?? Liberty and Union, now ana forever, oue and
SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, 1848.
INDEMNITY AND TERRITORY.
We had, as our readers khow, closed what we
proposed to say, on our own part, in answer.to the
doctriues and positions made or taken, and the pur
poses manifested, in the late Presidential Message,
concerning Mexico and the War. The following
communication, however, which comes to us from
a highly respectable quarter, touches upon some
important points which we passed by, and presents
or indicates arguments which are worthy of attention:
FOR THE NATIONAL INTELUUKKCEH.
For what purpose is the War with Mexico prosecuted ?
The President says it is to rectire indemnity for the just claims
of our citizens and the expenses of the war. Does any one
believe it t 'Die President has shown in hi* Into .Message
that this is not the t.nly object. " The boundaiy of the Rio
* Grande," says the President, "and the cession to the Uni
4 ted States of New Mexico and Upper California, constituted
?* an ultimatum which our Commissioner was under no cir
* cunutances to yield." Why was this boundary and ces
sion of territory made " an ultimatum which our Commis
sioner was under no circumstances to yield ?" The infer
ence is, of course, that we are in justice entitled to the cession
of territory claimed to pay the demands of our citizens and the
expenses of the war. But is this so ? The Mescage furnishes
the evidence that it is not; for, says the Message : " As the
4 territory to be acquired by the boundary proposed might be
4 estimated to be of greater value than a fair equivalent for
4 our just demands, our Commissioner was authorized to sti
4 pulate for the payment of such additional pecuniary consi
* deration as was deemed reasonable." Here is an ultima
tum fixed, and a war prosecuted to enforce it, to compel Mexi
co to sell to the President a portion of her territory. Here is
an admission that we are ndt entitled to the territory claimed
by the President as a " fair equivalent for our just demands"
against Mexico. Yet the President has made the cession of
it " an ultimatum" not to be yielded under any circumstances.
Mcxico might have offered in territory a "fa'r equivalent for
our just demands," and our Commissioner could not have ac
cepted it under the instructions given him by the President.
We must not only hive enough territory to pay all the ex
penses of a war which the President has forced upon Mcxico,
and all the demands which our citizens have agaiust her, but
she roust be forced to sell to us as much more territory as the
President wants, or the war must be prosecuted into her vital
parts, "to secure an honorable peace /** But the President
has suggested a new mode of obtaining " an honorable peace."
He ssys : " With a people distracted and divided by contend
4 ing factions, and a Government subject to constant chaages
4 by successive revolutions, the continued successes of our
' arms may fail to secure a satisfactory peace. Iu such event,
4 it may become proper for our commanding generals in the
4 field to give encouragement and assurances of protection
4 to the friends of peac? in Mexico in the ertadlishmkst
4 and MAinTtNABCK of a free republican Government of their
* own choice, able and willi no to eoncludc a peace which
* would be just to them, and secure to us the indemhitt wi
4 demand." Let us change the language of the President a
little, and make it more plain : '' Mexico has a Government
which I am willing to make a treaty with, but it will not sell
to me as much territory as I think we ought to have, to se
cure an hontrrable peace. I therefore recommend to Congress
that our generals in the fii Id be instructed to destroy the pre
sent Government of Mcxico, and to wstablish and maintain,
tinder the protection of our arms, a free republican Govern
ment that will be willing to conclude a satisfactory jteace, re
curing to us the indemnity we demand." I suppose no one
will deny our power thus to establish a Government that will
be " willing to conclude a peace" granting to us all the " in
demnity we demand." But what American freeman is there
who dues not feel indignant at the proposition } And sup
pose we undertake it, how long will the Government la.t
which we have created to give us half of the country ? When
will our " protection" and " maintenance" of it cea*e ' Are
we to keep forever a large standing army in Mexico to main
tain the Government we have thus established? this "free
republican Government of their own choice"?in order " to
secure an honorable peace ?" I hope to see, at an early day,
?oinc measure taken by Congress condemning this abomina
ble recommendation. ? W.
Our correspondent, in consulting only the Mes
sage, does not give its whole force to the point,
though strong, which he makes. Had he referred
to the known facts of the terms offered by Mr. Com
missioner Trist to the Mexicans, at the conferences
belore the gates of their capital, he would have
found still more extraordinary matter for comment.
" The boundary of the Rio Grande," (up to the
point where it passes out of New Mexico of course,)
then all "New Mexico and Upper California"?
or nearly a third part of the whole surface of
Mexico?were the lowett terms to which the Presi
dent's instructions allowed our Commissioner to
come down. J^ett ?? indemnity" than this the
Executive could not think of; to less, he distinctly
intimates, he will never assent: that is to say,
whatever be the pleasure of this nation, or no mat
ter how much more moderate the terms on which
Congress?the war-making power?may direct the
war to cease, he, the Executive, will, at his own
pleasure, continue the war, and make (for that is
plainly his ground in the Message) the future con
ditions of the peace as much more severe as, in
consequence of the further expenses of his fighting,
he shall deem good! All this is that yre may ex*
tort " a fair equivalent for our just demands."
