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SEPTEMBER 30, 1848 THE WEEKLY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER The aubscription price of this paper for a year is Tubs Dollars, payable in advance. F or the lung Session* of Congress (averaging eight mouths) j the price will be 1 wo Dollars; for the short Sessions One Dollar per copy. A reduction ef 80 per cent, (or one-fifth of the full charge) will be made to any one who ahall order and pay for, at one time, five copies of the Weekly paper ; and a like reduction _ per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who will order and pay for at one time ten or more copies. No accounts being kept for this paper, it will not be for warded to any one unless paid tor in advance, nor sent any longer than the time for which it is so paid for. LETTERS FROM THE ALLEGHANY MOUNTAINS. [CORRESPONDENCE or THE RATIONAL 1NTBLLIQBNCER.] Euzabbthtoh, Cabter Count*, Tennessee, June 6, 1848. i he prominent circumstance attending my journey from the North Cove to this place was, that it brought me out of the great mountain wilderness of Georgia and North Carolina into a well-cultivated and more level country. For two months pist have I spent my days on horseback, and the majority of my nights in the rudest of cabins, aju] as I am now ^jo con tinue my journey in a stage-coach, it is meet that I should indite a general letter, descriptive of the region through which I have passed. In coming from Dahlonega to this place, I have travelled in a zigzag course upwards of four hundred miles, but tho intervening distance, in a direct line, would not measure more than two hundred. The entire country is mountainous, and for the most part remains in its original state of nature. To the botanist and the geologist, this section of the Lnion is Unquestionably the most interesting eastward of the Mississippi, for we have here nearly every variety of forest trees known in the land, as well as plants and fio?ers in the .greatest abundance, while the mountains, which are of a pri mitive formation, abound in every known variety of minerals. 1 hat the scenery of this region is highly interesting, I hope my readers have already been convinced. More beautiful streams can nowhere be found on the face of the earth. But, , when we come to speak of lake scenery, the South must yield the palm to the North. Not a single sheet of water deserving the name of lake have I yet seen in this Southern land, and yet every mountain seems to be well supplied with the largest and the coldest of springs. I know not but this fact has been explained by our scientific men, but to me it is indeed a strik ing peculiarity. The valleys, too, of this region sre remark ably narrow, and the majority of them might with more pro priety be called immense ravines. The skies, however, which canopy -this alpine land, appeared to me to be particularly blue, and as to the clouds which gather around the mountains at the sunset hour, they are gorgeous beyond compare. With regard to climate, I know of no section of country that can be compared with the highlands of Georgia and North Carolina. It is but seldom that a foot of snow covers the earth even in the severest winters ; and, though the days of midsummer are very warm, they are seldom sultry, and the nights are invariably sufficiently cool to make one or two blankets computable. Fevers and other diseases peculiar to the sea side of the Aileghanies are hardly known among their inhabitants, and heretofore the majority of people have died of old age. I would not intimate that they are afflicted wiih an epidemic at the present time, but I do say that there are maay households in this region which have been rendered very deso late by the Mexican war. When our kingly President com manded the American people to leave the plough in the furrow and invade a neighboring republic, the mountaineers of Georgia and the Carolinas poured down into tfee valley almost without bidding their mothers, and wives, and sisters a final adieu; and the bones of at least one-haTT Of th?se brave men are mow mouldering away on the desert sands of the far 8outh. Generally speaking, the soil of this country is fertile, yield ing the best of corn, potatoes, and rye, but only an average quality of wheat, on account of the late frosts. In some of the more extensive valleys the apple and the peach arrive at per fection, and while the former are manufactured into cider, out of the latter the mountaineers make a very palatable brandy. The pr.ncipal revenue of tho people, however, is derived Irom the business of raising cattle, which is practised to a consider able extent. The mountain ranges afford an abundance of the sweetest grazing food, and ail that the farmer has to do in the autumn is foxhunt up his stock, which have now become excessively fat, and drive them to the Charleston or Baltimore market. 1 he only drawback to this business consists in the fact that the cattle in certain sections of the country are subject to what is cslled the milk sickness. This disease is supposed to be caused by ? poisonous dew which gathers on the grass, and is said not only to have destroyed a great many cattle in ?ther years, but frequently caused the death of entire familiea who may have partaken of the unwholesome milk. It is a dreaded disease, and principally fatal in the autumn. From the foregoing remarks it wiU be seen that a mountain farmer may be an agriculturist and yet have an abundance ef time to follow any other employment that be has a passion for j and the rosult of this fact is, ^hat be is generally a fanhful disciple of the immortal Nirnrod. All the cabins that I have visited have been ornamented by at least one gun, and more than one-half of the inhabitants have usually been hounds. That the mountaineers are poor, is a matter of course, and the majority of their cabins are cheerless places indeed to harbor the human frame for life i but the people artfdistinguished for their hospitality, and al ways place before the stranger the choicest of their store. Bacon, game, and milk are their staple articles ot food, and honey is thtir principal luxury. In religion, generally speak 'n8? *re Methodists and Baptists, and are distinguished for their sobrietj. They have but few opportunities of bear ing good presching, but I have never entered more than three or four caMns where I did not see a copy of the Bible. The limited knowledge they possess has come to them directly from Heeen as it were, and, from the necessity of the case, their children are growing up in the most deplorable ignorance. Whenever orie of these poor fsmilies happened to learn from my conversion that I was a resident of