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THE EUROPEAN NEWS, BV THE EUROPA.
Although the already-published letter of our Lon don Correspondent has supplied our readers with an excellent general view of the latest events in the present European 44 progress," there are particu-* lar details?especially as to what is going on in France?which we must add, in order to give a just idea of the state of things. The conjuncture seems to us to be growing every day more and more im portant. Happily for England, the pinch of food which the British Isles are again about to suffer is not to have joined with it the further calamity of civil strife?a calamity which would have deepened in expressibly the horrors of famine, by diverting to purposes of mutual destruction all those public re sources and that governmental care, which will now ' be directed toward* guarding against a scarcity or alleviating it when it shall arrive. How vain is all human reason ! and what curses would the fulfil ment of what seem our rightest wishes often be ! Had the strength and vigilance of the British Gov ernment not proved sufficient to crush at once the Chartist insurrection and the Irish rebellion, it is evident, that, in the approaching bread-dearth, (ag gravated as it would have been, in a domestic con test, by the stoppage of all the earning? of the poor,) Britain and Ireland would have presented a spec tacle much like that which is sometimes described to us in narratives of sea-sufl'ering, where the decks of the dismasted ship or the planks of the frail raft witness the rage of hunger and that of mutiny at the same time, and resound with the wail ol starva tion, even while they quiver to the struggles of mor tal combat. With the thought of Ireland's having escaped all this, the friends of her emancipation even by arms?her immediate and unconditional emancipation?must, for the present, console them selves. Meanwhile, it is to be recollected that the British Government has exhibited, as to these re volutionary attempts, a very high degree of con servative prudence, resolution, and strength. Sa gacious as it is intrepid, and wise enough always to yield when necessary, but never to yield to force?for that is ruin at once, and only fools and cowards commit that blunder?it has shown itself, even at the present doubtful moment, the strongest Power in the Old World, except despotic Russia, to resist change by violence: a quality which it evidently owes to its wise willingness to submit to sober and legal alteration. Thus a liberal spirit and liberal institutions, while they bless a country so much, show themselves the best security.. It was in like manner with us in the Shay rebellion, the Whiskey insurrection, the Nullification attempt, the Rhode Island revolution; all of which might have been fatal, under a government less moderate, but were foiled without a struggle through the very gentleness of the authority which they attempted to overthrow, and remain only a warning that gov ernments which will gradually change themselves by legislation should never be assailed with arms. In Prussia, in Germany proper, in Hungary, in Poland, in Lombardy, in the Papal States, and in the Sicilies, things look little cheerful. The hopes which those countries- lor a while gave of political regeneration seem to be fading away be fore the want of counsel in the populace, of capa city or disinterestedness in their leaders, and above all before the individual ambitions, each of which is striving to shape the movement to its own be nefit. Prussia want* Schleswick, Germany wants Prussia, Sardinia wants all Austrian Italy, and each member of the late French Executive Government ?wants to succeed Louis Philippe, or, as the suc cessful manager for young Henry or joung Napo leon, to take the place of Gcizot. Political free dom, in a word, is a thing very hard to make, and especially hard to those who need it the most. The highest gift of God to a society, he does not grant it except to a people who have earned it by virtue and wisdom. If they are individually moral and intelligent, no human power can make them less .than free : for no force can be brought against the virtuous will of a whole country which is ca pable of controlling it. It must be stronger than any invasion ever was ; and all domestic usurpa tion is as nothing against a nation not already the slave of its own vice or folly. Constitutions, forms of government, are, in reality, of wonderfully little efficacy: it is the genius, the temper, the charas ? ter, the habits of each society which give it its real one. A European people might just as well ex pect to speak Greek by means of suddenly assum ing that national costume, as hope to have a Gov ernment like ours by dint of putting on our Con stitution. Just the same is it, of course, with the conquering visions of our manifest destiny men : we may catch as many Californians or New Mexi cans or Yucatanese or Brazilians or Patagonians as we please, and put our institutions upon them ; 'but we shall not, by so doing, change their natures. To proceed, however, to Fhance, the great point from which have flowed and are to flow the Eu ropean changes now in motion : we find, in the last news, what seems certain intelligence of a coming event likely to be the most fatal to her and to the Other European States that shall engage in it, that can well happen. Dictator Cavaionac has, it ap pears, determined to take armed part in the Lom bard contcst. The following extracts will show the facts, and what causes involve him in that course: " CnAftLt? Ai.hurt ha*arain made * formal requeat to the French Gjvernment for ita intervention and aid, declaring that he ia ready to enter upon a new campaign, not for the p*r)?oee of peraonal aggrandizement or to increaae hia own dominion*, hut in order to enaure the entire liberty of Italy, and to free the peninaula from the yoke of Auatria. Hia Mi niater, in making hia demand, aaaured the French Govern ment that by the end of September Charlea Albert would have an army of 100,000 men ready to commence the war." " h appeara to be a aettled point that if Auatria abonld per siat in refuting to give independence to Lombardy, the army of the Alpe will croea the frontier. The poaition of General Cavaia*ac ia auch that he moat either withdraw from office or take thia comae. The bourgeoisie are for peace ; bat the beat frienda of the Government fear that to draw back after the promise of intervention in ? given caae would not only enable the ultra Republican* to excite the populace, but would also create disaffection in the army j and, aa they prefer war to tnarchy, they will aupport Cavaignac in an armed inter vention." " General CaTArwjiAr paaaed all thia morning with General