville Whig, and shattered both
arms of Mr. John Sutton, while Dr. Scott, who had charge
of the vent, lost the thumb of his right hand. Mr. Mutton
underwent the amputation of both arms ; a similar operation
was performed upon Mr. Turrentine, which he survived only
twenty hours, he receiving several internal injuries."
The Boston Traveller of Friday says : "There are vati
oua rumors abroad in Boston in respect to the defalcations of
a late President of one of our tianks. The amount is stated
at #60,000, and it is also stated that the guilty party is not
it present in this country " (
Baltimore, May 21?8 P. M.
The Annual Convention of the Epucopal Church of the
Diocese of Maryland will commence its session in St. Paul's
Church on Wednesday, the 29th instant. A large number
of delegates are expected to be in attendance ; among ihnu
many distinguished Divines.
During the pant week fourteen veseels have cleared from
this port, taking to England, Ireland, and Prance the follow
ing aggregate amount of hrtead stuffs, viz: 31,179 barrel*
Hour, 3,291 barrels corn meal, 29,270 bushels wheat, and
82,870 bushel* white and yellow corn, besides considerable
beef, poik, and other provisions. The receipiH of flour lor
the past week were in all 17,262 barrel*, and 2,600 bbls. corn
meal. The shipments of flour and grain now exceed the re
ceipts considerably. There are no less than twenty-four ves
sels now waiting freights of breadstuff* for the same port*.
Holders of flour this morning were firm in asking $9 for
Howard street, at Which figure some small sales took pUre.
A sale of 300 barrels in reported this afternoon at $8.7ft, a
decline ; but the general asking price for Howard street, City
Mills, and Susquehanna is ?9. Small sales of corn meal at
Hales of prime Pennsylvania red wheat at 202 a 205 cents ;
white do. is worth 110 a 115; Maryland red wheat, good lo
prime, 195 a 202. Sales of white corn at 102 a 103, and of
yellow do. 105 a 108. Oats 00; rye worth 115; clover
seed $-1.25.
Provisions in fair request. Large sales bacon?sides 9t9j
cents; hams 9 a 10 ; lard 9 a 10. Beef cattle $4.12J per
100 pounds gross ; hogs $6.50 a $7.
Whiskey is selling at 33 a 34 cents per gallon. Nothing
doing in wool; common washed is dull at 20 a 23 cents.
The receipts of tobacco are very light. The dry weather
operates against packing. Stock on hand much reduced, and
?ales haie been making at an advance. All grades find pretty
ready sale. That which could not be sold some time ago
now finds purchasers. The following quotations at present
embrace the range of prices, via: Maryland 1 50 to $3 for
inferior and common; $3 a 5.50 for good common ; $4 a 8
for good ; $6 a 14 for fine and better qualities ; Ohio com
mon to middling $1.25 a 4 ; good $4 a 7 ; fine reds $5 a 10 ;
fine yellow $5 a 11; extra kinds $10 a 13.
The Stock Market active. Salesat the Board to-day were,
$5,000 United States 6's, 1867, at 106, an advance ; $2,000
Maryland 6's 89\t an advance; $2,400 Baltimore 6's, 1890,
at 99 ; 52 shares Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 46^ a 47, and
34 shares Susquehanna Railroad 6j.
Money is plenty ; no change in the article within the last
two or three weeks. Coupons I quote at 87 a S8 on retail,
and firm.
New York, May 21?4 P. M.
Net much doing in flour. Some sales from the wharf of
Genesee at $8.25 a 8.37, and from stores for immediate de
livery, taken by pnrties under obligations to close contracts, at
$8.50. Sales on the spot of Southern brands at $9 a 9.25.
Sales of corn meal at $4.75 ; rye flour $6.12 } a 6.25. Prime
white Genesee wheat is worth $2. Vellow corn 103 a 104
cents ; white 96 a 98 ; rye 120 a 125.
Brasos, Mat 6, 1847.
Brig. Gen. Cahwallader has arrived here, and assumed
the command of the lower Rio Grande, and has established a
camp at Palo Alio, for the instruction of the new regiments
as they arrive. About 1,500 are already there, Mid will be
greatly augmented in a few weeks. They appear to be a good
cla8n of men. We are informed the General will make hi*
headquarters at the camp, so noon as he can complete his ar
rangements for forwarding supplies.
We have no news of importance from Gen. Taylor, who
?is at Monterey. The year-men are about starting, and pro
bably not a company out of all the regiments attached to Gen.
