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SPEECH OF Mr. DONNELL,
OF NORTH CAROLINA, On the Bill offered by Mr. Clayton in the Senate at a Compromise of the Question of Slavery in the Ttrrit tries. / Hl>l8fc OF RxfltEStJITATIVIS, Jl'LT 29, 1848. Mr. DONNELL row' and tttdreawd the House a* follows : Mr Striker, I am aware that, id declaring reluctance to a?k the aUenltoa of the Hou*e to my views of the important con stitutional questions growing out of the accession J territory under the late treaty with Mexico, I am adopting tbccusu.ra ary and often unmeaning introduction to speeches in this hull. In my case, at least, i tiust you will otlieve it is sin '' My colic."gue from the filth Congressional district (Mr. Vkvahlc) has indulged the House, at different tiroes during the sih^ion, with opinions which I do not think either meet or mcr't the approbation of a majoriiy ol the people o. the Siate which he and I in part represent. I have waited until this, late period of the session in the hope that some other Ke nresetitalive from the State on this side of the House vould roly to him. I do not feel at lilvrty to remain silwt any I oncer The extraordinary manner in which he has reflected upon those who differ from him requires an unswer from some one of us before we go back to our constituents. He nade a j speech here on theirs/ day of June la-t which 1 d: 1 net have j the pleasure of hearing, but of which I have in my hinds a printed cony. In this be represents himself a* speakmsj for " his own Carolina 5" and 1 remember also that, in a speech 011 the Uth of January, upon the subject ol internal improve ment, be a'.?> represents his opinions as the opinions ot the Slate;. How came she his Carolina 1 V\ hen did she icconi moJa'e him with her name for the endorsement of sud opin- , ions ao he then avowed > I beg him tojemeraber that he re- I presents but one Congressional district. Let him spa?k for that, ai.d I shall not object. But he speaks 01 the Bute as boldins the opinions of Mr. Polk on the subject of internal | improvements, at the very time that we had upon our desks the resoluti >ns of her last Legislature requesting us to uieour exertions to obtain an approbation from Congress lor the . purpose of reopening one ol the inlets on her ccasfc Not con Co tWsregard her expreascd wish?nay, more, openly, I ! had alrooet said reproachfully, to thwart it, as far as hu , fineche.- against the whole system would have a tenancy to do it?he. must misrepresent her views upon the suoject, and unwarrantably invoke ber spotless name to support Joetrities which, by her actions, she liaJ just repudiated. Tluse cou utituents of mine who have ten tempted to read his remars* have been no doubt staitUd to find the.r own State declaiing that almost all the lighthouses and lightboats on ber sound* , and her river# are theie, and have been there since the begin- , ning of the Government, in direct violation of the cotistilu tion I et me Inform my colleague that on those waters a ship of war ran never ride unless Congress will improve the inlets on the co?t. The lights thrre can never serve our navy, and are therefore, according to his argumeut, unconstitutional. Ilk Democratic friends, who h-ve tue offices there because they have been to their party like Dogberry ,1 watch, ? good men and true," have been alarmed ti learn from my honora ble colleeiue that they are sleeping in uneonstituUonal berths | and trimming unconstitutional lamps. We may erect bcacons I for our navy, and, if the same light should happen to save a trader from shipwreck, why it is all well enough ; he will not 1 complain. The Government mu.t tarn away irom the cry ot 1 the sinking mariner, unless he sails under the stripes and stars, ! and wears the uniform of her navy. All those beacons upon the waters of his "own Carolina," that fret with golden light the dark rece.<se? of ber bays, and throw a welcome radiance over the maddened waves to guide the sailor on his pat.desa wav, are to be extinguished, and mere is no cor.s?itut'onal power which can such lights " relume But I desire to dt- j rect my remarks to the tpeech which I have in my hand, , and which purports to tave been made on the tirst day ol JUThc"1 is in thU speech another matter much more objection- j able than the cue to which I have alluded. It u the uncha- | ritableness of accusing those colleagues who differ from him on a constitutional question of deserting their confluents. In order that ha may do this, that he may have some excuse tor | ?he introduction of such matter, he reters cn tnat^tr*/ day 0 | June to a speech lhai was made by his colleague in the sen ate (Mr. BAD.ita) on the t'cund day of the same month. He I resorts to the proceedings of the Senate to find the excuse for . .nuoducing into his printed speech a sweeping denunciation | -of all Southern gentlemen who were so unfortunate as to have .an opinion upon a constitutional question differing j f refer to this singular instance of clairvoyance, or whatever j eUe it nwy be, because I entertain the same opinion of the .,ower of Congress over territory belonging to the Lnited j Ktales which my colleague was prescient of while it was yet , unutteredby the honorable Senator from North Carolina, aid -which called forth such unsparing censure from his indignant . i.atnotum ; and because 1.think it due to Mr. BaJger that the j fact bhould be noted here when- my colleague's remarks are j represented to have be< n made.* I throw back upon him the j charges which he has so compUrently heaped upon others. I | will eaJeavor to show that it is be and those who act with , him who are tne deserter-, who have " pulled down the flag | and surrendered the citadel, and vbose votes and opinions -would have yielded forever the claims of the South, and com milted his constituents, politically, to the mercy of the North In doing so, I ?ball be explaining the reasons which induced me ro give an affirmative vote on the motion to lay the Senate Inll. known as the compromise bill, upon the table. I gave that vote with a full sense of the painful responsibili ty then resting upon an American Representative. >0 one in this ball realized more fully tban I did the obligation we , were under to ad-ipt, if possible, some measure that would tend to calm tbe public mind upon thu exciting subject. 1 regarded that bill as a blind surrender of the claim* of the fcautb, a treacherous bait thrown out to entangle ber. And, so I far trom b*iag a measure to quiet the agitation in the country, I regarded it a* the beginning of another convulsion more vio- j icnt and more to be dreaded than any which the I men has yet encountered. 1 would not grasp at the shadow, and let ?0 the substance. The only claims whieh it had to Southern support are round j ed on what is ed'ed the not. intervention principle ; that is, the piinciple that Congress should not legislate upon the su - j act of slavery in the Territories. It is contended that under | the constitution of the- United States, aud without any law ot Congress upon 'he subject, the citizens of the slave States have a right to iarry their slave* into tbe territory belonging to the Cm ted States, and that those slaves would be regardci and protocteJ there as property by the constitution, although there was a law in the territory at the time of its cession which excluded tbe institution. This, I believe is the doctrine of my colleague. I confess that I am not sure I represent him correctly ; for, although I have read hi* remarks again and asain I am not satisfied that I have extracted bis idea upon ?fbe point. I was puxzled at the outset. He lays down in the first paragraph, as tbe basis of his argument, this new and re markable poatulate f ??Troth reduced to its elementary principles affords tl* only safe guide to investigation, and the only *ati*'actcry conclu aiona are thoae ? hich are lorrocd from such a development. l? mv simplicity I had supposed that truth was