de Ijamor i c i r.a a, the Miniater of War, and the auhject of their long conference turned, it ia believed, upon the forma tion of a aecond army of 75,000 men, which waa determined upen, in contemplation of the entry of the troopa under Gen. OrniaoT on the Piedmonteae territory. An order haa al ready been transmitted to the eighteen military djviaiona to form war battalion, (bataillona de guerre,) and to oblige all officers or soldiers on leave of absence to return forthwith to their posts. " This measure will raise the French army to 560,000 men, from which mcy be subtracted the Algerine army, 6b,000. On the other band, it ia in contemplation to mobilize 300 bat talions of national guard*, so that the ellective will be really considerable. An order has been sent to the arsenal of Bour ges to forward immediately to Grenoble 3,000,000 cartridge*, 10,( 00 bombs, 10,000 howitzers, 25,000 balls, and an im mense park of artillery, siege as well as field pieces. It is rumored that the two first divisions of the army, under Gen. Oudinot, will cross the Alps in the early part of next week, to be immediately followed by the other divisions, the whole to take up their encampment on the Tessino, ready to march the day of the termination of the armistice." " Lit Presae states positively that the French Gov ernment has refused to comply with the demand of its intervention in favor of the republic of Venice, made in its name by M. Tommaaaeo. The French Government declined interfering, alleging, among other motives, that a partial inter vention in favor of Venice would only complicate the difficul ties of the general Italian question." From the European Times, Sept. 2?Second Edition. " 0ur correspondent, under date of Thursday evening, says : " I have heard that in a Council of Ministers, held to-day, it was decided that 4,000 troops of the line should be immediately sent to Venice, and that, in consequence of or ders given some days since, three ahips-of-war have been al ready sent Irom Toulon, and have now most probably arrived at Venice. "Col. D'Hillier, the chef de cabinet of Oeu. Lamoiiciere, lefl for Marseilles. He is to be at the head of the staff of the corps d'armie to be sent to Venice." This last extract, it will be perceived, is of the latest date, and may be considered as authenticating both the French movement in aid of Venice and that in aid of Sardinia. As to the reasons which have dccided Cavaiunac, it is eertainly true that lie had given the pltedges which he must now keep or violate : Austria has regained her lost possessions in Italy, and manifestly docs not mean, in the midst of that success, to give thein up again to French and English mediation, as if she had fought and conquered for mere child's play. Not Cavaionac alone, but all parties in France, are pledged (the public feeling compelling them) to come to the aid ol Sardinia, in the conjuncture which has now oc curred. Events, besides, if they take this course, will only be follow ing, as they have hitherto faith fully done, the old French revolutionary track. We have had the downfall of another Louis, only without his execution; the Convention ; the Com mittee of public Safety ; the Directory ; the First Consulship ; anJ the popular spirit can probably no more now than formerly witness olher Democratic contests (as they are called) close at hand and get ting the disadzantage, without taking part. The policy ol Peace is that of trench Freedom rightly understood: but the nation does not, we think, un derstand any such policy. Things will take, then, we apprehend, their old instinctive train, and Ca vaionac, as a military man, do as Napoleon did, for the same reasons of necessity or ambition. Meanwhile, let us see, in the intelligence before us, what is the present state of Freedom in France. " PARIS AGAIN A CAMP. " Rumors of an imj?cnding insurrection have again been current in Paris; and the danger is to be apprehended from the Legitimists, who are asserted to have formed an alliance with the red Republicans and the Socialists. The debate on the rejK>rt of the Committee of Inquiry excited much alarm. The strictest military precautions were adopted by ifce Gov ernment. *' On the yuai d'Orsav, extending from the Esplanades des Invaiides toward the Champ de Mars, far beyond the snuff manulactory, the 7th light infantry was encamped, and the 12th regiment of the lino occupied the camp of the Esplanade des Invaiides. In the court-yard of the hotel of the Pre?ident of the National Assembly were to be seen crowds of national guards, lancers, and artillery, ?o that 20,000 men could have been collected round the Assembly in twenty minutes, rhe whole garrison of P.na, and all the troops wnhin manv leagues, were under arms on Fudav night. " A large encampment was formed, as if by magic, on Sunday afternoon, in the grand square of the Champ. Elyaee* On Sunday at noon that vast are. presented its wonted ai?- ' pearance ot a level and vacant square. -At 5 o'clock it was I literally covered with tents and swarming with soldiers I Another camp, of equal extent, is fixed on the opposite side of the river, on the Esplanade of the Invaiides, and a third on I that portion of the Quai d'Orsav, which extends from the In I vahdes to the Pont de Crenelle. The gardens, courts, and every available space within the Chamber and ita dependen cies, and the President's hotel, are also quite filled with troops including a great quantity 0f artillery. Cannon are planted behind the entrenchment, and others are concealed by the columna of the veatibule." " THE PRESS MLZZLED. ''in our laat paper the suppreaaion of four mo e journala by General Cavaignac. Since then the Gov ernment has given notice to the editor, of the R,forme, the Comtitutionncl, and the Democrat it Vacifiaut, that if they SLS m?M rZTl in ,he,r 'W will be aup pres*d. M. Thiers went to M. Senard, the Minister of the Interior, to remonstrate with him on the danger to which he exposed the country by hi. violence against the newspapers and declared that the Republican Government wMIDUl?mor; seveie and arbitrary than even that of the Bourbon, or Louia Philippe had been. M. Senard replied .hat the dynasTof .ouis Philippe had fallen, not withstanding its rigors against the pres.; and as the Republic was not efficiently atrong ZC*.