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NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER, j
FABLES FOK THE FKIEKDS We have not been able to read without a smile the following ingenious attempt of the New York Evening Pout, under date of the 3d instant, to lure the quietest and most conservative of all our reli gious sects?that of the Friends?into the support of that most trustworthy politician (the foil's can- j didate) who was formerly "the Northern man with Southern principles,' and is now of course (having renounced those principles) the Northern man with out any at all; the " Peace-candidate," who, though deeply committed against the war, and for that cause most injuriously and unfairly thrust aside by his party, was yet so spiritless and so destitute of personal dignity, as well a? of regard for public duty, as to pocket both his affronts and his principles, and cleave to the very war-party that had ostracized him: the magnanimous "Democratic" leader of Anti-Annexation, to whose paltry desertion from that good cause we owe ihe success of Polkism, the ! prevalence of land-rapiue, and all those mischiefs which, now that it is too late, he pretends vehe mently to oppose. The Post, which itself played just the same pitiful part as to Annexation and War, j now wheedles the Society of Frieuds in the fol-! lowing strain : ? "Faee Suit, asp t,.e Fw.sM.-The csnd*htea of the Con*un"on wi:l r* ccive in tbi.s Siatc, in Pennaylva- i ?u?, in .New J??ey, and iii other States wher* the Society of j Friend* aiists, aa jmportant aid from the support and votes 1 given by the membra of that peaceful denomination of Chrij.- ' tian*. 1 his can be locked upon as an extraordinary vote, in asmuch a* the Friend* gen, rally decline having any direct par ticipation with political movements. The following extract ! from a letter addressed to an ad vacate of the cause in thin city, u from r?,e of the most inlluentiai Friends of Queens county? : one who ha.? n,-v,-r participated in the movement* of eiihar I party, but w;?Al. predilecion* have heretofore inclined toward* : ihe Whig#: <?!'!, C ?*' '^"EXS Ooir.VTT, SepteMHFR 29, IS48. :n t r,c',Jti n.a? kvn engigeJ in promot- j h, ;:;rr ^? Ljuy the Buffalo Convention entirely nweta uiy view., and I think there will Le a more ijei.cru! attendance ot Frier.ils a' t?ie r?,li X ?" v'? n" """ "? edl> for \ an Duron, ar.l al He ,?,;6ct. ?s dJ ? diet.-.; but ivt believe he ns right r.ow. steld ;'kVJ mUCh 10 attcnd ,he *< Hemp- j . . ,, of u PrtM:nff nature prevented. I have ' andsha.l.fjntmue to improve every suitable opportunm to' encourage cn interent and action in thin cauae. " ' n CUr>t,?". ?"J iho philanthropist cannot with ! hot it r' I'*SJ without oshu hi* influence, both 1'orai ?, and p dttxully, on the side of freedom, or rather to prevent that greavr evil, slavery, from extending i s bh-'ht- 1 tng influer.ee any fuiiher. " 3 j .-Esoi', or somebody else as authentic, says that 1 while the Be~st< had r.ot yet sunk from a Republic ! into a Monarchy, their chief magistrate was elec- i tive, every four years. Upon one of these occa sions, certain hen-roost politicians?a Crow renown ed for having lived forty years at the public expense, I and a W cazle distinguished for the simplicity of his character and the rigidity of his principles?were two oi the main candidates. Both were looked on eminent for their statesmanship: at least thev were so looked on by all those animals whose chief public principle was the spoils. Their merits, how ever, though alike, were not the same: master eazel excelled in the management of domestic plunder: master Crow, albeit voracious enough at! home, could tr.ke wing and'snap up the voung or: rob the ne?t? of weak creatures abroad. Thus they ' were both great Republicans?so great, that it was 1 hard to settle which was the greater. Originally,' ? ,:aJ bcen considered, throughout the 1 general barn-yard, as no little the suppler and sub- j ; 1,1,1 whe"' b? t,ie assistance ol a famous ope rator, tte?. Crow had got himself ? cut for the sini pl; s he t'H> grew to be supposed sagacious. herefore. the contest afrepuUtioos, both so bright, I was prod;gi.jas, when they came to the canvass. In | the course ol this, they arrived at a certain dove cote, tenoned by a large brood of gende birds, very ' m lftt'f P^mage and loving in their ways, i but not generally viewed as very warm admirers of either the weazel-principles or the crow-policy. ! hull, they lad vote- and were worth coaxing?es-1 penally as ,t was hoped they would prove simple birds, easily caught with chaff, or ensnared by the I strong spell of sprinkling salt upon their tads So, | with all the art of speeches or the better eloquence j of silence, our two friends of poultry plied die olive-' bnuich-fcchers, the one by the bill, the other by the toil. Cous.n < 'row?? propheUc, but ill-omencd | creature-^ rj lked forth to them, in his blandest tone, .discourse in praise of the beauties of Uni- i ^"aJ Conquest and ol Manifest Destiny: brother W eazel diiau d on the delights of Peace and Prin-1 re? irhc ?rai,on ?f ihe f?rra" is not V3t pub.! lished, but may I* imagined from certain speeches I of his about fifty-four-forty." swallowing Mexico and licking-up \ ucatan : of his rival's, *e have an outline a. r.bove, in the A renin* Pout, ^nd very captivating, it must be confessed. Attracted, how ever, by the untnual chattering suddenly appeared, in a brown overcoat, on a white horse, a sober old rarmer, for i-ome time employer] to keep the ver min out of those parts. He was armed with a dou e arrc e g.m: at sight of which, pacific master Wesiel sought his hole with a squeak of conster Mtioi, .nd w?,??r frow, ??? lhe .mell .,f gunpowder, broke hi. ?ilh , loud "caw ! caw !" suddenly grew scarce. Fable* .b rultl have Moral.! ,?J ,? ,|?II onr., when crows and weazles have them ? For the ?liT'rv of thi? e*?e, all atfl.cte?J *irn|.l"t'.n? may nee t!#e prseticr rxptainerf n one of Col. Bom'i *peerfiea in the Senaic. P ?eie cautery was there u?ed. FACTS ABOUT THE CHOLERA. h ba? lern fr^U(?nt'y remarked, ?aya the New York 'E* pr?>H, that 'iur.i.? tb6 cholera in ?w York iu IDS there w*? no ekrtficity in the atm<??i<hc/e t, ?>?t ? correspondent of the Journal nt Commerce saya h:? record* show tlrf contrary . fif thi?, an ) that ten thunder *Unn.n were ?ctire here during that (xriod. A wr:l?r in Chamber*'* Edinburgh Journal mam-1 'win tha*. eiectri'.al changi* arc the tn?e c*u?e of such migra to-y <li?eaMf a* t'".vfera and |dagw j and, indeed, of all rpi-! dcni!v?. The trjc ter.iedy, th enfaf, is ttw purification of j th? * in i?pb?fe, rid she chief uhjeet to rflirt tj;i* ia Chl'irtnr j G'a.?, wVich ia an ingredient in eororoon nit. Whole streets ! and town* c .n \>ti fumigated with chlorine gas ai ca?;ly a* aingie dwelling*. , "In lK'.iJ t:.? low# of iJurnfatline, in Scotland, w?* ?ff.-ct- i cd wttn ch -li-ra fr-ma the 3J of 8<ptember nntil the 23d of October. V. that d*te eveiy street, Una, arH alley was fu- ( migaU-d with cMtiinr g*?. Within fiss dayathe pestilence j wa? entirely annihilated. In ?dm!<argh the gas was used, hut rather lal a, and in several other 'own* wt'h Ilka effect. It waa ascertained hejond a rhadow of d.mM, and lo ;hia (act we beg tbe eamea* attintion oJ our revhrs, and th? wiMr. at large, that ?**ery houas in the affected district* m which cbkv rine ga* waa need a? a liwinkcting agent in the efcn4e.-a of| 1838, enjoyed an absolute immunity from tba disease, arid thi* fact is the f'? at presei*ati*e against 'hat frightful disease, and a positive proof that cholera ow? jt? orifin to efcctrisal rbang.'