Now York, the in terest with which they gazed upon me and listened lo my every word was both agreeable and painful. It made me happy to communicate what little I happened to know, but pained roe to think upon their isolated and uncultivated man ner of life. Give me the wilderness for a day or month, but, for life, I must be amid the hauots of refinement and ci*ili*a tion. As to the slave population of the mountain districts, it ? so limited that I can hardly express an opinion with regard to their condition. Not more than one white man in ten (perhaps I ought to say twenty) is sufficiently wealthy to sup port a slsve, and those who do posse* them are in the habit treating them aa intelligent beings and in the most kindly manner. As I have found it to be the case on the eeaboard, the slaves residing among the mountains are the happiest and most independent poition of the population ; and I have had many a one pilot me over the mountains who would not have exchanged place, even with hi. master. Thev have a com fortable bourn and no debt. u> p.y ; every thing they n?ed in the way of clothing and wbole?>me food erer at their com mand, and they have fm ,ectm ,0 th# chufchM tnJ lh# Sunday schools of the land. What more do the poor of any country posses., that can add to their temporal happiness > Another, and of course the most limited portion of the po tation occupying this mountain country, ,. what might be celled the aristocracy or gentry. Generally speaking, they ?re descended from the best of familiea, and moderately wealthy. They are fond of good living, and their chief busi ness i? to make themselves as comfortable as possible. They esteem solid enjoyment more than display, and are far more intelligent (eo for as books and ths world are concerned) than "?^same Ha.* of people at the North. The majority of Southern gentlemen, I believe, would he glad to see the in ?tilution of slavery abolished, If it could be brought about without reducing them to beggary. But they hate a political Abolitionist tut they do the very?F other of Lift ,? and for thin want of affection I do not nee that they deserve to be blamed. The height of a Southern man's ambition in lobe a gentleman in every particular?in word, thought, and deed ; and to be a perfect gentleman, in my opinion, is to be a Christian. And with regard to tbe much-talked-of hospitality of the wealthier classes in the South, I can only say that my own experience ought to make me very eloquent in their praise. Not only doet the genuine feeling exist here, but a Southern gentleman gives such expression to his feeling by his home-like treatment of you, that to he truly hospitable you might imagine had been the principal study of bis life. But the music of a " mellow born" is ringing in my ear, and in an hour from this time I shall have thrown myself into a stage coach, and be on my way up the long and broad volley of Virginia. Thx Namklms Valley, Smith couwtt, (Va.) Just 9, 1848. Since my last letter was written, my course of travel has led me towards the fountain-bead of the Hotston river, whose broad and highly-cultivated valley is boupded on the north west by the Clinch Mountains, awl ou tiie southeast by the Iron Mountains. The tcrienltarol aw* mineral advantages of this valley are manifold, and the towns and farms scattered along the stage-road all present a thriving and agreeable ap pearance. Along the bed of the Holston agates and came liana are found in considerable abundance ; and though the scenery of its valley ia merely beautiful, I know of no dis trict in the world where cave* and caverns are found in such great numbers. A zigzag tour along this valley alone will take the traveller to at least one dozen caves, many of which are said to be remarkably interesting. From my own observa tion, however, I know nothing about them, and so long as I retain my passion for the reve|led productions of nature, I will leave the hidden ones to take care ?f themselves. On reaching the pleasant little village of Abingdon, in Wash ington county, a friend informed me that I must not fail to visit the salt works of Smythe county. I did so, and the fol lowing ia my account of Saltville, which is the proper name for the place in question : Its site was originally a salt lick, to which immense herds of elk, buffalo, and deer were in the habit of resorting; subsequently, the Indians applied this privilege to themselves, and then an occasional hunter came here for his supplies < but tbe regular business of transform ing the water into salt did not commence until the year 1790. Saltville is located at the head of a valley near the base of the Clinch Mountains, and about one mile from the Holston ri ver. All the population of the place, numbering perhaps three hundied inhabitants, arc engaged in the manufacture of salt. The water here is said to 1? the strongest and purest in the world. When tested by a salometer, graded for satu ration at twenty-five degrees, it ranges from twenty to twen ty-two degrees, and twenty gallons of water will yield one bushel of salt, which weighs fifty pounds, (and not fifty-six, as at the North,) and is sold at the rate of twenty cents per bushel, or one dollar and twenty cents per barrel. The wa ter is brought from a depth of two hundred and twenty feet by means of three artesian wells, which keep five furnaces or salt-blocks, of eighty-four kettles each, in conatant employ ment, and produce about two thousand bushels per day. The water is raised by means of borne-power, and twenty-five teama are constantly employed in supplying the furnaces with wood. The salt manufactured here is acknowledged to lie superior in quality to that made on the Kanawha, in this Sute, or at Syracuse, in New York, but the Northern estab lishments are by far the most extensive. The section of coun try supplied from this quarter is chiefly composed of Tennes see and Alabama ; generally rpeaking, there is but one ship ment made during the year, which is in tbe spring, and by means of flat-boats built expressly for tbe pwpooe. A dozen or two of these boats are always ready for business, and when tbe Holston is swollen by a freshet they are loaded and man ned at the earliest possible moment, and away the singing boatmen go down the wild, winding, and narrow but pictu resque stream, to their desired havens. Tbe section of coun try supplied by the Kanawha is the northwest and the ex ? treme south, while Syracuse, Liverpool, and Turk's Ialand aupply the Atlantic seaboard. The Saltville reaervoir of wa ter seems to be inexhaustible, and it is supposed would give active employment to at least a dozen new furnaces. As al ready stated, the yielding walls are somewhat over