*L?Vr*' " " ntcetmry for it to uae more "PROTEST OF THE EDITORS. "The following iathe proUatofcertain journalistsof Pari*, prepared by a committee of five memberj, MM. Capo de i Feuillade, He Lavalette, Albert Msurin, Paul Feval, and Eugene Veuillot, appointed at a meeting of journalist* held in Pari* on the 24ih ultimo, at which tbu pioteat was adopted unanimously : " The underaigned, in the i?me and for the honor of the Li j berty of the Pre**, which they represent here? " Recollectine tl?at the Execative Government, by a decree of the 85th of June, 1HJ, tuppretted eleven journal*, and canted the principal editor of one of them to be incarcerated without teizure, or trial, or conviction ; " Recollecting that, although thi* violation of personal lib. erty, o? the liberty of the pre** and of property, wai not at that period the object of a collective proleti on the part of the wri ter* in the Pariaian pre**, the can* i* to Ik- found in the re aerve impoaed on them by the exceptional circumstance* under which the capital wa* placed } " Recollecting that the Executive Government ha* addreaa ed itaelf to the National Aiaembly to obtain from it preventive and repreaaive law*, which might thenceforth become the rule of it* conduct and the meaaure of ita action : " Recollecting that tho?? law* were voted in the form in which thev had bo*n demanded by the Government; " Recollecting that there i* not to be found among the pen altiea enaeted by tbote law* either the preventive *u*pen*ion of journal* or the preventive arreat of writer* ; ?4 Recollecting that, notwithstanding the law *o demanded and voted, the Executive Government hat, by a decree of the Slit of Auglltt, ordered the preventive tutjieminn of fotir jour nal*, and that teveral editor* have been arretted liefore trial; " Recollecting, in conclu*ion, that the liberty of the pre** i* an impreaeripfible, inalierable, and inviolable right: " 1 hey declatv that thoae decree* are an attack by the Ex ecutive Government on the right* of the legialatite power*, on the right* of the National A**emMy,ffor a decree nuhlithed even with thi* formality prefixed, ? the Council of Vliniiter* having examined,' cannot annul the effect* and the guarantiee of a law.) " They declare that thofe decree* are equivalent to the *up pretaion of the liberty of the preaa, inaamuch at the effect of them i* not only to impend a certain number of journal*, but to deprive ihote which are not *u*pended of that *en*e of *ecu rity without which there i* no longer either independence or liberty in the mo*t moderate excrciae of the leait tunpected right. " They declare, in conalution, that thoae decreet create a regime incomparably worae than that of eenaorthiti; for, ac conling to a definition borrowed from The S'atimuu of the 5th of Augutt, 19.15,' The ten*or*hip mutilate?, but it doe* not im prison, nor doea it ruin.' ?? They proteit, with all the energy of their conviction*, and with all the power of their right, against the decreet of the Executive Government, in virtue of which several joumalt have been *unpre**eil, and teveral writer* have been arretted witli out trial. * ?? CAVAIGNAC'S OPINION ON THE SUBJECT. ?? The cause of the preaa in Paria, at preaent, ia without any prerioua example in tOT history of all the political convnlaions through which France ha* paaaed for the last aiity yean. For ihe first lime within (hat eventful period the liberty of the press has become extinct in tke mo*t literal and practical sense of the term. It is not merely the abuses of journalism which excite the head of tbe Government to the exercise of the des potic power with which he is invested for tbe arbitrary sus pension of the press, but it is now openly avowed tliat any j jurnal which will exercise tbe right of discussion in any man ner which the head of the Government shall consider to be adverse to the republican form of government will be imme diately suppressed. This doctrine was frankly and explicitly avowed, to the great astonishment of Ihe journalists, by Gen. Cavaignac, in his interview with them on the occasion of the presentation of the above protest. " On that occasion the General is reported to have said, ' Your application does you bortor; it is your duty to protest, as it is mine to suspend. I will not do less with tbe Cvnati tulionnrl, if it continues its attacks upon the republic in lavor of monarchy. I have in a friendly way caused its editors to be informed that if they continue tbeir polemics in favor of a dynasty which 1 feel an honor in having seived, but which 1 will have nothing more of, a* France will not have it, I will suspend the Comtitutivnnel without more hesitation than I suspend the Lampion. The republic is atill in its infancy ; it is too weak to resist tbe journalists of the Opposition ; when it shall have grown you shall have a carte blanche to at tack it.' " The same doctrine is accordingly promulgated by the jour-1 nals of the Government. There is, therefore, to be no Oppo sition press. Tbe Government is to ha vents official and semi official organs, but they are to have no adversaiies." It will thus be seen that Cavaiunac's Govern- j ment avows, through its Minister of the Interior, Senard, in answer to the representations of Mons'r Thiers, " thltthe Republican Government is much more arbitrary against the Press than ever the Bourbons or Louis Philippe were," that the fact is really so. In truth, Cavaionac if much more the master of France than any King has ever be^n. The only difference that we can see between the old state of things and the new is that this acts under claim of representing the people. It is a Govern ment by the bayonet, calling itself a Republic. Worse things are done: they are only under a better name. It is true that necessity is urged : the mob, the Red Republic, the Legitimists, the Mon archists, must be kept down : but how long ? When is all this going to cease? When will the violent Press of Paris cease to be incendiary, cease to try to bring about new dynasties ? When will the true Sansculotterie, the Red Republic, the Parisian Commonwealth, such as it now composed, be satisfied ? We can really see no prospect of an end to that state of things, that conduct of parties, that French proneness to turbulence, violence, and subversion, which are the present apology for com plete despotism ; and of course we can imagine no end to the existing way of governing. We heartily deplore that we have to say it: but so it is. TRUE M0DE8TY. The reply of Gen. Taylor to the chairman of the Committee for presenting the medal ordered by the.State of Louisiana (very truly, says the Chro nicle and Sentinel) is full of dignified modesty. " It is true," said he, " there were high and gallant deedi done on (he heights of Buena Vista, and noble and precioui blood drenched the parched earth and stained for many a lonj step its craggy borders; but, gentlemen, of the glory won there 1 have never claimed more than a soldier's share. The honor to lead in the fight was a high one, and that I faltered not in this duty, in this watchful and responsible place, was enough to satisfy my ambition. Duty was the star of my at traction, and to do it I would bring at all