? in the atmosphere. SPEECH OF Mr. BENTON, OF MISSOl'RI, Oil the amendment reported by the Military Com-! mittee to the bill for paying the erpentea of the conquest of California. I* Sksate, Mat 10, 18-18. Mr. BENTON rose at.J said : The amendment reported !iy the committee proceed* upon the principle that the claim* in California heretofore ascertained and allowed by the officers unJer whom they originated ahall he forthwith paid, and those not entertained slull not be paid until examined and ol lowed by the same officers. Mr. Frem lit and h a stiill" offi cers allowed this.i which are ascertained ; the n.t:ne officers, by 'lie amendment, are to allow the remaii.der befoie they cud l>e paid. This is the principle of the amendment. It ap points no!>edy to do any thing ; it only names the persons wi hout whose examination and allowance the unadjusted claims shall not be jiaid. They were officers of the battalion under whom the claims originated and were settled, as far as that h-is been done, and whose legal capacity to pans upon the claims is revived and continued, if the Government chin sen to have the claims examined before they are paid, or cho'tses to nive the parlies from coming from California to Washing ton to silicit payment individually from Congress. That they arc the proper persons to allow or reject these claims and the only ones who can do it with justice to the United States and to the claimants, is manifesled trom the depositions where their knowledge of the who'e subject is fully shown. Cfipt. llensley was comwissuy and quartermaster; Msjor Reading was paymaster, lioth were cognizant of the claims; one in doing the acts which originated them, the other in set tling them as far as he could. The dejiosition of Capt. Hens ley, (a gentleman of character and intelligence, with whom the committee became well acquainted,) establishes this fact, and shows that he and Major Heading, from their respective positions in the battalion, were best acquainted with ti e claims, and w? re called by their offices to make an estimate of their amount before he left California. At page 37 of the do cument of dipositions he testifies thus in answer to a ques tion from the committee: " As \ mi were commissary and quartermaster, and therefore intimately acqu tinted w nil tiic supplies obtained by the troops, and with the general expenses of the w hole conquest of i;?li fornia from lh< beginning, under the Hag ot independence in the north, to the suppression of the insurrection at Los An geles in tht south, jou can form an opinion of the whole sum which the just elsims upon the United States would amount to. Will you itate tliHt amount > "Answer Previous to leaving the city of Angels, Major Heading, acting as paymaster, and mvselt, made an estimate of the amount due i.i that country. From the best information which we could obtain, we tnsdc the total amount seven hun dred thousand dollars. Major Heading was operating in the north with Col. trcmout, and myself with Cent. Stockton in the snuth." From this air wer of Captain llensley to the commiitee's queftion, as will a# from the tenor of other depositions, and, the very nature of tii ir places in the battalion, it is clear that he and Major Keadiug are the proper persons to be associated with Mr. Prerrtoi.t in allowing or rejecting these claims They know every transaction and cannot be deceived. They know evety claim and cannot be imposed upon. They know the trueTroin the faise in every instance, both of men and transi tions. They can do justicc, and th-.t upon their own knowledge. Their own characters are concerned in rejecting false accounts, and preventing their names and acts iioin lieing made the means of imposition upon the Uni t?d States. At pages 35 a- J of the d 'current Capt. Hensley shows that all supplies were * ?rce and dear, and the dearer because necessarily obtained without money, there being none fur ni-.hed by the I uited States. He says : " Alter the eity ot Angel* was taken by the United States forces Captain (iilleipi.: was left in command, and 1 acted as assistant quartermaster to the troops stationed there. Alter the insurrection la ike out, in September, 1846, provisions and supplies of all kinds could only be obtained at the most t xtravagarit price*, the ? hole surrounding country being in the hands of the eneri.y." And he giv.s a utaieincnt of prices fully sustaining this declaration: " Horses and mules, from f 25 to $.55 00 Saddles, complete, trom 30 to 40 00 Hi idles ft to 10 00 Spurs. .' 6 to 10 tO J lotas..* ..4 to 8(10 Hifl. s, very scarce, trom 50 to 100 00 Powder, per pound '2 <<o Lead, pi r poe.nd 371 Percussion caps, per 1,000.., 10 OO Heel cattle, p?r L> ad 8 to 10 OO Flour, per lt*t |k?ui,<** . .10 tH) Sugar, prr |H0 pounds ..37 to 50 00 Cotfee, per ttxi pounds 50 00" At such prices n these, exc?pt for the honra and cattle, which are Nd ?w the price of the same in the United Stab *, and without money to pay down, amounts soon run up high, but Kill small for ?he git at results produced in conquering the country and pacifying it before the United States troops arrived. A great error prevails in the minds of some Senntora as to thi au'hori y for incurring these claims. The Senator from \ irjmia ( ?lr M *so*) classes them all ss unauihorizJ. It is a gnat mi-take The claims arising from unauthorized operations limit th? msrlves to about thirty days of time, and t J the upe-ises of a force of less than three huudred men. They limit themselves to the operations under the Hag of in - j d? pend< :ic??from he frst w<*k in Jone to tbe 10th of July? when the flag of mdcjsndeoce was abandoned, that of the Unfed States adpted, and the bcttalion went into service with the navy, t rotn "his time forth all expenses were dul\ authorized, tne naval etnamlrri acting under special orders fo.n th? President to conquer, retain, and govern California The? orders b?gan in October, 1845, io anticipation of the war, snd were continued by successive others of the most urgent kind. Those of July It,' 1816, though they did no' arrive until operations were over, were issued in the very lime that Mr. Frrmjnt was in the act of joining the naval forces, and show what the intention of the Government was at that t nr. They were addreste ) to Commodore Ml oat, and said : *? Prrviout instructions hsve informed you of the instruc tions of 'Ins Government, pending the war with Mexico, to tul~t omt h*Ul possession of Calitornia. ? ? ? *j*lie object ot the United States is, Under its rights at a belliger ent nation, to /bosses* itsilf entirely of UpjKrr ? alilornia. ? * * " ?l?e object of the United Slates has reference to ulhmiU peace with Mexico ?, and if, at ttuit peace, the basis ot the Hti jmiritU'U* shall be established, the Government ex pects, ttrrXHifh your Jorce>, to be found in actual pMtessten ot Upper California. ? ' ** This will bring with it the necessity ot a ctiiI lulnuwtrution. Such a government should lie 1 tuhU Kut under your protection." Th?se instructions are positive in themselves, and refer to previous in*tructiona. They correspond with all the previous onlers to the navy. That branch of tbe public force was charged in advance, and 111 anticipation of the war, with the conquest of California, whenever war broke out. They were to conquer the country \ Ibey were to hold possession of it till peace, and they were to establish a civil government for Ma tenrxirary administration. The naval commander* were to do :oi?, and did do H. Commodore Stockton took command , 'n July, unme-Jiately after Mr. Fremont came to Monterey, ar?d under his ordera all subsequent military operations were carried on, and the civil government estali'mhed, the expenses | of which n>w remain to be paid. Commodore Stockton re ceiva.1 the 'Innka of the Government for pr.MC'Uting the con 'pum ot California t f^om.rodore Hloat was censured and re j calieilfmot.foingit^ and Mr. Fremont and his battalion were a pir ot Stockton's forces and actcd uniler orders from h m. 1'hc ?ery day this letter of tbe 12th of July was written at " eshingti?i, Mr. Fremont was on hia way to Monten v, to i aid Comm.idore Sloet to do the very thing which these reite rated instructions required him to da. He waa fulfilling, to the btier, on that day, tbe ordera which were emansting from ^ ashington. At t*ie distance 3,000 mile*, and with out orders, be was doing what lite Government wished done, and what the naval command s could not have done without a Isod tore. I he tetVr of recall to Commodore Hloat, dated August 13, I 1M1, show, not only that the naval commamler* were re quired t,? cn-.