two hun dred feet deep; but within a stone's throw of these, other wells have been sunk to the depth of four, five, and aix hun dred feet, without obtaining a particle of the valuable liquid. The business of Saltville is carried on by private enterprise altogether, and the principal proprietor and director ia a gen tleman who comes from thaf noble stock which has given to this country auch men as Patrick Henry and William H. Preatoo. I am at present the guest of this gentleman, and therefore refrain from giving his name to the public ; but as his plantation ia decidedly the most beautiful that I have aeen in tbe whole Southern country, I must be permitted to give a particular description for tbe edification of ray readers. This beretofq(e namelesa nook of the great world I have been permitted to designate aa The Sameku Valley, and if I aucceed in merely enumerating its charming featurea and as aociationa, I feci confident that my letter will be read with pleasure. It is the centre of a domain comprising eight thou sand acres of land, which covers a multitude of hilla that are all thrown in ahadow at the sunset hour by the Clinch Moun tains. The valley in queation ia one mile by three-quarters of a mile wide, and compriaes exactly three hundred and thirty-three acree of green meadow land, unbroken by a sin gle fence, but ornamented by about a dozen iaolated trees, composed of at least half a dozen varieties, and the valley is watered by a tiny stream of the clearest water. It ia com pletely aurrounded with cone-like hilla, which are nearly all highly cultivated half way up their sides, but crowned with a diadem of the moat luxuriant fori st trees. A little back of the bills, skirting the wertern side of the valley, are the pictu resquely broken Clinch Mountaina, whose every outline, and cliff, and fissure, and ravine, may be diatinctly aeen from the opposite side of the valley, where tbe spacious and tastefully porticoed mansion of the proprietor ia located. Cluatering immediately around this dwelling, but not so as to interrupt the view, are a number of vary large willows, poplars, and elms, while tbe encloeed elope upon which it stands is cover ed with luxuriant graaa, here and there enlivened by a stack of roses and other flower*. The numerous out-houses of tbe plantation are a little beck of the main building, ami consist of neatly pointed cabina, occupied by the negroes belonging to tbe estate, and numbering about one hundred souls < then come the rtablea, where no leea than aeventy-fivr horsea are daily supplied with food ; then we have a pasture on the hill side, where thirty or forty cowa nightly congregate to be milked, and give suck to their calvea; and then we have a mammoth spring, whose water* iaaoe out of the mountain, making only about a dozen leapa, throwing themselves upon the huge wheel of an old mill, cauaing it to aing a kind of cir cling song from earliest dawn to tbe twilight hour. In look ing to the westward from the epaciooe porticoes of the msn sion, the eye falls upon only two objects which are at all cal culated to destroy the natural eolitudeof the place, viz. a rood which ptoses directly by tbe house at the foot of the lawn, and one email wlvte cottage aituated at the baee of a hill on the oppoeite aide of the valley. Inetead of detracUng from the scene, however, these objects actually make it more in teresting, when the facta are remembered that in that cot tage did the proprietor of thia great e?tate first see the light, and that by ita side are deposited the remains of five genera tions of hi* sncestors; and aa to the road, the people who travel it all appear and move along ju?t exactly aa a poet would desire. But to give my resders a more graphic idea of this truly delightful valley, I will enumerate the living picturea which attracted my attention from the book I was attempting to read on a single afternoon. I was in a commanding corner of the porch, ?nd had closed the volume just as the sun was finking behind the mountain. The #ky was of a soft ailvery hue, and almost cloudless, and the entire landscape was bathed in an exquisitely soft and delightful atmosphere. Not a breeze was stirring in the valley, and the cool shadows of the trees were twice as long as the trees themselves. The first noise tQat broke the silence of the scene was a slow thumping and creaking sound away down the road, and on casting my eyes in the right direction I discovered a large wain, or covered wagon, drawn by seven borate, and driven by a man who amused himself as he lazily moved along, by snapping his whip at the harmless plants by the road-side. I know not whence he came or whither he was going, but twenty minutes must have flown before he passed out of my view. At one time a flood of discord came ti njy ear from one of the huge poplars in the yard, and I could see that there was a terrible dispute going on between a lot of reaident and stranger blackbirds; and, after they had ceased their noise, I could hear the chirping of the swallows, as they swooped after the insects, floating in the aunbeams, far awsy over the green valley. And now I heard t laugh and the sound of talking voices, and lo ! a party of ten negroes, who were re turning from the fields where they had been cutting bay or hoeing com. The neighing and stamping of a *t*c4 at tracted my attention, and I saw a superb blood horse atteropt ing to get away from a negro groom, who was leading him along the road. The mellow tinkling of a bell and the low ing of cattle now came trembling on the air, and presently a hord of cows made their appearance, returning home from the far-off bills with udders brimming full, and kicking up a dust as they lounged along. Now the sun dropped behind the hills, and one solitary night-hawk shot high up into the air, as if he had gone to welcome the evening star, which pre sently made its appearance from ita blue watchtower; and, finally, a dozen women came trooping from the cow-yard into the dairy house, with well-filled milk-pails 011 their heads, and looking like a troop of Egyptic water damsels. And then for one long hour did the spirits of repose and twilight have complete possession of the valley, and no sound fell upon my ear but the hum of insect wings. But I was intending to mention the curiosities of the Name less Valley. Foremost among these I would rank a small cave, on the south side, in which are deposited a curious col lection of human bones. Many of them are very large, while others, which were evidently full-grown, are exceedingly small. Among the female skulls I noticed one of a female thai seemed to be perfectly beautiful, but small enough to have belonged to a child. The most