limes all my strength to prostrate opposing barriers. In performing this duty a small portion of glory has fallen on the army under my com mand ; then let it not rest on me. Other men, with an equal heart and purpose, doubtless, could have done as well as I. My comrades in many battles since have testified to this by their skill and courage, and they, like myself, know full well how much is due to the *ubaltern and the rank and file." FROM YUCATAN. Late accounts from Cainpeachy and Merida state that the Province of Yucatan has again been united to the Mexican Republic. A letter from Merida says : " The decree of Union has already been celebrated with feasts and public rejoicings. The night of the 18th there was music in the street*, and riras were shouted for Mexico, for the Union, and for the Governor of the 8tate. On the 19th took place the ceremony of the oath of allegiance, and on the 20th a religious function and a grand ball. To-day (21st August) salvos of artillery have celebrated the entry of Zetina into Tekax, of Pasos into Huhi, and of Gonzalea into Teabo. Hie war is near its end. Hie volunteers who have arrived at Sisal have not moved from there. It is said that they are intended for the reconquest of Bacalar, and that for this pur pose they will form a junction with the inhabitants of said city, and rendezvous in the Island of Coznmel. ?'The Mexican Government has made over to Yucatan ?14,000, which sum it baa agreed to pay caab month. Gov. Barbarhano has issued a decree dated the 18th ultimo, by which h: grants absolute amnesty to all the inaurgent In dians who within seventy days shall desist from hostilities and submit to the Government." New HtMrsHiBE.?A large and spirited Whig Conven tion was held at Concord (New Hampshire) on Thursday last. Hon. Jokl Eastxak, of Conway, (formerly United States Attorney under Gen. Harrison,) was President, and is said to have addreaaed the Convention with gteat force and elo quence. Hon. Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, was present by invitation, and delivered a very able address. A series of resolutions, pledging the Whigs of the Granite State to the ' hearty and zealoussupportof Zacharv Tatlor and Millard Fillmore, was adopted with enthusiasm. < The best spirit prevails in the "Granite State," and everywhere in New England. Natal.?The sloop of war Marion, which returned to Boston last week, left that port on the 4th of September, 1845, and proceeded to the west coast of Africa, to join our squadron on that station. She remained there until June 4th, 1847, when she was ordered to visit the Mediterranean, to protect our commerce in that sea. During her absence the following deaths have occurred, namely: At (juitta, west coast of Africa, December 29th, 1846; Purser Joan C. Srsifi er, jr.; at sea, January 11th, 184H, Patrick Dei**, private of marines? at Monrovia, March 30th, 1846, Midshipman Jonsen T. Bartlztt ; Jon* Joh* ao*r, seaman, drowned by the capsizing of a boat on the bar ; at sea, June 27th, 1847, Wm. Colli**, captain of forecastle. During the cruise, the Marion sailed over 49,000 miles, having visited Gibraltar seven times, Porto Prays five, Mon rovia five, Cape Palmaa three, Sierra Leone and Cadiz three times, Tangier two, Marseilles five, Port Mahon three. The Columbus (Ohio) State Journal has the following para graph ( the supplies of oysters from the Atlantic to the West have heretofore been exclusively from Baltimore : " Raw or Sirwtd?the Firtt Arrival.?Those who are fond of the cruttotea will not fail to be gratified to hear of the first arrival of Otstbrs at the basement of ths American, re ceived from New York, via Buffalo, in so short a'time since they left their briny home that they have not yet ceased to dream of their bed in the deep, or to hear the soft murmur of the tide as it awells above their beada." Railboar Accipkkt.?A little before Ave on Thursday nfternoon, a veaael was passed through the draw of the Old Colony Railroad bridge over the South Cote, and the " look out" man neglected to send notice to the depot. At five o'clock the steamboat train for Fall River started aa usual, but the engineer discovered that the draw was open in aeaaon to reverse the engine and applv the brakes to the train, so aa to check the speed considerably, but atill there was aa much headway left that the engine, tender, and baggage car went overboard. The engineer and fireman jumped ofTbefore reach ing the open draw, but three smokers in the baggage car went jv( r with it, hut escaped with a cool ducking. The train was taken back to the depot, another engine put on, and the pas senger* proceeded on, leaving their baggage la the crate in the Jock.?Bottnn Pott? " A great lie," says the poet Crabr, " is like a great fi?h on dry lam); it may fret and fling, and make frightful pother, but it cannot hurt you. You have only to keep atill, and it will die of itself." FROM Ol ft NEW YORK CORRESPONDENT. Bath, (Maihe,) Septembek 8, 1848. I returned to thin place last evening from Brunswick, alter the cIimh) of the three da)*' exercises of Commencement week. On Tuesday nu celebrated the anniversary of lhe Peucinian Hociety, one of the principal societies, and the oldest, connect ed with this college. An oration was delivered before ?be so ciety by Kev. Edwaku Beeches, of Boston, and a poem by Hk.ua Smith, of New York. On Wednesday the Commence ment exercises took place. The performances were given in a beautiful new church near the college grounds, the same occupied by the Peucinian- Society the preceding 'lay. There were upward* of twenty performances by the graduating class, and two by the class receiving their second degree. These were in general %ery respectaUe, both in matter and manner, and would compare well with tne Commencement exercises at I Yale and Harvard. At five o'clock a large number of the alumni of the college sat down by classy, where they had an hour's cheerful con versation about old ?' lang syne," and renewed the lies of friendship and social intercourse at the festive board of their honored alma mater. President Woo us presided at the ta ble, and had seated on his light and left old Governor Kimh, of Bath, Senator Kvahs, of Gardiner, arid other persons of distinction. I have met Senator Evahs seveial times within a few days at Gardiner, Bath, und Brunswick. He seems to be as much a working man as he was when in Congress. He is much engaged at present in the Portland and Kennebec railroad, and, as president of the company, is urging the work forward with hi* accustomed energy. ?. IVor is lie unmindful of his duties as a politician and statesman. He addressed a large meeting of ihe Whigs of Bath last evening at the Cily Hall on the approaching Presidential election, presenting