^m r, retain, and govern California, hut fhat they would cetis irnl and supumode l for not doing it. Here is J that order, <? I hive said, on August 13, M46 ; by a -tiaoire CNKimnei the fwff day ihat ntoekton and Fremont wrre j entering th* r i?y of the Anuria, and patting the fiiii?fain| hand to ibe cuuqufii: of California. Hur it t " U. f. X*Tt IHr*?T*i!irrf " .In irut t li, I S4?i. nr. The l)epartment hat recened tour M'er, j No. 51, 01 J r,, fi r?m which it appeara that while yon ?rr* ? "?(.re of t'? "xiHi-oce 'if actual a-or' betwe<*? ttie l.'nittd ; St?t*a an.I VI tico, yrm r>-mnltrf-?l in a alate of itoch'itft, ?nd | ? li<l not cart; mt the inttrnctiona of June 94, 1*45, hn*J to Iff '?xeciitr'1 < v<n n> the event of a mere declaration of wir, j rnnch Br*' in (V evWt of actual hotfiliiiet. Thoae untrue- ! tiori* you vi?,. on'ti(d to carry o?t * at '?nr?.' " In MJ I ttrr of Anoint 5, IM5, the receipt of thi^ yon ' ackn iwl it<. ?! .,i, t|,, January, ISWi, referring to ihem, I Ntil,' /n nril^nap, jtm ?i|| obey the inatru?<i'ni? re cently nHilif m1 to yon via Paimma.' In mv letter of Otii h? r I7?h, I iiS, >f which you acknowledge the receipt on the 'l7th of M IS itfcffih|[ lo ihrtt! initrueiioiit oik:*- root r, 1 ?aiit furit, ? In if*i event of actual hoitilitin between the .Metican 't'lvt-rnment and our nwn, you will ao diipof of ywir whole tore 4^ to carry cut moM ?fT-ctually ih? ?feeeta vp-ci lietl in lh? KXnnliwn torwarded to you from the i)t|iartro>-nt in view of Kich a contingency.' And aiitljr there it rtoambi- j jjtaitj in tin* li'i.;uage. " And in my Miff of the 23d of February kit, aent through Mexico, I remarked, ? Thia letter ia aent to you overland, en ebmd, al pm >UK|[e?l, to Metara. MoM, Talbot ll Co., M.iwt Im, m l you ?ill readily anderaUnd U?e reaerve with whieh it ia written.' "The I)rt?itmrnt on Angnat 5, 1845, hail alac> told you tU yonr hrtu thould not bf weakened while hoanlitiea are threatened Uy Mexico.* Yonr eourae waa particularly ?p. proved in detaining the tribute Conatitution. '* The Department will bope that * more unreal i.ecessitv than hi m appears existed for the otherwise i?re>iuusi-etur.. of that veftscl. 1 " The liepwtmmt willingly believe* in the parity of your intentions , biM youratuirty not to do wrong- ha* led you into a mott unfortunate und unwarrantable inactivity, " VlTJ rcspectfullv, yyurs, ?r , r, ? "CiKOKGE flANCltOPT, 41 Com. Jon* D Sloat, "CWg U. b. Naval Force* in the Pacific Ocean." i his is the letter of recall to Commodore 8l.?ai, recalling him tor inactivity, for delay in commencing hoetiatie*. lor his unfortunate anxiety not to do wrong. It i? full proof, not only ? author,ty to act hut of blame for not acting. Comm. Jore " ktonwcceuded loinm dore Sloat. He acled, and Fre mont wuh hun i and the mau of these claim*, the whole, ex cept the insi,uiihr.ant amount accruing during the frst thirty Java under the Ihg of independen e, aiose undo, the com maiid ol Commodore Stockton, and were doubly authorized, bu'h by his pot it ion us commander on the California staii ?n, -V ,l,e relt,'ralftd|orders of the naval commanders, and by the exjjress approbation of his conduct since he rmirned home. Ihe operations without authority limit thorns. Ives, then, to about thirty daya of lime at tho commencement, ?nJ will not r?-'iuire forty thousand dollars to pay ihern , and lor that sum the United Stales received more than the amount ut the i lime m Horses, cattle, cannon, and muskets taken from the y "nd ?fc|,v??J to the United States or used in her ser- I nco. Eighteen brass cannon, two hundred und lifty stand of inuskets, lour or five hundred cattle, and nearly double as n any horses, taken under the lad. pendent llag, went to ihe ,1 Ud States. 1 hese mater als ol war went to the United states and were worth lull lifty thousand dollars in money, he Lt.iled States received, then, in materials of war, more . 18 10 hir these unauthorized operations. She received horses, cattle, cannon and muskets, to more than the valuei; and we are ready to put a proviso to the bill limiting he amount to be paid lor these operations to a less sum than lie va ue of the a,tides actually received. But this would * Z , ,'?,0r?Wiiyf ?' lhe account- The ! nit?d Statos received a I the f.uiu of the revolutionary movement; she ?nr7ef i ,? If th* aud these hour,its were of a kmd not to be weighed or measured against money, she received all the northern half of California, conquered to w.r hand, before the naval forces began to act; and this half 0 received by her has remained tranquil in her hands ev?r Z ' , ? 1? *1* juntas lor transferring the country to ilcfof th!.0i' ?hf .ettl un'1 M?I'Ped the 8runtt! and ?les of the public < omain to British subjects ; and arrested he proceedings in the Mscnamara grant of three thousand ?juaie leagues before the grant was complete, and ail the Slate wl"''Ch have bt'en brought to the United n ? 'V. "I1 Commodore Sloat to change his mind liter he had been five days at Monterey, 8n,l decided him to akc pwiaon of the place, thus anticipating the arrival of ^ British Admiral by a few days, and converting his arrival H,to benefit .nstead ol harm. For when he did arrive, find ng the place m jRissesMon of the United Stales, he saw that lis mission was at an end, and went off as suddenly and mys teriously as he came, abandoning California to its new masters, PutUl'? a? ?"d to all hope ol British protection. Finally t saved the American settlers Irom destruction, gave a body >1 organized and v,ctorious land forces to the United Slates to ic with the navy, and presented to the view of the British \dmiral toat camp of mounted riflemen, which had su;b a -iscouragmg eflect upon his mind, and sucii an encouraging >ne upon the nnnds of the naval forces. 1 hese were the benefits received by the United State-; from he movement under the independent flag. They are above )r,ce, and beyond d,spute. The historical ilej-osilions taken Li rffi.,t,CCJ,r0Ve eVCr> thinB? and lhc despatch of Com nodore Moat to the Secretary of tho Navy of July 31, 1S4C ?oincides with tho sworn testimony in showing' the happy fleets all this nad upon the British Admiral's vi.it, convert* ng it into a lienefit instead of a mischief. He says : " On the It.th the British Admiral, Sir George F. Seymour ^itoted f !rKW0,M,:8?- Anoffieer immediately *W der bm'll"' u""' c(:u,tines and .he facilities 0f the '?;t; Hj w" ?ubsequt ntlv furnished with a set ol-top-gallant. r^i;te,lor L ship'and ^ M r 'iire v,.s,to' ,h,e Admiral wasver)- serviceable to our can *e n Cahlon.u, ut the inhabitantt fu'tv be/icvt,I he vould take ai t-with t/u-m, and that we would be obkued to abandon our j ujue.it; but -when the'/ Wiethe friciul'i/ intercourse sufunuiii> t //'7/' '"'umdf?"'>fyo* could not inte fa r in their bt iu j, they abandoned a'l hope oj ever teeing tie Mexican fiu-r "ytngm Calijonua ugatn." ^ l hus the Briush Admiral disappointed the cr^ctstions df ilie Brush party in California, lie came a, they cxpected, Sir u* d';J nclhi"?