iuelf an ele menury principle in all sciences, in politic, a* we I as philor. *>hy. I was not a little startled at a proposition to reduce it, !e*t it should approximate its antagonistic pnnapfe. I was re iTveld to find fit it was a^rwarda^bedeveloHyin. Not being very well skilled in metaphysics, I have not yet 1! |, comprehended what it was when it had gone lhrou*h ?y oalleague's crucible, and come out in ita new form. But Ihu profound picceof melapliys.es enabled me afterwards to re conciW some appa'ei.t cootrad?Uons in hi. would has;a otherwise liopeleasly purxl*J me. He ?twt? the position that the only legi.ht.ve power which Congress has over tbe Usntory of the United Sutes under the conatito lioa must be fout?l in tbe clause which declares that " Congress sliall luivc po? er to dUnov- of and lol role, and regtiUion. renting V territory or o>-rty lrK,ginf to the United States ; and nothing in atitution slislt be so construed ss to prejudice any cUim either of the United States or of anj particular state. Imagine my surprise to tiod bim, after arguing himself ink. the belief that there was no power under this clause to govern our territory, falling into tnc following tram of thougutfol musing s . ?' It is true thet the power to scquire territory implies Uie power to govern i. when ^nired ; not it is alw.roe that sueh government roust be in accordance ?i^> tU Congress docs not aeqnire ternfiry. The people of the L nited ? Mr. VajtaaL*, who was i-eeognitcd by the S|?eaker alter .Mr. Dohxili'i bonr expired, in the course of an eaplanation on this subject, said that in bis si?e<cti on the first of June he bad named no Senator, bu' had in his mind distinguished Whig Senators from the South, and that, upon seeing alter wsrd* that Mr. Badger Iwld the san.e opiniona, had, in writ ing oot his remarks, made reference to bim. Mr. 1>o!?*rli. elenied that any Whig Senator from the South had at il?e time opened hi. lip. upon the subject in the Senate, vend aslred to whom his colleague alluded ' Mr.VntiU aaid, to Mr. Underwoo?l, of Kentucky. Mr. bssmiu. denie?) that Mr. Unelerwood had (hen spoken ?ipoti the subject. The Krister of Debstes in the Senate ahow ed that be expresaed bis vi?-w? upon this subjest on the third day ot June, the day after Mr. Q idger's speech. Extract from the KefiWer of Senate Debate., June 3,184$: " Mr. !)*ttow. As the Senator from Kentucky is so distin guisheri for his prolessinnal reir:tation, as well at his states manlike* views, I am anainus te> hear a distinct enunciation of hi* principles as to the right of the Federal Government to ex clude slavery in tbe territories under its jurisdiction. Did I or did I not understand h,tn to admit the existct.ee of that right * " Mr. VjiDXawooD. I admit that during the existence of territorial governments you have a right to legislate for them within the limits of the sonwitution of the United States. It ia said, however, that there is a constitutional prohibition to the nasaage of a law prohibiting elavery in a Territory, hut I am inetineel to think there is none ; ] am, moreover, inclined to the opinio* thsa slavey cannot exist in a territory without the positive aanatjoo of law tolerating it." State*acquire it, and have lite right to govern it, anil lure lin ited Con^ret*, at their trustee, tn the name of Government by the conttiiution." Again, in a subsequent part of his remark* : " There ean b? no civil dominion over any territory of th United State* which i* not founded upon the constitution." Two distinct portion*, one the result of an argument bane upon truth " reduced," the other upon truth '' developed. I admit the proposition that the right to " acquire' bring* wit it, ex nrce.uiitatr, the right to govern territory ; but I believ . that the clause in the constitution confer-. expressly Ujton Con grew* the right to legislate far territory belonging to the IJni I ted State*. If we have a right to acquire (oreign territory ud der the constitution, which I am not prepared to admit, thai it must necessarily fall under the description of property pro viJed for by that clause. Laws are ru|e* ; they are so define in all the book*. The word ruie, in it* primary aerwe, it mor compichemive, but ia often used synonymously with law. law is a particular kind of rule. It is a * ' rule of action pre i scribed by the supreme power in a Slete ' I his i* the ver kind of rule meant by the constitution. My colleague, follow trig the remarks of an honorable Seuator from South Carolina ' (Mr. Calhoux, ) as they were " developed ' in a speech, inad after his, ot the I at of J tine, says thai this power i* restricted t such rules a* are necessary to dispose of the lands. He give* a reason for it; but the Senator from South Carolina does. Tha Senator asserts that the terms " rule* and regulations are im applicable to government" they are never so applied in tb constitution " they refer to property, things, or some pr< cess, such a* rule* ol court.'" I find, by reference to the cot ?tituiion, power i* given to Congress " to regulate commerce; ?'to establish a uniform rule of naturalization,-" to muk rules concerning captures on land and water ; " rules for tb srnrtnunent of the land and naval forces." Ihehoiiorabl Senator is in my judgment equally unsound in his argutnen that the words ?'or other property " must restrict the powc which would seem to be given by the term* " rules and regt lotions," Inasmuch as thev show that those terms relate toth torritory regarded as propeiiy only. The answer is obviou* The property which a Government has in its territory is nc sitnplv in the estate, the mere title to the land ; it is in the eu; pin?'his very right of sovereign command. If the title (? everv acre of the land had been granted away, it would stii be the territory belonging to the United States, and woul strictly ard property bedenominated its property. In the ver message under consideration, Mr. Polk, in his unsatisfactory account of the vailue of our acquisitions, averts that it is this very sovereignty which we hava acquired that "constitute* indemnity for the past." But however that may be, my col league admits that Congress has the general right of legisla tion over the Territories, and so does the Senator from South Carolina, although they do not derive that authority from tb.' express woids of the constitution. This compromi# bill, as it is called, admits it by the strongest implication. It tnakes ' a for.n ol government for Oregon, California, and NewNlexi- ^ co. In New Mexico and California it establishes a kiid ot oligarchy, withholding from the people of the Terr;tori* any > voice in the enacment ot the laws that arc to go\ era hem. ' The legislative power is all \ested in their governors, screta- 1 ries, and jud^ea. This anti-republican feature of th? bill, I and the amalganisiion of the power which enacts with that < which interprets or declares the la.v, would be sufficient n an oidinary case to determine my vote agaiust it. No one who ' advocate* this bill cin deny the right ol Congress to leg.^late upon the subject, l >r it is upon that assumption that i'.g ihar- 1 actcr as a compromise is founded. It is at least intepdeo to make the impie*3iun al the North that it affirms the prohH- 1 tion of slavery in th.