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Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, October 02, 1847, Image 2

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NATIONAL INTP^LIGEI^ER.
THE HISTORY" OF THIS WAR.
Mr. J. P. Kennedy, the distinguished candidate
to represent the city of Baltimore in the next Con
gress, is performing a most acceptable service in
placing before his late (and it is to be hoped fu
ture) constituents a view of the origin, history, and
character of the War with Mexico, which, as far
as we have read of it, and now give to our readers
as follows, we pronounce to be unanswerable.
To the Citizens of the Fourth Congressional Dis
trict, and particularly to the Mechanics and W'orkingmen
of that District of both political parties.
My subject is now the Mexican war. I mean to devote
this and one or two other letters to thut subject, for two rea
sons: first, that, intrinsically, il is a very important topic to
ihe people of the United Slates just now ; and, second, be
cause there has been a great deal of studied and perverse mis
representation spread abroad in regard to it, with a view to
bring the Whigs into disesteem, and to cover up and conceal
a very awkward political blunder made by Mr. Polk. The
outcry, however, has not yet hurt the Whigs in the opinion
of any judicious man, nor has it been very successful in
hiding Mr. Polk's delinquencies lroni the public. Some men
seem to think that to slander the V\ higs is the best wav to
screen the President. Mr. Polk himself has set the example
in his last annual message, in which he intimates that any
man who will not adopt his opinion uWut the origin of the
war is a traitor. A traitor for not believing what he (the
President) announces to be a fact ! Some of "the organs"
repeat this miserable slang. One of them says, for instance,
the treason of benedict Arnold is nothing" compared to
this refusal of the Whigs to believe Mr. Polk?for that is the
amount of it. M hen men write and publish such drivelling
nonsense as this, it only shows what a contemptuous opinion
thev have for those whom they expect to believe them.
I intend to give you a history of the origin of the present
war, which I shall take as much &s possible from the official
records of the country, and from the recorded opinions and
proceedings of the most distinguished leaders of the Demo
cratic paity. These I shall endeavor to lay before you in
the simplest and clearest narrative I can give. You will then
be able to judge for yourselves whether Ihe Whigs are right
or wrong in what they have said and done about this war.
It is proper, therefore, before I begin the narrative, that I
should explain to you what have been and arc the opinions
and resolves of the Whips in regard to the war. I will do
'his in a few words :
First. The Whig party believe that whatever wrongs
or injuries Mexico may have done to this country?and we do
not deny they were many?still the President had no right to
make war upon Mexico without the consent of Congress, to
whom the war-making power exclusively belongs.
Second. That the present war. did not begin by the act
?f Mexico, as Mr. Polk declared, but began by the act of Mr.
i oik himself, in ordering an army to march into territory un
der the jurisdiction of Mexico, for the acquisition of which
our Government had projnjsed to open negotiations with
Mexico, in the hope of being able to purchase it from that
nation.
Third. The Whigs have held and still hold the opinion
'notwithstanding the manner this war was commenced) that,
being commenced, their duty was to give to the administra
? ion all the supplies of men and money which it might ask
for to prosecute the war to a successful termination ; and, in
accordance with this opinion, they have voted for every thing
a?ked for that purpose by the Government, and will continue
so to vote, if the war is to be continued.
The Whigs, in common with the whole country, feel a
grateful pride in the gallantry of our soldiers and in the glo
"ious success of their arms. In proof of their willingness to
encounter the perils and sacrifices of the war, they have fur
nished their share?and more than their share?of the bravest
officers and men to the army. Without, therefore, boasting
to 1* more patriotic than their opponents, they treat with be
conling scorn all attempts to represent them as wanting in
iove of country, or in any just appreciation of its true glory.
These are the views and sentiments of the Whigs, every
where announced and kted upon.
I now proceed to show upon what foundation their opinions
have been formed in regard to Mr. Polk's conduct in the ori
gin of the war.
This will require that I should recall a few facU connected
with the annexation of Texas. The treaty for the annexation
was made at Washington on the 12th of April, 1844. This
treaty was rejected by the Senate on the 8th of June follow
ing, by a vote of 35 to 16?Messrs. licnton and Wright both
voting against it.
I have given these two names because they may be consi
dered undisputed leaders of the Democratic party.
What were their objections to this treaty > I shall presently
quote their own words to show what their objections were ;
but before I do so, it is necessary to say a word as to the
geographical divisions of Mexico.
It has never been denied by any one that the river Nueces
was always the boundary which divided the province of Texas
from the province of Tamaulipas, through which latter pro
vince the Rio Grande runs into the Gulf? Matamoros being
its capital. This was the old boundary. And when Mexico,
in 1*21, formed her confederation of nineteen States, Tamau
lipas became one State and Texas another, with the same
:>oundary, to wit, the Nueces, separating one from the other, as
the Potomac separates Virginia from Maryland. In 1835 the
confederation was broken Up by Santa'Anna. Tamaulipas
and the other Slates joined the new Government, but Texas
?efused, revolted against that Government, and declared her
. "??epend?H:e as a separate State. That independence she
secured by the battle of Wan Jacinto, in 1836.
A few months after the battle of San Jacinto, the Congress
of Texas determined to enlarge their boundaries, and accord
ingly passed a law by which they declared their boundary on
the west to be the Rio Grande, from its mouth to its sourct,
thence due north to the 42d degree of latitude ; and from that
point along the boundary of the United States to the Gulf of
Mexico. This boundary, as you will see by looking at the
map?which I hope you will do?extends far beyond the limits
of the State of Texas as it was known to the Mexican Confe
deration, and takes in a large part of four Mexican provinces
which have never revolted against that Government, nor ever
been conquered by Texas. These four provinces are Tamau
lipas, Coahuila, Chihuahua, and New Mexico.
W hst right I exas had to extend her boundary over her
neighbors has never been explained. I find that she even had
it in contemplation to take the whole of California into her
empire, khe only did n?tf do this becaust it was not convenient.
My authoiity for this fact is a matter of public record. In
Augu?t, 1836, General Jackson sent Mr. Henry M. Morfit to
Texas, as sn agent on the part of this Government, to inquire
what was doing, and particularly to look after the subject of
annexation. This gentleman wrote several despatches to the
Government which have lwen published by Congress. In one
of these he writes ; ?? The political limits of Texas proper,
previous to the la?t revolution, were the Nueces river on the
' w,-st} along the Red river on the north ; the Sabine on the
' east, and the Gulf of Mexico on the south."