But, observe : the President himself admits that
the territory which he will have is more than ** a
fair equivalent for our just demands for he gave
44 Mr. Commissioner Tkist power to stipulate for
paying for the excess of the value of this territory
over our just demands." And now what is the
amount of those demands; what their proportion
to the " equivalent" by the President exacted ; and
what the sum which the Executive himself avowed,
through his Commissioner, as necessary to be paid
by u$, in order lhat the pretended "equivalent"
should be any such thing at all, in respect to Mexi
co as well as ourselves ? These are the questions
which we must now push home to the Cabinet, in
order that the case made by our correspondent may
receive its full weight.
The President has not chosen to be specific in
his Message as to what44 indemnities" we claim of
Mexico, er how much more than their amount he
would pay to Mexico, by way of rendering the
** equivalent" on which he insists only a fair one.
He has shunned explicitness on these points,
though of the highest importance. For, if we are
to fight on merely to recover a debt from Mexico,
surely we might be allowed to know how much
that debt is: and if, again, we are to take and keep
much more of her property than is necessary to
cover the debt, surely the Executive might deign to
inforni us what is the excess that we ought to pay
back to Mexico!
At the facts, however, we can trrive in spite of
the suppression of them in the Message. This
Government cannot cover up every thing; and,
down in Mexico at least, the terms offered by Mr.
Commissioner Trist to the Commissioners on the
then tic to be questioned. As his ultimatum he of
fered to accept the boundary and provinces quoted
by our correspondent from the Message : to make
no claim for the expenses of the war ; to take upon
ourselves the payment of the " indemnities" to our
citizens; and to pay to her, as the excess of the
value of her territories taken as above, beyond
that of our claims, from fifteen to twenty millions
Now, to name, in a case like thisKa less and a
greater price as that which you are willing to pay,
is really, except the discreditableness of awkward
huckstering, ouly offering the larger price?that is,
twenty millions,. 'Add some five millions for the
indemnities, and you have twenty-five millions asj
the President's own estimate of what we ought to
pay for California, New Mexico, and below it the
line of the Rio Grande. 80 that it plainly appears,
by the Executive's own reckoning, that we are to
seize and keep, by war, as "a fair equivalent for
our just demands," only some five times as much
territory as ice could take, even if we h?d a right
to help ourselves to a nation's soil and people at
our own estimate.
Before the plainness and directness of this view
how looks that Presidential object for continuing
this war, " indemnity V How sounds the talk of
" fair equivalents T" What must every man of
common sense and common honesty say to such
an atrocious claim as this ? A claim so distinctly
used as nothing but a fetch, in order to plunder
your neighbor of gfeat territories, on which; rich
as you are, you look with envious eyes.
Indemnities ! How many aggressions are thepe
to justify or to atone ? We have asserted, what te
too notorious for contradiction, that this Govern
ment has repeatedly offered to take <upon itself
these indemnities by way of compensating Mexico
for some injury which our Presidents were bent
on doing her, andwhich they went on to com
mit without compensation, when the compensation
(arbitrarily fixed by the aggressor) had been refused ?
Wiio does not know that the Tyler Administra
ti6n?knowing full well that annexing Texas, while
at war with Mexico, was assuming that war and
making ourselves principals in it?offered to com
pound with Mexico (right or wrong) for peaceful
annexation, by assuming to pay for ht*r these claims
of our citizens ? Who is ignorant, that after an of
fer so decisive against our own claim of right, the
same Administration proceeded to complete the an
nexation without providing any compensation ?
If fair, was it not still fair? Texas herself had, on
her own part, equally acknowledged an obligation
as little to be voided : she had offered to Mexico, as
the condition of an acknowledgment of her indepen
dence by that Government, to assume her fair pro
portion of the public debt of Mexico existing at the
time of her revolt?thus confessing that, in quitting
the Confederacy, she could not emancipate herself
from a just proportion of its common indebtedness.
But, again, as to the justice of this Government:
When, subsequently to this offer by Mr. Tyler, the
Chairman.of the House Committee on Foreign Af
fairs, and with a distinct intimation that he spoke
by authority and for the Government, said, to
quiet all further opposition and carry the measure,
(then hanging on a few votes,) that he had the liber
ty of assuring the House that Mexico would accept
a compensation and be quitted with a bvm ok mo
ney, what did this mean? Did it not signify that
the indemnities, at least, if not some millions in
cash, would be given her, as a fair sacrifice, an
"equivalent" on our part? But this.was at the
moment when, Mr. Benton's remonstrances and
proofs prevailing, Congress had receded from the
idea of assuming the absurd claim of Texas to take
possession of all Mexico on this side of the Rio
Grande : when Congress was, by the Resolution of
Annexation itself, instructing the President to ac
quire this further territory, if at all, by negotiation.