> TeHitory of Oregon for a limited time. If I may be allowed a digression here, I will commend to 1 the attention of the House another extract from my colleagues speech, which, when taken in connexion with his subsequent vole, affords another striking example of bis powers ol vatici nation, as well a* the practical application of his doctrine-' a'out truih: ?1 know that it is asserted, and that by Southern statesmen, that Congress lias unlimited power of legislation over the 1 er ritoriea ; l>ut, it thisne true, then Congress may by law commit the entire government of the persons and profit) in the I er ritories *.o the will e.f a single individual, an<l thus present the i anoinalv of a despotism created and sustained by the constitu tion itself: a conclrsion so monstrous as only to require the annunciation to carry home the couviction ot its fallacy to eve ry mind." My colleague would setm, with the power of Cassandra, to have foreseen that he would be callcd upon by his own par ty friend* and Southern coadjutors to vote for a bill vesting the legislative power of New Mexico in four men, and that of California in fiv?, who were to be the creatures of executive arpoiatinent. When thi* compromise bill was before us for action, he would appear to have lost, in the realization of the exercise of such power by Congress, the horror with wnich he anticipated it. He hugged the " monstrosity" and sustained the " fallacy," but there was no inconsistency. His magical metaphysics vindicates his vo'.e upon the motion to lay the bill upon the table. He rea-oned upon truth " reduced, but vo ted upon truth "developed." The power ol general legislation being established, what is there to except power over the ubject of slavery. No one contends that there is any express clsUse in the constitution which so restrict* it. Why, is not the power of Congress over the Territories as great a* the power of a State Legisla ture over the Stnte ? No one denies that a Slate Legislature may forbid or establish it within the limits of the State. Why may not Congress exercise the same power over the Terri tories * It is said by the Senator from South Carolina that the restriction is to be found in '.he nature and objects of tie trust. I admit that the power* of Government are a trust in the hand* of those who constitute the legislative brancn of toe Government. But this is not a trust subject lo the aame iu!e* which are established by courts of equity to govern the rela tionf ol the trustee to the cestui que tru*t. It is a rat *i" generu, controlled by it* own principles, and the trustee is the supreme power. Take, for example, ihe rase of public pro perty in the hands of the Government, to be di*|tosed of by sale, with a view to its settlement and ultimate admission us a State into the Union. The treat does not, by the sa'e, attach itself exclusively to the fund which arisjs from the sale All interest in the land i* not lost; it* nature only i* changed. It is the duty of the Government to look to the law* which are to govern the purchasr rs in the use of the property, both with respect to their relations to one another and to the Gov ernment. Il must be purchased upon this implied condition. ! Otherwise, you would make it obligatory upin the Govern ment *o to dispose of it as to make it bring the largest sum of money, without reference to any other matter. Vattel thu* lay* down the principle ii i}ie members of a community have ari equal right to the ?%e of the common property. But the body of the com munity mav make such regulations on the manner of enjoying it as they think proper, provided that tiieae regulations are not inconsistent with that equality winch ought to be preserved in a community of property. ... . ? All the members of a body having an equal right to their common property, each ought to have the profit of it in a man ner that does not injure, in sny manner, the tomnion use. Those principles, applied to our action on the (-object ol slsvery, would seem to indicate a fair partition of our whole territory, with a reference to, its situation, soil, and climate, a* the true basis of a compromise. It i* true that, itrictly speaking, the exclusion of slavery from 'be territory would not exclude any citiaen of the slase Stai?*f'om settling in the terntotj, hut it imposes restrictions up<>n the enjoyment of that right which would practically destroy or unjustly impair t it. On the other hand, while the toleration of slavery would I r.ot prevent a eiliien of the free Hta e* from going there, it is I contended that, according to hi* views, it impose* such objec tionable political and social incumbrances upon the territory a* practically would exclude him. A* it would seen., there fore, that the same portion of territory cannot be made equally available to both sections of the Union, we can only in a par tition hope for or obtain equality of participation. The ap- ' plication, however, of these and other principles relating to govern inert is a matter which addrense* itself to the sound | discretion of Government itaelf. In the application it mu?t i look to the general good of the whole, taking care never to sacrifice ihe Interests of sny section of the country, or of any individual of the community, unless the public welfare imperi ously demands it. In the discharge of this trust the Govern, ment nisv err. It may even alsne its powers. Hut could it* action be declared by our cou't* to be unconstitutional ' On the contrary, it would be the abuse of a constitutional power ; ! a violation of the principle* of good government, and not the ' assumption of unconstitutional power. The imagined rights of the North or the South are, at be*, but right* of inpcrfcti obligation. They could not be enforced. I will leavo this part of ihe subject with the remark, that the Southern Mutes themselves have heretofore acted on the assumption that Con gress had the power to legislate on tht subject. Passing over the Missouri compromise, I refer to 'he cession of territirry to the United States by the States of Georgia and North Caro tins, efter the adoption of the con*itution. Tbey both ex pressly provide against the aboliti on of slavery in the territory which they icapectively cede. In the deed of session, mvle by North Carolina through htr eommi.ssioners, Samuel John ston and Benjamin Hawkins?I need not stop to tell my col league who lienjamin Hawkins was, or how many of his re spectablt descendants are now in the district be repre* nts? there is a proviso or condition that "no regulation made, or to be made, by Congress, shall tend to emancipate, slaves." This admits the power to be in Congress, and it proves also that, in those days of simplicity, a ?' regulation v?a* not thought to be a very different thing from a law. At all events, whether a law or not, it was thought comprehensive enough to abolish slavery. Let ?? no* see what is the condition of the territory of the United States as to slavety, in the absence of all legislation by Congress upon the subject. I shall direct my remark* to New Mexico and California. Oregon is only important to the Mouth a* a part of a proposed compromise. Nobody believes that, under any circumstances, slavery can ever go there. Shivery will cease to exist when slave labor is reduced to bunting bear and setting beaver traps. If our territorial acqui sitions had been confinw! to Oregon, extended even to 54? 40', we should not now be deliberating how the republic is to be saved. New Mexico snd California are the apples of discord. We are already reaping the bitter fruit of national cupidity. I CouU my voice prevail they should never become a part o | our country. We might yet throw away the worthless acuui | union. A? a legislator, however, I inuat look at things ai they actually will exist, not as 1 would have them. Without some action by Congress can slavery exist in those I erritones If legal authority is of any weight it cannot, olackstone thus writes upon the subject : "It hath been held, that if an uninhahited ecuntry tie dis covered and planted by English subject*, all the Engliih law. then in being which arc the birthright of every subject, are immediately there in torce." , ''U".t,,in C0"1UL'fd * eeded couutrie?. that hare already Si! I iTiiT"' i 6 k"'K *Ue'- Oi el?"?r those law* i but till he does actually change them, the ?ncieut laws ^ IT-'"' eXctV,t SUch as are aK*i"st the laws of uod, as iii infidel countries. ' Chief Justice Marshall, in his opinion in the case of the Amcncau Insurance Company vs. three hundied and lilty-aix bales of cotton, (1 Peters'* Reports, 542,) adopto this principle as the rule ol our courts : ?'Theii.