1 hen on the 27th of August, in the same year, he writes
further: "It was tfic intention of this Government, immedi
* ately after the battle of Sa? J.cmto, }? have claimed from
' th> Rio Grande along the river to the 30/A degree of lati
* rude, and thence due west to the Pacific. It was found,
. rr/'' ,h*1 lhi" W0U,,I n?' ',,rlk', a c"nrenient point in
. "l'J"rn!a' lh?' il * ^ difficult to control a wandering
. W**"* ?> -bsunt, and that the territory now determined
upon would lie sufficient for s young Republic."
!ie? let lets Inay i*. founj jf) U)c jJCumenU of {he HoQM
*0. 3*. 2d session of the 24th Congress.
only r^^r'T '""'"T"'" "?? ??"
??d what ,W ... ""
.i??. jrom ,h;f?' ?h?
M in T,,.., ,h? """< ?' <>??
u>n, in mud u, ft. W?hi?f.
HI "h" '
St s>
' I'1 point of r'ght, heSfcominion could only extend over the
territory that had revolted, and which had sustained itself
against the force of Mexico ; that is to nay, over the territory
belonging to the old State of Texan. Tamaulipas had not re
volted, neither had Coahuila, nor Chihuahua, nor New Mex
ico, nur had any portion of these Mutes been conquered by
i exas in the war. The extension ol her boundary, there
lore, over any part of the territory belonging to these States
was a mere nullity, just as much so as if Maryland were to
pass an act in her Legislature extending the limits of this
State to the James river. And if Texas had chosen to in
cludr California, as Mr. Mortit tells us she thought of doing,
her right to that region would not have been a whit leas sub
stantial than it was to tho iiio Grande.
We may now come back to the treaty of annexation, and
we shall be able to understand why Mr. Benton and Mr.
Wright voted against it. The language of the 1st article of
that treaty, so far as relates to the cession, is as follows :
" 1 he Republic of Texas, acting in conformity with the
wishes ot the people and every department of its Government,
cedes to the Uuited Slatei all its territories, to be held by them
in full property and sovereignty."
Now, when this treaty came into discussion in the Senate,
( Mr. Benton took a leading part, and made a speech, which
was very carefully studied, and which may be justly said to be
distinguished for its ability. In that speech he uses the fol
lowing language :
^ " In a poor letter which I lately published on the subject of
Texas, and in answer to a letter from the members of the Tex
un ("oiigress, a copy of which was published without my
knowledge, while the original has not yet come to hand j in
this poor letter I took occasion to discriminate between the old
province of 1'exaa and the new Republic of Texas, and to
show that the latter includes w/tut was never any part of
Texat, hut a part of the present department and former prov
ince of New Mexico, and parts of other departments of the
Mexican Republic. To discriminate between these two Tex
ases, and to show to my fellow-citizens that I look the trouble
to lonk at the Texas question before I decided if, and subjected
my mind to the process of considering what I was about be
fore 1 spake, I wrote as follows :
" ? With respect to Texas, her destiny is fixed. Of course
I, who consider what I am about, always speak of Texas as
constituted at the time of the treaty of 1819, and not as
constituted by the Republic of Texas, comprehending the
capital and forty towns and villages of Sew Mexico, now
anji always as fully under the dominion of the Republic of
Mexico, as Quebtc and all the towns and villages of Canada
are under the dominion of Great Britain. It is of this
Texas?the old Spanish -Texas?of which I always speak
1 a"d''f ^ier' I?uy, her destiny is fixed! Whatever may be
the fute of the present movement, her destination is toreturn to
her natural posit inn?that of a part of the American Union.'
" I adhere to this discrimination between the twoTexases,
I and now propos.- to see which of the two we are asked by the
I revident of the Lnited States to incorporate into the Ameri
can Unioo."
He then read the first article of the treaty, which I have
quoted above ; and, after some further remarks to show that Me
I Texas proposed to be annexed was that described in the act of
the Texan Congress, he proceeded to say :
; ?* I rom all this it results that tho treaty before us, besides
the incorporation of I exas proper, also incorporates into our
I'nion the left bank of the Rio Grande, in its whole extent,
from its head spring, near the South Pass in the Rocky
Mountains, to its mouth in the Gulf of Mexico, four degrees
south of New Orleans, in latitude 2G. It is a ?grand and
solitary river, almost wilhout allluents or tributaries. Its
source is in the region of eternal snow ; its outlet in the clinic
of eternal flowers. Its direct course is 1,200 miles ; its actual
run about 2,000. This immense river, second on our conti
nent to the Mississippi only, and but little inferior to it in
length, i* proposed to be added, in the whole extent of its left
bank, to the American Union ! and that by virtue of a treaty
for the re-annexation of Texas ! Now, the real Texas which
we acquired by the treaty of 1803, and flung away by the
treaty of 181U, never approached the Rio Grande except near
ita mouth ! while the whole upper part was settled by the
Spaniards, and great part of it in the year 1684, just one hun
dred years before La Salle first saw Texas ! All this upper
part was then formed into provinces, on both sides of the
river, and ha* remained under Spanish or Mexican authority
ever since. These former provinces of the Mexican vice
royalty, now departments of the Mexican Republic, lying
on both sides of the Rio Grande, from its head to Us mouth,
wo now prupo*' to incorporate, so far as they lie on the left
bank of the river, into our Union, by virtue of a treaty of re
annexation with Texas."
Mr. Bentus then went on to show what provinces this line
includes, their population, their towns, cities, <Stc. :
" The*." he says, ??in addition to the old Texas?these
parts of four States?these towns and villages?these people
and territory these flocks and herds?this slice of the Repul?
lic of Mexico, two thousand miles long and some hundreds
broad?all this our President has cut ofl" from its mother em
pire, and presents to us and declares it is ours till the Senate
rejects it! He calls it Texas' and the cutting off he calls
re-annexation ! Humboldt calls it New Mexico, Chihuahua
Coahuila, amlNuevo San lander, (now Tamaulipas.) andthe
civilized world may qualify this re-annexation by the applica
tion of some odious and terrible epithet."
In the course of the speech he goes further, and says :
1 he treaty, in all that relates to Ihe boundary of the Rio
" Grande, is an act of unparalleled outrage on Mexico"
These eitracts are made from a copy of Mr. Benton's
sj-eech delivered in the Senate of the United States on the
16th, 18th, and 20th of May, 1844, as revised by himself
and published in the Congressional Globe.