the whole subject in a strong and forcible light, ably defending | the character anil position of General Tayloh, and urging the importance and necessity of the Whigs giving him a united and hearty support. . But I am " oil'the track I should be in the college line, j The chapel, in which we dined, is a new and beautilul build ing, not yet finished. It is built both for a chapel and a libra ry.' The apartment for the college library is finished in a very j showy and elegant style, and the library, of eleven or twelve thousand, volumes appears in it to g'eat advantage. This building will cost, when completed, upwards of fifty thousand dollars. It is constructed of granite, and is one of the most elegant and substantial edifices in the State. It lakes the name I of " King Chapel," in honor of Governor Kino, of Bath, who has made some handsome donations towards its erection. Besides ihe College libraiy, th/>re is a Theoloeical library : of about three thousand volumes connected with the college, which is skid to be the best theological library in the Lnited States, ''here are also two very fine libraries belonging to the suciekes of the college. The Peucinian Society has up wards of five thousand, and the Athenean Society something over fou thousand volumes, both very neatly arranged in rooms of one d the college buildings. These societies have also large and reipectable collections of natural curiosities and works of art, foming quite an interesting museum. Besides the granite cha-?e and library building, there arc four large brick edifices, threcof four stories and one of Ihrec stories, appropriated to the ;eneral purposes of the institution. On the second floor of tie three-story building is arranged the beautilul and exten aivt mineral cabinet of Professor Ci.kavei.asi>, which I no tic?d in my last communication. Here also are lecture rooms, ctemical laboratory, &.c. The other buildings are mainly ap propriated for the accommodation of students. Bowdoin College is not quite half a century old, the first :lass having graduated, I think, in 1806. It received lis name from Governor Bowdoin, of Massachusetts by whose munificence it was early endowed. In the brief period of its existence it has risen to the first rank in character and useful ness among the institutions of learning in the country, and if still increasing in resources and reputation. Il has receivei some large donations within the past year, amounting in thi aggregate to sixty or seventy thousand dollars, principally ap propriated to the establishment of two new professorships. On Wednesday evening the Athenean Society held thei anniversary, having an oration from Rev. Mr. Fisnr., of Bath On the same evening the Peucinian Society had asocial levee where tbey partook of refreshments m company with tber friends, learned and fair, and listened to interesting famihfr addresses from several of the members, and also from sevenl alumni of other colleges. On Thursday the Phi Beta Kappa Soc iety celebrated its ai niversary by an oration by Rev. Rat Palmer, of Bath, aid a poem by Rev. Elijah Kmaoog, of Harpswell; prevnus to which, at a business meeting of the society, a number ol new members wore initiated, including eight or ten of he graduating class. Boothbat, (Maine,) September 9, 184t. A Dowh-East Ciiowiieh Pahtt.?This place is louted about titty miles east of Portland, and fifteen or sixeen from Bath through an inland passage, but thirty miles rom the latter place by an outside passage by the way of the routh of the Kennebec river. Boothbay has one of the best har bors (frequently called Townsend harbor) on the coast <f the United Slates. It is very easy of access Irom the oceai, has a plenty of water and good anchorage for any class o ves sels, is very capscious, and well-protected from storms. 1 he country here, ne? the sea shore, is very rough and boken, abounding in wild and picturesque scenery. The tovnship of Boothbay is on a tongue of land making down to tie sea ahore between the Sheep?cot and Dainascotla rivers, aid the harbor runs up into the land midway between the rivtrs. Id this neighborhood were planted some of the earliest aetlements in Maine. The excellence of the harbor caused it to|>e early aelected as a place to found a great city, and a hilon the eastern side of the harbor, overlooking both the habor and Uamascotta river, was actually surveyed and laid <*t for a city when there were but a tew hundred inhabitant? the whole province. The inhabilanta of the State have ifcreased to more lh?n half a million, but the site of this earl city is still covered with wild spruce and fir trees, and stil keeps silent watch over the surrounding waters and Ihe pleaant but rather scattered village of Boothbay around the margfc of the harbor. This harbor belongs to the collection districts W is caseet, which lies a dozen miles ioland on the SheepsAt river. The principal business along the coast in this neighborhood is fishing. Almost innumerable little fishing vessel* ? fitted out in the spring on a cruise for codfish in the Gull ol St. Lawrence or on the Banks, and many of them are r>w just returning loaded with their summer's fare, some brinfcg two or three hundred and some five or six hundred quint*. The fish are split and packed down in aalt as they are caunt, and when the v-ssels return home they are taken out anl spread in the sun to dry, and are then packed again for maifct. It is estima ed thai about thirty thousand quintals of lab are made by ihe |>eople of Boothbay annually. On all *ee nu merous fishing vessels are riding on the waters or lyn* at the piers and wharves, and fish-flakes line the shores. I Besides the fishing craft and other vessels wb.chlbelong here, the baibor of Boothbay is frequented by great limber* of coasting vessels, which run in when ihe weather 1 rough to pass the night or to escape from an approaching ?*<*?? ? is not uncommon after such a night to see fifty and sometimes a h und re vessels of different descriptions in the ?orntng shake out their sail* lothe wind, and, gliding outbytttbead land* and islands, proceed on their voyage- hafor has also become somewhat noted aa a watering place dur*c the , hot summer months. A small steamboat run* regular* twice a week during ihe warm season from the Kennebec river bring ing passengers from Waterville, Augusta, H.Uowell, Burdi ner, Bath, and other towns on ?he mer, M' Booth ?y, to breathe t>r a while the sea air, to take a sea-bath, ei frert fish. anddamU r about over the broken rocky shores, bee lands, and islands. And not only from the interior of thi. Bute, but also Irom Massachusetts, and various other pans of tbe country, visiters sre beginning to come for a summer *alt;nK and cool sea-bathing to Boothbay. ' But that Down-East Chowder Party, with winch I ?tout, must find but a brief record if I let my i>en run at ran<fern in this wsv. Yesterday a company of aome seventy or fcghty, of both'sexes, old and voung, started from Bath on wchow der excursion. Finding some friends were of the company, I accepted an invitation to join ihem- A small .tearntwar was chartered for the day, and the company being aseeahWS snd the materials on board, we started at eight o'clock trough the inland pa-age for Boothl*y harbor and '^j The psssage on rhi. route presents a great variety of beauuful scenery. 