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??Liberty aiu* l/ulou, now and torever, one and Inseparable." i'CESDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1848? NOTES ON EUROPEAN AFFAIRS. ? Resuming our commentary upon the present as. pect of I ransatlantic politics, we have next to take up those of Italy?a country which but a little while ago gave the brightest hopes of national regenera tion, but where those hopes seem already perishing, almost as soon as they have blossomed, destined, we fear, only to add one more to the many past ex amples of how difficult a thing, how beset with un discovered causes of failure, is that most precious of public attainments, political freedom, which, hard as it is to get, is yet harder to keep ; and well, in deed, as the very highest result of virtue to men in society, may it be so. Forbidden alike to the tur bulent and the slothful, to the ambitious and the inert, power seems as often fatal to it as weakness ; for strength tempts it to attack, and no attack upon it, even where weakest, is half so dangerous to it as have ever been its own attempts against the in dependence of others. Born to nations in their sim plicity, it seems ever to fly from their far-advanced refinement; the child of their poverty, it hastens (unlike mortal offspring) to desert them in their opu lence, as il that were blessing enough without i'.; and yet, wayward thing that it is, nothing so fit to promote that eminence of a people with which it loves not to be found associated ; mother of the arts and ol the diffused conveniences of life, it scorns the softness and the selfishness which they induce ; parent of population, it cannot abide the excess which it begets : it cherishes equality, which destroys it; it is the nurse of glory, which supplants and ruins it: nothing so robust in the seeming adversity of a brave community, and it sickens and dies with their highest prosperity. For most races of men, no wisdom, no science, no imitative longing can cre ate it, but only, in its stead, the .forfeiture of those forms of government proper to their temper ami circumstances ; to some other races it appears na tive, an instinct, and a necessity rather than a pru dence ; and yet these, too, hold it by some gift of situation, not of nature, lose it through the very effort to exalt, and, like soils cropped too long jvith the same harvest, will never bear it again until re newed by growing for ages men of another siock. Indeed we might almost say that Political Freedom is, in this respect, to nations what certain diseases are to the human race : there are amazingly few in stances of their ever having it a second time. Italy anil Greece are striking examples of the truth which we have just laid down ; France and Spain equally striking ones of the vainness of all attempts artificially to create lor a people freedom under institutions not native to their soil?a Greek or a Roman or an American freedom, for men that have not a habit nor an idea in common with what they would imitate. As well expect to make all i* ranee speak Greek, by suddenly putting her po pulation into the Hellenic costume, as imagine that clothing her with this Constitution or that Consti tution could alter her identity. It is easy to alter for a country its apparent, but hard to change its real forms of government; for the people will re main the same, and the Government, give it what theoretic shape you please, ever take much the same powers; those powers, that is to say, which the accustomed spirit, the particular genius of socie ty, permits to be exercised. But it is of Italy and her regeneration that we are to speak : so let us proceed. W e need hardly say that the old dream of that regeneration is her union under a single head, as tiie only means of accumulating within her a strength sufficient for ridding her of Austrian domination. This has been for centuries the favorite vision of her greatest spirits, from Machiavelli and Filicaia down to Alfieri. And yet it is easy to see that the impediments to a unity, so long the common wish of all Italy, must be strong, or else it would manv a day since haw been brought about. It is a coun try broken by Nature into a number of separate regions, each fit only for the seat of a small inde- j pendent Slate. In this it resembles the second little-compact peninsula of Europe, Greece; and, accordingly, neither of these countries has ever ar rived at a condition of unity, except when forming a part of a great empire.* Community of tongue is the only cause of union that might melt them into one people: but the experience of above two thou sand five hundred years abundantly proves that adverse causes more powerful exist. But with these hindrances,permanent because physical, others concur, the work of human arrangement or of hu- ! man character, which forbid this long-expected union of Italy : firtf, the clerico-political power of 1 the Papacy, which always has been, and must be an insuperable bar to the political unity in question ; j the I apal power cannot, from its peculiar relation to foreign States, coalesce, as subordinate, with any j such general Italian sovereignty, whether that of a single supreme State or of a Confederacy ; and the I same theocratical character forbids Italy to adopt j the Papal sovereignty as its head : secondly, Tus- ; cany, a country blessed with a mild government and a population eminently industrious, well-order ed, and comfortable, would be mad if she mixed her fate with that of Southern Italy, a region utterlv different in its social character and political capaci ties : thirdly, iC she btherwise could, the Papal States interpjsed render it impossible: fourthly, the Kingdom of Naples (the Two Sicilies)?filled with sloih and sensuality?her upper classes plung ed in effeminacy, her lower in voluntary beggary those content if they have but n?isic, and these if they can get maccaroni?possesses, of all the countries in the civilized world, perhaps the people least ca pable of the virtues upon which public freedom can be erected : fifthly, were