- He M n"t i-'iterfere in .beba" i behaved friendly. He wciitufl in afewda\s ferrying witu him the emirsary Mscnamara : and on his de pa,tore the inhabitants lost all hop, of ever seeing the Mexi can flag tgain flying in California. Thus was California r.vod from passing, hlce the Mosquito coast, and so many Jtber places, under British protection. Calil .rnia vas saved 1 And how came it to be saved > Becaa^ Mr. Fremont, his lopogrsphical corps, and tin settlers had overturned theMcxi ran authority before tbe tlriu^h Admiral arrived-had extin f"' ' lhe British party?had induced Copini xlo .? Sjoat to lake possession of Monierev, and he himself, w, >, L? bat anon, hao come down to the coast (.> s?-oruf the operations of the navy. I his ?aVed California. All the depciitions a'tri ?ute these results to Mr. Fremont's movement; anJ his com ing dowr^to Monterey to j.Hn the naval foree? was the uown |,Ctr^ r.,^ contiurt- II was decisive ujwn the . vf ,Mth B"t'?h and A msncans. It showed a land force ?lr.-s.ly victorious over tfce Mexican authorities, resdv to act wit i :hc navy. A campof mounted riflemen eud.Ie'ily a,? h v"kg' "."V* lf *?? *" impressive suht ooth to 'r:ij Aioencana. It discouraged one as much as it enc .cragrd the other, snd assured the conquest of all the re mlining part of California. Lieutenant Minor, ol lb. ?,rv her, in ComnioJore Sloat's squadron, has well testified to all UK. He says : " The undersigned was on duty T?n shore whea Cnntsin 1 remont anived with his lorn, at Monterey from the J.nl, Ihe ui,< .riignod believes thst the appeamnce of ihis b?,|, uf men, and the well known character of its commander, not o?.ly made a strong impression upon the British Admind a- d f r equally impressive and mor. hsppy .?,e u^n Z. S-" T""n ,U,Vy lSe" in Monterey, for himself u?'?ler?igt*d can say, that, after he had seen Cant ,,n Frel his doubts regarding the ?mq2i ?f ? iilornia were removed." ' ?uch is the testimony borne by LieuL Minor to the dcci "?ve.fleet which the appearaore of Fremont's riflem?.(1 made upm the rnmds of both Brituh and Americans st thst time. was certainly a strange and impressive spectacle to see a ixMy of American riflemen at auch a place, and it >Uch a time? three thou/arrtl mdes from hortw?on the cos.t ?f ,bc I acinc already victorious over the Mexicag author,:,,., ...J ready to co-operaie with the naval forow m repulsing Uriti<h interference, and in pursuing the conquest of Califor. ia to its conclusion. Immediately sfter, they went to sea Und*r Lonjmodora Sto. k oo, sailed five hundre.1 miles down the r^art, ami d.sembirked lor new service, on land. But I f?r ' ,he* f'w wb waa to show, nol ,he aertices of the California i^itialion in the whole war, but only or the first thirty daya, while acting under the flathd^. ^ndence, w.thout a knowledge of the Mexicm w,-, .7 out Ootern merit. I mean only to show he value of the*, rerv.ces, and that all their fruits went to . I mted Stales j and that ihe amount to he paid for t <>se services under this bill will lie less iban the value%f the bonST rattle, arms, and cannon delivered to the United Sis^/to ?av nothing of l^netiu of a di^rent kind, above ark* 'tnd alwve calculation. V nd I have spoken of the operation* of these thirt ; days ss operations unauthorize.1 by the (i0veft>ment. But if thev were unsuthor,ze.lI in the i-egmn.ng, they are far from lan7 ine now on the footing of unauthorized nitrations. Thee have been not only a*owe<l and eommendrd, but likewise a Ofit'd: not only their fruits adopted and possessed but the operations th-m^lves fully recognised. Th? f,et ? 'walTU^r'1 'l^H1,e' in ,h< "P0* of Notary of J December, 1846?more than oae-nim part of which d.K!ument is taken up with a detail of ti^ operations .Vst" ?f th' The document con gTnK "Xannt 01 operations H the wsr ; the other, relating to the geiyril affat-? ,.f th^ '? ,h* f'"t divi*io" '? these operations of Mr. t remont, previous to hi* knowledf. ,,f of the wsr; arid while the narrative orctj?ies m ra t?an a si *th pail of the whole report, it occupies nearly half of the . V(l,'r? ?he Secretary, in ettii r forth the?. operation- wnh an much particularity, m l them "irreanlar" or " unau'horized," or ,ny way^rep, haM e.therZm ?r DVn0 Th?y ?*opy M re (Wctabte a position in the report as t?,. ope'stion* in snv other portion of the theatre of the war, nd Brc as much apparent approbation. Nor d'ie? the Oovernment recognition o' these nn*r?iinn? Stop here. The report of the Secretary of Z same dste, likewise allmlesto them In aprrobstorv terms and finally, w, do.s ,*? tbe President in h?annuaT^? & ?ol.owiriK full inforrralion of the rrierations an.1 the cirrnm stance, preceding ,?d succeeding them ^ C,rC"m Now I say that neither military operations, nor transec tons of any other whatever, perl.Wbt o?ee? lhf d''Tcf r"n,n?r?d of tho Execmive and open to his ^ to'c .,!Ir/i TT ,'ir appro!,itorily report ed to Congre-a |,y the Lxecouve, stand m the footinV of un authorial or irroaular r r.wee.linM If ,, .. K. , 1"" i?'-A sr zizix """-i-T' .*? , , ' *re holding on to the frmts ?f ,h,rt? da?. in h">Jtot??M^ MetiVo-and l h?/"^ L 7' ^e 1,'nite-l States sgsinst th oritT^Tsr SCI ?f ^at the su ,,n half oM nZS5? !u T' W *>' north arm< wu irr.T I * military conquest by their " l,re*ul,r ,nd ua?uthor.xed. yrt it mu?t be so, if ibe operation* which brought this district into our possession are properly thus characterized, and their defscts have not been cured by subsequent competent recognition. Hut the approbation and recognition of the operation* by iha. Execu tive, under who*e direction the operation! of war are carried on, must cure all deiecla aa (ar a?t authority in concerned ; and the Executive approbation and recognition, in thia caae, does not rest solely on the otlicial communications I have refer red to. Mr. Fremont was fully alive to the impoitancc of the ope ration : fully aware of tho reaponaibility involved : and cor respondingly anzioua that there should be no misapprehen sion, or room for mwapprehention, concerning the movement cither in ita riae or progress. When, therefore, he was ar raigned belore a military court, by order of the President I say, by order of the President, because by law the President only could give the order?ho wax anxious that the whole range of hia conduct during his long absence, in all the ex tent that it had been questioned, or from any circumstance was liable to be questioned, should bo embraced in the inves tigation that the court should be directed to make. To thia end he made repeated and reiterated applications?not con fining himself in general trrms to a demand for a full trial, but, as well in regard to the military operations now under consideration, as to other prominent subjects, specifying th<"m as points proper for inquiry, liable to misapprehension and misrepresentation, both as concerned him and concerned the Government. His application for an investigation directed to these points was precise and specific. This is a passage of the letter in which his counsel brought the subject to the at tention of the Department and the President: " The undersigned also claim lor Lieut. Col. lreuionta trial for hav ing commence d hostilities against the Mexican au thorities in California without instruction! from his Govern ment, and before he had heard of the actual existence of war, and of all his conduct during the war, and especially in all that relates tojhe raising and marching of the California bat talion, the paHon of Don Jesus Pico, and the convention or capitulation granted to the insurgent Californiaus under Don Andres Pico. They claim a trial on these points, due both to Lieut. Col. Fremont and to the Government. As a mili tary subordinate he can make no report, and has made none, end says that he has not been required by any authority to make one. At the same time hostilities actually commenced under circumstances, if unexplained, to bring great censure on Lieut. Col. Fremont, and also to give color to the charge ot the Mexican Government that he was sent to California, un ,ler the color of a scientific expedition, to excite an insurrec tion against the Mexican Government while the two Govern ments were in a state of peace. 