curious specimen, how ever, found in this cave, is the skull of a man. It is entirely without a forehead, very narrow across the eyes, full and re- ' gularly rounded behind, and from the lower part of the ears are two bony projections, nearly two inches in length, which must have presented a truly terrible appearance when covered with flesh. The animal organs of this skull are remarkably full, and it is also greatly deficient in all the intellectual facul ties. Anoth r curiosity in this valley is a bed of plaster, which lies in the immediate vicinity of a bed of slate, with a granite and limestone atrata only a short distance off, the whole conatituting a geological conglomeration that I never heard of before. But what is still more remarkable is the fact that within this plaster bed was found the remains of an unknown animal, which must have been a mammoth indeed. A grinder tooth belonging to this monster I have seen and ex amined. It has a blackish appearance, measures about ten inches in length, weighs four pounds and a half, and was found only three feet from the surface. This tooth, as well as the skull already mentioned, were discovered by the pro prietor of the valley, and, I am glad to learn, are about to bt deposited by him in the National Museum at Washington But another attractive feature in the Nameless Valley cobsisU of a kind of Indian herculaneum, where, deeply imbedded in sand and clay, are the remains of a town, whence have been brought to light a great variety of earthen veeaeis and curious utensils. Upon this spot, also, many shells have been found, which are said never to have been seen excepting on the shore of the Pacific. But all these things should be described by the antiquarian, and 1 only mention them for the purpose of letting the world know that there is literally no end to the wonders of our beautiful land. I did think of aketching a few of the many charming views which present themselves from the hills surrounding the Name less Valley, but I am not exactly in the mood just now, and I will leave them ??in their glory alone.' Connected with a precipice on one of them, however, I have this incident to re late. For an hour or more had I been watching the evolu tions of a superb bald-headed eagle above the valley, when, to my surprise, he suddenly became excited and darted down with intense swiftness towards the summit of the cliff alluded to, and dlaappeared among the trees. A piercing shriek fol lowed this movement, and I anticipated a combat between the eagle and a pair of fish hawks which I knew had a nesl upon the cliff. In less than five minutes after this assault, the eagle again made bis appearance, but uttered not a sound, and, ^ having flown to the opposite aide of the valley, commenced ! performing a circle, in the most graceful manner imaginable. ? resently tbe two hawks also made their appearance high above their rocky home, and proceeded to imitate the move ments of the eagle. At first the two parties seemed to be in ^ different to each other, but on observing them more closely i^ was evident that they were gradually approaching each other, and that their several circles were rapidly lessening. On reaching an elevation of perhaps five thousand feet, they finally interfered with each other, and, having joined issue, a regular battle commenced, and as they ascended the screams of the hawks gradually became inaudible, and in a short time the three royal birds were entirely lost to view in the blue j zenith. Before closing this letter, I wish to inform my readers of a natural curiosity lying between tbe Clinch and Cumberland Mountains, and distant from this place only about a day 's journey. I allude to what is called the Natural Tunnel. It is in Scott county, and consists of a subterranean channel through a ragged limestone hill, tbe entire bed of which is watered by a running stream about twenty feet wide. Tbs cavern is four hundred and fifty feet long, from sixty to eighty feet in height, about seventy in width, and of a serpentine form. On either side of the hill through which this tunnel losses are perpendicular eliffs, some of which are three hun dred feet high and exceedingly picturesque. The gloomy as pact of this tunnel even at midday is very imposing, for when standing near the centre neither of its outlets can be ?wn, and it requires hardly an effort of the fancy for a man t* deem himself forever entombed within the bowels of tbe earth. PmptTtit Roar.*.?A New York correspondent furnishes 1 I "71m Horticulturist " with the following : \ " Many cultivator* of thi.? fine new clue of rose* ' waste its sweetness' by allowing it to carry all its blossoms in the : month of Jnne. Now, to have the perpetual rose fully en joyed, it should not be allowed to bloom at all in the rose sea son. Roses are so common then thst it is not at all prised ; while, blooming from midsummer to November, it is highly priced by all persons. " The way I pursue to grow it in perfection is to pinch out, ss soon as visible, every blossom and bod that appeara at the first crop, say from the middle of May to the middle of June. This reserves all the strength ol the plant for the after bloom : 'and accordingly I have auch dusters of roses in July, Au gust, September, and October as those who have not tried this stopping system can have no idea of. La Rein, Madame l.uflay, Coante de Paris, ami the Ducheea of Sutherland are particularly superb vsrieties under this treatment. Indeed, thrv may be recommended as amonR the best of the perpetual*. " I have adoptrd, with excellent results, Mr. Rivers'* re commendation of giving the roots of well-established roses a good soaking of liquid guano, after they have ahed their leaves, say middle of October. It greatly promotes their luxuriant growth of the next season." During the aeasion of Kent County (Md.) Court last week, Mrs. 8arar Camps kll obtained a verdict of #1,AOO damagrs against Samvil Ribooold, for a breach of promise of marriage. RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. ?? Letter$? from the Hon. R. W, Thompson, No. I. Tehre Haute, Septkmkkh 9, 1848. A proposition will be submitted to Congratw, at ita next session, to construct, by the Federal Government, a central railroad from the Mississippi Valley to the Pacific Ocean. What has been written on this subject is in a form so inac cessible to the general reader that I propose to make aome suggestion* in relation to it, addressed especially to the people of the Wc9. It is hoped that the Presidential election will not whotty absorb the public attention, but that tome portion of it vill be bestowed upon a matter of so much general im portance. It certainly rises very high above