all this otherwise, she is now multiplying t|ie disunion, instead of assisting t e unity of Italy; her two main parts, Sicilv pro per and the mainland, are contending, this for mas tery and that for independence, in a war signalized by mutual atrocities which must plant between them a perpetual popular hate. Without consider ing. then, Sardinia and Lombardy?whose utmost conception of feasible liberty we take to be hate of the Austrians, the old popular Italian feeling of the Guelf party against the Ghibeline?we can discover no sufficient Italian elements, firtt, of such unity as might achieve for her independence, and, ?tcondly, when that was accomplished, give her good and ? We mean, of couric, the Macedonian, the Roman, and the French. free government. For, we repeat, aieh as the peo ple, Buch, by an Inevitable law, wll and must be the Government. The ignorance <f this great and just truth is the capital error of hat whole mass and multitude of errors that forms he mod?m theo ry of Freedom, the system of viobnt Revolution ; which supposes the faults or crime of a Govern ment (no matter how indigenous o<old and settled) to be purely its own, in no manna to axprcss the vices of its people, and thus always meriting and capable to be cured by a subversim ; which sub version, after all, seldom effects aty tiling but the substitution of some other form of the same social defects for that shape of mischief which seems to ! have been overthrown. Take Fraice for an exam ple : her people had, from the tine of Louis XI, beeu allowing themselves to be Ired to the endu rance of a despotic sway and to thelove of Military Glory: the ruler who gratified Ueir passion for the one might always indulge his o*n for the other: the two are natural and inevitable companions for each other, in the Prince (or Presilent) and his peo ple. Well, the form of the Govenment was totally changed by the Revolution ol 1T89: every thing of organized was overturned?tie throne which had tyrannized, the nobles who lad led, the priest hood which had beguiled the naton. It set up to have no master but its own will: equality became the sole supremacy, the people he only sovereign. Were they freer than before Not an atom. Of power, they retained the old idea. Held over them, they had always suffered it to be arbitrary ; held by them, they had, ol course, still less the willingness to limit it. They gave a loose to pub lic enormities far bloodier and more fatal than the preceding o.ies of their monarchs?to passions more brutal and blind, which made the mine and the au thority of the sovereign people ol France morede testabltf than that of Mary de Medici for cold blootted cruelty, of Charles IX. )or the fanatic.il butchery of his subjects, or of the Regent ol Or leans for his depravities. They, iu short, more ihan re-enacted all the worst crimes that they iiad ever before permitted their Kings to commit; and i this most naturally: for slaves and tyrants are made of just the same stuff; and the people that has long bowed its neck to bad masters will be an exceedingly bad master in its turn. Not loiifr, [however, did the French people remain their own masters: they who have never learnt to govern themselves soon firtd always some one that will govern them. In this case, it was at first popular favorites, horrible demagogues, who, by every flat tery of the popular passions, captivated the multi tude's wild will, and led it as they listed, by pre tending an unbounded devotion to its furies or fol lies, no matter what. These were the first mas ters ; terrible ones ; but in the people's name, and by fraud, which, amidst, the reign of public pas sions against preceding authorities and institutions, always easily governs, until those passions exhaust themselves in civil commotions. Such commotions always ensue, from the reign of contending dema gogues and their factions. Then follows an ap peal to arms ; and the frauds of mere demagogues are swept away by the force of a superior order of men?able soldiers, who vanquish all their rivals, possess themselves of the terror of arms anil the popularity of enforcing that public order for which all have now begun once more to sigh, and seize under some new name upon all or more than all the old powers of sovereignty. Such was the history of the French Revolution down to the fall cf Na poleon; whose whole career exhibits the Gaul ever, in spite of every outward change of laws, orders, and even property, the same in his social instincts, in all that genius which determines what a people's government shall be, let its name or theory be what you like. For a Government is not what Kings can impose or what Conventions have planned ; but what the sense and virtue of the citizens enforces. All this may be traced down to the present day in France. She may pull down Kings and set up Commonwealths as she likes: but the monarch, while he does reign, must be a despot, and the Commonwealth presently has to take a dictator. We say, then, with little hesitation, that Italy cannot combine the force, nor command the j?olicy, nor muster the men that can emancipate her vari ous regions, and reform her into that freedom which the fond credulity of those who love her arid ail liberty?ourselves included*?but lately for a while expected. The several Governments are too di verse?too unlike in spirit, policy, situation, and peo ple?for a confederacy, and, of course, not homo geneous enough for any thing else. For wild at tempts at Democracy, subversion of all established order?a thing requiring no virtue nor counsel? she has material; but none for a real permanent Republicanism. What could the degenerate Ro man, the robber Calabrian, the sybarite Sicilian, the Neapolitan iazzarone, do with a Republic ? What the long-oppressed Ijombard, or the soft Venetian ? Sunk in effeminacy, where, in the land of the dolct far nienfe, of the supreme delight of indolence, is to rise up that heroism which must liberate, that \ austerity which can fix a country into the stern and rigid forms of a true Commonwealth ? It cannot be. We resign the unthinking hope which for a mo ment we entertained : we resigneJ it from thp in stant we saw the Aiistrians beginning to recover their ground, and hardly a fresh Italian arm extend ed to aid the cause of Italy. Her people have courage enough for plots and insurrections, but not for the battle-field. Let her make terms, then, and extort from the alarm of her masters such amelio rations and privileges as may gradually break her old habits of slavery. But as for liberty, republi canism, let her not think of it again until she has thrown off her true tyrants, vice, voluptuousness, sloth, and self-indulgence. She must cease to be A l#nd of ?ing ng and of dancing alavc*. I.o*?