8ometime? we pass over broad sheets of water, a mile or two across, and sometimes through a narrow chann* of but few rods in width, where the fretting tide rolls and whirls like the Hurl-gate in I.ong Island Sound. A couple of hours brought us to 8quirrel island, which lies off at the mouth of Boothliay harbor. Here the company all anded u|>'in a wild ami rocky shore. An experienced skippw had tieen commissioned the day before to have in readness m plenty of freah fish of the best quslity. Volunteers imong u. now collected fuel, and fires were soon kindled. Half a dozen kettles were placed over the fires, and plcnUfii slices of fat pork put in them and thoroughly fned. In tb? m*an time some had dressed the fish and cut them up intc slices. Ladies were seated on the rocks, |?rtng potatoes, slicing onions, and preparing other vegetables. When the sufficiently fried, the kettles wore filled up with layer, of fish, vegetables, and biacait alternately, with a sufficient stpply ot condiments for seasoning and flavor, and the whole topt over the fire till the vegetables were thoroughly rooked. hen tne fteamer'a bell waa touched to call back that portio. of the company who had been wandering over the tslsnl. 1 be chowder waa emptied from the kettlea into large tin jans, and again dipped out into bowls, plates, and saucers, an t e whole company, aeated under trees, on the rocka or en* joved a most luxurious feast. Home ate with thr ordinary ail'ver spoons of civilized life, but many, with a more primitive ambition, manufactured their spoons on the spot, taking a smooth clam-shell from the shore for the bowl, and a split stick on one end of the shell for a handle. Kpicures may say what tbey will of their rich dsnes, i commend me to a food Down-East Chowder, scentifics y made, on the rough ses-girt shore of Squirrel islam, with a I clam abell for a spoon and truebearted 1 ankee* for com I panions. THINGS AT PARIS. [ Tram luted frum the Cuurrier den Etait Vnl*.] IfUian Society broke up this year abruptly before the end oU Winter, without appointing any rendezvous for the S mer. Iii members received no invitations to the country, a they know not what to do. This is a great pity ; tor up hone?t gentlemen have formed the habit of spend ii ix months of the year at the country neat* of their friends, a of thua leading a charming gay life at very little expense. C, finding himself obliged to remain in the city all the aurn u for want of invitation*, resolved not to submit to his for t > without a struggle. After many attempt* to procure a t e for the summer, he told hia adventures the other day, c lis return from bis pilgrimage, to a group of auditors seat c n the chairs of the Boulevard des Italiens. J " A slave of habit, which is a second nature more im jious than the first," said he, " I could not consent to pass i ?e city the six months which I have regularly spent in the c ntry ever since I came to be twenty years old ; I could not b jve that rural society was destroyed. I began my usual li, as if nothing in the world had changed, resolved to call a le five or six mansions among which I had l?en in the h t of dividing my time in summer and autumn. The first tl I reached I found shut up, and learned from a gamekeeper tl the family did not intend to visit the country this sum nf. Not discouraged, I continued my journey,* only to meet v l the time reception at my second halting place. There ckl be no mistake : it is not in the country as in the city, v ire a person can easily pretend to be not at home. At a ? ice one can tell if a country house is inhabited. I was ^ lfully affected by this second check ; I could not but think c he gravity of the political events which had so changed the t its of these country lords. These two were my best re s rce?; nevertheless three castles remained, with which I I ted to be more fortunate. "I went first to visit Comte B***?pardon me for using ti abolished title; but I have jest spoken of the force of I lit. The park gate was open, au^ notwithstanding the <; lance, I recognised the count himself to the portico of his r insion looking at me through a gUs*. Well1, said I, at here is a proprietor who is at home; and I waved my hai^id handkerchief in the air to the hospitable lord. When nearef to the bouse, I saw a travelling carriage loaded with trunks the fool of the portico. Good ! I thought, other visiters h.ve arrived, we shall have company. " The cujnt( advancing some steps to meet me, to?k me aflictionately v>y the hand, saying, ' Have you, my dear fiend, the kind inientha to stay some time with us *' "Certainly," i replied, "and I beg you be good enough to fcerfi one of youi men for my luggage, which I left at the deiMiti" .'I.'. low unfortunate ! I amexcessively grieved; the connx-aa be consoled.' ./hat is the matter >" I aaked, with a little uneasiness. "I You see this travelling carriage ? It w mine. Now you see ihat distresses iner you come, and we are going away. /'Yet,' Mid the counter, who then caroc out on the pgfch, 4 we are going on an urgent journey, which cannot be tielayed a quarter of an hour.' "Shall you be gone long " 4 Probably till the end of autumn.' 14 Meanwhile two horses had been fastened to the carriage. ??? We are going with our own horsee to the relay, w here we ?hall take the |>ost. As for you, my dear friend,' added the count, drawing out his watch, 41 would y?u t0 return at once to the depot to catch the train, which passes at three o'clock. If you miss that you will have to wait till eight o'clock. Five hours of ennui, without counting the wretched dinner which you will find at a country inn. We tell you farewell, my dear friend, with sinccre and heartfelt re?r?