Taylor's column can be retained in the service. They are
anxious to return to their homes and friends, and, more than
all, are disgusted with the management of the war. It would,
however, do your heart good to hear them speak of General
correspondence of the pjcatcne.
In Camr, nsar Monterey, Arm 33.
A train of 127 wagons arrived from Camargo on Friday, and
brought a late mail from the States, and among it a number
of communications for Gen. Taylor from the War Depart
ment. If the on dit is true here, the Department has not
condescended to take the slightest notice of the GeneraTs
communications for many months.
I fear there is not much, if any, prospect of an onward
movement, as there is now no force adequate to such an un
dertaking. The time of nearly all the twelve months' volun
teers will expire very shortly, and unless they should desire
to stay beyond their time for the purpoae of going to Sen
Luis, and which it is not likely they will do, there is no pro*.,
pect of a speedy movement. Now is the very time when tin
most vigorous measures should be pushed, and it is unfortu
nate that Gen. Taylor ha* been left without adequate means
to operate effectively.
Accounts have l>eeii received here from San Luis as late a*
the 7th instant, and they represent the Mexican army as en
tiiely broken up and disheartened, as well as the people. Mr.
Freeman, an intelligent American, who has lived in San Luis
for a number of years, arrived yesterday from that place. He
states with the greatest confidcnce that not more than 10,000
of Santa Anna's army engaged at Buena Vista reached San
Luis. Hundreds deserted on the march, and hundreds died
on the road, or were left sick and wounded. He say* that the
entire length of the road presents a most sad feature?graves
>n every side, unburied bodies, sick and broken down soldiers
it all the ranch >8, and every other evidence of a routed, dis
ipirited, starved, and broken down army. Is it to be supposed
hat Mexico ever can raise another army of such strength *
In this region it is the unanimous opinion that she never can
iring such another army into the field during this war.
Illinois VoLUWTF.itm.?The Governor's Proclamation, in
accordant with the requisition of the Piesident of the Unit
ed State* for one regiment of infantry and one company of
cavalry, whh issued on the 29ih ultimo. It was filled on the
Bth mutant hy the following companies : ?
From Schuylnr county, (rivalry,) Capt. A. Dunlap.
Four companies, one from Alton, Capt. Wheeler; one
from Edwardsvillc, Capt. Nile*.; one from Vandalia, ('apt.
Lee; and one from (Jreen, (Japt. Bristow, were reported but
a few hours after the requisition was filled.
Bond do (infantry,)
Thos. Bond.
C. Turner.
J. M. Cunningham.
E. B. W. Newby
U. W. Hook.
11 ? Kerney.
Marion do do
Williamson do do
Brown do do
St Clair do do
Cook do do
LaSalle do do
Williamson do do
Shelby do do
Pike do do
.las. Hampton.
K. Madison.
J. B. Donaldson.
H. J. Reed.
[Springfield Journal, May 13.
Firr *nn Distrkssino Loss or LirK.?On the night of
the 22d ultimo, the house of Mr. Stsphb* Iwbram, near
Lancaster, Sehuyler county, in the State of New Vork, wu
discovered to be on tire. The alarm was given by Mra. Ingram 5
and the husband, upon awakening, found that two aides of
the house, including the door and every thing con'igunus to
it, were in flames. The only alternative to escape was through
the roof, (the house was a small cabin,) ami they agreed that
Mr. Ingram should open a hole and jump out, and that the
wife should hand out the children, six in number. But, as
soon as nir was given, the whole house was enveloped in
the llames, which rushed out at the opening which he had
made. Only one scream was heard, which was when the
mother roused the children from their sleep. Mr. I. instantly
burst open the door, but was unable to render any assistance
to the unfortunate inmalea. He could only look in and see
that they had all sunk together, under their mother's outstretch
ed arms. The fire ia supposed to have communicated to some
shavings from ashes which were thrown under the house. A
more distressing calamity has rarely been witnessed.
A New York letter in the Philadelphia Inquirer says: A
singular suicide was committed by a poor degraded specimen
of humanity in thi? city yesterday, in the following deliberate
manner. He went out on the Harlem Railroad as fur aa 42d
street, where he divested himself of all his?lothing, save his
shirt. He made a bundle of them, and placed his boots on
the top, and then left them in the centre of one track, He
then laid his Inxly across the rails on the other track, where
it was found this morning severed in two. It was one of the
most deliberate cases of suicide that ever occurred in this city.

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