-whispering woo>la and lutr-rcsoundm? wa?e?, hefore she can take the temper that tames Kings, and, Kings or not. keeps nations free. We are gratified to learn from the Oswego Times that Mr. Dvkr " yields to the urgent request press ed upon him from every part of the district, and ac cepts the nomination of the Convention." Mr. Dcer has been a faithful member of Congress. No con stituency in the State have had their interests more ably represented. But Mr. Due* is not tho Repre sentative of his own district merely. His master niind embraces the whole Union : and his eloquent voice has been heard upon all the great questions whicfi have agitated the country during the late ex citing and protracted session of Congress. Of his election there can be no doubt. But it should be rendered certain. When such men consent to serve their country in its councils, they should be sustain ed in a manner indicative of the public appreciation of their worth.?Albany Evening Journal. THE TRUMPET CALL! We do not know how more appropriately than by this caption to introduce to our readers the fal lowing well-timed and stirring Appeal to the Wmus ok the United States, by the Editors of, the New York Express, themselves among the most active in the front rank of our political friends: ? The Whioh OF THE United States are now 4 so well aroused, and we may add now so well ? united, that it seems hardly necessary to roll the 4 drum any longer; but action and concord, though 4 indispensably necessary lor success, are yet not 4 half enough of what is wanted. Action must be 4 turned to useful account. There must i?e energy. 4 enthusiasm, watchfulness, and, above all, organi 4 zation. Is the Whig party every where organiz 4 ed ? That is the question. 4 No' is the answer. 4 we venture to say, in most quarters; but 4 no 4 must.be the answer no longer; for where there 4 is no organization there is no certainty of success. 4 liegidars are as important in politics as in war ; 4 and discipline is as nccessary for success at the 4 ballot-box as in the field. Orations, addresses, 4 resolutions, speeches, <fcc. are all important ;, but 4 not much more important than the baud of music 4 in an army. The bugle inspires, the fife arouses, 4 the drum wakes up ; the band then makes even 4 cowards brave, but it is the silent host moving 4 shoulder to shoulder, step by stAto* that does the 4 work. Orations, &c. are thus all well enough, 4 nay, very necessary, but the tiue captain, in a 4 coining great day, must know his men, and where 4 to find them. Organization and discipline ensure 4 him success, no matter what the host arrayed 4 against him. He couuts three, who adds two 4 votes to his own. 44 We apprehend that the business classes of so 4 ciety are not yet sufficiently awake to the way in 4 which this election touches their interests. We 4 fear they do not yet sufficiently portray the dan 4 gcrs involved in the election of Cass and con 4 quest. One war, unprofitable enough, we have 4 .had under the demagogue Polk. How many we 4 may have under the spirit which would elect 4 Cass, who can foresee or foretell? We think 4 that merchants, traders, and farmers are not yet 4 wide awake enough to the importance of opening 4 the way of our great Western lakes and rivers 4 for all the outlets and inlets of commerce. They 4 do not remember always that Polk has stopped 4 all Internal Improvements by the Federal Govern 4 ment in the face of all the precedents of preced 4 ing Presidents, and that Cass is pledged to follow 4 in his footsteps. They may just now, here in 4 New York, under a severe pressure in the money 4 market, ponder enough upon the mischiefs, cor ? ruptions, and perils of the Subtreasury act, but 4 do they think enough of the dangers of excessive 4 importations ? Do they see how the manufacture 4 ing interests are depressed ? Are they aware of 4 the consequences of buying from Europe more * than Europe will take from us ? These are all 4 great busiuess questions fur business men to set 4 tie : and in less than a month the policy of the 4 Government is to be fixed for four years, and it 4 may be for twenty. 44 Energy, organization, and reflection be then 4 the watchword of Whigs hence til! the election 4 daij is over. The time is shout, and the work 4 MUST BE RAPID." There will not be any three days' election in Virginia the present year. According to an opin ion of the Attorney General, which has met with no opposition, so far as we learn, the election for Electors to vote for President and Vice President of the United States must, according to the act of Congress, be held upon the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, (7th November, 1848,) and upon that day only. Therefore take notice, and, rain or shine, go to the polls. Mr. Corcoran has completed his negotiations in England and France, and has written that he will re turn in the steamer of the 30th September. His arrangements are for the sale of S3,750,000 of the new United States Loan, and for borrowing $2,000,000 more oil the security of deposites ol the stock. The purchasers are Messrs. Baring Broth ers, Messrs. Ovcrend, Gurney 4' Messrs. Denistoun 4* Co., and as many others in London, and Messrs. Jlotlingucr, of Paris. It is understood i that these houses do not intend to retain much of this stock themselves or to put it into market, but to trausfer it to various other parties whom they represent