Mr. Cat.hock, the Secretary of State, attempted to repel
these charges brought against his treaty, by referring to bis
despatches both to Mr. Shannon and to Mr. Green, who were
the agenu of our Government at that time in Mexico?to
show that we never meant to claim the territory embraced in
the act of the Congress of Texas, but that, on the contrary,
we were very desirous to open a friendly negotiation with
Mexico for the purchase of such a boundary as would be
mo.t convenient. To express this purpose to the Mexican
Government, Mr. Calhoun wrote to Mr. Green on the 19ihof
April, 1844? ,
u You are enjoined by the President to assure the Mexican
Government that it is his desire to settle all questions between
the two countries which may grow out of this treaty, or any
other cause, on the most liberal and satisfactoiy terms, in
CLt'MNO that or houniiart."
ThiK declaration, however, did not satisfy ihe Senate. They
were not willing to give any sanction to such a claim as the
wrrds of the treaty covered. Mr. Walker endeavored to per
suade them, and ao did Mr. Woodbury, that the treaty could
only convey what actually belonged to Texas, and, therefore,
that it would be void aa regarded the territory to which Texas
had no right. But both of these gentlemen made arguments
! in favor of the claim to the Rio Grande, thus foreshadow
ing what Mexico might expect if the treaty should be ratified ,
*nd so the Senate rejected the treaty by the decisive vote I
have mentioned.
In the course of these proceedings upon the question ot
annexation, Mr. Bkntow still more explicitly expressed his
View* Of the cliaracter of the act by offering the following re
solution :
" I hat the incorporation of the left bank of the Rio del
i>orte into the American Union, by virtue of a treaty wnh
exas comprehending, aa the said incorporation would do *
part ol the Mexican departments of New Mexico, Chihua
hua, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas, would be an act of direct air
grtssum npnn Mxico, for all the consequences of which the
nited States would stand responsible."
Mr. \\ BI..HT took no part in the debate upon this question
in the Senate. He voted with Mr. Benton against the trea
ty, and, upon his return to New York after the close of the sea
aion, he made a speech at Watertown, in which he stated his
reasons for his vote ?
1 I*'' m,V duty," he remarked in lhat speech, "to vote
against the ratification of the treaty for the annexation. I l*|iev.
ed that the treaty, from the boundaries lhat must bcunnlieA
from t/, embraced a country to which Texts had no claim
over whichshe had never asserted jurisdiction, and which ihe
had no right,nrede." " I, spp^red to me, then," he r,n
tmued, if Mexico should tell us, 'We don't know you
we have no treaty to make with you,' and we were left to
Ukc possession by force, we must take the country as Texas
had ceded to u, : and, in doing that, we must do injZ
t0, Vrj:" lake a large portion of New MexiJjhe
people of why i have nner been under the jurisdiction of I
I exas J/u s t? me Ums an insurmountable barrier, I could
not place the country in that position."
This is the language of eminent Democrats uj>on the ques
tion of the Texan boundary I puiposely abstain from col
lating the opinions of emiMl|%higa to Ihe same point, I*.
cauae I desira to confront Mhjfrolk^ not with his adversary
but with his political ft?0*
I think you will r^afcTsatisfied, from the speech,* and
documents I hare .1^.1, that Messrs U?,To,' Wa,?BT
and C*lhov*, all Jfee, have distinctly avowed their convic
lion that fexa* h^#V)o right to cade to us the territory which
bordert upon the aio (*rar>de9 and that, connequently by no
cession from Te*as could we obtain any just claim to that
territory.
In the ne^lettsr I will show you upon what grounds Texas
was finalhMlmitted into the Union.
i P- KENNEDY.
THE LATE BATTLES IN MEXICO.
From a private letter, written by a gentleman of
the army after the battles near Mexico of the 19th
and 20th August, the Missouri Republican has been
permitted to make the following interesting extracts,
which will enable the reader more vividly to con
ceive tlie sanguinary character of those engagements,
and the immense sacrifice of men which this war
has brought upon us. The letter is dated at San
Augusiin on the 25th of August:
?? Our arms are again victorious, but at a fearful cost of
life anii blood. We have lo*t one thousand in killed and
woundfJ, uiuAmong the killed are the best officers of the
army. Captain Canto* and Captain Burke are with the
buried, having been killed dead at the storming of Churubusco,
whero we lost in three hours seven hundred officers anJ men.
? ? On the 19th our division advanced upon the enemy in
position at Contreros, their first work, defended by ten thou
sand men, with twenty-two pieces of artillery, and admirably
entienched.
<< The advanced guard was commanded by Capt. Huberts
and Uii|)t. Porter, and by thom the attack was commenced.
Capt. Roberts deployed in front of tl>eir battery, about one
thousand yards from their lines, and advanced steadily under
the fire of shells, round, grape, and canister shot, driving in all
their piiketa and skirmishers, and took his position undei shelter
of a cover of rocks and a deep ravine, about two hundrul yards
from their first line of batteries and breastworks, wheie he re
mained until the rest of the division and Gen. Quitman's sup
porting command had come up to join the attack. It was
found impossible, in consequence of the nature of theground,
considered impassable by the Mexicans, to form the ?rder of
battle and assault the works until morning, our men having
made along march, and having labored for hours in making
roads and hauling artillery and ammunition. Tb> whole
ariny took cover within musket range of the enemy, whopour
?d upon us all the time their fire from ten thousand muskets,
and slept on our arms during the night.
" At two o'clock in the morning, under cover of darkness
and rain, our positions were taken, and at seven the assault
was inade. The works were all carried by the bayonet in
less than an hour, and the ten thousand Mexicans put to per
fect rout. The scene cannot be describe* ; eight hundred
and fifty Mexicans were dead upon the fold, between three
and four hundred were wounded, and fiteen hundied taken
prisoners : and their twenty-two pieces artillery, and great
quantities of ammunition and other iMterial of war, cap
tured. Our loss in killed and woutded here was less than
two hundred. Capt. Hanson, of thf 7th infantry, and Lieut.
Johnston, of the 1st artillery, wer? the only officers killed.
We pushed forward to this place n pursuit of the retreating
enemy, when the Lancers made ?stand, and continued tofiie
upon us through the roads and fields up to Churubusco, where
the most terrible battle ever fought on this continent took
place. This assault by the bayonet has redeemed the im
peached valor of the Mexicrn army. Gen. Twiggs's, Gen.