the mere strug gles of party, as it is a work which may be carried on, with 01* constitutional objection, under any administration. Foe many centuries the commercial world has been engag ed in searching after an expeditious route to the East Indies. Th? trad* of that fertile country has always attracted attention, and although it has been enjoyed by both ancient and modern oatioQs, is yet unexhausted. Mr. Senator Bepton has said of it: " Nature has made but one Asia, but one country abouniing with the rich productions which are found in the East ladies 4 and while mankind continue to love spices and aroma lies, precious stones, porcelain*, fine cottons, silk*, and teas, the trade with Asia must continue to be sought after as the brightest jewel in the diadem of commerce." The Phanicians and Jews reached India by passing from Tyre through the Mediterranean sea to the coast of Egypt, over land to the Red 8ea, by the Isthmus of Suez, down to the Red Sea, and thence east, by coasting voyages, to the countriea about the Gulf of Pertia and mouths of the river Indus. ? The Persians paased from the borders of Persia through the Caspian Sea, cp the river Oxus, to the mountains which di \ide it from tke river Indus, across those mountaina upon camels, and thence down the Indus to its mouth. After the destruction of Tyre and the foundation of the city of Alexandria, ? new route war opened. It followed the canal of Alexandiia to the Nile, up the Nile to Coptus, thence across the desert with camels to the Red Sea, and thence fol lowing the coact to the mouths of the Indus. In the same age aiother route was discovered over land, acroae the desert from the bottom of this Mediterranean Sea, to the Euphrates, down that river to the Gulf of Persia, and thence by the coast to the mouths of the Indus. After the Romans were shut out from the port of Alexan dria by the Mahomedans, ftill another route was discovered. This route lay through the Black Sea, to the mouth of the liver Phasia ; up that river and by land carriage to the rivet Cyrus ; down that river to the Caspian Sea; across this Sea to the mouth of the river Oxus ; up this river to the present city of Samaresnd ; thence across the mountains to the coun tries upon the river Indus, or eastward, through desert coun tries, to the western piovinces of the Chinese Empire. By the establishment of this latter route, Constantinople became the great emporium of the India trade for many yean. The Venetians and Genoese, who enjoyed this trade, became tic wealthiest people on the globe, a* they also became the first successful navigators ot the sea. Their success attracted tie attention of Northern Europe, and a new route to India was established. It passed from Antwerp and Burgea to Genoa and Venice ; thence to Constantinople; across the Black Sea ; across the Caspian Sea , up the river Oxua to Samarcand ; and from thence, overland, through almoat in terminable deserts, to the western provinces of China. This vas a more tedious and perilous route, yet it threw immense wealth into the lap of Northern Europe. Juat before the close of the fifteenth century the Portuguese doubled the Cape of Good Hope, and thus opened an entirely new route into India. This route made Portugal one of the most powerful nations, and Lisbon the centre of the wealth and commerce of Europe. The successful trade of the Por tugese occaaioned the Dutch to become their rivals, and the superior energy and intelligence of the latter soon enabled them to drive the former almost entirely from the field of com petition. In proportion as they increased their intercourse with India, Holland rose in wealth ami power, and A muter dam.became the first commercial city of Europe. Coming down nearer to our own time, every general reader of history will recollect the long continued struggle which took place between the Dutch and English for the mastery of the seas. England, by her celebrated navigation act, finally succeeded in wresting the carrying trade of the world from the Hollanders, and tbui secured to herself almost an entire monopoly of intercourse with India. I quote again from Mr. Benton, who says : "The Knglith followed the Dutch, and have surpassed all their predrsestors in the successful prosecution of the India trade. A company of tiieir merchants have erected an empire in India, maintained fleets and armies, subjected vast empires, dethroned powerful nionarehs, disposed of kingdoms and prin cipalities ?i other merchants dispose ot" bales of merchandise ; and, with the riches thus derived, England (a spot no larger than one of our States) his been able to contend, tingle-han<l ?d, against the combined Powers of Europe, to triumph over them, and to impress her polity, more or less, ujion every quarter of the globe." The English have never been aatisfied with their route to India; they have made repealed efforts to discover a north western passage. They hay supposed that bv passing above Hudson's Bay they may succeed in getting round the Ameri can continent. They have attempted thia passage by Behring's ftraits, and through Hudson's Bay and Davis'a Straits, but hitherto without success. They have alao sought an inland passage across our continent. With a view to thia, McKen ?e penetrated to north of the head* of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and succeeded in pointing out a water com munication, with a few portages, from Hudaon'a Bay, north latitude 55?, to the Pacific Ocean, in north latitude 46?. It is my certain that this route is much too far north for any practical use, but its importance to England is seen in the fact that the Britiah Fur Company tranaport by it all the fura which they procure in their immense northwestern trade. To Eng land, therefore, and to all the countries of Europe, it is of the utmost importance that a better and more expeditious route than any heretofore known should he discovered. It is un questionably true that the only course for such a routs is di rectly across the American continent, and if such a one can be obtained, it will be impossible to eetimate its value. That it may he obtained is now placed beyond all question. Re cent explorations, although necessarily partial, have removed all doubt from this subject, and the only questions to be con sidered are the time for ita commencement and its eastern and western terminationa. Men of genius and far-reaching sagaciiy long ago antici pated the diacovery of thia route across our continent. Co lumbus was the first to originate the idea of passing westwsrd to India; and it was while in pursuit of thia idea that he dis covered the continent of America. La 8slle believed that an inland pass might be obtained