for permanent investment. [ New York Journal of Commerce. Massachusetts.?The Hon. James H. Duncan has been nominated for Congress by the Whigs of the third district of Massachusetts. Mr. Duncan was the Whig elector of the .district, but resigned i that trust when he received the Congressional no mination, and the Convention nominated in his place Hon. Daniel Adams. Mr. Hormxs, who was nominated by the Van Buren Convention of the mxtb diat/ict to run against Mr. Ashmi* for Congress, positively dec limnl the acceptance of the nomi nation. Charles P. Hf*n>0T0* was then nominated He aUo decliued. Dabibl W. Alyoup wa? next nominat ed- He was not present. Whether he will c >naent to lead the forlorn hope of Van Burenism remain* to be teen. Mr. Van Burkn, in his letter to the Barnburners* ! Convention at Utica, June 20, 1848, said: 441 do, therefore, unhesitatingly approve the course you propose to pursue, in withholding your votes fromttov. (.'**, and shall do so myself. If no other cnndhlutes than teosb now airoar. tiu: cocxtet aiie prbskxtsp, I ahull vote for l'renidenl." Hon. John P. Hale was at this time the regu larly nominated candidate of the Liberty party for ( President, and the refusal of Van Buren to vote for him indicates the strength of his attachment to that party.?Aew Hampshire Eagle. Nobtii Cabouea.?Hon. HbbiWidmu, Whig Sena tor elect from Orange county to the I<egi?liture, has resigned his seat. Mr. Sleet, the Democratic opponent of Mr. W., had the same number of votes, but the HheritT voted for the Ifctler, and furnished him wiih a certificate. In consequence of this Mr. Waddrll ivwgnrd, and a new election takes place oil the 7th of November. Washisotow aivh Baltimore Railboad.?-By the Re port of the President and Directors, just published, it appear* that the gross inoome from the Washington road, for the year ending 30th September, 1848, has been #255,161 73; the total expenditure properly chargeable thereto f 143,524 #2, | and the nett revenue $111,639 76 ; showing an increase over the preceding year of f.16,746 42 in the gross income, fl4,7l4 22 in the expenditure, and $22,032 20 in the pett j revenue. I Naval. A Boai-d lor the examination of Engineers in I the Navy for promotion, an J of candidates for admission into the Engineer Corps, is now in session at the Navy Yard at Portsmouth. Memlxwsof the Board s Engineer in-chief Ck as. H. Hasw?ll, President, and Chief Engineers William F. Williamson and William Howell, Jr.?Chronicle. The Hon. P*t?h C. Banoic* fart week sent hia check for one hundred dollar* to the committee on the monument which ha* been roccntly erected in West Cambridge, (Mass.) by the voluntary aobscriptinns of the inhabitant* of that town over the common grave of twelve patriota of the Revolution, who were there shun by 'he British troops on their precipi tate retreat from Concord ?nd Lexington on the memorable I9tu of April, 1775, to be *ppr?priatcd to the rorople'.intf and ornamenting of the same. THE CONSPIRACY AGAINST PEACE. We copy the subjoined part of an article, pub lished in the New Orleans Delta of the 30th uliimo, to show how coolly tjte conspirators against the dominion of Mexico in the territories over which she is unquestionably sovereign?against the faith of a recent treaty of amily cemented by the blood of both Nations, and whith cannot be broken with out a crime against Heaven and against Humanity and against the Peace and Dignity of their own country, can descant upon their atrocious projects, and under what pretences they would cover them. FROM TIIK KKW ORLEANS 1IAILT DELTA. When (ieneral Shields assumed the government of Tampico, the Mexicans became so enamored ol our institutions and our administration ol justice, and so disgusted with the old rule, by which their trade an'l interests, as well as their freedom and right*, had been bO long oppressed, that they expressed to the General their desire to throw oil" the Mexican yoke, general Shields, lieiiig called off to join Genenl Scott's army, had no time to art upon their propositions; but whjn Col. Gates assumed the government of Tampico, the fame propoxaU, emanating fir.m the first citizens of Tampico, were made to him through Col. DeRlhst, of the Louisiana volunteers These praporaU were acquiesced in and sanctioned by tho officers ol the State Government# of Tiimau'ipas and Nuevo Lejn, as well as by many wealthy citizens of Coahutlu. They proposed to declare themselves independent of Mexico, to as sume their |torti >n ol the indemnity to be paid to 'he United Mates, and to make no objection to the retention of the coun try by the American authorities until the war was closed, when they would resume their independence. Theso are facts which can be easily disproveJ if they never occurred. Col. Gates discounted thue propositions, and the Mil ter tvus dropped for a while. After tho battles in the \ alley, and the capture of Mexico, Gen. Shi ells was assigned to the command at Tampico. His arrival there was fixed upon as the signal for the blow which was to be struck for indepen dence. Unfortunately the Pillow trial recalled him to the North just as ho had landed here, en route for Tampico. The design, however, was not relinquished, but grow, in strength as the time for the evacua'ion of the country bv our army ap proached, and when our trnts were struck, and our troops matched to the mole, the citizens followed them with tears and the most sorrowful expressions, trusting soon to see them back and greet them as brothers. Our officer# and citizens wcro assured by the most influen tial people in Tampico and the adjoining towns and villages that the first favorable opportunity would be seized on to de clare their independence, arid when this was done, they should open wide their arms to emigrant# from the I, nited States, by whose enterprise and industry they hoped to redeem their country from waste and devastation, and ma?e it great and prosperous. Throughout the war, and since peace was de clared, a correspondence was kept up between conspicuous citizens in Mexico and this country relative