We "annexed" to the Union, however, the pro
perty for which we had offered a compensation, 4hd
kept back that inexhaustible equivalent, the indem
nities, now to be used for a bloodier purpose?that
of justifying an open attack upon Mexico, in order
that we might wrest from her California and Santa
Fe. For no sooner had the war been determined
on by the Executive than these battered claims?
about which, for very shame, our rulers should
have said no more but to tell Congress that we ought
to assume and pay them ourselves, as part-con
sideration, at least, for what we had taken from
Mexico?were once more brought into play. In
his Annual Message of December, 1 845, the Presi
dent rang violently all the changes upon them, for
the purpose of making out that case of a declaration
of war which (as we have heretofore shown) he
had put into his Message, but afterwards found
himself forced, by Mexico's consenting to receive a
Commissioner and treat, to omit; leaving in it, how
ever, to bring about national irritation on both
sides, a flaming exhibition of our wrongs about these
very claims, thus repeatedly, in all good faith, yield
ed up for what we had taken without any other equi
valent. Nor is that all: in a subsequent negotia
tion our (Secretary of Slate insisted that the question
of boundaries even shall not be entered into, unless
along with that of these indemnities ; for that these
were, the cause of the war!* Now, Congress had,
by the Resolution of Annexation, instructed the Pre
sident to negotiate the question of boundaries, and
none other; and yet here is the Executive setting
up a tine qua non?these indemnities, for which
wo had already more than once taken the consider
ation, the equivalent asked by ourselves?which is
to be a condition precedent of all that very negotia
tion which he was ordered to begin !
Well: the war is made ; and now, among its di
versity of contradictory causes come again, to figure
in messages, documents, and all other Executive apo
logies, the indemnities! Commissioner Trist nego
tiates at the gates of Mexico ; and there still stand
? ??It is with nn little astonishment that the President Iim
? perceived, from the communication of his Excellency, [the
? Mexican Miniatei of Foreign Affaire,] that the Mexican
? Government has so far misapprehended the meaning of the
? under igned ai to auppoae that this Government either desir
' ed or intended to withdraw from the negotiation* for peace
? tub CArat* on either aide which lbd to thb bxistih?
? wai, and to consider tham merely ?ai a thing that i? paat,
? and belong* to history.' Very far from it. [The President
? would not conrent to bury the hatchet ] This would hare
' been to abandon the just and acknowledged ttaims of our
? injured citizens for violations of their personal liberty and
? leisures of their property, continued lor many succeed re
? years, and which, in the opinion of President Jackson, so
? long ago a* February, 1837, would have justified, in the
? eyea of all nations, immediate war ."?Letter of Mr. Bu
chanan to the Mexican Minister of Foreign Relations, Sep
tember %%, iM6.
me inucnuiiucs, uiiNiwueu uj arrcim we nun. <n>.uo^
upon; and now, by way of satisfying them, these
old claims, amounting to some five millions of dol
lars, nothing el*e?--for Mr. Commissioner offers to
give up the preposterous idea of Mexico's paying
us the hundred millions which the war has cost us?
the Executive instructions demand' that we shall
have twenty-five millions' worth of territories !
Could any thing be more flagrantly unjust ? What
pretence at all for<hgain demanding a " fair equiva
lent " for these indemnities ? And, if pretcnce
there were, what decent excuse for demanding a
value so jnucli beyond them, that twenty millions
of dollars must be paid back to Mexico, in order to
make at all even the "fair equivalent" whjch we
take first, then ask, and last of all declare (#t least
Mr. Polk does) that we mean to keep any how ?
The claim is five millions. We offered it for the
right of peaceful annexation. Mexico did not make
war upon us wh'en we annexed Texas. Should we
not, then, have considered the debt cancelled as
against her ? Next, we seized upon her posses
sions up to the Rio Grande: was that not offset
enough for the indemnities ? No: nothing we can
lake pays them. We send an army to Santa Fe,
to seize the great province of which it is the capi
tal ; we have a fleet posted in the Pacific, to fall
upon and secure California, as soon as a war shall
have been brought about by the hostile diplomacy
of Mr. Slidell or the pacific invasion under Gen.
Taylor ; and presently near one half of Mexico is
clutched, under this inextinguishable claim of in
demnities ! But why two great territories), to pay
five millions? If New Mexico and Upper Califor
nia are worth twenty-five millions, one of them is
worth probably the half of that, and either would
alone be much more than a " fair equivalent" for
our "just demands," which are still just, although
twice paid already. Why, then, must we have two
wide Departments of Mexico, when o)ie would be,
at our own valuation, double the value of our pre
tended claim ? Can facts speak a plainer language ?
Or how should there be a more glaring case of in
consistent arrogation than in all this Executive
course of claiming indemnities ; then taking what
was to pay for them ; then claiming something else
for them ; then taking that; and, at last, swelling
the exaction by each successive obtaining of it, de
manding (but they were taken already) two separate
territories, each double the debt, as the only terms
on which we will make peace ?
Yet it is to sustain inconsistencies so glaring and
pretences so transparent as these that the President
now demands of Congress thirty thousand more
men, and nearly a hundred millions of dollars for
the ensuing year's expenditure, to further prosecute
the war into '' the vitals of the enemy !"