1 he witnesses already sum moned will be sufficient to clear up these important points." Now, this application is clear and specific?the reasons fully given, and embracing every point; and not less clsar and specific whs the reply, which 1 now quote, and ask at tention to. It is in these words : " In relation to what took placc in California before the commencement of hostilities between the United States and Mexico, in w hich Lieut. Col. Fremont acted a promineiit part, the Department bat not been made acquainted with any thing ?lone btj him which has riven dissatisfaction, and cannot, there fore, be induced to make it a matter of charge. Indeed, hit conduct, in thin respect, was presented to Congress at the last session, 'with no equivocal expressions of approval." In thofacc of this, it cannot be claimed or pretended that the.se operations stand on the fooling of " unauthorized or " irregular" proceedings. Whatever their condition, in re flect to authorization or non-authorization, in the first in stance, they have l>een fully approved, ar d fully adopted, and, their traits folly enjoyed, in a way to place them precisely on the same fooling as any other operations against the enemy, in whatever quarter. The b;ll and the amendment reported by the committee are drawn with the view to settle up and to close up forever this business nf the California claims. It ia obvious what a mine oC fraud they must become if not settled up and closed up quickly and forever. For this purpose the claims are to be examined on the spot where they occurred before they are al lowed. They are to be examined by those who know the truth and justice of every transaction?able, to detect at once ail fdl*e or exaggerated claims?and barring forever all that are not presented and allowed within the limited time. It also closes up a.iothrr fource of fruitful and almost perpetual claims?that of claims for Ijst homes. This is a most ex pensive incident of the mounted service?great in itself, and great in its continuance, and hard to be brought to a close. This amendment, if adopted, will prevent all such claims from cornins; from California. It will close theni a'l up at the start. It makes an allowance for forage, at the rate of twelve and a half cents a diy, in addition to the forty cents a day for the use and risk of the horse?an allowance jusily made, as no forage was ever furnished the California battalion by the Uni ed States, and the hordes were subsisted upon grass while watched and guarded by tho men. The whole compensation is made into a gross sum, (consisting of the items of pay, clothing, use and risk of horse, and forage,) and offered in full of all demands for horses lost for any cau?e, or by any mranj whatever. It would doubtless be advantageous to the United States to settle with all their mounted forces on the same terms. DRAUGHT. FROM "Til* PIOCOM, TUB LOOM, AMI THE ANVIL." The powers of horses and other beasts of draught have l>een, especially in Ireland, applied within a few years with much morr effect than formerly. The same description of hoise which, twenty years ago, pulled aix or reven hundred weight with difficulty in that country, can now draw fifteen hundred weight wiihout any violent exertion. The great improvement which has taken plat" in the level and formation of roads has mainly contributed to this advancement in the application of animal labor, and to a p.etty general knowledge amoiiK carters of the plainer principles of traction. Much difference of opinion prevails, however, among scien tific men upon mechanical points affecting the principles of draught, e?|>ecially where four wheeled carriages for a high velocity are concerned. In England great prejudice prevails in favor of wagons of ponderous sixe, requiring teams of four, five, aix, and eight hcrses. In Scotland, where economy is more consulted, and in Ireland, where want of capital pre vents a vast majority of farmers from employing any descrip tion of cart which is not cheap, simple, and fit for every turn of work, the one-horse, light, two-wheeled cart is almost uni versally used. The reasons severally urged by the advocatea of the four and two-wheeled vehiclea aro as follows: The favorera of the wagons of varioua kinds so much in use in the southern part* of England maintain that the horaes, by working in team steadily together, though they may draw letscr loada in this combined way, last longer than if working aingly ur.der two-wheeled carts, which often preas intolerably up >ri their hacks, and shake them extremely on uneven roads. <i They insist also that 4hose in the cartsare, from their un varying efforts, sooner tired, snd the wear is consequently greater than in wagons, in which they can occasionally relieve each other; that the whole load being above the axletrec in the carts, it throws so much weight uj?on the horse, In dear.end itig hilly roads, as to endanger his safety, while it equally im iiedes his exertions in the ascent * and that, while the ooe horse is compelled to use hi* utmost strength to overcome any sudden obstacle, the power of a team is, in a similar case, only applied to one-half of the load, which, in the wagon, reals cosily on both pair ot wheels thus, supposing a ton to be loaded upon a cart, aad that a short rut in the road is to lie snrmountetl, the whole, le-iiig upon one axle, must lie rlraggeil out at once ; but, were the same weight upon a wagin, it be ing divided upon the two axles, is drawn out at two separate pulls, the tii st of which clear* the fore w heels before the hinder fell in." The advocatea for carts contend? ?? Tlut there are hut I w articles, except long timber, w hich mav not be conveyed an a carriage with two wheels equally as well as upen one with four ; that single-horse carts sre ea*i< r loaded and unloaded, handier for almost every purpose, and that six or eight may lie driven by one man, with the assist ance of a l?oy ; that they are ?l*o leas destructive to the road* than wagons, especially in hilly roads, where the wheels ol the l?tier require to he locke.1 ; that they carry more in pro portion than either wagen* or carta drawn bv two or more bursas, and sre consequently more ?conomical."