^ ofthe world is, if u nation be not entirelv ?ub du^d, to consider the holding ot conquered territory a* a' mere r,riv?, !>CCU1'al,<Jn, Urtl1 '!* ,ha11 be determined at the I* ' 1' " be ceded by treaty the acquisition iicon Wh -h it"/i - \frrU017 l*oome? a part of the nation to 11 '? annexed, either on the terms stipulated in the treaty, or on such as its new ran St.-r shall impose. On sucli transfer hi^T} "eVei' lfUn hrld 'hat lhe r2l?ionS ot the in fcpr l ? I*? any change. I heir relations with their loi n^r sovereign are. dusohed, and new relations are created i^r.Wv Ti ?ovcrunient which has acquited their fa?%7', ii lC *ame/f wh,tb translera their country trans of those who remain in it 4 and the law ?Jtlinii ,le,!0,n'Da,ted P?l,ucal is '"?cessarily changed, a hough that wiuch regulat ?? the inteivooree and general eon duct ol individuals remains in force until altered by the newly, created power of ihe State." wojinentwiy " It bus already been stated that the laws which were in force in Honda, while a province of Spin, those excepted which weie political in their character, which concerned ([?? relations the'r ,ovc,-ciSn- remained in force until altered by the Government ot the United States." Slavery is a municipal regulation. The doctrine is to be found in the case of Prigg tat. the Commonwealth of Pennsyl vania, reported in Ifiih volume of Peters's United States re port*, page 611: nil' Vi'V ll'f Pr'f"1} 'aW of,1Atio,,s? no nation is bound toreeog i ni,, wl i'.?- n ' " 10 torei^n ^aves found within its " 0PP0s,t,C)n to its own policy,"^?. ; ? ooe*, it U as a mutter ot'coinitr and tiot h matter of international right. The state of slavery ? deemedto be a mere municipal regulation founded npon' and limited to tho lunjje ot the i erriturikl laws. I he constitution, it is tiue, extends overall territory which the Government acquire*. Does it carry slavery there f I have never beard it alleged lhat the constitution e?tal/is/ied slavery ; the argument is that it recognises it : this is not.trict ly true ; it rccognises the municipal laws and regulations of the States winch admit it, as far a? they have any operative face hat is, within the territorial limits of the State. It goes no urther, except in one particular case provided for express!t in the second section of the fourth article : If a slave ?? escape" into the free States, he must, under that clause, be "deliver ed1 up on claim ; his owner may take him back to Stat? where the institution exist*. Ho cannot hold him in slaven he ci, nit1"16 m Wh'Ch he UUken' l0n?er than' Und" the circumstances, is necessary to carry him back. If. the institution recognises slaves as property, wherever they may be within our limits, where was ,1^nL.ty for this provf "on Again, the clause of the constitution which tolerated Oie slave-trade until 1*08 gives Congress, by implication, power over the subject outside of the limits of the States, and rtfers the existence of the institution to the States themselves ~y 11 Congress is prohibited from forbidding the importation of such property mto such States, then in existence, as should think proper to admit it." The relation between (he State. ?l to their municipal law, is foreign. In the case of bills of ^aWn ^ a,thilen of ?"e Stote uP?n a citizen of Mother State, we apply the law-merchant as it operates upon Ocigu bills. The r.-corjs and judicial proceeding of the c^irts of one of the Sutes would be regarded by the courts of aty other ^tate as the records and judicial proceedings of a fo?ign court, were it not for an express provision on the sub "! WIwutuUon. The constitution thus recognises, by 1.1 clause, as well as the one in relation to slaves who have e?dped into tree States, this foreign relation of the State* to onrfanother, as to their municipal laws, by providing again.t ks (fleet in particular casts It is difficult tc see how the re latifa of tho .States to the Territories is more intimate than that ot tie States fo one another, as to their municipal htr?. bv prodding against iu effect in particular case*. It j, difficult L? , .1;,heurelfl"fon1 ofJhc Su,es t0 Territories in more Hate than that of the States io one another. . XpBJ'he !aws Jf"*'00' ,hey existed ui th? territories of Vr d . IC? California, at the time of tiie acquisiuon ZT fV*ry w Proh'bited. Peon slavery is a very di lie rent ; ^ u I a*.IcaU u?derstand it, it is a state of servitude m w|ch the creditor, by law, puts the debtor, to be :ermina ted ujon the liquidation of th* debt by the labor of the peon, whicl debt is so managed by the creditor generally, that it ?ccunkates instead of diminishing. With us the slave can no extract with his master, and of course could n* be sub jected Under that law, nnless he first become free. African slave-* a, ? ex,st. ,q ihe Southern States, was forbidden in hat Urilory at ihe Ume it became, by ceaaica, a psrt of our county According to the principles of international law, and te decisions of our courts the only laws which, ipso Jucto were annulled, were the political laws. My colleague adn*< that no law-, were changed except those which were in court with the constitution. I think that I have shown to.t "i^T ? fclaverv u not ?*??>? the constitution. In ***?* n( !kW* t^eC' Can ! Joubt that ,he conrtjlt ?n the present state rrl'-,nVa^ Wltb?ut ^ime action of Congress, would dea? that, ,n California and New Mexico, slavery could not f . Lntff"??n.ng these views, honestly and onscientious Z'r I. in? Z . ;'fht or wr,,,,*? how could I ha?e voted brL, i . ?.Uf ri0t ^ Jie,JinR the claim of the South kno tngly and wilfully ? What right have I to deceive my eoCHtuents by v.tmg for a lull to " keep the word of promii uf?r' anJ!'reaI' il 10 our hope ?" Much less could I mas- the sacrifice without some hope that it would brinR peac. It brought no assurance that the waters were ?ub i T P? ?f'irit of coniPr''niiae in the munner it wa.forced through the Senate. It came to the House branded !he tlCu intokrance. Iu pasaage would have baen inP r 1 lC,rry * ref"aL 11 W0U,ti h?ve itself in U PreMdenUal campaign. There would have been a strug v!fk5 " Jort^ro or? Sonthern President, so as to have a ;>clhern or Southern judiciary esubhshed in theM territories. ,' '' rrr: ?l- a vacanc> '"'Kh1 occur in the 8o pnne Court of the I nited States. The judicial ermine might hae been sUined by political prostitution. At all events, the we^ht and moral infiubt.ee of Ik- court must have [x*n for. eve destroyed in one aecuon or the other of the Union. We ftae no right to throw the responsibility of settling this quea uo. upon the Judiciary. I would not permit it togo Jre in shnpe, if it could lie avoided , certainly not in this. It h? surprised me very moch to see those men who have here m n ?^7P,U ,?r" ?f <?a,e ?f 'h0 Jeci'ion? of <b" court ? C7^'.,UU?na! "-ting refuge under it. J' hp " " ^causc they dare not meet the question. ?.r, he who falters now is no true lover of his country. ii'heSS !' * "Pifi( ?f Calmnf,w and conciliation, Zt w h heated denunciation, and angry threats Let u. meet it TrlSeJd 00 l? *,tle *'? and we raurt a^uredly [will examine the bill a little more in deUil. The people 0 Oregon have enacted a code of laws for themselves. These s?ve?vJeCTthe0hr|r0nlr0lt "lJ amon,? lhem " on* "Eluding MNery. The bill piovides that these laws shall be and con tleT ~ IT U?UI wfr0C af'W lhe f,r,t raeel'nK of 1 riZ^T h!" the T'^lur? these must * re enacted, or new laws msde and brought to Corrres^ uncer the sixth section of the bill for approval. HUvehoK ^11 n.^^a^eThl,nn0t-l^k',^hwrpfOpe^,y, ,n,, ^^MnUy ?e 1 Zn t ^ ' h* Le*,WalUr# w'? compound of eiar> 1 ., ^,1?" ,he Uw >A "i" be re ? n , 'm^Uon come up before Confess ngam If tSr J5Tt W?rC?U,d n<A in T il,,^ ?*** ^ this unneaning legisls CmerFM " ?i .'t'' ?'