to the plan of operations. That plan was based, as a condition precedent, upon a dis tinct pronunciamiento, or declaration of independence by the citizens of the Northern States of Mexico. No movement was to be made, or will 1* made here, until the people them selves shall first throw off the Mexican Government and solicit the aid and co-oporntion of our citizens. When that is done, and guaranties of citizenship, grants of land, and lull protec tion arc secured, an immense number of our people wili tlock to the rich valley oi the Sierra Madre. A large number, not le?s than a hundred, of officers, who participated in the glorirs of tho Mexican war, of all grade*, Irom the highest to the lowest, and many of them of great dis tinction, have tendered their services lor any enterprise having in view the establishment of a new republic on the other side of the Rio Grande. Persons, too, of Urge capital have offer ed to advance funds to carry out the enterprise upon security of the public domain, and not less than five thousand men are enrolled und read) to proceed at a moment's warning. The traders in this movement are not men of that reckless and fool-hardy character to engage in any expedition which does not give rtrong assurances of its practicability. Nor will they sanction or co-operate in any movement of an unlawful cha racter. The absurd clause in the Tnst treaty which obligates the United States to protect Mexico in her boundaries as they existed at the lime the trea'y was signed, is so clearly uncon stitutional thai we fori ce.tain that no attempt will ever be made to carry it into eflect. The Mexicans, who are intimi dated by that clause, need not apprehend any interference on the pari of the United Slates against any attempt that they [by the aid, oi course, of officers, men, and money furnished from the United Siatea.?A5rf. Intell) may make to achieve their independence. It would be u striking illustration of the absurdity ol this stipulation in Mr. Trirt s trea'y, if the United States should be called on by Mexico to aid her in suppressing a revolution of her ciUzens. The character of the per sons eng .je'J in this enterprise should protect it from the ca lumuies of those who are continually denouncing the in as free booters, land pirates, &c. They are men whose ambition it is to impr xe their fortunei and adrance their petition by honorable, bighminded mean*. They desire ?o associate their names icith a and scheme for the amelioration of the condi tion of their fellow-men, and the advancement of civilization, of commerce, and the arts; they a.e men who hold thst in the proposition of American institutions and ideas lies the true secret of Mexico's redemption and elevation to that position among he nations of the world which her great national re 8 ttrcen' would enable her to iniin.iin. Foe California.?Lieut. CoL Faemust and thirty-five young anJ athletic men left St. Louis on the 3d instant, on board the steamer Martha, en route for California. They dtsemhmk at West pott, where the largest portion of their baggage, mules, hor.es, Ac. are in readiness, and from thence proceed across the plains, by what is known as the Southern or Cimarone route, taking in their course the most densely populated and fertile regions ol New Mexico. The otyect of this expedition, we believe, is not generally known, but that m<t*t currently reported is the completion of the colo nel's recent surveys and researih?s in that wild and far-off region. His lady acompanies him as far c? W e?tport, at which place he is to be joined by the celebrateJ Santa Fe and Western traveller^ Kit Cabso*.? St. Louis Republican. The deciaion of Chancellor Walworth in the case of Hoyt vs. Macken/ o, Taylor, and others, we learn is to he published in the lorthcoming number of the New \ ork Legal Observer. Mackenzie, our readers are awsre, was the publisher of the famous Life of Martin Van lluren, Jesse Hoyt, and other magnates of the LocofocJ party, which created so great a sensation when published al?out three year* I since. Application was made to tho \ ice t.nanccllor, .>y the I party offended, for an injunction upon the publication of the work, and it was gr?Ote4 From ibis decision, however, the defendants appeaie.l to the Chancellor, who has reversed the order of appeal and dissolved the injunction. The editor of the " Legal Obeener," in a note, or summing up, ra'her, ol the Chancellor's opinun, say#: ??At common law, the author of a book or other literary production, whether in the sbapeof letters or otherwise, has a right of property then in until it has Wen published with his assent, and he mav, con.^equently, maintain an ac.ton the damage* whi h he may sustain by ita being surreptitiously printed. But a court of equity will not, by injunction, re train the publication of letter*, where it appear* that they are of no value to tbe author of literary production*, and t .at the ' multiplication of copies thereof would be of no use to him. " Letters cannot lie considered valuable a* literary produc tions which the author would not consent to ha*e pub i'hed. ?< Although it may t>e evident that the publication ol p. ivate letters may be with a view of wounding the feelings of indi viduals or of gratifying a perverted public taste. a court of equity ha* no juiisdiC'ion to rvtrain such publication. ??A court of equity has no power to restrain cr punish | crime, or to cnforce the performance of moral duty, except so far as the same is connected with the rights of property. The decision of the Vice Chancellor in the case of Wetinore vs. Seovel (3 Edwards, 61*) approved of." Tbe Bridgeport Standard says that the New \ ork and New Haven Road will be opened to New Haven on tbe lGth instant, tod the traini of the Canal Road will run through to Bridgeport. By the 1st of November the road will be open to Stamfonl, and on the 4th of December it will 1? in running order between New Haven and New Vork. BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. Baltimore, Oct. 10, The stockholder* of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad held their annual meeting yesterday morning, for tho purpose of receiving the annual report of the President and Director*, and to elect twelve Director* on the ,.ait of the private stock holders for the ensuing year. Those constituting the Board for the past year were re-elected without opposition, except that Akdbew Gregg was chosen iu the place of William H. Marriott. The President's report shows that the <?ross revenue of the Company in the past year has been ,213,t>G4.f?7, being an increase of i 111,727.09 over the gross receipts of the previous year, und that the nett re\enue ha> exceeded that of the year ending on tho 30th September, 1847, by $40,450.47. These sums will,show the immense trade of the road, and of the gra tifying increase of business which it Las performed in the past year. The nett revenue of the Company for the year ending on the 30:h September, 1818, is stated in the report to be ,551,558.07, a sum equal to about eight per cent, on the whole capital of the Company. For the reasons, however, which are stated ip detail in the repor', no dividend is declar ed in money, but a dividend in the stock of toe Company is authorized to be made to each stockholder, thus increasing the capital stock of the Company to the amount of the dividend. The statements of the leport, on this and other subjects of interest to the stockholders and the public, are full and clear, and will indicate what may be expected when the road is com pleted to the Ohio. As heretofore announced, Mr. McLixc closcd his labors as President of the Company yesterday, and retires from that office. The duty of electing a successor devolves ort the Board of Di rectors, which will no doubt be performed at an early day. At a stated meeting of the Board of Directors, held at the Company's office on'the 11th instant, Thomas Swajix, Esq., of Baltimore, was unanimously elected President of the Balti more and Ohio Railroad Company, to succeed the Hon. Lot is McLahb. LIBERIA. The following letter will be interesting to all the friends of Colonization and the infant republic of Liberia, as indicating the success of President Ro berts in procuring from Lord Palmerstox the pro mise of immediate recognition of the new State: Lennox, Septemhkr 6, 1848. Mr DF.in Fkh.su: I atn rej >iccd to say that President Roberts has had an interview with Lord Palroerston, in som pany with Dr. HoJgkin, who says there shall be no hesitation in acknowledging the sovereignty and independence o.f the Republic cf Liberia. He says Mr. Roberta need not stop here. ; let him go to Paris, Brussels, and Frankfort, and make ar rangements to get his country acknowledged by f rmice, Bel gium, and Germany ; and when he comes back to London he will find all things arranged for him here. Lord P. told Mr. R. th^ he would immediately apply to the Beard of Trade to make up a draft of a treaty of alliance and commerce, and if he has occasion to communicate with him he will addresj him through Dr. HoJ&kin. Nothing could exceed the courtcsy and kindne s of his lordship, who appeared perfectly familiar with Liberia, its origin, progress, and present condition. He appeal* to apprec:a'e it duly, and manifested great desire to promote iU prosjierity. Commo dore Hotham, the British commander of the African Coast Squadron, ha* written very fully and very favorably of Libe ria to the Government, and Lord P. has acquired his informa tion from this and other sources. 8o you see there is a pro bability of this new republic being acknowledged by Ureat Bri tain long before it will be by our Government, which is very discreditable to us. France, Belgium, and Germany will no doubt imitate Great Britain. Ever yours, most faithfully, GERARD RALSTON. Elliott Cressox, E*q. The Twenty-first Annual Fair of the Ame rican Institute commenced on Tuesday at Castle Garden, New York. The opening address was delivered by the Rev. Dr. J. O. j Cuoi'les, of .Newport, Rhode Island. He commenced by congratulating himself and the audience that the Institute bad | at length arrived at the years ot maturity?at manhood?this was iU twenty-first anniversary ; and it must gladden the hear s of i those who bad struggled with it at the commencement to see the strength to which it had sttained ? and every American present must congratulate themselves upon their birthright | when they looked around and saw the evidences of their coun try's glory?the result of the jeople's labor?fcnd not, as in i Europe, the result of great wealth concentrated in few hand*. He illustrated the distinction between Ats and the olJ wot Id by showing how that in Rome every great work or build.ng which attracted the attention of ohaerters was referred to '? Augustus and in England, the grand cathedrals, abbeys, and monasteries, were referred to a dutinct class, the clergy while here, all sprung from th* |>eop!e?the mas*, i He cornered the ditlerent state of New Vork now to what ii was twenty-five years ago?the advances which had beer made in eveiy direction?ar.d com me/1 ted with severity upor the ridiculous sight of a mau inheriting wealth, the result ol a parent'a daily labor, being cthamed to work. He tnlargeii upon the dignity of labor, and the exploded lallacy that col leges were only fit to turn cut lawyers and doctors ; they were needed to educate mechanics, architects, merchants, manufacturers, farmers, to leach them to fulfil their destiny. Education must ever accompany liberty, or liberty could not exist, for it was the agie of our federative existence. The great service which had been rendered by the Ins ituts was to have ahown the intimate connexion of commerce, ma nufactures, and agriculture?to have shown that the true ' strength of this country did not consist in wealth, but in its physical strength, its internal resources, snJ the happiness ol its people. This was the world of progress. Here there wai little to pull down preparatory to building up. He enlarged upon iu being the tru ? policy no* to bring here the manufac | tures, but the rtanufacturcn of Europe, and that we oughi now to emulate the examples of our father-?their frugality and simplicity?their cheerful self denial. He did not doubt that were tbey to return upon esr'h they wou>d encou'ag? ' dome?tic manufactures by the non-consumption of foreign. He raised a warning voice again?t the prevalent social vices, fashion and luxury. And, nfter passing a eulogiutn on th? i Institute, he spoke of the necessity ol the erection of a build ing suited for it in this great city, and concluded by a tribute of rraise to the President, Gen. Tallmaho*. f y. Y. Courier. Pmiosiso T?f Naws.?We leern from a paragraph in I the Boston Earning TravtUer that, under instructions from the director* of the Cunard steamers. Captain Harrison, of the Cambria, fothade the agent of some enterprising Yankee in Boston, who has made several very successful attempts to ? procure the f.weign ne??