? On heavy roads lull r.f rod, on very long journeys, and with full loads, wagons sre pmhibly most sdvsntagcous ; hit in ordinary cases, and especially where quick movements are re quired, as in general f irm-work, besides being expensive snd a load in themselves, they occasion a great waste of draught power. The nearer that the horae is to his load the better; consequently the English m -U so frequently practised, of yoking Irom three to five h??r>ce to a plough or w.igon, in a line, one after an *her, if the wor*t possible. In proportion to the dintanc* at which animato of draught am rrmo*e<! from their load is ihe loss of po*er. It is bsrd, then, to under rtand upon what principles?they certainly are not mechani cal?this extravagant waste of labor is systematically per mitted. We are safe in asserting that throe horses, (suppos ing these in both ca-e? to he of simdar strength and form.) wi.h Scotch carta,which arc partly drawn and portly borne on the luck, would pull as heavy s load a* f-mr borsea would attached in line to a four-wbeeied wagon. The less of one in foor has been ascertained at the collieri-a in Durham, when the horses were probably yoked in the more favorable manner of our mail-c >ach horaes. The experiment is thus stated : A two-horae cart carried bushels, weighing cwt. A three horse cart ? " " ? ? A four-hwae wagon " 74 . , . . Whereas now a one-bom cart earr.es 24 bushels, we.gh ing Vi\ cwt., snd travels twenty-six miles in twelve hours.T The same principle applies in rome degree to the eaae of two horaes harnessed tandem'to a Bcr.trh cart; here is some lose of |k wer: the two horses abreaat would do more, and with perfect equality of labor, which does not hold in the other case ? for, in descending a hill, the whole weight reMa upon the hack of the shaft-horse, while the other is 'oullyre laxed i or, if the driver, through stupidity or drunken?,*, allows the leader to pull, the tendency of his draught is lo ?British Husbandry, p. 160. t British Husbandry, p. 160, drag the other m hi* knee* by increasing the pressure on it. When a*cendin(,a hill the leader often draw* too much, while the abaft-horse feline* from hi? pull, and on a level, if the leader l^e loweijthau the wheel horse, hi* traces, instead of being in line wi(| those of the abaft horse, form a considera ble angle, and w?d to bear the load downward* on hi* back. If the cart be wiLout a regular load, the driver Income* ut terly caiele**, mil pcrliups allow*a tpirilcd and willing leader to draw the win f hoise, the cart, and the driver, who fall* asleep after his dose of whiskey, a* long a* hi* energie* permit. ( " Hence, altlu ugh the fore-horse frequently throws the whole labor of draught upon the horse behind, yet, by exerting bis force solely in pilling, without bearing any portion ot the weight, and by t|e starts ami jerks to which he is subject, be is utmost i-.1wm) sfonnd to be rnoi* distressed on a journey, or by any continue) work, than the horse on which the burden fulls more eonsUatly and equally. "? A horse of thi Clydesdale breed was employed during four teen year* by i^r Charles Stuurt Menteith in druwing coal wag >ns upon thall-made turnpike i?ud in the county of Dum fries, from Ayrshire to Dumfries. Ilis ubual loud of c >al was thirty live huiulfed weight in a common light-road wagon, weighing thirteen hundred weight. He travelled twelve miles a day in I'our-rak stage*. He never Joy down during the last eight years, (xcept twice, when he was sick. From the experience which Sir C. S! Menteith has had in the use of animal power up<p c >mmon roads, he i* of opinion that the j most economical aode of employing horses in diaught i* to 1 give every horse lis own carriage, in order that he may dc p?'ii'l solely upon his own exeitioiis, as it i* difficult to find e^thor man or bcu4 always willing and capable of inuking uni form and continuiiis effort*. ? Railroads (saysiirC. 8. Menteith) of cast-iron, nine inches wide, somen hat circave, arc laid down jn the long a>cent be tween the Clyde aid the Forth and Clyde canal at Glasgow, : which enables one horse, in a single-horse cart, to draw from ; two to three tons, hough the rato of ascent in some part* of it is one foot of riscfor every fourteen feet of distance. This ' plan of railroad for as?nts has been ail iptid at Glasgow more than 1 twenty years. If the employment of oue-horse wagons weigh- j ing twelve or tliirtein hundred weight wasado|ited in convey ing coal through tht streets of London, one horse would do the work of two. /$ present fv?ur immense horse* draw three j chaldrons, or four tana one hundred weight ol coal in a wagon 1 weighing two tons ; so thut the shaft horse is obliged to draw a w eight of six tons in turning out of one street into another; which is the greatest cruelty a por.r dumb animal can lie sub jected to. At the samJ time, railroad* of cast-iron, similar to those in uso at Glasgow, should be laid down for the wheels j of carts or wagons upon the narrow street* f>om the river Thames to thb Strand, which would enable one hurse to draw two tons up tin?* streets, instead of employing six horses, ac cording to the firrbcnt practice for drnwing four Iuin of coals upon the same ttreets in their pn sent state. Where three horses are used, they should be yoked breast, if the breadth of the road will pennit. in ascending; a Kill, it is evident that the power of draught will be increased by dew ing from the locality of the axle, and not from the fore pan of the shafis ; but on a smooth level road, requiring no effort \o lift the wheels over any obstruction, (to overcome such, with any wheel carriage, ti e inclination of the traces downwards, from the collur to the axle, will facilitate the effort,) horizon tal draught is ih" best. The average description of road mutt of course regulate this point. The French two-wheeled carts arc extremely long ar.d nar row, probab'y from be.tig much used in the carriage of tim ber ; thase are undoubtedly more easily drawn than those which are short and broad. But in France, owing to the wreiched state of the by-roads and farm-lane* in winter, a team of se ven (hor>cs and oxen combined) in a row is yoktd to draw a load of wood or a tonneau of cider to the market weighing thirty live hundred weight only. The farmers contend that the lanes arc frcquen'ly too narrow to permit two of the beasts to l>e yoked abreast, and, though this objection does not apply to the r-iuliiges on the i;reat roads, the same injudicious sys tem is pursued ; and, if it were not fur the admirable training of the excellent horses employed in this kii.d of work, and the general sobriety of the two carters who conduct the entire team, great and partial distress would be more frequently ex perienced by the cattle. In either cait or plough, horses should have their necks pcr fecily free. The system of tight-bearing ivins, even for coach horse*, especially on ascending ground, is very questional !**, and never pursued in France or Germany. In the former country the horses are at full liberty to stretch out the>r necks as they please, and this freedom, in mounting n hill, or on a 1-ivel, if the pull is considerable, greatly aids their efforts, by rendering their weight most available in traction. When they are thrown on their haunches by bein^ reined up tbeir power of draught is more confined to their muscular action, and their weight of body doe* not tell. The Germans, in harnessing coach-horses, fall into oppo site extreme from ourselves, for they tie down to the pole the heads of their wheel horses to make the utmost of their weight at a dead pull. The free action of the heau and neck in heavy draught is very important j in slow and heavy farm work there is no occasion for bearing up the horses. In coach work, especially when the draught is light, there arc strong reasons for keeping up the neck in an unna'ural position, viz to allow the driver greater power in rapidly di recting the horses' movements, and to assist those of infirm limits in keeping their feet. The l?st composition for greeting wheels is that rei*orn-~ mended by a celebrated French chemist, viz. eigh'v parts of grease and twenty parts of blurklead, (plumbago,) reduced to very fine powder, and most intiina'cly and completely bletideJ together. This is used at the French mint for locks, Ac., and is nurpiisingly durable. A very small quantity suffices. COMMERCE, AND THE PREJUDICES AGAINST IT. mo* hunt's mekcha*ts' maoazini:. We have had occasion very often of late to observe, with much concern, that a deep-rooted prejudice is entertained by the agriculturists against the mercantile class. Among