*? '"''Bl it iftm before i JJ* ^|: *h k10"* andl,ccure' beyond doilit to the North n sn il h M ^10 h"e Un*'r ,h'" c,mpact. In the r r y ?Ulh 'S \ttke her ch"nr'. which I think I Viiito Th n V"7 b,<1 on,!' for and New J Thl 7 10 ?u;Pend"' u"?l " case is made id beir ^ 0f N"r,h are invited to ,. ' r emtssaries to stir up dissensions arid lawsoiti be t*?en the maifr and his slave. No U? tan be passed to I'-thTsUveh' U PUn"hi'h* 0^^"'i0a, '""filers. As so-.n " ^ t?"" T 'he coun,ry- ^ve. are all in s^nlt h! etpCC 7 <;?nft*" thrt lker will institute ijTSJt "'aster, to try the quest,?n of their freedom. ruEt stand urine|h,n" grn"f*1 qUl"lioB' but ^h slave W ^ ,h" I'ar'icular circum,t,nf^ of hii CMim, a picture for a Southern man to look upon Can slave l "*"* ?? -"?i. j~. ..1 * " JS2 "u,h; r, tnc constitution or founded upon f.^ty tmi ,u.iir4. to carf slave property there, we have ,b*,T. rTeSTc^ seqp-e, a right to some legwlation to protect and secure it In/new and sparsely populated country the l.ws areT^ imrirWtly execute 1, and thi. peculiar S7f ' ow, ^ luijs something more than the ruT.of the ommon 3 i. ?? plia to other property, to protect tho jt?ute liooks of the slave States. ^Th^on/S of polf,r?d cr.m,n.l I.ws we have found it necciwary tJ enact. M.#,m60|,OCi'ri?ein Ik Jone% vt- Vanxandt, Me i Lomford t ?. Coqnill^,. H South, ? I, ? Msrsb R. 4ro Tb^ fir?# ,i Kan*m Vt. ' tourl? ^ ^u..,ana, .?d tCSaJ dwi,ion' f i 8om? enforced by severe penalties soma declaring certain in terferences with the enjoyment of this kind of property to be felony without the benefit of clergy. Arc not these or some of these absolutely necessary * If not, then they are bloody and atrocious, and my colleague'* " own Carolina' stands convicted before the world of uwieceaaarily taking the life of inau, by enforcing the execution of auch lawn. 1 do not be lieve it. 1 maintain that such lawn are proper and absolutely necessary. I maintain that slave-property cannot be secure iu the Territories, any more than in the hiatus, without such legislative enactments. 'And holding thej<e opinion*, I turn to tbe bill and tind that the oligarchy of judges, governors, and secretaries, in whom is .vested all the legislative power, are expressly forbidden to pa*s any law "respectingslavery.' Mr. Speaker, I look upon the struggle now going on in the country as one purely lor political powei in the Senate of the United States. I cannot aee how it can be one of honor, of morals, or of sectional or State interest in any other way than as the question of political power makes it so. It is alleged on the part of the North that they have conscientious scruples about extending the institution. Sir, the number of slaves is not increased; none are made slaves who were not before. I know it ha? been said by r.n honorable Senator from New York (Mr. Dix) that by well-established laws it is ascertain ed that the population of" a country increases more rapidly and in proportion a? it is extended within certain limits. No doubt of it. But it is because tjieir comforts are increased and their moral and social condition improved. In its application to siaves this rule does not hold good. The reason ceasing, the rule ceases also. The condition of the slave, moral or social, is the same. It is the will and heart of the master that makes his condition more or less tolerable, and the obligations which public opinion imposes upon him are certainly as great and as strongly enforced in a country which has advanced in intelli gence and refinement as in one that is new and thinly settled. In connexion with this subject there is a fact which speaks loudly for the humanity and kindness of the master and the comfortable condition of the slave. There has been no im portation of slaves since 1808. Besides the natural increase of the white population, there have been, during the whole existence of the Government, very large accessions to it from emigration, and yet the aggregate increase of slaves has been as great as that of the white population of the country. To go back to the subject, if it were true that the condition ol the slave would be improved, it would seem to ma to be an argu ment which appealed to the moral sense of the North for ra ther than against its extension. i cannot see, sir, how the interest of the slave States is to be advanced or the institution strengthened at hotne by taking away their citizens and their slave property. I have p.lways resisted this extension of territory, not only because I believed it to be contrary to the interests of the whole country and in violation of the spirit of the constitution, but also because, as a North Carolinian, looking to the interest of my own State, and sincrrely anxious to promote it, I had leasons that apj>eal od most strongly t > my feelings of State pride. I love North Carolina. I love her for her moral honesty. I love her for ber political integrity. My destiny has been cast under the protection of her constitution. A portion of her citizens have taken me by the Land and honored me with their confidence before age had given the experience and information which might have emboldened me to seek it. Surely, sir, I could not be a true son of such a State if I could sacrifice or neglect her inteiests. I never could consent, if there were not reasons paramount to these and of higher considerations to her, to add a new impulse to that tida of emigration which has been iweeping away her wealth and her population and doomed her fcr yeara to be the " nursery of the Southwest.Such rea sons, however, must, lor the present, give way to a question of greater magnitude' to the South and io North Carolina. 1 desire that this accession -of political strength in the Senate asd in this House, -ml in all the political questions which can come before the people, shall be tairly apportioned. And, iu order that the South may have her share in truth and not^ in empty promises, I ask and insist upon the affirmative action of Congress. I am told by those Southern gentlemen who supported the bill that it is idle to expect that- It may be so. It may now be too late?too l?tc for the South to escape the chains of political servitude already clanking in her ears. If the wishes (as I believe them to exist) ol some gentlemen are to be carried out, it may be too late for the constitution and the Union. If it l e true that I am asking in vaiu, it is not on that account the less incumbent upon me to discharge my duty faithfully and fearlessly. I shall never cease to make the effoit until the matter is adjusted. If it is true that it^is now too late, a heavy responsibility rests somewhere. Not upon me qf the party to which I belong. " Thou canst not say I did it," is the consolatory reflection which is left to us. They are guilty who have instigated and supported the Lxec utive in his recklcst disregard of the constitution and his am bitious and selfish projects of personal aggrandizement. W ith their "aid and comfort" he has, under the lalse pretence that national honor was endangered, but in truth with the settled and determined purpose of illustrating his Administration by a vast extension of our limits, precipitated us into a war with a neighboring republic. Our armies have overrun her territory, desolated her fielJs, laid her smiling cities in smoking ruins, and reddened her rivers with the blood of her citrzcne, until? " It teemed as if their source had been some mighty heart Gashed to its death." The frpit of it all is this territory, which has brought such distraction to out councils and to our country. The "indem nity for the past" with Mexico is threatening the "security for the future" at home. Thi* crisis might have been fore seen- The hiatory of the part was full of admonition. We have once before been in a similar situation. Once before the sky has lowered, the curtained atmosphere grown dark and heavy, and the deep mutU-iing of the thunder broken upon our ears. A compromise brought us a clear sky, and the joy with which the first ray of hope was hailed throughout the whole country, told too well the deep sense of th-s danger we had escaped. We were not without warning. This crisis