Worth's, and Gen. Pillow's divisions were all concentrated
here, and for two hours ?nd a half every man was brought
under the fire of the works. The strength of this position
can hardly be conceived. We had but one approach, water
surrounding it on all sides but one. This approach was de
fended by twenty-five thousand men, behind the most approved
field-works, of great strength, and Seemingly iupreunable. Of
course they were carried, but the fields and works, covered
with between three and four thousand killed tnd wounded on
both sides, showed the terrible cost. I" ifty of >ur officers were
killed and wounded.
" Before Gen. Worth had joined our division in this at
tack, he had stormed and carried the works at San Antonio,
with no little lose. You may well imagine that our division
was too much exhausted and cut to pieces t? push on further.
We had been f^hting some eight hours, and had marched
nearly eight miles; all were worn out with nungcr, thirst, and
fatigue. As for myself, I had eaten nothing but the half of
a hard biscuit for forty.eight hours. Ge?. Worth's division,
more fresh, pushed on, and stormed and carried another strong
fort before dark, within one mile of the city gate*. Captain
Phil. Kearny lost an arm here, but he is doing well, and is in
no danger. He was greatly distinguished, and lias covered
himself with glory.
?'The 20th of August, 1847, will be a day never to be for
gotten. Its history is written in blood, and (he halo ol glory
that it wreathes upon the arms of our country is too deeply
ensanguined with the blood of Americans, to rejoice the army
that has covered itself with impelishable renown. Our ramp
is filled with mourning, and the reflection that the greater
grief is yet to be carried to the hearths and homes of thoee
who have fallen is too sad for utterance. What a carnage
for a single day ! The sun that rose on the 20th shed its
glad light upon seven thousand men, full of life and hope,
who strewed the battle field with their scattered limits and
corses when night closed in ! The day was tumultuous, re
vengeful, and bloody : the night gloomy, fearful, and dark?
the stillness only broken by the groans of the wounded and
the dying.
" Of course, all the ordnance of the four positions that were
assaulted were captured, and with them ammunition nnd store*
of every kind. We have three thousand prisoners?among
them ex-President Annaya?the commanding general of U?e
army, (Rincon,) and ten other general officers. We hardly
know what to do with our prisoners and stores. Some forty
deserters from our army are among the prisoners, who will be
hanged, so soon as we can have a military commission con
vened for their trial. Several Mexican officers, parolled at
Cerro Gordo, are also prisoners?they will swing with the
deserters.
?' You will now ask, what is to be the result of all ihis ?
A question I am not able to answer. The Mexicans agreed
to a truce, with a view to appoint commissioners to negotiate
a peace. An armistice was yesterday agreed upon for that
purpose, and I trust in God that peace will follow immediate
ly. Having destroyed the main approaches to and defences
of the city, it will be an easy matter to march into it, should
hostilities be renewed.
" Major Mills was killed, his horae having run off with him
and carried him into the enemy's works, where he was lanced '
after he had surrendered his sword."
Under date of the 27th, it is said : "The proapert of peace
brightens ; I shall be at home in January, I believe.
Shockijio Accihxht.?Mrs. Stead, an Engli?h lady,
from Yorkshire, in company with her son-in-law, tw > daugh
ters, two grandchildren, and a servant, arrived at Ro-hester
^N. Y.) on Thursday last upon the Eastern emignnt train.
The son-iri;law left the female* in the car and went lo the de
pot to make .some inquiries about going West. While he
was absent, the person who sweeps the cars went into the one
occupied by Mrs. Stead an I her daughter,, and told them to
hurry and get upon the other cars. The dsu^htors stepped
out, and while Mrs. 8. was stepping from the platform the
engineer started the cara backward, the sudden motion of
which thrrew her across the track l?etween the cars, and Injure
?he could rise two wheels passed over her, crushing her body
and left arm in a most shocking manner, and causing her
death almost instanUy. Her age was about 48 years.
The Hakhishibh Bmnna.?The Harrisbnrg Bridge,
which was swept away by the great freshet of 184fi, was open
ed for general travel on Monday last, and quite a number of
wagons and carriage* have since passed over it, which is suffi
cient evidence thst this old favorite of our Iwrouah will do jm\
proportion, more, of the travelling business Th? co$
psny last sp^Hnvited proposals for rebuilding the bridge, aftd
mihaequentlv^Bko^k contract with Measr*. Hoi man, Simon,
and Updegro^^Wfcuililing the portion of the bridge between
Poster's islan.^Pthe borough. These enterprising contract- j
or* commenced operations on the 12th of May last, and have
since rebuilt five heavy piers, about forty feet high, with the
exception of the foundations and a few feet above low water,
which were sound, and two of the wing walls to the abutments,
and have hewed and dressed all the timl?ers, erected the bridge>
and had it ready to open for travel in the short space of four
month* and twelve dsys from the time they commenced opera
tions upon it. The whole length of the wood work of the
bridge is 1,414 feet, and the spans arc from twr> hundred to
two hundred and fifty-five feet from c< ntre to centre. The
bridge i* on the arch and truss plan, with the floor running
lengthwi*e, which is different from the general plart of flooring
bridges ; but, in the manner in which this is cnn*tructed, it is
lielieved to l>e an improvement. The timber in this structure
is all sound and free from defects, the mechanical work of the
very best kind, the plan good, and, in our opinion, it is one
ol the very best bridges on the Susquehanna, and should re
commend these contractors to all companies having similar
?tructores to erect. , ? ' ,
The plan of the bridge was designed snd drawn by Hamuel
Holman, a aelf-taught architect and self-made man. It reflect*
the highe*t credit upon him, and entitles him to rank among
the first architects and bridge builders ol the country.
[HarrmOurg Union.
NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE.
New York, September 28, 1847.
Reception of the American Mail Steamer Washington ut
Bremen.?This pioneer muil-steamer from the United State#
to Europe left u* on Thursday last on her second trip, hav
ing undergone importunt alterations and improvement*, which
it is confidently believed will udd much to her speed, and ren
der her better adapted to a sea-voyage. The second steamer
for this line, to be called the Herman, will be launched, it in
aaid, on Thursday of this week, and will be ready for aea in
early winter.