the former, indeed, is to be found a general distrust of commer cial men. They are regarded as sharpers, whose lives aro spent in acquiring a knowledge of arts by which to deceive the producer; as men who live alone upon that class < who exist not by labor, but by swindling and ingenuity ; as drones of society, consuming the resnl's of the toil of others, and yielding nothing whatever to the community in which they live. Wc are the more pained to observe this stale of feel ing, because frequently indulged in by persons of liberal opin ions in other respects ; by persons who, from education and intercourse, might he supposed capable of more enlarged sen timents. With some, it may be that envy which invariably poisons the feelings of bad men at the successes of others ; tor, of nil the animosities, thit entertained by those who work with the hands again* thoss who work with the head is most uncompromising am) bitter. Out we hope, in all cha rity, that with the majority of |>ersor.s the prejudice of which we write does not lie so much in the heart as in a misformed or untutored judgment. Now, with regard to thi* and other subjects, many good people sre misled, because their per sonsl and buaineas habits online the range of their views. The horizon around which they look is circumscribed , and, by constantly limiting their vision within a narrow sphere, they become mentally near-sighted, and incapable of liberal opinions. To such persons, nothing is valuable that is not the offspring of visilde laltor. Now, that of the planter is manual, and tha products of it constantly perceivable to the eye? while the toil of the merchant ia intelhctual, and the result of it incorporeal. It is a gross error to say that com merce is not a natural pursuit?that it is artificial or created out of wants produced by itself. A necessity for commerci.l trsnasctioas is pointed out by Nature. Varieties of climate, of products, the absolute dejwndonce of men of one country upon the manufactures or stsples of another, the connexion of parts of the same region by rivers, a:id of foreign nations by seas, all furnishing channels of communication, and invit ing to intercourse and trade, prove that Nature has herself determined the value anJ dictated the want of commcrcial re lation*. It is certain that in man's breast ahc has implanted th* strongest power* and inducements to this specie* of enter prise, and that the exertion of it has not only contributed to produce extraordinary displays of individual heroism, hut effected the largest consequences to national grandeur and social advantage. To the disposi'ion for adventure, thua made a part of our nature, we ow* the greatest of the moral and political advanrxments of all agea. To it ia the world indebted for the ir.crrsae of the number of the sciences, which have accumulated until every vocation has felt their influence, snd been benefited by their application. To it is the world indebted for Ihe spread of learning from the once confined centre of intelligence to eveiy pirt of Europe i arid Europe, in her turn, for the moral and commercial wealth of a new continent. To a person raising the curtain which divides ancient from modern history, a noble spectacle is presented in view of this subject. Let him trace the progress of enm??erre, beginning with the timorous v.iyages along the coist of the Mediterra nean snd among the Grecian islands, and the science of ship building fmn; the rude barques of the early navigators, and follow to the wondeifnl voyages and magnificent vessels of the present diy. I,et him, during this time, keep hi* eye on the progress of mtiona and the advancement of men in Mat tel" which contribute to their social and individual good. He will see how gradually, hot wonderfully, the improviment of lioth has followed mercantile enterprise ; and that in propor tion as encouragi ment has l?een given to commerce, the great orb of civilisation has rolled on and expanded, until all Na | '* Elements, p. 13.1. 4 The same spirited ami judicious proprietor also emple.vs one-horse wagons fur hia cxtmsive lime-works, which take three tons on ? stage of three mile* and a half, generally of gentle deelivity, with occasional ascents of one foot in thi.ty, on whieh he has placed sandstone railroad, with iron plates six inch'-? wide, for the wagon wheels. The frieti'in break di miaishes the draught down any of the more rapid descents. tuie ia lighted up witii iu efful^nce and warmed with its beams. v Agriculture ha* esptcially derived Treat benefits from the labors ot the merchant. To hi* intercuuse with foreign'na lious ta the latter not only indebted for ruw markets for hi* productions, but for the introduction of new aeei's and plants, which, though not indigenous to our climate, ha>? ytt, in many instance a, notonly become mattei* of au^ahtence, ?utof expor tation. Commerce introduced into the Carolina* the rice and cottou of Egypt, and into Louisiana the sugar of A*ifc; and upon the bosom of the whole West ia now aown broadcast the wheat of the Ea*t, growing in abundance in place* where the natural grain* of the country cannot be produced at all. But the roost important of the advantage* yielded to agriculture by the enterprise of merchant* is the demand created abroad for the products of the soil, by their becoming carriers and opening avenues of trade to foreign countries. Wo often hear men indulge iu a sort of Utopian specula tion upon the sulject of living, as they Bay, wiihiu them selves. Much persons epeak of the huppiuess and prosperity of modes oi life iu which each man would depend on him self, live for himself, and cultivate only so much of the fruits of the earth as would be necessary for his own subsistence. Much a plan would do well enough in poetry, but not for the realities of existence. Let one reflect a moment upon the consequences of such a Quixotic scheme. Labor being limit ed to the cultivation of only a few acres, large parts of the eountiy would become barren and overgrown with forest?. The exchange of one product (or another would be no longer necetsary. The intercourse ol men would l>e destroyed, and they would sink into a state of selfishness, enmity, and even tually of barbarism ; and not only would labor be without it* reward, but every motive for improvement lost, and the mind return to worse than original etiolation. A stale of savage brutality and of mental deterioration, and consequently of submission to the worst species of tyranny, is the condition of every people cut off from intercourse with other communities. If, however, the cultivator of the soil sees that the surplus products of hi* lund can lie readily ex changed for the staples or. manufactures of other countries, hi* ambitioq to produce that surplus is excited, his business enlarges, his mode of cultivation become* improved, hi* farm increases, he introduces new fruits and grains, his comfort* augment, he furnishes employment to a large number of per sona who would be otherwise idle ; and he becomes not only more valuable to himself and country, but the means of add ing much to the sum of happiness of those who iu distant regions rrceive his products in exchange for their own. Out how could all this be effected but for the merchant ' He who, as it were, stands at the door of the nation, upon the shores of the ssa, to receive with one hand the products of foreign countries, while with the other he transmits them to the interior of hi* own ? Who traverses remote regions in pursuit of new opportunities of trade, and expends his wealth in the building and improvement of vehicles in which to con vey safely and expeditiously the fiuits of the labor ot the planter, and return in exchange far them the