might have been avoided ; and, warned as we were by past experience, why was it voluntarily encountered ' Sir, the answer to that question will be found in tbe blind folly or mad ambition of the President and his supporters; and happy, thrice happy, for our country will be the day which shall de termine at once the existence of the Administration and the power of the party which supports it. AN ACT OF CONG HEMS, entitled " An act making appropriations for the senice of the Yost Office Depart merit for the year euding the 3uh June, 1849," authnrizrs the | transportation of the mail by the Charleston, Key West, and j Havana line, " or by other steamer* to such other placcs on the coast of Florida as the Postmaster General may deem practicable and expedient," und appropriates therefor the sum of $5,000 to enable said la* to be put into operation. Proposals for carrying the mails of the United States from the 1st ol February, 1849, toihe 30th June, 1851, inclusive, will be received at the Contract (,ffice of the Post Office De partment, in the city of Washington, until 9 A. M. of the 25th day of December, 1848, (to be tlecided the next day,) on the routes and in the manner and time herein specified, viz : No. 3539. From St. Augustine, by Smyrna, Indian Kiver, San Lucie, Jupiter, Miami, Key l^argo, Indian Key, Key West, Charlotte Harbor, Savssota, Tampa, Cedar Keys, St. Marks, Apalachicola, St. Joseph's,and St. Andrew's, to Pen sacola, twice a month and back, in steamboats. Separate proposals lor sections ot the above routes as fol lows will be considered, viz : From St. Augustine to Kev West. From Pensacola to Apalachicola. From Apalachicola to Tampa. I From Tampa to Key West, supplying in each case the in termediate points. Proposals for weekly service on the above routes or sections j of routes will also be considered. NOTE. Each proposal should be accompanied by a guaranty, signed by one or more responsible persons, in the lollowing man ner, via: . , ?... " The undersigned ?? ??- guaranty that ?, " nis bid for carrying the mail from to ??? be accepter! by the Postmaster General, shall enter into an obligation prior to the fimt day of February nert, with good and sufficient sureties, to perioriu the service proposed.'' This should be accompanied by the certificate of a postn*s 1 ter, or other equivalent testimony, that the guarantors are men of property and able to make good their guaranty. The proposal should he sent to the Department sealed en dorsed " Proposals for route No. 3,539, in Florida," and ad dressed to the First Assistsnt Postmaster General. For the prohibition of bids resulting from combination, ami the terms and conditions on which the contract is to be made, ?ee the last aunual advertisement. C. JOHNSON, Postmaster General. Post Office Department, Washington, Sept. 16. 1848. sept S3?Iawl2w _ i(MIKH.?Cheap, to clone a consignment ?llisiory ol S the Hartford Convention, by Theodore Dwight, Secre tary rf the Convention, 1 octavo volume, bound. 62 cents, published at $2 50. , .v_ . History of Greece, by the British Soeiety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1 octavo volume, bound ; 37 cents, pub Botta's^IIistory of the American Revolution, translated f rom the Italian by Otis, 8 volumes octavo, full bound in leather, maps and engravings ? $1 50, published at $?>. Fanning's Voyages, 1 octavo volume, bound, with engrav ings ; 37 cents, published at $4. . . a , . Chapin's Reference Gaaetteer of the United States, 1 vol ume 8vo., bound ; cents, published at $8. Indian Wars of the Wert, bv l imothy Hint, 1 vol. 12mo., bound s 25 cents, published at $1. ... , . I f'arver'sTravels in Wisconsin in 1776, 1 vol. octavo, bound, with maps and engravings, printer! from the third LondoA edi ' tion ; 37 cents, published at %*. For sale (a few days only) by | sep83 r. t A TIjik. _ J OMR IVFl.tKSltKi a tale lor Mothers ami Daugh ZX tera, by Grace Aguilar. * . ,, .. I t hankfulness, a narrative, comprising passsgrs from the u a I ry of the Kcr. Allan Temple, by the author ol Kecords ot a Good Man's Lite ; Margaret, or the Pe?r'. ?e. - Man and his Motives, by George Moore, M.D., author ol Body and Mind, Soul and ilodjr, kc. ' K. FARNHAM if ITERARY MKBTCHK* AN? LETTERS, beinr I j fhc Final Memorials of Charles Lamb, never before pub lished, by Thomas NoonTalfourd, one of his executors. I his ,0r "",,,, 11. FARNHAM. H' FKVM OUR NEW YORK CORRESPONDENT?. PukTLiKVi (Mb.) Hut. 18, 1848. After a couple of weeks of wandering further north aiu east, I am at laat in thia pleasant capital of the " pine tret State"?the Bute of mountain*, rivers, and water falls, of in numerable lakes and ponds ; the State ijhoee bays, harbors and na> igable rivers, together with its rock-bound ocean strand, make up a line of coast of mote than fifteen hundred miles. Maine can hardly fail to become a leading State of the Amer ican Union. Her extent of territory, and her commercial anc manufacturing capabilities, will ensure her that prominence. Her northern position is rather unfavorable to general agri culture, but, as a grazing country, she is not surpassed per haps by any other State. Governor Hill, of New Hamp shire, in some recent publication* of the statistics and resource! of Maine, gives her a prospective rank in wealth, power, anti influence, second only to the Sate of New York; and he it probably not far out of the way in his estimate. Maine builds more vessels than any other State, aud, f rom her great extent of seaboard and her numerous liatbor* and rivers, she is des tined to carry on un extensive commerce. Her manufactur ing interests are now rapidly increasing, and her facilities and advantages for extensive manufactures are not surpassed by any other State. But what will probably contribute more than any thing else to develop her resources and give a rapid growth to the State is the grand system of railroads which she has planned and is beginning to build. Already Portland i* connected with Boston by two lines of railroad ; the Portland and Montreal railroad, otherwise called tho Atlantic and St. Lawrence road, is going on pro?|>erously, and will, doubtless, be completed in a few years, and a central Slate road, branch ing otr from the Montreal road, twenty-five or thirty miles from Portland, and running eas'.ward to cross the Kennebec river at Waterville and the Penobscot at Bangor, is project ed, and will probably be built at no distant day. A railroad from Bath, through Brunswick, Frceport, and North Yar mouth, to Portland, or to connect with the Montreal road at North Yarmouth, is iu such a state of forwardness as to he likely to be opened the coming winter. Tbey were putting down the rails between Bath and Brunswick last week. Besides the Montreal road and the central State road, seve ral branches are already projected, and others in due time will be, to connect differeut sections of the State with the principal roads. To construct these works must of course re quire large capital, more than the 8tatc can very well furnish at present. But the capital will be found in reasonable time, and the roads will be built, and for a quarter of a century to come Maine will be found to increase in manufactures, com merce, wealth, and power, with a rapidity not often exceeded in this rapidly-growing country. I have already had a ride of ten miles on the Portland and Montreal nilroad, for the cars now run regularly that distance between Portland and North Yarmouth several times a day, and, for thtdistance, are doing a good business. In the course of the preient week they will run seven or eight miles further, to the town of New Glouces ter ; and before cold weather they will probably reach Le.wis ton, and perhaps Mechanic Falls, both of which are already places of considerable manufacturing importance. Lest this road should be retarded for want of funds, the city of Portland, which is deeply interested in its construction, has obtained permission from the State