by means of the grest cbsin of nortbsrn l^es and the rivers flowing from them to the Pacific ocean. In 1776 tbe Baron de Carondelet, Governor-Gene ral of Louisiana, planned an expedition to the Pacific from the eources of the Missouri river. He etiered a reward, un der the patronage of the King of Spain, to the person who should first see the Pacific ocean. It was undertaken by a citizen of St. Louis, but was attended with no practical result. After Louisiana iwcame the property of the United Stafea Mr. Jefferson turned his attention towards this great work, and with a view to ascertain its practicability be caused to be fitted out the celebrated expedition under Lewis and Clsrk, which resulted in demonstrsting tbe existence of a water com munication almost the entire distance from the valley of the Mississippi to tbe Pscific. In 1819 Robert Mill*, Esq., then of South Carolina, but now of Waabington, proposed a route trom the head of na vigation of tbe Missouri river, by the Yellow Stone branch, over, through one of tbe passes of the Rocky Mountains, to tLs head of navigation of the Columbia river. In 1844 another was proposed by Capt. Wilkes, of the I'nitM States Navy, by the Missouri river to the Columbis. In 1848 another wss proposrd by Asa Whitney, Esq., from Chicago, by a continuous railroad over to the Columbia river. In 1846 Mr. Mills proposed a second route from the head of steam navigation on the Rio Grande, overland, by Chi huahua, or Rio Concho*, to the navigable waters of tbe Hia gui, emptying into tbe Gulf of California. Tba annexation of Texas, the recent acquisition byt be United State* of New Mexico and California, the organiza tion of a Territorial Government in Oregon, and the increase of American settlements snd trade on the Pacific coast, have turned public attention towards this great enterprise, and that which appeared to be mere speculation, when msde by the gentlemen to whom I have referred, ia now shown to be both practicable and necessary. Every intelligent man will see at once that it is against the interest of tlie United States to car ry on their trade with India by the route around the Cape of Good Hope, The distance to Aaia by that route is thirty thnu*aruf milea, over a most dsngerous sea. From the Paci fic seaboard it is bat tbe sail of a few days. With a rrntral road built acnqpnir continent, from the Atlantic to the Pa cific, wa could, with tbe aid of steamers, pass to any part of the habitable globe in froth thirty to fifty days, and thus se cure to ourselves a large portion of tb? immense and valuable trade of Asia, besides furnishing a direct channel for all the India trade of Europe. In my next I shall endeavpr to show that such a route may he obtained at much leas distance and cost than is usual ly supposed, and that it is entirely within the reach of the Federal Government to build such a road as will accomplish the desired object. I will show, also, that it may be built from the Mississippi valley, so as to benefit almost every part of the Union. Most respectfully, &c. D. 8. Dakaldso*. %R. W. THOMPSON. THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. KUOM THE SEW IOIIK ETEMIXB rO?T OF 3EPTEM HIH 27. We place before our readers a letter from a highly intelli gent American residing in Paris to his friend in this city, which has been obligingly communicated to ui for publica tion. Its views on the immediate future of France are gloomy, and as it appears to us with good reason. For the present, there reigns in France the mist absolute military despotism. All discussion, properly so called, Is suppressed. The Gov ernment makes itself tbe editor of all the newspapers, pre scribing what may app*u in their columns, and what shall be "vcluded. Besides tbi* monopoly the press, it assumes that of political association, and totrratea no owmxn*"~~. ? persons in the form of a society for political objects except that which exercises the powers of the Government. If the maxim be true that the same causes produce the same effects, we may look for an attempt on tbe part of those who endure this oppression to throw it off by violent means. Phy sicians tell us that repelled distempers, driven from the sur face of the body to the internal organs, take more violent and fatal forms; it is so with the freedom of discussion and asso ciation ; and the history of France teaches this truth in the most impressive manner. The measures of repression adopt ed by Charles Xth led to the revolution which dethroned him. Louis Philippe was overthrown by the reaction of his own severities. It will be fortunate if the I rench nation shall submit patiently to the present despotic measures until, as we do not cea? to hope, the ark of its new constitution being launched, they shall be forever withdrawn : Paris, August 15, 1848. Mr Dear Si* : I avail myself of the return of Foresti to the United States to send you a few lines. The recent total discomfiture ol the cause of Italian independence obliges him to abandon bis project of once more seeing his native land. The blow is a rude one to him, and I sincerely trust that the kindness and sympathy which our people have for so many years extended to him, may again be expected to temper the severity of this disappointment, which he feels most deeply. Alas for Italy ! She has but given another example of the evila of internal dissensions where national independence is at stake. Unfortunately her whole history is full of such exam ples. Instead of rising with unanimity first to expel the Aus trians, the Italians have been quarrelling among themselves as t? what their government should be after they had driven them out. This, added to the double-faced conduct of the Grand Duke of Tuscany and of the Pope?call it weaknest, if you chooee?has led the nation into a state worse than it was before the revolution of Milan. Austria apd Austrian influ ence are now triumphant throughout the whole length and breadth of the Italian peninsula. As for France interfering by her arms, I think it is very questionable. If she doe*, she will have the whole load of the contest on her own shoulders < for it is plain that England will go no further in her joint me diation with France than to advirc Austria to give up Lom bardy and fall back to the Adige. France will only interfere by arms at the laat extremity. Thia is avowedly Cavaignac s intention. Such an interference would be a general war, and France now wishes to avoid it if possible. However, for the last few daya mattera are looking much more threatening tban they haVe done for some time. The big fight on the 24th June was not a closing chapter, I can aaswe you. 1 can didly believe that Car more serioua