Huut'a Merchants' Magazine for October, which will be
published in a day or two, contains a very interesting article
on American muil-uteainers, from which, as I have been al
lowed the use of some of the proof-sheets, I send you rather
an extended extract. It has the charm of a highly wrought
fancy sketch, while it undoubtedly gives a faithful narrative,
by an intelligent eye-witness " not unknown to fame," of the
enthusiastic ceremonies attending the reception of our first
steamer in Germany. This reception, the writer shows, was
in most striking contrast with that extended to the Washing
ton at the English port of Southampton, where every body,
except " the Southampton Dock Company," seemed to give
her most decidedly the cold shoulder. But to the extract :
" The North Sea smiled as tlje ship drew nigh the ehorea
of Germany. It was the first American steamer that had
ever moved upon that sea, and Capt. Hewitt piloted her him
self. I he sun broke cheerily as she entered the Weser.
I wo steamers, decorated with the Hags of all nations, came
down to meet her. Aloft was the star-spangled banner, and
streaming in proud and brotherly union the flag of the He
public of Bremen, emblazoned with the arms of the city, a
largo key, emblematic of its local position, as holding and
ready to open the door of Germany. With music playing,
and cannon firing, the two steamers escorted the Washington
to her moorings at Bremen Haven. The port and all the
vessels in the harbor were decorated with Hags. A deputa
tion of the municipal authorities came on board, aad with a
formal address welcomed to Germany the first American mail
steamer. One of the attending steamers received on board
the mail, Major Hobbie, the directors of the company, and
other passengers, and, followed by a numerous escort, started
lor Bremen, thirty miles distant As she moved up the river,
merchant vessels, steamers, lighters, row-boats, sail-boats, and
every craft she met were decked with colors. The Weser
fishermen, scattered along the line of the river, and even the
Btolid boors, constantly drudging to keep open the channel,
smiled a welcome ; while at every village the whole popula
tion lined the bank, unused to the noisy welcome of a hurrah,
but with beaming eyes expressing the deep feeling of their
hearts at this opening of direct steain communication with
America. It was, in truth, the opening of a day of promise.
A precious messenger had arrived, bringing to them the
thoughts, wishes, hopes, feelings, and prospects of near con
nexions separted by an immense sea. At short intervals the
same messenger would come again ; at times, indeed, bring
ing tales of bereavement and wo, but in the main to scatter
joy und gladness?to cheer the heart of the toiling peasant
by frequent and early intelligence of the prosperity and thrift
of his friends in America.
" Approaching Bremen the escort of boats became more
numerous ; and from the ramparts, which form on that side
the boundary of the city, the quay was lined with citizens of
all ages and sizes, while the balconies of the tall houses front
ing it and every window presented living tableaux, graced by
ladies, who, waving handkerchiefs and scattering flowers,
welcomed the Americans to Bremen. In the balcony of one
house, distinguished by his standing white hair and strongly
marked features, and to the Americans on board remarkable
for his striking resemblance to Generul Jackson, was Burgo
master Smidt, for twenty six years Burgomaster of Bremen,
and a historic peison in Europe ; having drawn upon him
self the jealous eye of Napoleon for his liberal opinions, and
as the head of disaffection in the Hanse Towns. On the fall
of the Emperor he had been sent by those towns as a dele
gate to the Congress of Vienna, which divided uplhe conti
nental empires and fixed their territorial limits. The year
preceding the city of Bremen had celebated the twenty-fifth
anniversary of his service as burgoma^er ; and one of his
sons, resident at Louisville, in Kentucky, went out in the
Washington to join the family gathering on the fiftieth anni
versary of his father's marriage. But the old burgomaster
was not refusing upon his honors, or falling back upon his
domestic ties ; on the contrary, he had on him at that mo
ment the full harness of usefulness. He had been the mas
ter-spirit of Germany in bringing about the consummation of
this enterprise; and among the thousands and tena of thou
sands of German hearts which welcomed the arrival of the
Washington, perhaps none beat stronger than his. Escorted
by a deputation of Senators, with the crowd opening respect
fully before him, he came on board, and in the name and on
behalf of the city welcomed the Americans to Bremen. In
the mean time cannon were firing, and a full band on the quay
and on board the steamer was playing the national airs of
Germany. The music ceased, and all at once changed to
\ ankce Doodle?in that distant region a heart-stirring sound,
and to this home tune, the Americans, each on the arm of a
burgomaster or senator, were escorted up a staircase, covered
with an arbor of evergreens, to the quay. The crowd open
ed so as to allow a passage to their carriages, and they were
escorted to their hotels. To the whole city it seemed a jubi
lee ; and perhaps throughout all Bremen there was not an
old woman or child who did not know of the arrival of the
Washington, and that a joyful event had occurred for Ger
many.
"An early intimation was given that the Senate of Bre
men intended to make a formal demonstration in honor of the
arrival of the Washington } but before this could take place
the * Hunters'Club ' offered the entertainment of a target
firing. This came off on Sunday, which, according to the
custom of Germany, after morning attendance at church, is
devoted to amusement and social enjoyment.
" The place was &n open field, about six miles from the
city, surrounded by woods. Entering the barriers, the guests
received badges constituting thum members of the club. In
the centre of the field, the mo?t conspicuous object, and im
mediately attracting the eye by its fanciful and elegant ap
pearance, was a large circular pavilion, perhaps 200 feel in
diameter on the ground, and rising gracefully, in alternate
stripes of red and white, to a point. On the top of the staff
waved the American and Bremen flags. Under the canopy
was an orchest-a, and ranges of tables with covers for per
haps 2,000 or 3,000 people, arranged with as much neatness
and order as at a hotel. In different parts of the ground were
masts to climb, and arrangements for gymnastic and other
sports to exercise and amuse. Next to the pavilion, the ball
room was the mort striking featuie, which, though but a
temporary structure, was large and tastefully decorated. Be
yond was the shooting-ground, and all around were the woods
for a stroll. A large portion of the population of Bremen
was there?burgomasters, senators, mechanics, and trades
men of every degree ; fathers, mothers, husbands, wives,
brothers, sisters, and lovers, children and servants, and, form
ing a striking feature, peasant women in the costumes of their
separate villages, tall and wall-formed, with long hair hang
ing down the back, and glittering plate on the crown of the
head, all moving harmoniously together?generally knowing
each other, free, affable, and social : the rich unpretending,
and the poor unpresuming, widening the circle of human
affeetions.