Legislutuie, and will raise a million of dollars on the credit of the city towards building the road. The M jntreal people are zealouslj at work on their end of the line, aid are expecting some aid torn their Legis lature towards the completion of their portion of the road. The Portland and Montreal railroad is th< most important road yet commenced in the country, next to the New York and Eric railroad. It must become the great thoroughfare through which lie Canadas and a considerable portion of the lake country wil tind their way to the Atlantic and to Europe. The distance wil! be about two huudred miles less to Europe than it would be by the way of Boston, half being saved on the land and hat on t*ie water ; and the moment this railroad is completed, a ine of steam packcts will be established to run between Portland and Liverpool. Portland has an excellent harbor, and nothing can prevent it from becoming a place of a good deal of rommc rciul importance. I must say something about this bcau.ifully located city in another communication. Miicixr. Monet out or Nothixu.?A New York corres pondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer thus describes a manu facturing operation, which is going on successfully in the vi cinity of the former city : Taking advantage of a few hours' leisure on Saturday last, I took a trip to Williamsburg, on the other side of the East River, to inspect a newly -erected factory 'there, owned by Horatio N. Fryatt, Esq. of this city, well known as the pro prietor of the BctleriUc (N. J.) White Lead Establishment. This e?taMishment has been erected at an expense of forty thousand dollars, for the purpose of making money out of nnthirg, which is done there daily on a tremendous scale. I will detr.il to ycu how it is done. The proprietor purchases by the quantity animal bones of all kinds, which are gathrred in onr street* by the chiffon iert, at the rate of 25 cents a bushel. Th<*e are submitted to several processes for different pur poses, carh of which results in a large profit. In the first place they are boiled, and 'he grease thoroughly extracted from them. The product is aold to the soapmakera at six and a half cents per |*ound. They are then tubmittad to another operation, the result of which is glue of the t*st description, and which commands the highest market price. The bones are then converted into ivory black, for the use of rugst re finers, and the portions which are too small in size for this purpose are sold as bone manure at the rate of a cent per |>ound, at which price a gentleman of Philadelphia takes it all. Thus it appears that there is not a particle of waste through out, and at each stage of the business a considerable proBt is made. DEBATES IN PARLIAMENT. In a recent examination before a committee of the British House of Commons, as to the best mode of closing prolonged debate in Parliament, we perceive that the Hon. John Den ni on, th) London Banker, was appointed chairman, and Lord John Rursell, Sir Robert Peel, Sir James Graham, Messrs, Cobden, Hume, D'Israeli, and John O'Connell, mem bers of the committee. Lord Brougham was also in attend ance. Tbey requested Ex-Miniiter Guixot to come before them, which he did, and in a very succinct and satisfactory manner explained how the French brought a debate to a close. Ed. Curtis, Esq , of New York, and Josiah Randall, Esq., of Philadelphia, were also invited to attend the sittings of the committee ; during the whole investigation this Parliamentary committee had before them Judge Sutherland's valuable Le gislative Manual of Congress. The Canadian authorities have granted permission for two American schooners to proceed fror^ sea up the St. Lawrence and the Canadian canals to the Lakes. Sikoul i* UaaT*.?An unknown man was found dead, in a sitting posture, in tho saloon of the steamer C. V ander bilt, on her arrival at Snnington one day last week from New York. It appeals he was sullering from a cold, contracted by sleeping on the deck of a vessel in which he had juat arrived from Callao. The letters "C.F.J." were found on his arm. Mklakcholt.?Helen Mar, daughter of Mr. Charles Rus sell, of Bath, Maine, aged about ten years, and Adelaide, daughter of Mr. Robert B. Rogers, of Chelsea, Massachusetts, aged about twelve yesrs, left the reaidenco of Mr. Russell, on the morning of the Hth instant, to take a walk in the woods. Not returning when expected, alaim was excited, and search made for them during the afternoon and night, without sac cess, but this morning ihey were fonnd drowned in the Sewall stream. They had gone in to bathe, and unfortunately got beyond their depths. Tttey were found locked io each others arms. The U. S. Arsen.d, below the city of Philsdelpbis, near Gray's Feiry, wss entered by some bold rase air, on Thurs day night, and one of the buildings, used as a shoe siore, ransacked and rifled, s fire proof chest which was in the store, and contained nearly $1,500 In specie, was dragged out, hoisted over the wall, and carried a distance of thee hundred yards to the ri*er Schuylkill, into which it was thrown. 1 he receding tide exposed it, and it was discovered, the contents having been untouched. Two watchmen Vwere employed to guard the buildings, and both of them have lieen discharged. tMt of Li ft by the Burning of the Paekct Ship Ocean Monarch.?The total number of passengers and crew on board this vessel ia ascertained to nave been 306, of whom 318 have been saved, and 178 are missing. The subscriptions on their behalf already amount to ?2,300. The captains of the Cambris and Orion steam vessels, who were supposed to have pahsed the burning ship without a desire to render assist ance, have conclusively shown that they could not have gone to her without placing their own passengers id imminent peril, which would have been wholly unjustifiable, as they were ig norant of her being an emigrant ship, and the assistance near her was such as would have been ample Under all ordinary ircumstancecs. FROM CALIFORNIA. Mr. Eowa*d F. BtALT, Passed Midahipman, arrived in I thin city oa Saturday, from Commodore Jonah's squadron in ? the Pacific, and i? said to have performed the moat rapid jour ? ney that ha* ever been known from the Pacific to Waahing , ton. He left Commodore Jo* us at La Paz on the lat of August, came by Muzatlan, and arrived at the part of San Bias on the 10th, and puahed his way by horses and mules ? across the country to the city of Mexico, where he arrived on I the 17th. He was detained by Mr. Curvoan three daya for despatches, and in forty-eight houra pawed from Mexico to Vera Cruz, about 27ft miles, sleeping not more than ten mi nutes ut > time. Fiom Vera Cruz be sailed to Mobile, and arrived heto on Saturday evening,. Mr. BriLt croascd from i the Pacific at San Bias to the Gulf at Vera Cruz in the un ! exampled journey of ten daya on the road, and was detained h at Mexico three days. ' The most extraordinary intelligence which Mr. Beale brings is about tho real El Dorado, the Cold region in Cali fornia. His accounts of the extraordinary richness of the gold surface, ami the excitement it had produced among all classes of people, inhabitants of the country and of the towns, among seamen and soldiers, are confirmed by letters from Com. Joses and from Mr. Laikik, the Uuited States Navy Agent at Monterey, California. Mr. Seals states that the whalers had suspended their operations?the captains (>ermit ting their soamen to go to the gold region, upon condition that every ounce of gold the semnen obtained should be given to the captain for $!0, making six or seven dollars by the bargain. The towns were being evacuated, mechanics, &c. going to the attractive spot. The two newspapers had been suspended, the compositors going oil' to gather gold for them selves. The "Union" publishes the following letter from Mr. Laukin to the Secretary of the Navy : U. 8. Navt Auknct, Monterey, California, July 1, J 948. Siu : Since my last letter to you, written