difficulties are ahead. The Government, I am convinced, or taibei should aay, the bourgeoiMic, ia indulging in a dangerous optimum. You must not be astonished if you bear of more bloodshed and vio lence ere long. No one can predict the day nor the hour, but I do not believe them far distsnt. As for tbe position of par ties, I will only say, that Cavsignsc's being able U> sustain himaelf is a very problematical matter. This will appear i strange to you perhsps, yet it is so. Had I the space to do ao in a letter, I would give you some details that I think would satisfy you. Thiers and his friends are driving matter* back wards as fast as they can. As for the republic?hsrdly can one ssy that it exists even in name. Scarcely can I aay *' ft at nontinu umbra" Even the tliadmc of the name will aoon, I fear, depart. Already the light of association and the freedom of the press have disappeared by recent decrees, more severe, more ridiculously repressive tbsn they were, not only under Louis Philippe, but even during the restoration. It is rfue that, in the unenlightened public mind here, where the value of universal suffrage and tbe right of the majority to rule are not appreciated among the people, whose political education is yet to be made, and who, with all their clever theoriea and bright minda, have not yet practically learned theirs/ elementt of a sound political form-book, and in reality do not under stand the meaning of civil liberty?a most unholy and atrange use has been made of tbe abeence of restraint which existed here from February to May ? but this was to be ex|>ected. Tbia liberty was new wine to them and they got diunk with it. It is lamentable, however, to see tbe self-cslled states men of the republic falling into just the same errors aa the monarchical dynasties foil into, snd preferring ridiculous re pression to common-sense prevention. Tbey will not believe here that, after all, the only remedy tor violence is free, unre stricted discussion. Thiers?that little political juggler, that little " Mirabeau-mouehe," as Madame de Gtrardin calls him, (a witty nick-name, by the way t you know a oueau-tnmtche ia a humining-biid)?will be too much for Cavaignac, I fear. Cavaignac ia a pure, honest man, but I fear not eqnal to tbe occasion. The laws and measures of the National Assembly are already bearing their fruita. There never was a time when the thousand and one secret politic-si ?ocietiee were so active. Their ramification extends throughout France. Tbe people and the pre* are muzzled, bat the fire is smouldering beneath. It is pnaaible that tbe anticipated miserv of the coming winter may )>e requisite to make it break forth, but 1 am inclined to think that there will be a fws before then. There is grow ing up in the army also a very bed, or rather dissatisfied spirit. It is every day becoming more apperent- A movement is daily expected in Vienna again. It ia barely possible, however, that it may be deferred. In one word, all Europe is in that stale that immediately precedes a violent paroxysm. I fear more Mood letting Will be the remedy applied. I do not give you a detailed account of what is openly going on : this you will glean from ths papers I only attempt thus hastily to give yon a hint of the state of things that in apparent ?o any one who wishes to,?o a little below the virible bonx>n. or, as lawyers say of the pub* of tbe bench, " the current of living lav that doet not gtt into the bookt." My stsy here is coming to a close, and ita duration is very uncertain I trust to be sble to return for good to the United Slates in the coarse of next month. You see I live in hopes that ere long I ?hali be sble to take you by tbe hand. It will be in the course of a month or two, I trust. As to your Eu lopean tour, I can only say that yoo would not know Psris. It is not the gsy, thoughtless Pans that you once knew. Morally, it has' cbanged entirely. A stranger comiog here for tbe first time would not appreciate this foct, but it would strike you most forcibly. There is a gloom?a dismal look of presentiment? s "pre occupation" apparent on every counte nance yoo meet. Trade and business are paralyied, and the thought which appears visible in the eyes of nine men out of fen you meet is, " *auce qui pent." Nor does hope appear to mitigate tbe present. I know nothing more ssd and unna tural than the sight of a gay-hearted nation forced to be feri out. It does not sit well opon Johnny Crapaud. His vi ssge beers at present the solemn gravity of the monkey, while the rest of his physical system evidently retains its natural propensity to shrugs and entrt chat? t but it is vain. The leaden atmosphere around him bears him down, and one long, heart-bursting, deeponding exclamation of " Mon l>ieu ! Mon Dieu !" appears tbe only solace that is left him. I most certainly would not ad?iee you to come to Europe at present? not that yoa would meet with any thing unpleasant in the way of obstacles to locomotion in those parts that you would probably visit?though how long this will be so I cannot say but, as pleaeure, or at least derrnnui would, I suppose, be your chief motive in coming, I think you would be dissp pointed. A Dow^* Easter's Norton oi Macietb.?" Afier hav ing witnessed the performance, from what I could tmke out ot the play, I don't think Macbeth waa a good mors I charac ter ; and his lady appeared to me to possess a tarnation dicta torial temper, and to have exceedingly loose notions of hos tility, which, together with an unpleasant habit of talking to herself and walking about en chemite, must make her a deci dedly unpleasant companion." COMMUNICATION. ON TRADE TO CHINA?No. I. The advantage* of trade to China have lately been brought to view by the actioq pf the Committee on Naval Affairs, through the great mind of the chairman, who baa prosecuted the investigation with a zeal commendable of ita great impor tance, " by which he haa not only showed the value of the trade to that immenae market," but has clearly pointed out that the Chinese porta can be reached by a short, safe, and certain route, under the entire control of our country ; that is, so aecure that no nation can, with any reasonable prospect of success, compete with us. For this valuable discovery we are indebted to a Southern gentleman, a citizen of Georgia, the Hon. Thoxas Bttlkb Kivo. The value of this discovery will have an effect on the trade of out country which cannot yet be conceived by the people of these United States, who will in time shuw their gratitude to the illustrious projector. The 8outhern interest will share equally in its value, which must and will increase the demand of our valuable national staple cotton, so as to command