" Aa the entertainment was in honor of the arrival of the
Washington, the Americans were the guests of the day. At
the hour for dinner they were brought in from their rambles,
and, with Burgomaster Smidt leading the way, conducted to
places at fable. Senators and others connected with the en
terprise were seated near them. The lent was hung with
American flags, and the di?hes before the guests were deco
rated with miniature flags, steamships, and emblems com
memorative of the occasion. Thrown among burgomasters,
senators, and other dignitariea, the Americans were excluded
from the society of the ladies, who graced the other tables,
and whose presence gave an air of elegance and threw a re
finement over manners which would perhapa not always be
found at a ' target-firing.' While at dinner our hosts, ?the
hunters,' with rifles laid aside, but in costume, took theT
places in the orchestra, and played and sang the national airs
of Cermany and America. One, in a fit of enthusiasm,
wrote the Washington Polka, which was played on the epot,
and is probably now in print on its way to this country. An
other, from the orchestra, in his hunter's dress, and surround
ed by his associate 'hunters,' made a long speech at us in
German, which we could not understand, but in which the
frequent u?* of the words ? Washington' and 'America,' the
h^x of friends alongside, and the expression of a thousand
?yes, assured us that he was giving us a ' hunter'a welcome.'
Major Hobbie resided, and had the advantage of having
around him a party who understood and appreciated the pecu
liarly felicitous character of his reply. Alter dinger the com
pany again scattered. The ball room was a favorite gather
ing-place ; waltzing, gymnastics, and shooting, all had their
votaries, and many paired off for a stroll in the woods. The
Americans walkeJ to a beautiful country-seat in the neighltor
hood, and about dark returned to the ground. The hunters
were waiting for them, drawn up outside of ihe tent, for a
procession. Place* were aasigned them. Burgomaster Smidt
took the arm of one of the directors, and, with the band play
ing Washington's March, they were escorted across the
ground. Beaching the other extremity, the hunters opened",
and the guests moved Iwtween them, and were brought to a
stand in front of a large illuminated frame-work. Cannon
were fired, and from the frame-work flashed out, in letters of
fire, the name of ' Washington.' At the same moment the
hunters sent mi a shout which shook the air, ? Washington
and America A Rockets and fire-balls lighted up the dark
ness of the scln^ and showed all around the stern features of
men and the gentle faces of women beaming with enthusi
asm. A friend, at the request and on behalf of the Ameri
cans, answered, 'Germania !' The hunters took up the
word, and as the light died iwiy the stirring shout from a
thousand manly voices 'Germania and America!' run* in
the ear.
1 he next day tjie Senate gave a stately dinner. In the
uncertainty as to the time of the Washington's arrival, no
invitations had been aent to the interior, but delegate* were
present from several of the adjoining States. It was under
stood that the Crown Prince of Prussia would have been
there, but the Diet was in session at Berlin, and hia presence
was required at the capital. Prussia was represented by Ba
ron 1 a tow, Secretary for Foreign A Hairs, and delegates from
Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburg, and other States assisted,
manifesting that all Northern Germany sympathized in this
opening of direct communication with America. Rarely has
there assembled at one board a more respectable or venerable
looking body of men, or more undivided in sympathy with
the cause which brought them together. The room was beau
tifully decorated with the tiugs of the different German States,
and at the head, crossing each other, werp those of the Unit
ed Hlates and Bremen. On the coming in of the roast, be
ing the point of the dinner recognised for such purposes, ac
cording to the custom of Germany, the venerable Burgomas
ter Smidt rose and said
" Ho designated the arrival of the Washington on the
Weser as an event which had converted hopes into reality?
speculation* into facts; it was this which had brought to
gether those present of the American and German nations.
In all the world," he said, "there are no two countries which
are so well calculated for a mutual interchange as the United
States of America and the United States of Germany. Nei
ther of them possesses any colonies, nor does either wish for
any 5 and in this respect both escape the jealousy of colonial
mother State*.
"Asa citizen of Bremen," he continued, " I may well
remind you of the fact that, after the glorious end of the
American war of independence, firemen vessels were the first
which unfurled their sails to visit the shores of the young
transatlantic Republic; and as on the western horizon of
liberty one star after another hag made its appearance, so the
vessels of Bremen have continued progressively to steer their
course in that direction. This fact, as it would appear, has
not been forgotten in America, and as if in return the Unit
ed States now send us their first transatlantic steamer, think
ing that the best key to Germany is the Bremen key ; and in
the same spirit, he concluded, in the name of my fellow
citizens, I offer a hearty welcome to the Washington, as the
worthy pioneer of an enterprise which is destined to open a
direct intercourse between two great nations.
l-'Vi?n? n,an ever higher in the estimation of
his fellow-citizens than Burgomaster Smidt; and the spirit
with whioh his toast was received showed that the sentiment
it contained was no less acceptable than the person who of
fered it.
" To the toast in honor of the President of the United States,
and of the Hon. Cave Johnson, Postmaster General, Major
Hobbie responded. His exposition of the circumstances under
which the line was established?of the large and liberal views
of the Postmaster General?was listened to with much inte
rest ; and the glowing expression of bis hope that the mail
line to Bremen would be the means of drawing close together
in the bonds of amity and mutual good offices the United
States and the great German nation, met a warm response in
every heart. Baron Patow, in the name of the German
States, offered as a toast the city of Bremen ; and, in remind
ing the company of the importance of the ocean as being the
great highway which united nations all over the world by
commercial intercourse, he lagged to offer his good wishes for
the further success of that city, which, in this enterprise, as
in many others, had been foremost of the German States in
opening the way. Cuptsin Hewitt's interesting acknowledg
ment of the toast to himself, apologizing for his ship if there
had been any failure to meet their expectations, on the ground
that it was only on the 7th of September preceding that her
keel was laid, aiid that the carpenters were still at work upon
her when she left the dock at New York, kindled hia audi
ence. Mr. Stephens, the Vice President of the company,
acknowledged the powerful co-opeiation of the Germans in
the enterprise which he had the honor in part to represent,
and particularly of the city of Bremen. He might say much
of this city, its historic associations, its monuments and public
institutions, its enterprise and its hospitality, but he chose
rather to express his admiration for that which it had not. It
had no custum-house, nor restrictions of any kind upon trade.
Mr. 8. read a letter, signed by all the directors of the com
pany, requesting of the Senate their acceptance of a model
of the Washington, prepared by Mr. Westervelt, the builder.
Simultaneously, and unexpectedly to most present, the beau
tiful roqdel, six feet long, was borne in on the shoulders of
eight native Bremeness, residents in and citizens of the Uni
ted States. This was received with a storm of enthusiasm,
when Mr. Oelrichs, an associate director, a native of Bremen,
returned after years of absence, and endeared to all present
by early ties, put a seal upon the enthusiasm of the evening
by announcing the intention of the company that the next
"hip which came to them should bear the name of ? Hermann,'
a name identified with German history and poetry?Hermann
being the deliverer of Germany from the Roman, as Washing
ton wa? of America from the British yoke.