** The count and countess then got into their carmge, which turned to the light, while I turned to the left, and leached the depot just in time fin the cars. 4< Keturning to Paris, I crossed the city without stopping and took the cars for Touraine, where is situated the cutle of Mr. D.) a moat excellent house. Mr. D., an old banker, grown wealthv .peculating in stocks, is a plain man, and, like hi* wile, is fond of pleasure, noise, and company. In their house there is nothing but amusement; and I remembered that last year they had a crowd of visiters at their caatle, whom they entertained in a thousand agreeable waya. On entering the grounds I observed less appearance of gayety than last year ; but at least the family was at home, and no carriage betoken- , ed their immediate departure. An old servant received me, and aaid in a whisper that he would tell his master of my arri val \fter keeping me waiting twenty minutes he returned, and, begging me to walk on the tip. of my toe* ? make no noise, he ltd me to Mr. chamber, where I found him buried in a huge arm chair, wrapped in a thick dreaeing gown, with his bead tied in a handkerchief. ?4 4 Ah ! my dear friend,' .aid he, ?you me in a pitia ble state. I am unwell, my wife is ill, confined to her bed. Three of my servants are ill. In fact, there i. not a pem>n in aound health in the hou*, except old Joseph, who let you in. An epidemic fever ha. made the unhe.Hhy that I intend to leave it as .oon a. my wife and I .halli be able. .hall not be so unkind a. to wiah you to stay with us, for my selfishness doe. not go ao fai a. to be w.lling to expo* you to the epidemic. Beside., I could no. profit by your company , for the phvsician ha. prescribed eolitod*. silence, and absolute ftpo-r And we have nothing to allure you . we could offer nothing but gruel and drug.. Next year we shall have our revenge. Meanwhile, I thank you lor remembering ua am for your kind viait. Pardon me for telling you goal morn ing . but at thi. moment my illness compels roe to be alone. Farewell, my dear friend, keep well.' .?Another disappointment! I hastened from thia hoqntal, and, after a little thought, travelled to Burgundy to vuu Baron L , a. my last reeource. I arrived, and scarcely had I enter ed the long avenue which leedefrom the great park gate, when I met the baron and baroneee sauntering in the shade o t e venerable oaka. Ah ! I thought, here are host, who are at home, who are not going away, and who are in a moat grati fying state of good health- I was received as usually ( the mo b, .h. h.?J, .he bwM- '?* ,"7 Wn .oon i..Uing tow?rt. tb. cUe. I fc? Uk. th. n. vigator, who having. been long tossed on the trackleee sea, a last ha. found a port. I ?aw, in imagination, a loaf aeriee o agreeable days and was revelling in this ch.rm.ng illueion, when, aiming at the end of the avenue, I raiaed my eye. to the castle where I was proroiamg myself to stay ao long, when 4 saw that the window, were removed and the whole frou waa covered with acaflolding. ?4 What !" I cried, 44 are you repairing your castle ? Ye.,' the baron calmly answered, 41 am repairing * from top to bottom.' 44 But it ha. been built only five or nx yeara, and lart year it wa. in a perfectly goad condition. 44? We have diwovered .undry flaws in It. There was no danger in hung ?n it, i? ? * *>ut * *** in ploying the 'ouvrier.' now. In these day. wo met <***? the working classes. ?? And what do you do for your friend. > * here do you lodpt them ' .. ..? \tas' to my great re?ret, I cannot receive any this eura I mer The baroness and 1 am obliged to take refuge in this little cotlnge. Vou *e how am.ll it ie-two little bed charo ber. and a th-rd room which ha. to eenre for both drawing room and dining hall. We are deprived of the pleasure .-f exercising howitality. Still yoa mwt not quit us at once. No, you must dine with u.} then you can take the evening diligence for Pari*; which peases within gunehot of the castle. Sixty leagues to the baron'e eaeile, eixty leagues to re turn to Pane? total, a hundred and twenty league, for a din ner I tould not eaeily d.geat that dinner. Tbeee, continued the nan uor, these are the fh.it. of my pUvioage. I was not, however, a dupe in my disappointment*. The baron only pretended to repair hi* ca*le that he might iwpense with re ceiving visiter.. The illnewof Mr. and Mre. D. was only a come.lv played for the Mint purpoee. And I have learned that the coi nt keepe hia carriage alway. rendy, and when the sentinel, who te alway. at hi. poet on the top of the terrace, perceive, a traveller coming toward, the caatle, he pretends to tart on a journey, goes off with a great buetle and return, af ter having dr ven around the park. Every one, it tias determined to-Kw ?n the country in eotitnde and economy. Country life it ruined in France, ruined perhaps forever. /^KOUND i'l'AWTBR. in barrel, or loo*. alway.i on ( T hand and W wle at Neutral Mille, late Swann *, Alex i G. S. THOMAS St CO. OFFICIAL. CALIFORNIA AND OREGON MAILS. NOTICE To the Public, and intt net inns to P fm? ten. Official information ha* been r reived at liiu Department lat the United State* steam packet " California," built under sntract with the Secretary of ibe Navy, eventually for the arvice of that department of the Government, but in I he Man time to be employed in the tranaportation of the mail*, rill leave New York for California and Oregon, via Cape lorn, on Monday, the 2d day of October next. Mail bag* will be made up at New York, to be forwarded y aaid steamer for Rio Janeiroa, Valparaiso, and Calao ; also, >r San Diego, San Barbara, San Francisco, and Monterey, it California, and Aatoria, in Oregon. The inland and sea postage on all letter* and papers to be urwarifed by said packet for place* not within the territory of he Uuled States is to be prepaid, at the offices where mailed, irxl the.postmasters concerned will see that this requisition is lompliei with, and will stamp the letters and paper* accord ngly. The nail* to the said foreign port* will tie sent to the care )f the (Jniied Slates consuls at the respective places under .he seul of the New York post office. The iship postage for single letters, not exceeding half an mnce, will be twenty-four cents to Rio Janeiro, Valpariiso, or Calat; and for each newspaper, pamphlet, or price current three cept*. In each case the regular inland postage to New York i*|to lie added. To lVnama each letter, as aforesaid, will be rated at thirty cents j knd to San Diego, San Barbara, San Francisco, Mon terey, <i Aatoria, forty cents, without any addition for inland postage! C. JOHNSON, Postmaster General. Post Office Dkfautmkst, Washihotojt, Sept. 16, 1848, ASSIGNMENT OF LAND WARRANT8. General Laud Office, Washingtun, September 15, 184H. To prevent undue exactions from soldier* in necessitous cir cumstances, I suggest for the future that the assignments of land warrants lie made on the backs of the warrant* in all cases when practicable. Justice* of the peace and notaries public are *trictly enjoined, in certifying to the acknowledgments of soldiers, either to powers of attorney or assignments of war rants, to till up tl^e " date* " on the days on which such in* struments are executed. The 9th section of