* iu advance ol the ateamer'S arrival, j from bringing on board, at Halifax, what was discovered io be a box o! pigeons, which be su?pected were to be u?ed foi this purpose. Notwithstanding the precaution, we are in formed that the Cambria's news was actually received in New York considerably in advance ol the Cambria's arrival at her wharf at East Boston, and msde part of the despatch publish ed in the extras, though we are not informed that it was re ceded through this medium.?& Y. Tribune. B?mki*g Ststxm im Illikoi*.?The Legi-lature of Illi nois that is to convene during the approaching December will be the first since ihe adoption of the new constitution, under whose provisions the banking prohibition that existed under the old is abolished. The new Legislature baa ur.Jcr its con trol the entire banking question, with the isolated restriction that no banks are to go into operation until the law under which they are created shall be submitted to, and approved by, a direct vote of the | eople. Mr. Chshlih Wiiso*, of Springfield, Massachusetts, has patented an invention for cutting stone which bids fair to ef fect wondei* in the process. One of the machines is now in operation at New Haven, (Conn.) where the incredulous may at any day view it dressing down stone at' the rate of a square foot in from one to two minutes, and with two attend ants only and a limited amount of steam power, doing the labor of more than a hundred men. There is said to be no mistake in the thing \ and, if so, it promises to make stone supersede brick, and revoluti-mi* entirely our modes of building. RESISTANCE TO TAXES AT SANTE FE. fhom the ht. louis repuhi.ica.V or octobkr 1. The Santa Fe Republican, of the 12th of August, contain* the proceedngs of u meeting of merchauta and citizens of Santa Fe, in relation to the illegal duties exacted oil gooela imported into New Mexico. Wm. S. Messkuvt acted as Pierident, and I.?.\vis D. Street as Secretary. Samuel Weatherhead, jr., Sol. P. Sublette, Henry O'Neil, Robert Brent, and George H. Bstes, were appointed a committee to report upon ihe subject before the meeting, At this and subsequent meetings, a memorial was adopted, and signed by ill the merchants and ci'izem of Santa Fe, iu which they ask to i>e relieved from the payment of the onerous duty. The memorial embodies a resolution, in which the citizens declare "That since New Mexico i6 an integral por 1 tion of the United States, and was such at the time of the ' introduction of a portion of merchandise into said territory ' this year, that the recovery of six per centum ad valorem ' duty on tuch merchandise will be unjust, if not iu violation ' of the spirit of the constitution ol the United States " This duty was imposed by an order of General Puice, in which an-impost duty of six per cent, od valorem was levied on all merchandise introduced into the Territory of New Mex ico from and after the 5th day of February, 1818. The me morialists, in their argument, claim that inasmuch as there no longer exists a war to be supported, and the territory erases to be an enemy's count.-y, the duty cannot hold upon goods introduced into tho Territory of New Mexico since Slay 26th, 1818, at which time it became an integral part of tie United States. They aslc, therefore, to be relieved from the payment of this unequal and unconstitutional tax. To this communication, Brig. Gen. Price replies, stating the circumstances unier which the duly was imposed?that it was for the payment of the expenses of the civil government of the Territory?and subs quently submitted 'o, and approv ed by the President of* the United ttates, with whom the matter now more properly belongs. " With this view of the matter, the General is not disposed, however much his private feelings might wish it, to modify or abrogate the existing order; more particularly as it is at pre sent a generally conceived opinion that arrangBinents have already been perfected by the Government of tho United States creating a civil governor for tho country, wbc doubtless is vested with plenary powers for the extension and aJrninUtra tion of the constitution and laws of the United States over a territory which is belioved to be an integral part of tho United States." [The expectations of General Price, as well as of the citi zens of New Mexico, in relation to a civil government for that Territory are, it is known here, doomed to disappointment.] On the reception of this letter, another meeting of the citi zens was called, and tho correspondence submitted to them. Thereupon, the following preamble and resolution was adopted: Whereas all l>onds given to the present acting anthoriiies of New Mexico, for the payment of the six per cent, ad'va lorem duty on merchandise introduced into the Territory of New Mexico from the United States, after said Territory had t>ecome an integral portion of the United States Territory, were giv:n in ignorance of the fact th?t tho said Territory of New Mexico was at the time of the execution of said bonds, a part of the United States territory, and subject to the gene ral laws, and under the protection of the constitution of the sam* : Therefore resolved, That, as American citizens, and on American soil, proud of our birthright, and conscious of