'Major John P. Gaines, a Representative in Con
gress from the State of Ken tuck j^Pbnd lately at
tached to the Army in Mexico, arrived in this city
on Wednesday last by the cars from the West.
The President of the Senate has appointed Sen
ator Thos. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, a Re
gent of the Smithsonian Institution, in the place of
Mr. Senator Cass, resitrned.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives
some days ago appointed the following Members of
the House Regents of the Institution, to serve until
December, 1849, viz: Mr. Hilliaro, of Alabama,
(reappointment,) Mr. Marsh, of Vermont, and Mr.
McClelland, of Michigan, to fill the places of Mr.
Owen, of Indiana, and Mr. Hough, of New York,
whose terms expired last month, and who, ceasing
to be Membcjrs of the House of Representatives,
could not be reappointed.
Nearly six huridred persons attended a Compli
mentary Dinner given to Commodore Stockton, at
Philadelphia, on Thursday evening last. The
newspapers report it as having been a very hand
some and agreeable entertainment. Speeches were
made by Mayor Swift, Com. Stockton, the Hon.
Isaac E. Morse of Louisiana, the Hon. Mr. Levin
of Philadelphia, and Mr. Potts of Trenton. Hon.
John Van Dyke was among the guests.
The Commodore responded to a toast compli
menting his services. He goes for increasing the
army, in order to civilize Mexico and extend to
that people the benefits of civil and religious liber
ty. For this purpose he is reported to have said
that 1'Jiffy thousand more men pnust be sent to
Mexico," and ** the war to be prolonged for fifty
years" if need be, though it should cost money
enough ." to demand frotn us each year the half of
all that ice pottetaAnd these sentiments are
said to have been loudly and repeatedly applauded.
RE8P0NSE FROM THE PEOPLE.
We have before us the proceedings of the Whig
County Convention for the county of Ashtabula,
in the State of Ohio, held on the 29th day of last
month, (December,) 1847; and, among the resolu
tions, it gives us satisfaction to find the following,
which were unanimously adopted :
Heaolted, That offensive war ia contrary to the plainest
dictate* of our religion and the geniua of our free institutions?
that territory acquired by arm* mu?t naturally by arm* be re
tained ; and that the only material question on which our Go
vernment and Mexico are still at issue being whether more or
less of the territory wrested from the latter by our victoriooa
troops shall be ceded to and retained by us at the restoration
of peace, we therefore do most earnestly call upon out rulers
to put an immediate stop to the unchristian and unnatural
war in which our neighbor Republic is the arena and our fel
low countrymen in part the victims.
knotted, That duty to ourselves and country, as well as
a regard for the plainest principles of immutable justice, de
mands of ua to call upon our Government for the entire and
immediate withdrawal of our army from the territory of
Mexjco, as we are opposed to sustaining or prolonging the
war with a view or purpose for the subjugating or dismember
ing any pert of that unfortunate Repablic.
Htmtvrd, That we cheerfully concur in and adopt as our
own the resolution* offered by the Hon. Jon* M. Uott*, in
the House of Representatives of Congress, on the Slat instant.
Rt&Jrtd, That we are altogether opposed to and do utterly
protest againot tip further appropriation by our General Gov
ernment of men or money for the further prosecution of the
present war with Mexico, unless the same may be alwolutely
necessary for the safe and honorable removal of the United
8tates troops from the Mexican territory to the proper and in
disputable territory of the United 8lates.
It is with siicere regret that we republish the fol
lowing from the Annapolis Republican :
Death or RosaaT W. Bowta, En.?-We are pained to
learn the death of Rosiest W. Bowib, Esq., of Prince
George's county. Mr. Bowie has filled many important sta
tions in this State. As a member of the Executive Council,
as State Senator, and as a member of the House of Delegates,
he was ever foremost in maintaining the honor of the 8tste.
He waa a fear lea* and consistent politician, alwaya seeking the
approval of his conscience rather than the popular applause.
He died in the meridian of lifo, deeply regretted by a large
circle of friends throughout the State. .
We have great pleasure in observing how more
and more wholesome is becoming the pulsation in
the great arteries of the Nation. If we had no other
evidence of it, the late votes of the House of Re
presentatives, in which popular opinion is more
truly and directly represented than in any other
manner, affords gratifying assurance of the fact.
All indications, indeed, froin every source entitled
to coniidence, are to the same effect.
That there are conflicting opinions in refer
ence to the Mexican War, its origin, objects, and
prospects, we are not so absurd as to deny. But they
are, in general, so obviously the result of exuberant
party, ilfeal, that they are not entitled to the respect
which one would willingly pay to the opinions '
of the same persons, expressed in private. Nay,
it Is very well known that some of those who feel
themselves most stringently bound by party ties
to follow the Administrationas far as he that .goes
the farthest, are deeply impressed with the unfor
tunate influences and tendencies of this most un
happy war, and* if they were sure that a majority
of their political friends were of opinion with them
selves, would very soon put an end to it.