"The next day the festivity was returned on board the
Washington, at Bremen Haven, where the sight of the ship,
its great size, and the beauty of its accommodations confiim
ed and realized all expectations. The day ended with a visit
to the dock, then in process of construction, to be the largest
in the world, undertaken by the city of Bremen alone, at an
expense of more than a million of dollars, for the express use
of the American mail steamers, free of all dock charges.
" But the most important feature connected with the recep.
tion of the Washington at Bremen, showing the true appre
ciation of the object our Government had in view in estab
lishing the line, (and in this respect most strongly in contrast
with the course of things in England,) was the facility afford
ed for canying out the grand scheme of the Postmaster Gen
eral. In Senator Duckwitz, pf the Post Office Department,
Major Hobbie found an able and ready coadjutor, full of en
terprise and energy, and competent to treat and arrange upon
the ?go-ahead ' system of our own country. The basis of an
arrangement was agreed upon, by which the poet office of
Bremen undertook to distribute our mails over the whole
North of Europe, through Russia, Denmark, Norway, Swe
den, over aH Germany, and, when the railroad should be
completed to Trieste, over the Grecian Archipelago, around
the whole shores of the Mediterranean, up to Constantinople and
the Black Sea, even over to Egypt, and down the Red Sea to
India.
"The practical operation of this would be, that the Ger
man resident in Iowa could go up to the village nearest his
farm, drop his letter in the post office, and, p,Milage paid or
not, it would go direct to bis friend in the heart of Silesia, on
the banks of the Danube, or on the bordera of the Black
Foiest."
First night of the new Theatre.?The opening of the
Broadway Theatre last evening forms quite an era in the his
tory of New York amusements. Though aome portions of
the exterior of the building and its fittings are in an unfinished
state, it presented on the whole a grand and brilliant specta
cle, both inaide and out, and the opening-night went off with
great success. The house was filled, holding probably between
four and five thousand persons. The performancea of the evening
showed that the manager has engaged an excellent stock-com
pany, and it is understood that the policy of this theatre will
be rather opposed to the objectionable system of high star
ring. Besides the immense throng within, Broadway was
filled during the evening in front of the theatre and japonic
distance earh way by multitudes, attracted by the d^^jid
magnificent appearance of the building.
The width of the building in front is seventy-five feet, and
the height acventy-one. All the front windows are filled with
stained glass. Large American flags were extended fram the
top and front, and above the balcony were arranged thirteen
large glass globes, lighted with gas, in alluaion to the thir
teen original States. The interior of the theatre is lighted by
thirteen rich chandeliers, and the wholo number of gas-lights
in and about the building is said to be about aeven hundred.
The gas is of a superior quality, manufactured from oil, in
the rear basement of ihc building. To guard against fire a
large reservoir on the top of the building is to be kept con
stantly filled with a hundred tone of water, with suitable hose
attached. The fitting up of the theatre within is in a very
costly and elegant style. The pit is transferred from the
ground-floor to the third tier, and in place of the usual pit
the inclined plane of the first tier is extended clear down to
orchestra ; and these seats, occupying the place of the usual
pit, are all entered from the first tier, and charged the same
price?one dollar. The second-tier seats are fifty cents, and
all above are twenty-five cents. The seata in the first tier
consist of elegant sofas, amounting in cost to about four thou
sand dollars. The standing curtain in front of the drop (instead
of green, the ususl color) i? a rich and costly damask silk.
The heavy drop-curtain itself is finely painted, representing
scenery in Switzerland. The balance-weight for the move
ment of this curtain is one ton.
A new piny by Mrs. Mowatt, a native authoress and ac
tress, was produced last night at the Park, and is to be re
peated this evening. .New York seems to be laying out quite
largely for amusements the coming winter.
In Hingham, Mas?nrhusetts, they have the oldest inhabita
ble church in North America. There are the ruins of one in
Jnmestown, Virginia, which is older than this ; but this is the
oldest now occupied in the country. It was built one hundred
anil sixty years ago, and in it is some of the limber of the
church built by the first settlers in 1635 or 1636. It is per
ectly sound, and almost as hard as iron.
Sergeant Moonr, of Capt. King's Dayton company of
Ohio volunteers, was killed by the accidental discharge of a
gun, in Mexico, while ,>n the march from Fuebla to Vera
Cruz.
POWERS'8 STATUES.
[BT OBVILLB DlWk.1.]
> HUM TMB I'MIIIJ MAOAZISK Of L1TSKATUBB ARD A BT,
EUITBI) BI Mil. K1KKLAMU.
1 cannot easily express ibe pleasure I have had in looking at
these statues. I should be almost afraid to say how they impress
me in comparison with other works of art. The most powor
ful, certainly, oT all the statues in the world is the Apollo di
Belvedere. That is grandeur. If we descend a step lower
and seek for beauty, I confess that I have nowhere felt it as
m these works of Powers, in his Eve, that is to say, and in
tbe "Greek Slave." I do not mean the beauty of mere form,
ol the moulding of limbs and muscles. In this reapect it is
very hkely that the Venus de Medici is superior to the Eve
and the Greek Girl. But I mean that complex character of
beauty which embraces with muscular form the moral senti
ment of a work. And looking at thia last trait, I fearlessly
ask any one to look at the Venus and at the Greek Girl, and
then to tell me where the highest intellectual and moral beau
ty is found. There cannot be a moment's doubt. There is
no sentiment in the Venus but modesty. She is not in a
situation to express any sentiment, or any other sentiment.
She has neither done any thing nor is going to do any thing,
nor is she in a situation to awaken any moral emotion. There
she stands, and says, if she says any thing, ?'I am all-bcau
tiful, and I shrink a little from the exposure of my charms !"
Well she may. There ought to be some reason for exposure
besides beauty ; like fidelity to history as in the Eve, or help
less constraint as in the Greek Girl. Nay, according to the
true laws of art, can that be right in a statue which would be
wrong, improper, disgusting in real life > I am so bold as to
doubt it. Art proposes the representation of something that
exists or may properly and beautifully exist in life. And I
doubt whether statuaiy or painting have any more business to
depart from that rule than poetry. And suppose that an epic
poem, for the sake of heightening the charms and attractions
of its heroine, should describe her as walking about naked !