the act of Con gress of February 11, 1847 provide* that "ali sale#, mort gages, powers, or other instruments of writing, made or exe cuted prior to the issue of am/ such warrant, shall be null and void i" so that any such blanks as to dates left by them to be filled up after the emanation of the warrant, is highly improper on the part of the officer who permits it, and is in | fraud of the act of Congress upon that subject. Attention to these suggestions may dispense with the tiling of numerous caveats by the soldier to prevent the issue of the patents where the assignments are alleged to be fraudulent. ? RICHARD M. YOUNG, Commissioner. A LAUNCH, WITH AN INCIDENT. A beautiful vessel intended for the canal trade, called the " Monterey," was launched from Miles'* Ship Yard, at Ferry Point, on Saturday morning. We must [says the Norfolk Her ald of Monday] relate a veritable incident which occurred on this occasion. It was raining all the time of the launch, and the operation was so much retarded in consequence that the wind lass and screws had to be applied. At three several attempts to start her, some one of the workmen commenced with a " huzza for Cass aid Butler." But it was no go ; she held on to the ways, and could not be made to stir tack or sheet. At last Captain Jobs Henrt, an old salt, who was there, lending a hand, called out to the huzza boys, " Belay there, my lads, I know what ails her. Now, aet your mouths for Tatlor arii Fillmore and they did so to oblige him, when off she slid, without more ado, and in beautiful style. The rapidity of the rise of real estate in Cincinnati is well illustrated by a statement made in the "Times," by Mr.Wm. V. Barr, son of the late Wm. Barr, owner of the " Bare Farm." Mr. B. has been investigating the matter, and states that his father gave $33.50 per acre for this property in the year 1811 ; "thus," nays Mr. Barr, "paying $355.50 for * what at this day, on an average of $30 per foot, which is ' low, is worth nine millions three hundred and four thousand ? dollars, without reference to the buildings thereon !" Travel i? Ws*T?aji New York.?The amount of tra vel in Western New York is almost incredible. The Mirror says: , " At Syracuse one thousand persons nightly arrive, remain to breakfast, and ate off by half past six. In an hour after a se cond breakfast is prepared at these hotels for another thousand, and yet a third thousand take a later breakfaat. At the Syra cuse Hotel over six hundred persons took breakfast one morn ing last week, and probably as many at the Empire House, to say nothing of four or five other hotels, all of which seem to be doing a good business." Heaty Da*ases.?A cise of slander was tried in a New York Court of Common Pleas last week, brought by Chas. H. Carpenter againut Henry Shelden, for asserting that the plaintiff had been guilty of issuing counterfeit money. This case grew out of the Kid salvage humbug. The jury gave a verdict of $9,375 damages. 7'he Limit Mar.?Quite a sensation was produced at the sudden and mysterious disappeaiance of Mr. P. J. How, of Datavia, at Buffalo, on Thursday evening last. He went to BuHalo with his wife to attend the Fair, and in the evening stepped out from the bouse where he had taken lodgings, in forming his wife that he should retain in a few moments. Night wore away, and morning came, but be did not appear. Fearful anxiety was awakened, diligent inquiry commenced, the City Crier perambulated the streets, but sll to no pur pose ; and thus matters remained in a state of painful sus pense until Saturday, when, behold, the lost man made bis appealance! It turned out that, on leaving his wife, he stepped on board a steamboat lying at the dock, ami while absortal in conver sation with a friend away went tbe boat, and the first land ing place Mr. How found was at Cleveland, Ohio. He lost no time in returning, and the neit time he steps on board tor a moment, no doubt he will beed the cry, ''All ashore, that's going." Sf.crf.ts.?Some one has remarked tiuthfully, we think, that tbe easiest wsy of keeping s secret is to forget it a* soon as possible. " You may," observes the writer, " have a con siderable reputation for consistency in this matter thus easily acquired. The only secret worth knowing in this life is bow on<? man contrives to be better than another; all tbe rest ia mere alchemy." We fear, however, that bat a very few, even of the beet, will be found disposiri to practise upon this advice. 'The most religious are by no means averse " to hear news,"and there is, generally speaking, a very eager anxiety manifested by most christian* to be able to " hear or tell some new thing ?" a trait said anciently to have been charac teristic of tbe Athenisns, but which, like many other pagan vices, has descended with accumulated power to the present dsy, and now perhaps finds its most sble abettors and sup porters in the Christian wotld, so called. SHOOTING A BOBALINK. The Botnlink has an instinctive horror for coid lead, and tbe faculty of dodging out of its way, which no other bird, ?? far as our ornithological knowledge extends, is possessed of. Frequently have we crept directly under a low ash or alder, upon the top ef which one of tbe chatterers was perched, ta king deliberate aim, our musket charged with about six inches of powder, and blazed away. Down the bird would come all but to the ground, and, when we thought we had bim secure, off he would fir. After performing divers fantastic gyrations, and flapping his wings to convince us that we bad not wound ed him, he would suddenly stop still ia the air, perk know ingly and wickedly in our face, and, in the joyousnes* of hie exuberant fancy, would open with a song of his own com position, tbe burden of which sounded to us like the fol lowing . " Ha, lis, ha, ha?don't > ou wish you could ? Click, bang ! Wasnt I off in season ' Hiti-ka-dink. Put in more powder. Chickadee, de, de. You'd better shoot with a shovel. Ha, ha, ha. You cant come it Didn't you think yon had roe ' But you hadnt, though. Call again to-morro???lwa>s find roe at home. Chickadee?tip, ?heet ' Never felt to well in my life. Don't you feel cheap ' Ha, Ha. Ripsidadv' Cafth a bobalink asleep' Zitka-wheet! You are the greatest fool I ever saw. Liekaie-split ! Give my reapeete to yonr sunt. How's your ma * Takes me. Hip'! zip? rattle bang ' H?, ha, ha! Skeet !" After indulging in this bit of extemporaneous raillery, laughing all the time?we could fairly aee bim laugh?the bobalink would turn and fly off to tbe next bush, leering us | to load, creep up, and beng away again or net, to suit our own fancy. Pert, saucy, noisy, witty fellows sre the* bobo link*?the Mercutios and Gossamers of the feathered tribe? I but they never meddle with politics.?Oesn