Of this latter class certainly we should consider the [
greater part of those who composed a 44 Democratic
Convention" lately held at Milledgeville, in the State
of Georgia, whose proceedings are published in the
party organ in that city. Among the resolutions we
find, for example, the following :
44 Resolved, That the war with Mexico should
? be prosecutcd with 'vigor and energy ; that the '
4 country in our possession should all be retained; |
? that our conquests should be still further
4 extended ; and that our progress should be on
4 ward until "Mexico should sue for peace, upon
4 such terms as are consistent with the interests and
4 honor of the American People."
We need not Wll our readers that this is mere
repetition by rote from the President's Message,,
and that the authol of it had obviously never ex
amined the reverse of the picture presented by the
Message, and much less reflected to what dire cala
mity and ruin he would subject every thing dear to
liberty and humanity, by adopting the President's
notions, of what the44 honor" ot the nation requires.
As to the interest of the nation, we presume that
there is no man who has dived into Dilworth as
far as the Rule of Three who supposes that the in
terest of the Cnited States does not require this
war to be broujht to the shortest possible end.
Far different, far more enlightened, far more ele
vated, we are l^appy to say, is the sentiment of
some distinguished individuals of the Democratic
party. We will not bring before our readers by name
those members of Congress of that parly who may
be thus classed. It is enough that there are such
Our object to-day is only to present to our readers
who are of that ptrty, as worthy of their imitation,
and to our Whig readers as worthy of their admira
tion, an extract from a Southern paper which is j
by no means Whig, and whose political sympathies
have heretofore been with the Administration.
Here is the extract, every word of which is God's i
FftOH THE ch ARLF.SToV KVKXIXG XZWH OF IIECEM H EH 31. I
0 m ? h country Was precipitated into !
4 the war without any anticipation of it. Is it un
4 reasonable to apprehend that we may - be hurried
4 farther in the pursuit of ends and objects than we
4 now contemplate ? The peace that would be sat
4 isfactory to-day might not obtain the honor of a j
4 consideration a month hence. Now a comforta
4 ble slice of Mexican territory would perhaps sat
4 isfy the popular appetite for land?more land ; but.
4 who can tell how soon its cravings will refuse to ;
4 be satiated with any thing short of the whole ?
* Is it wise, is it statesmanlike in our rulers to aban
4 don themselves to the current of events ; to let |
? things take their course, in the uncertain hope
4that the end will work itself out right? A more
4 miserable fatuity cannot be conceived. This ap
4 petite for land, for an extension of the area, as it
4 is called, is becoming the prevailing passion of
4 our people. Already they cannot bear to feel the
4 touch of their neighbor's elbow. Nor is any thing
4 better calculated to feed and to madden thra pas
4 sion than an offensive war, prosecuted without
4 definite purpose, and for which the acquisition of
4 territory can be our only indemnification.
44 What could we do with Mexico were it at this
?moment all our own ? Do we expect to hold it as
*a subjected province, to be plundered and inis
4 governed by rapacious pro-consuls, or to incorpo
4 rate it into our Union, with its ten millions of an
4 inferior race, who have neither blood nor sympa
4 thy in common with us, and who never can be as.
4 siinilated to ourselves T This is a startling alter
4 native, and one that ought to arrest the attention of
4 those who give direction to the current of public
4 sentiment. The day that our country shall so far
'depart from its appointed and appropriate duties as
' to undertake to govern or to incorporate a reluc
4 tant and conquered nation, that day will it begin to
4 feel the unsettling of its foundations, and to sink
4 and fall under the weight of the vast and incon
gruous mass that will hang like an incubus upon
? its prostrate energies."
Gen. Sam Hoiston has been re-elected to the
United States Senate from Texas, for the full term
! of six years from the 4th of March last.
Mr. Clay.?The Hon. Henry Clay arrived in
Baltimore on Thursday night from Martinsburg,
Virginia. He is the guest of his old friend and for
mer secretary, the Hon. Christopher Htohes,
with whom he will probably spend two or three
days.? H ultimo re American.
General Taylor visited Natchez, M ississippi, on
the 2'id ultimo, and was welcomed by public hon
ors, in which the people joined with great enthusi
asm. He was accompanied by Major Bliss and
Capt. Garnktt. To the address of welcome Gen.
Taylor made the following modest response:
"Mr. Mtvoa : The warm and affectionate welcome with ;
?kkh th? people of Natchrt hare honored me can be but
feebly acknowledged by any worda of mine. Few now re
main who were on the active scene of life when I fiiat became
acquainted here , but I aee their children around, me, and the
open bands and hearta of their sons, and tlx- bright ayes of
their daughter*, render thia greeting doubly welcome.
44 You have alluded to my eervicea in the field in such flat
tering, though, 1 fear, undeserved term*, that I moat tay a
few worda in reply. To the bravery of our troops, regular*
?rid volunteer*, are our succeears in Mexic-i due ? to their
bold hearts and atout arint w? moat Mcribe the brilliant victo
ries which ha?e ahed ao much lustre ufum our arm*, and none
Among them have been more conapicuou? (ban the firat regi
ment of Mississippi volunteera. For myself, I can only claim
the credit of having performed my duty to the Iieat of my
"Again, Mr. Mayor, f convey to you, *nd through you to
the people of Nate hex, my moat heartfelt thanka for the high
honor they have ahown me."