remunerating prices for a larger product than we have ever had, with a new market for all our agricultural pro duct*, and an impulse to our manufacturing interest surpass ia a very imperfect sketch of the vafue of thia^lacovefy <o W& country. Heretofore our market* for our surplus produce have been the European ports, which have been so glutted that our pro duce ha* but poorly compensated our agriculturists, who were reduced to the necessity of frequently selling at prices proving heavy losses on the shipments, v How common has it been to catch the gleam of a rise in the markets of England or Franee of cotton ; even a brisk demand rus inspired hopes frequently not realized. Europeans by their conduct act as if they were assured we had no other market to go to; that they will and must have the privilege of setting a value on the pro ducts of our soil, and that we are compelled to keep an over stock in their markets ; but this valuable discovery will intro duce our products into a new market, and our new customers will feel it their interest to act more liberally to our trade. The overstock in the European markets will be so divided and les sened as to secure fair prices; we will net be obliged to com bat with large exactions of duties on imposts, nearly or in many instances prohibitory. The only channel of commerce heretofore to the ports of China and in the Chinese seas have been round Capes Horn and Good Hope, a distance of eighteen or twenty thousand miles ; yet imports have paid well. Our ex ports to China have been increasing, so good is the demand. The imports into China in 1844, by this long circuitous route of eighteen to twenty thousand miles each way, requiring six to eight months to complete the voyage, amounted to $6,686,171. In that year we exported to China $1,320,171 Of which there were of cotton fabrics... 660,257 Raw cotton 166,965 Lead $108,495, ginseng $137,560 246,055 The imports from China offered such profits that the ex cess of the shipment* from that country of $5,366,001, or debt, was incurred, which had to be paid in bills on England, to whom the Chinese were indebted. This prove* the value of shipments to China, and may be increased in value, as the shipments on English account will show. In the same year of 1844, viz : Woollen goods $2,899,866 Cotton fabrics, including jams. 4,722,836 The raw cottou from India 6,816,382 Value $14,438,094 The raw cotton is a poor article, inferior to our poorest quality, raised in British India, and can only be made into very coarse goods. In this year England smuggled into China opium to the large sum of $20,000,000 in value; thus her imports to China were increased to $35,929,132, much of which was transported around tbe Cape of Good Hope or Cape Horn. This will in some measure show the value of this trade to our country, situated as we are on middle ground between Europe and China. But the illuauious projector has shown a shorter route by the Isthmus of Darien, viz : From New York to Chagres 2,500 miles. Across the isthmus to Panama 50 " From Panama, overland, to Monterey or the Bay of San Francisco, on the Pacific 3,000 " 5,550 " From Monterey or San Francisco to Shangbae. .5,400 " 10,950 ?? By tbi* route there will be > saving in distance of from fourteen to eighteen thousand miles in a voyage \ oat fifty miles of this distance is overland ill a foreign country. Steam ers of large *ize have been placed on this route to transport the mail* to our ports on the Pacific, in California, and to the mouth of the Columbia river, in Oregon. But to reach this desirable trade, yet another, shorter, and much safer route is proposed by tbe projector, by which we evade the hazard of intruding on foreign soil, which will reduce the distance three thousand miles more, by a railroad from Memphis, in Tennes see, to the Pacific. From Memphis to Monterey, which is on a direct line, is fifteen hundred miles. This, to be sure, will be a great un dertaking ; but, in view of the value of the trade the necessity of having acceaa to our lately-acquired poeaeesions of Santa Fe, a rich mining country, and near the line of Mexico, where we muet necessarily have ftstions of troops, to the Pacific ; tbe great value of property of our citixens in whaling en terprise, now not less than four hundred vessels, valued at more lhan twenty-five trillions of dollars, with almost a mo nopoly of trade to perhaps more lhan five hundred millions ol people, the completion of this railroad, although so long, would be quite probable and practicable to a great and wealthy nation, who it is said have seven hundred and thirty-sis vessels employed in the Pscific, with those in the Chinese trade, re quiring 34,560 officers snd seamen, needing tbe protection of their country. Hhangh?e is a port in China of immense trade, near which tbe most of the teas and silks are produced, from which port the teas have heretofore been shipped, in Chinese junks, six hundred miles to Cantoo, where the teas have usually been sold at an advance of twenty per cent, on the cost at 8hang bae, which is in a direct line with Memphis and Monterey on the Pacific; from which port of Shsngbae, in 1844, 20,000 bales of raw silk, of from 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 pounds, were shipped ; also, silk goods, quicksilver, China-ware, die. By this route by railroad, via Memphis, it is confidently as serted, by a moderate rate of speed of steamer* from Shang hae, 5,400 miles to Monterey, and 1,500 by railroad to Mem phis, goods from 8hangbae could be laid down in New York in twenty days only, and by our Atlantic steamers in twelve days more in England. This would truly astonish tbe civilised world?to bring China within thirty-two days of Liverpool, which now requires a voyage of more than four months each way, accomplished by a railroad from Memphis to the Pacific, of only fifteen hun dred miles. The question is, will it ever be accomplishtti ' OPITHLOCO. Wm. A. Ltintsoonrr, lately U. 8. Vice Consul st *an Francisco, California, died there on the 18th of May, after a nhort illness. Capt. LeuWdorfl" waa a Dane by birth, but was formerly well known aa a sea captain in the ports of New Orleans and New York. He was much esteemed in Cali fornia, and every demonstration of respect to bis memory waa made by the teaidents of San Francisco. In the Court of Oyer and Terminer of New York, on Sa turday, Thomaa Hayea, convicted of murder, (killing hie wife,) and Jacob Haifler, convicted of manslaughter in the second degree, (lulling Patrick Cogan,) were put to the bar. Tbe Court sentenced Hayes to be hung on the 17th Novem ber. Jacob Haifler was sentenced to the State prison at Sinfc Sing for seven years.