Could it be endured ? Nor any more do I believe that sculp
ture, without soma urgent cause, should take a similar liber
ty. A draped statue can be beautiful, and can answer all the
ordinary purposes of a work of art; witness Canova's Hebe,
and the Polymnia in the Louvre, an ancient work. And I
doubt not that ancient art would have given us more exam
ples of this kind if the moral delicacy had been equal to the
genius that inspired it. I trust that Christian refinement,
breaking away from the trammels of blind subjection to the
antique, will supply the deficiency. But, at any rate, the sta
tues of Mr. Powers are entirely free from this objection. She
who walked in the bowers of primeval innocence had never
thought of apparel?had not yet been ashamed to find herself
devoid of it; and she is clothed with associations which scarce
ly permit others to think of the possession or want of it. She
is represented in this work as standing. Her left hand hangs
negligently by her side; her right holds the apple ; and upon
this, with the head a little inclined, her countenance is fixed ;
and in this countenance there are beautifully blended a me
ditation, a sadness, and an eagerness. When I first saw this
statue, or model rather, the last of these expressions was not
given. I said to the artist, "I see here two things ; she me
ditates upon the point before her ; and she is sad at the thought
of erring. He said, "Yes; that is what I would express,
but I must add another trait." I feared to have him touch it;
but when I next saw the work, that expression of eager desire
was added, which doubtless fills up the true ideal of the cha
racter.
I do not wish to speak of this work in any general term of
commonplace praise. The world will see it, the rkilful will
judge of it, and f have no doubt about their verdict.
Much as 1 admire this statue, I confess that the Greek Slave
interests me more deeply. I have spoken of the want of sen
timent in the Venus. The form is beautiful, but the face is
confessedly insipid. The Greek Slave is clothed all over with
sentiment; sheltered, protected by it from every profane eye.
Brocade, cloth of gold, could not bo a more complete protec
tion than the vesture of holiness in which she stands. For
what does she stand there ? To be sold ; to be sold to a
I urkish harem ! A perilous position to be chosen by an artist
of high and virtuous intent! A perilous point for tlie artist,
being a good man, to compass. What is it ? The highest
point in all art. To make the spiritual reign over the corpo
real ; to sink form in ideality ; in this particular case, to make
the ap|>eal to the soul entirely control the appeal to sense; to
make the exposure of this beautiful creature foil the base in
tent for which it is made ; to create a loveliness such that it
charms every eye, and yet that has no value for the slave
maiket, that has no more place there than if it were the love
liness of infancy ; nay, that repels, chills, disarms the taste
that would buy. And how complete is the success ! I would
fain assemble all the licentiousness in the world around this
statue, to be instructed, rebuked, disarmed, converted to pu
rity by it ! There stands the Greek Girl in the slave-market,
with a charm as winning as the eye ever beheld, and every
sympathy of the beholder is enlisted for the preservation of her
sanctity { every feeling of the beholder is ready to execrate
and curse the wretch that could buy such a creature ! There
she stands, with a form less voluptuous than the Venus de
Medici, but if possible more beautiful to my eye; manacles
clasp her wrists and a chain unites them ; her head is turned
aside a little; and then her face?I cannot describe it^I can
only say that there is the finest imaginable union of intellec
tual beauty, touching sadness, and in the upper lip the slight
est possible curl, just enough to express mingled disdain and
resignation. The thought of a fate seems to be in her face,
and perhaps nothing could better bring to its climax the touch
ing appeal of innocence and helplessness.
I will only add, that Mr. Powers's work seems to me to be
characterized by a most remarkable simplicity and chaateneaa.
Nature is hia guide, to the very letter. No extravagance, no
straining after effect, no exaggeration to make things more
beautiful; all is calm, sweet, simple Nature. The chaste
ness in these statues is strongly contrasted with the usual vo
luptuousness of the antique, and it is especially illustrated by
the air of total unconsciousness in the Eve and the Greek Girl.
This is a trait of delicacy, in my opinion, altogether higher
than the shrinking attitude and action of moat of the antique
statues of Venus.
Pbrsacola, Skptkm b?? 17, 1847.
Our old friend, Judge Gabkibb, committed suieide last
. night (September 16) by drowning himself. I have alwaya
been under the impression that be was about one of the hap
piest men in this city ; but such was not the case. From
letteis he wrote to several of hia friends, and which were
dated some time back, it appears he had for some time past
been making hia arrangements to commit the deed. He as
signs ss his reason " poverty " that he had but $120, which
was in Mr. Hyer's chest, and that it would take all of that to
pay his debts and bury him decently. He wrote a few lines
at midnight to Dr. Smith, which he gave to a black boy, and
told him to hand it to l>r. Smith early in the morning, which
was to inform where his body might be found. He had every
thing arranged. He directed notea to all to whom he waa
indebted, even to hia washerwoman. He laid his clothes in
which to be buried on the bed, and directed where every thing
might be found. He aewed two large bricks in a towel and
tied them to his back, and pinned a towel over his breast and
bark, and walked down to the end of the whatf with hia
cloak around him and a cap on. When he got to the place,
he laid his cloak down, placed hia cap on it, put a brick in
his cap, and^ tying one end of a rope to the end of the wharf
and the other end around his waist, threw himself into the
water, where he waa found this morning. Last night at dusk
be walked down on the wharf, as was his custom every even
ing, with Mr. Hyer, Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Kelly, and Mr. A li
re ns, and was perfectly cool, speaking of the Mexican war,
iVr., and hia ietters and the note written at midnight were very
neatly executed.
MeLANmoLT.?On Saturday last Mr. W. Smith was kill
ed at the regimental parade on the Saluda side, whilst running
a horaerrace. He waa thrown against a trre and died imme
diately. We understand ihat the deceased was a most excel
lent carpenter, and has left a wife and twelve children, who
were dependant upon him for a support.
[Abbeville (S. C.) Banner.
Mklancholt Acciukht.?The brig Columbia sailed from
Philadelphia on Friday morning for Boston, with a cargo of
coal, and on Saturday morning, while going down before the
wind, (when opposite Newcastle,) Capt. Pikbcb was struck
by the gaff and knocked overboard, and, before the boat could
be lowered to hia assiatanre, drowned. The blow was to se
vere as altogether to diasble him from making any effort after
falling overboard. What adda to the horror of the accident
is the fact that hia wife and two children were on board the
vessel at the time, and saw the father and husband ainking
without being able to rendeT any assistance. The Columbia
belongs to Belfaat, Maine, where Capt. Pierce and family
| resided.

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