A part of the cererooniea of reception consisted in escort
ing the Goners) to the Free School Buildings, when he waa
?ddreaeed by Judge Dcasi**os. At the conclusion of the
Jadge'a speech, the five huodred pupils sung a triumphal ode
with great good taste snd spirit. A young Isdy, at the con
clusion of the ode, advanced and placed upon the old bero'a
brow a beautiful wreath of flowers, which, saya the Natchez
Cosrisr, " quite disconcerted the General, who? however,
eoon rallied, and made a response in appropriate terms, which
was greeted with thundering applause." ,
The House of Representatives on Monday signal
ize^ itself by a homage to Truth, the more brilliant
and striking because unexpected at so early a day
in the session, though not doubted in the end by
those who believe, as we. do, that the ultimate tri
umph of Truth over Error is certain.
Monday being Resolution-day, Mr. Houston,
the Whig Member from Delaware, having pre
viously given notice of his intention to do so, in
troduced a resolution of thanks to Gen. Taylor
and the army under his command for the great
achievement of the Battle of Buena Vista.
This Resolution, Mr. Henley, one of the Demo
cratic Representatives from Indiana, moved to
amend by adding to the words describing the army
these words: " engaged as they were in defending
the rights and honor of the nation."
This amendment Mr. Ashmun, of Massachusetts,
moved to "further amend, by adding these words :
" in a war unnecessarily and unconstitutionally
begun by the President of the United States
On agreeing to this last amendment, the yeas
and nays were, ordered; and the vote being taken,
it stood as follows: Yeas 85, nays 81.
So that the House or Representatives has, by
a solemn vote, declared that the War with Mexi
co was unnecessarily and unconstitutionally
1JEGUN BY THE president OF THE UNITED STATES.
INTERRUPTION OF THE MAILS.
[mow orm daily papkr or moxiiay labt.]
This day four entire daily Mails from all,the
country South of Richmond are due at the Post
Office in this city, the mail having failed altogether
yesterday, as it had done on the two preceding days.
As no mail arrives here, so no mail reaches the
South from this plaoe any more frequently than it
arrives here from the same quarter. It is vain,
under the present arrangement, or rather derange
ment of the Southern Mail, that newspapers are
issued drily from the .press of this city and of other
cities North and East of us. Our papers might as
well be printed once a month as once a day for any
certainty of their transmission South. In fact, for
all useful purposes, the whole South is cut off from
communication with us, and the seat of Government
cut off from its wonted connexion with lower
Virginia, the two Carolinas*Georgia, Florida, Loui- 1
siana, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Mexico.
It is high time that a stop was put to this absurd
arrangement; absurd, because impracticable. It is
absolutely demonstrated now, whatever might have :
been before supposed or hoped, that the Mail cannot
be transmitted with any regularity by the route of
Chesapeake Bay and James River. Hitherto
storms and fogs and dark nights have interrupted i
its transportation. To these causes will soon be
added ice in the James River and in Baltimore
harbor; and the cessation of the communication,
which is now only experienced by fits of four dayfe
at a time, will bccome total. ?
It is not to the South owly, of com se, but to every
State in the Union, that this is a great and crying
grievance. Every interest of the country demands
that a remedy be_ immediately applied by the proper
authority. Instead' of passing in hot haste bills
for raising thirty thousand men for the further pro- |
secution of a War ol Invasion, the object of which
no man will risk tiis character as a Statesman or a
Christian by undertaking to specify, the People of j
all parts of the country would like to see Congress
engaged in re-uniting the two great divisions of our
own Union, now efft#ively severed by the conflict
which has arisen between those tw * great domestic
powers, the Postmaster General and the Richmond
and Fredericksburg Railroad Company.
FINANCES OF MARYLAND.
The Annual Report of the Treasurer of Mary
land shows the operations of the fiscal year ending
December 1, 1847, have been as follows :
The total receipts into the Treasury for the year
were $1,374,903 92, viz. in cash $051,293 72,
and in coupons $723,010 20. The promineut
sources of revenue from which this aggregate was
derived were? .
Auction dutiea. $21,859 26
Washington railroa 1, one filth passenger receipts 38,528 30
Susquehanna railroad 33,000 00
Dividend* on bank stork 33,071 32
Licences, (by clcrks of Baltimore rityiuid county) 123,675 94
Hoad stock dividends 42,749 00
I Suiiu}m 52,458 32
Lottery licenses 17,992 90
i Stamps on lottery tickets ; 17,302 16
Susquehanna and Tide Water Canal Companies 66,550 00
Direct and income taxes and tax on officer* 769,821 88
Of this last item $46,211 68 were in cash, and
#723,610 20 were in coupons.
Of the total receipts of the year the sum of
$251,127 05*vas for revenue which accrued before
the year 1847.