in San Francis co, I have visited the " Placer," or gold region of California, and found it all it had been represented to me. My anticipa tions were fully realized. The part 1 visited was the south fork of the river American, which joins the Sacramento at Su ter's Fort, or two miles from it. This rivtr has its north and south forks, branching more than twenty miles from Fort Su ter. On these two forks there are over 1,000 people digging and washing for gold. On Bear creek and Hulo creek, branches of Feather river, many are now beginning to work. It is supposed that the banks and bottoms of all these small streams contain vast quantities ot gold, anu that the valleys between them are rich with the eame metal. The people are now working at many places: some are eighty miles from others. The place I visited wa; about a league in extent; on this were nbout fifty tents : many have not even this covering. At one tent, belonging to eight single men, I remained two or three days. These men had two machines made in a day, from eighty to one hundred feet, inch boards, and very rough ly put together. Their form was something like a child's cra dle, without the ends; at one end there was a moveable sieve or rack to wash down the dirt and shake off the stones. Holes were made in the bottom of the machine to catch the gold this wash stopped, and this was scraped out hourly. These two machines gathered each day 1 was present three-fourths to one pound each, being three to four ounces of gold per man. These men had worked one week with tin pans; the last week with the machine. I saw the result of the first day's work of two brothers, (American*-;) one had seven dollars, the other eighty-two; they worked on the same five yards of land; one, however, worked less than the whole day. Their plan, like hundreds of others, was first with a pick and shovel, clear off two feet of the top earth, then put in a tin pari or wooden !>owl a shovel of dirt, go Into running water, with the hand stir up the dirt and heave out the stones, until they have re maining a spoonful of emery or black sand, containing one to five dollars. This can be done once or twico a day. Each day is causing some saving of labor by the improve mt.n's in the rough machines now in use. The day I left, some small companies of five to eight men had machines from which they anticipate five or six hundred dollars a day. There certainly must this day be at work on the different Placers several hundreds of Amcticans and others, who are cleaning one ounce of grcld a day. I have this week seen in Monterey a Californian who shows four hundred dollars of gold from the labor of one week; much of it was the size of wheat. I my self weighed one piee% from his bag, and found the weight an even ounce. He, like many others, only went up to the gold regions to *ee the place, borrowed tools, worked a few daya, and came home to show hi* labor, and take up toothers and cousins and provisions. Flour at the " Placer" is scarce at $16 per 100 lbs. At almoat this price it must continue, as people are forsaking their fields. I do not think I am exagge rating in estimating the amount of gold obtained on the rivers I have mentioned at ten thousand dollars a day for the lastfew daya. There is every rapson to believe the amount will not this se ison (qnle*s the washers are driven from their work by sickneas) be any leas. In thia caw the addition of workmen now joining the first one<, and the emigrants from the Atlan tic States we shall have in October and December, will soon swell the value of California gold that will be washed out to an unheard-ol value. Many who have seen the " Placer think it will last thirty or forty years. I should think that it would afford work two or three years to many tbousanda of peoj !e, and may for very many years, as I cannot calculate the extent of country having gold. The working of quick silver mines, like every thing else, is stopped : three-fourths of tho houses in the town of San Franciaco are shut up. Houses in Monterey are being closed this week ; the volun teer companies of Sonoma and San Francisco have lost seve ral men hj desertion. Under the present excitement, a ahip of-war or any other vessel lying at anchor in San Franciaco would lose many men- In that town there is hardly a me chanic remaining. I expect the same in Monterey in two weeks. Both newspapers have stopped. All or nearly all the hotels arc abut up. One of my clerka who received $600 and hoard now receivea in his store near New Helvetia (Sel ler's Fort) #100 per month ; my others are fast closing their books to leave me. In fact, I find myself, or shall this month, without a clerk, carpenter, or servant, and all my houses, for merly rented, given up to me. In two weeks Monterey will be nearly without inhabitanta. I am, with much respect, THOMA8 O. LARKIN, Com. Tmos. Ar C. Jonts. Rev. Jon* Wheum, D.D., has resigned the Presidency of the University of Vermont?a station which be has held for fourteen years, with honor to himself and greatly to the benefit of the institution. He retires, it is underatood, on ac count of ill health in his family, which renders a voyage to Europe indispensable. Rev. WAsni*nToir Smith, D.D.,of St. Albans, Vermont, has been chosen to rucceed him. New Railmoab.?We learn from the Elkton Whig that a corps of engineers, headed by Mr. Gameteo*, are engaged in running out and levelling the line of the contemplated rail road, commencing at Northeast, in Cecil county, Maryland, and intersecting the Columbia railroad at or near Nobleville, Pennsylvania. The projected line is about thirty milea long, about one-third of which length is in Cecil county. The Mews. Dirxr.rs and other Pennsylvania? are taking ener getic steps to have the road made, and we nnderatand that ?he Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad Com pany will assist to mske ii.?Delawarian. The Niagara Chronicle has a paragraph stating that the project of constructing a Suspension Biidge serosa the Niaga ra at Queenston is sgain revived, and this time with every proepert of being carried ont. Mr. Ellet, the engineer of the bridge at the Fall*, undertakes to construct it for ?10,000, and will himself take one-fourth of the stock. This leaves ?7,500 to be subacribeel for, half of which has already b*en taken up on the American side, and a large poition of the other half on the Canada aiele of the river. If no unforeseen difficulties arise, the bridge will be ready for use by September of next year. - A Lame Roea ?The new rope for the inclined plane on the Columbia Railroad, manufactured at the extensive rope wslk of J. W hetham A Son, near Philadelphia, was deliver ed to the State agents yeeterdsy. This rope is eight inchea thick, over a mile in length, and required more thvn thirty thousand pounds for its manufacture. It was made in five i.irt*. and of course is to be put together at the plane. Philadelphia Ledger. House 8tsali*o.?We learn from Dr. Fechtig, of Poolee ville, Montgomery county, Maryland, that a man named John I'ym, of good address and plausible manners, atole from Dr. F., on Saturday last, a dark chestnut horse, ? naddlc, bridle, and martingal, also a patent lever gold watch and cham. The fellow afterwards brought the horse to this city *nd sold it to a person on Capitol Hid, who has since had to restore the horse to the owner, being minus $35, the purchase money. The Georgetown officers were in hot pursuit of the thief on Monday evening, hut did succeed in arresting him. A man travelling eastward on the Syracuse and 1 lira rail road, on Friday last, whe refused to pay hia fore, was ejected from the cars by the collector at Oriakany. IN ot relishing thm ,r?d? *.???? * ??? "H-T -j stones. The stones thus thrown, we regret to state, pesaaert through a window, near which Hon. Jonw C. who was on his way home from the State Fair-stnkmg that gentleman on the head, and inflicting ? severe wound theteupon.?Oneida Herald, Sept. I"