our privileges, we will use all fair, legal, and honorable means to resist the payment of what we believe to be unequal and un constitutional taxation. Mr. Brest cIII-red the following resolution, which was carried : Rtavlced, That a committee of four be appointed to collect statistical facts in regard to the revenue and expenditures of the civil government, or any cih-r matters of interest truehing the subject now under consideration, subject to be reported to I a subsequent meeting that may be called. LATEST FROM THE SOUTH. New Obleass, Octobeb 6. The B urJ of Health of this city has announced officially that the yellow fever has entirely disappeared. By an arrival here from thu Brasos, we have intelligence from that place to the U2d instant. A very heavy storm has been experienced along the toast. The island was coveted with water to the depth of seven feet, and the inhabitants were compelled to ily to the shipping for safety and the protection of their lives and property. The devastation is very great and sorely distressing. Accounts trout Mexico state that the country is generally as tranquil r? could be expected. Genera! IIerrera is growing in popular favor. Au insurrection bad taken place at Tabasco. The insur | genu are uumbeied at about four hundred. Regular troops l amounting to six hundred have been called out to quell tbem. : The general impression was that a battle would ensue, and ! that the insurrectionists could only be subdued by the spilling I of blood. ! At a meeting of the Ethnological Society of New York, heltl last week, several ink-resting pa pers were read: ? Professor Rorinsox read a fetter from Lieut - , dated at Beyroot, Syria, July 12th, giving an outline of the ope-ra tion? and results of the exploring expedition on the Dead Sea ' and the Jordan, and across the country to Jatfa. He then I read a letter from the Rev Mr. Smith, giving an account of , the sickness of the lamented l.ieut. Dale, which began July 14th, and bis death on the 24th, in Mount Lebanon. The survivors, after long waiting for a ship to tiring them home, ' departed for Malta, in a hired French vessel, and had not ar rived twenty-four days after. | Prot. K. then rrad a long and very interesiing letter from the Rev. Mr. TRoxeso'*, giving an account of tie ancient sites and objects observed by him cn his journey to Damascus, commenced on Qie 14th of August. By taking, for a part of ! the distance, a route unknown to most travellers, he visited eoveral large mountains the head* and streams of two of the "rivers of Damascus," and the remains qf ancient cities mentioned by Josephus, and dating from the times of the Ro mans, the Greek*, and perhaps of Solomon. An ancient aqueduct was particularly noticed, as great a work as the p Croton Aqueduct, which is attributed to Zenobia. r Dr. E Daviss exhibited a well-sculptured head of liroe i stone, du;j up in the yard of a gentleman in Lexington, Ken I tucky, a few years since, arid read a Icttei from liitn ?n the subject. The h< ad is nearly ol the natural size, and wa? fouud about ten feet below the original surface, on the site of 1 an anrient mound, which was originally covered with forest ' trees. Dr. D. also exhibited s|?cimens of the cloth from the i celebrated Kentucky tournmy, which be has lieen caiefully . examining with the new microscope of cur ingenioua couo trvman. He finds it to consist of double twines or cotrse threads, partly made of thn native Indian hemp or flax, and i partly of the lurk of the I inden. Where ornaments are fas ? I tened an, a triple thread i< used. New York, October 7. | The race between Fashion and Dostona came off yts'erday I over the Union Course ? the attendance was very large A 1 third horse wss entered for the stake, C. Green's b. h. F ree Trade, but he was not considered to be of much account. 1 Fashion was backed at 100 to 70 against the field, and bets to i a large amount were made. At 2 o'cieick the tap of the drum gave the signal for the start, and at the second attempt they ' went off in fine style, D?t<u taking the lead, the other two close togethe r and well up. At the quarter pole Fashion was left two lengths in the rear; at the ha!f-milc Free Trade passed Bits ona and passed the staml first in 1 liI J. This position was continued during the second mile, I tit in the third Free Trsde began to give out, and Bcstonn passed him in line style, leaving Fashion four or five l ni<ths liehind. ' Then commenced the struggle iietween these tw>, and Fashion performed wonders ; the stand was passe ! for the third time, I Bost ?na headm* about a length, in 1 5t>, and tho three miles in 5 13. On toe last mile the struggle was very hard, parti 1 eularlv on the part of Fashion ; but Boston* was too much for her, a'id she was beaten by abcut a length. A' the second heat Free Trade was withdrawn, and a great elTort was made ! by Laird, the rider of Fashion, but without cflcct. Bostona j took the lead at the start ami miintatned it throughout* ' Time?7 39 and 7 34.?Mirror. MO* 4 LATE LO*t>0!l fUSR, (ffStl.) The Parliamextary Toors, (I.e.an Jims Ri'sseli.)? | Mrs. HlimUr, (D'hrae/i )?" I thin* it convenient, Toots, tosiy to you, before 'he young gentlemen disperse, that you appear to me to have reached the low-water mark of general i contempt, and that 'here ia not the least probability of your ! ever gaming another inch towards good fl reel-tide again. All [ your friends are ashamed of you ; ail your enemies rejoice over you j every body is tued of you. 'In fact. Toots, you are, if I may express myself plainly, an unmitigated humbug, and a hoax. And now that I l.ave relieved my mind bv men tioning this, I will conclude by observing. Toots?tou know ray classic*! taste?that I think if ] could have seen C'icrro, that pure Caueasian, in his retirement at Tusculuni? beau-ti ful Tusctiluro !?I coald now die aa contented is 1 am ever likely to be " Tints, (evnfoted ) ?* It's of no consequence, thank yc. It's all right. It's not of the least consequence in the world. Nothing it of any consequence, any where ? I'm much oblig ed to vou."