The disbursements of the Treasury for the fiscal
year were 91,101,452 87. Of this aggregate the
payment of interest of the public debt took
The balance in the Treasury on the 1st of De
cember, 1847, was $328,100 46, which sum was
subject to charges which woultl leave a nett balance
of $227,220 31 applicable to future demands on the
The report goes on to say that a comparison of
this annual report with those of the two preceding
j years shows a gratifying improvement in tlie revenue of the
State generally, but more especially in that portion of it de
rived from revenue laws enacted within the last three year*.
This, together with the fact that the receipts in each of theae
years exceeded the annual liabilities, warrant* the conclusion
1 that revenue sufficient to relieve the State from her late hu
miliating embarrassment* has now i>cen provided.
The following statement shows the assessed Ya
lue of real and personal property in each separate
county, Howard district, and Baltimore city, for
the year 1847 :
Allegany $4,082,244 Frederick 17,669.508
' Anne Arundel.. . 6,944,494 Harford
Howard district, Kent 3,517,832
A. A. county .. 3,524.748 Montgomery 4,985,840
Baltimore city .. .70,305,140 Prince George's.. 9,051,940
Baltimoreeo... .*13,383,368 (Jueen Anne's... 3,990,992
Calvert 2,191,424 Somen** *3,271,564
Carroll 6,350,400 St. Mary's 4,186,512
Caroline 1,389,392 Talbot 4,380,288
Charles .... 3,369, *.68 Washing ton 12,057,676
Cecil 4,961.924 Worcester. 3,466,244
Dorchester 4,055,644 ?????
The aggregate amount of the levy on the assessed value
for 1847 m $476,809 72.
? From the counties marked with the asterisk no returns
have been received ? their itxHcsMnont and levies are from re
turns of former years.
Hkavy EaasxciiMiNT.?We were informed yesterday
of a heavy embezilement of the fund of the United 8tate?
Mint of this city, by RixnALL HcTcamaox, one of the clerks,
who on Monday last absconded, taking with him a Urge quan
tity of the public funds, which be had in hia immediate charge
as clerk of the incidental and other expenses of the institution.
Upon the facts becoming known, an investigation of his ac
counts <Vc. was instituted, when he was found to be a de
faulter in the sum of $29,000, which he had eml?exiled from
the funda in hia keeping. Ha left the city on Monday morn
ing, and was on Tueaday aeen in New York.
David P- P***, Eaq., Principal of the Slate Normal
School of New York, died on New Year'a morning, tgfd 37
At rather a late hour yesterday we were favored
with a copy of the late Speech of Mr. Calhoun,
as revised by himself, upon his resolutions protest
ing against the conquest, by the United States, and
holding as a province or annexing, of the Repub
lic of Mexico. We lose no time in placing a
Speech o! such consequence?though not going
quite as iar as we could have wished?before our
wiile circle of intelligent and observant readers.
< >iher interesting Debates and Proceedings relat
ing to the Mexican YVar will be found spread over
different pages ol this sheet, as we could find room
i he principal subject of discussion in the House
ol Representatives this week has been a Resolution
which proposes to eusure greater regularity in the
transportation ol the Southern mail by restoring it
to the Potomac route. .The subject is not yet dis
Not having room, in this ediiion of our paper,
for the Speeches which were delivered at the Pub
lic Pinner given in this city in honor of Generals
Quitman and Shields, we extract only the annexed
brief remarks of the latter gentleman, complimentary
of the Gfeheral-in-chief of the Army:
(?eneral Hhiklum rose and said : Mr. President, with your
permission and the consent of the company, I wish, as a subor
dinate officer of the American army, to give the health of that
distinguished commander under whbin my honorable and gal
lant friend and myself have had the honor to serve. I feel it due
from me to lien. Scott, [applause,] first as one of bis otiicera
bating returned from the headquarters of the army which he has
so nobly and successfully commanded. I think it still further
due, returning as I do with a conviction that that army bias
been commanded in nuch a manner by Gen. Scolt as to call
lorth the applause, and estimation, and high regard, not only
of his countrymen, but of the whole world, it would be a
i useless and a foolish undci taking on nay part to attempt ade
quately to describe before this intelligent assembly the skill
' arid high military knowledge displayed by Gen. Scout in the
conduct of that Army from its landing at Vera Cruz until it
' entered the garita at Mexico. If I should attempt the task I
should fail. I could not portray with justness the conduct of
that distinguished commander in the hazardous enterprise in
which he has been engaged. But f will eay this, that in the
history of the world?in the annals of all mi|itary afioirs and
enterprises that I have ever read, I find no enterprise compa
rable with the capture of Vera Cruz. One of the strongest
positions in the world?so strong, indeed, that it was deemed
almost impregnable by the military minds of the world, and
yet on a coast the most difficult of access in the world, it fell
tiefore an army of 12,000 men with the loss of only two score.
[Applause. ] And the same skill which enabled him to accom
plish this undertaking marked every movement of his progress
until he entered the gates of Mexico.