manufac ture* or staples of foreign nations, for the comfort and sub sistence of hi* own people ? He who, in tact, furnishes the idea ot national credit; whose enterprise makes up the sum of a nation's commercial relations, and whoso integrity is identical with confidence > The reflection is a very beautiful and valuable one which traces the reputation of a nation among foreigners to the honor of a single citizen; and yet tow often has the American flag been respected, even among t?rbariaus, on account of the scrupulous punctuality and un daviuting rectitude of the adventurous Yankee trader? Without the impulse afforded by commerce, the sciences of autonomy and navigation would have remained involved in the mists which for ages overhung them. The first has, through its encouragement, been made to disclose new won den in the heaven* ; and in aid of the last, by new power* displayed in the magnetic needle, occans have been explored, which were once thought untraversable, and dt signed to cut off ull intercourse forever. Voyages, once of great risk and cf long-continuance, across the Atlantic and Pacific, are now made trips of satiety and pleasure, performed in a few days or weeks in floating palaces, impelled by power .which set* the wind'at defiance. Nor has man afhne been benefited. Na j lions, in their Government relations, and in the entire pur suits and muuners of their jieoplc, have been entirely revolu ' lionized, through the influence of the peaceful conq est* of commerce. Through it statesmen have been silently forced I to change systems of Government, from systems of war and I conquest to those of the arts of peace. Commercial treaties have piovtd stronger bariiers than fcrtincations and cannou ; and, as consequences, not only have the nations themselves be 1 come richer and more [Kiweiful, but individuals have found their | manners softened and refined, and their comforts largely in ' creased and cheapened, in proportion as their intercouise with strangers has been extended, and their products and inanu ! factuies exchanged. To tho means of communicating quickly I with distant countries, thus the result of the extension of commerce, are nations, in times of calamity and famine, in debted for relief. The condition of'Ireland, during the past few years, famishes a satisfactoiy illustration; when, from the full bosom of the new world, was poured out a stream, ! without which millions would have miserably perished. In regard to the woaithof commercial men, it would be un just not to say that it is returned again generously into the I community from which originally drawn. The riches of the farmer are expended in imestruents, which do not, and can j not, be so extensively beneficial. He becomes a large land "proprietor, and there he centres his cap'tal. But the mer chant expends his in manufactures, internal improvements, railways, ships, steamboats ; all receive his surplus, and in | the?c a greater number are benifited than in the mere exten ?ion of a landed interest. Besides, the largest donations ever made to educational establishments httewen made by mer chants ; and of public libraries, lyceum associations and free schools, they are almost the exclusive patrons. We do not mean by this to assert that planters are never the promoters of learning or of social benevolences; but only to assume that from the vocation of merchants, their residence in large cities, and the absence of other avenues, their wealth more frequently take these directions. Taking tb< ae things into consideration, we hope to see a more liberal and enlightened inquiry indulged in with regard to tho value ot commercial men. The writer, from long as sociation, would na'urally sympathize with the plan'er ; but he feels this tribute due not less to truth and justice than^to a clan of citizens who do more to establish a nation's pios peritv, and to lay the foundation of her fame for honor, than any other t who, without violence, are at once her atr-nglh and protection, and who contribute more to the extension of the triumphs of liberty and law than all the military power ever displayed in war. THE CALIFORNIA GOLD REGION. rnon rr. louis Beet n Lie ah. The accounts which have reached the United 8tates con cerning the auriferous region of country on the Sacramento and ita branches has, as was to be expected, induced hun dred*, we might say thousands, of our citizens to turn their eye* in that direction. The air of official authority which the publications were made to bear, having come from some officer of the army or navy, the description of the ease with which the gold is obtained, and the high prices of all commo dities for sale and of labor, have aroused a spirit of specula tion arxj a desire to viai*. that country among sit classes of the community. Old men, as well as the middle-aged and young, have golden visions of wealth before them, and are preparing to try their luck in this far-distant land. A short time ago we were favored with a sample of the gold found on the Sacramento, and forwarded to this place by Col. Mason, now Governor of California. The possession of this little specimen has enabled us to see something of the workings of the fever. If it be not epidemic, it is at least widely diffused The first symptom is an application to ex amine our specimen?following which, coines the inquiry as to the quickest and most practicable mesns of gelling there, and what ia heat to be done when there?whether to take merchandise and exchange it for gold, or to go and dig for it?winding up invariably with the inquiries, What do you think of the reports ' Are the mine* as rich as they are re presented ' Is the project a favorable one ' Ac. Now, we do not know any thing more about this matter than others who have had an opportunity of obtaining such information. If our opinion is worth any thing, we csn ray that the mines must bo extremely rich, ifhslf of all those who now intend going there realize their hopes. It may he that a large aurifernua region has been discovered, and we are bound to believe so from the representations which have been pub lished ; but thst it is the El Dorado described, we very much doubt Si'rh discoveries are usuallv greatly magnified and eml>el lisiied by those who undertake to describe them, and the pro uppct held out always exceeds the reality?at least this is the case to the operators. Emigrants and settlers are wanted in California, and what so captivating as these gold visions * The.-* are many town lots and broad acres fi?r sale there, and what so conducive to the profit of the landholder as a flood of emigrants ? There are some circumstances attending the publications in reference to this matter the make us doubt lul of the extent of the represt ntations, and lead us to suspect the motives which have prompted them. Of these we may spesk hereafter j but this strikes us as undeniable, that the possessor of ? gold mine is not very apt, voluntarily, to ask other men to come in and ehare it with him. Bullvc ahull nee trhat vr ahall nt. We were yesterday visited by a gentleman who has been for many years n conductor of gold mines in Mexico. He examined our specimen, and then informed us that he had travelled over a large portion of the Sacramento region in search of gold mines, described the evidences be found, and concluded by assuring us that after s|>ending five thousand dollars in experiments and attempts al discoveries, he came out minut the investment. This is one side, our readers may compare it with the other. John Frederick Stanton, Esq., of Poley-house, London, bas forwarded to Mr. Neilaon, a very handsome silver tankard for Jerome, who so nobly rescued seventeen lives from the wreck of the Ocean Monarch.