In the remarks of Major Gen. Jesup, respecting the brave
ry and gallantry and intelligence of the officers of our army, I
heartily concur. Neither England, France, nor any other
country in the world has such s body of intelligent young of- .
fleers in the field as those who accompanied Gen. Scott into
the city of Mexico; and, if ever I entertained a thought
against West Point, I now make ihe amende honorable, and
recall any thing to the prejudice of that institution that I may
have thought or uttered. [Gre;?t applause.] Soitis with re
gard to Gen. Scott: if I ever harbored aught against him, politi
cally or otherwise?for a ?? hasty plate of soup" [laughter] or
a slow plate of soup?I recall it -all, and make the amende to
him also, and say that I should be very unwilling to see any
other man take an army of ten thousand men into the valley
of Mexico and attempt to land them in safety. Such an un
dertaking requires not only unquestionable bravery of the soldier
and gallantry of the officer, but a great superintending milita
ry mind, that had conquered and made himself master of him
profession, and thus fitted himself to accomplish such an al
most miraculous enterprise.
With your permission, Mr. President, and that of this com
pany, I give you the health of Major General Wijiukld
Scott. [Great applause.]
APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT,
By and with the advice and consent of the ?!Senate.
Seth Barton, of Louisiana, Charg? d'Affaires to
the Republic of Chili, (appointed in the recess.)
John W. Davis, of Indiana, Commissioner to
China, vice A. H. Everett, deceased.
John Rowan, of Kentucky, Charg? d'Affuires
to Naples, vice Wm. H. Polk, recalled at his own
Nathaniel Niles, of Verfnont, Charg6 d'Af
faires to Sardinia, vice Robert Wickliffe, jr., re
Thomas J. TMoroan, of Ohio, Secretary of Lega
tion to Brazil, vice R. Walsh, recalled.
Wm. J. Staples, of New York, Consul at Havre,
in place of Mr. Beasley, deceased.
Charles Huffnaole, of Pennsylvania, Consul
at the port of Calcutta, vice James B. Higginson,
Hi/oh Keenan, of Pennsylvania, Consul at. the
port of Dublin, vice Thomas Wilson, recalled.
John McPiikrson, of Virginia, Consul at the port
of Genoa, vice C. E. Lester, recalled.
Geokoe J. Fairfield, of Maine, Consul at the
port of Buenos Ayres, vice Thaddeus Sanford, de
clined, and who was vice W. Greenhow, declined.
Adolphe Kknard, Recorder of Land Titles at
St. Louis, Missouri, vice L. Spencer, deceased.
Robert VV. Pooler, Surveyor at Savannah,
? Georgia, from 1st July, 1847.
Eleazer P. Kendrick, of Ohio, Surveyor of
Virginia military district in Ohio, vice Wm, M.
Abel M. Bryant, Collector at Kennebunk,
Maine, vice James Osborne, removed.
William P. Porter, Surveyor at Cily Point,
Alexander Somervillk, Collector at Saluria,
Edward Fitzoerald, Surveyor of the Customs
at Corpus Christi, vice George W. Collingsworth,
Henry P. Norton, Surveyor of the Customs at
Copano, Texas, vice John F. Stephens, resigned.
MONEY MATTEKS AND THE WAR.
moM mr. jormiL or coxmsrcb.
The n sources of the Government are coming within a small
compass. The rash in the Nuhtreasury here ia but little mora .
than half a million,-with heavy draft* constantly making upon
it, and mull receipts ?? the amount of duties ia moderate,
and a large portion of them ia paid in Treaaury note*. The
hanks h< ru have now live millions and a half of specie. They
have contracted their liabilities six millions since the first of
November, so that their poeition ia easier than it was then.
The Philadelphia hanks have reduced their liabilities five mil
lions. Money in the street is uow one to one and a quarter
per month : but the >snks discount so liberally that very few
persons have occasion to go elsewhere.
The Secretary of the Treasury has, as we understand, in
stituted some inquiries as to the terms upon which further
loans could be obtained. Nobody thinks that they could bm
procured at par while the Bulitreasdry exists snd the Mexican
war has no end prescribed to it. About ninety-five per cent
for a six per cenL stock. But for the war, every thing in bu
siness would be cheerful. The disturliance occasioned by the
disaster* in England has from the beginning been considered
as of short duration. But the war, while no point of termi
nation is fixed for it, compels every merchant to see that the
Government will be constantly an immenee borrower, so
that there can be no certain calculation for the future. A
good deal of the difficulty resulting from the shipments of gold
to England has been causfd by the war. The silver dollars
which were on their way from Mexico to England are pur
chased hy our army providers and paid for by drafts on New
York, which are here paid in gold, and the latter is sent for
ward to England in place of the dollare. Would it not be
mora honorable in the present generation, if they choose to
have a war, to pay the expenses on the spot, instead of en
tailing upon posterity a vast debt * We have courage to fight;
, we should have courage to pay.
The Oharleslown (Va.) Free Press announces the ?udden
death on Monday last of ALtXAJtBBm 8. Tidbail. Esq., oi
vv incfM Swij v
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