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mi in our achoota of learning and of law thai he was trained
up for the great content* which awaited him in the furum or the Senate chamber. Nor can we forget how long and how intimately he was associated in the Executive or deliberative branches of the Government with more than one of our own most cherished statesmen. The loss of such a man, sir, creates a sensible gap in the public councils. To the State which he represented, and the section of country with which he was so peculiarly identified, no stranger tongue may venture to attempt words of adequate consolation. But let us hope that the event may not be with out a wholesome and healing influence upon the troubles of the times. Let us heed the voice, which comes to us all, both as individuals and as public officers, io so solemn and signal a providence of God. Let us remember that, whatever hap pens to the Republic, we must die ! Let us reflect how vain ?re the personal strifes and partisan contests in which we daily engage, in view of the great account which we may so soon be called on to render! As Cicero exclaimed, in considering the death of Crassus : "O fallacem hominum spem, fragilem que forcunam, et inane* nostras contentiones!" Finally, sir, let us find fresh bonds of brotherhood and of Union in the cherished memories of those who have gone be . fore u*; and let us resolve that, so far as in us lies, the day shall never come, when New England men may not speak of the great names of the South, whether among the dead or among the living, as of Americans and fellow countrymen ! Mr. VENABLE rose and said: Mr. Speaker, in respond icg to the announcement just made by the gentleman from Sou'h Carolina, (Mr. Holmes,) I perform a ?ad and melan choly office. Did I consult my feeling1! alone, ! would be silent. In the other end of this building we have just beard the touching eloquence of two venerable and distinguished Senators, his contemporaries and compatriots. Their names belong to their country as well as h'a; and I thought, while each was speaking, of the valiant warrior, clothed in armor, whs, when passing the grave of one with whom he had broken lances and crossed weapons, dropped a tear upon his dust, end gave testimony to his skill, bis valor, and bis honor. He whose spirit has fled needs no e'fiort of mine to place his name on the bright psgo of history, nor would any eulogy which I might pronounce swell the vast tide of praUes which will flow perent ially from a nation's gratitude. The great American statesman who has fallen by the strafes of death has left the impress, of his mind upon the generations among whom he lited?has given to posterity the inioes of his recorded thoughts to reward their labjr with intellectual wealth?has left an ex ample of purity and patriotism on which the wearied eye may rwt, ?4 And gaze upon the great, Where neither guilty glory glows, , Nor despicable state." For more than forty years his name is conspicuous in our history. Born at the close of the revolutionary war, he was in full maturity to guide the couucils of his country in our second contest with England. Never unmindful of her claims upon him, he has devoted a long life to her service, and has closed it, like a gallant warrior, with his armor buckled on him. " Death made no conquest of this conqueror ; for now he lives in lame, though not in life." The only lame, sir, which he ever coveted?an impulse to great and honorable deeds?a fame which none can despise who have not re nounced the virtues which deserve it. It is at least some re lief to our hearts, now heaving with sighs at this dispensation of Heaven, that he now belongs to bright, to endurirg histo ry ; for his was one of "the few immortal names that were not born to die." Of his early history the gentleman who preceded me has spoken ; of his illustrious life I need not speak ; it is known to millions now living, ar.d will be fa miliar to-the wo: Id in aflertimes. But, sir, I propose t > say something of him in his last days. Early in the winter of 1848-'9 his failing health gave uneasiness to his friends. A severe attack of bronchitis, complicated with an affection of the heart, disqualified him for the performance of his senatorial duties with the punctu ality which always distinguished him. It was then that I became intimately acquainted with his mind, and, above all, with bis heart. Watching-by his bedside, and during hU recovery, I ceased to be astonished at the power which his master-mind and elevated moral feelings had always exerted upon those who were included within the circle of his social intercourse. It was a tribute paid spontaneous ly to wisdom, genips, truth. Patriotism, honesty of pur pose, and purity of motive, rendered active by the energies of such an intellect as hardly ever falls to any man, gathered around him sincere admirers and devoted friends. That many have failed to appreciate the value of the great truths which he uttered, or to listen to the warnings which he gave, is nothing new in the history of great minds. Bacon wrote for posterity, and men of profound sagacity always think in ad vance of their generation. His body was sinking under the invasion of disease before I formed his acquaintance, and he was passing from among us before I was honored with his friendship. I witnessed with astonishment the influence of his mighty mind over his weak physical structure. Like a powerful steam engine oh a frail bark, every revolution of the wheel tried its capacity for endurance to' the utmost. But yet his mind moved on, and, as if insansible of the decay of bodily strength, put forth, without stint, his unequalled pow ers 04' thought and analysis, until Nature well-nigh sunk un der the Imposition. His intellect preserved its vigor while his body was sinking to decay. The menstruum retained all its powers of solution, while the frail crucible which contain ed it was crumbling to atoms. During his lato illness, which, with a short intermission, has continued since the commence ment of this session of Congress, there was no abatement of his intellectual labors. They were directed as well to the momentous questions now agitating the public mind, as to the completion of a work which embodies his thoughts on the subject of government in general and our own constitution in particular; thus distinguishing his lost days by the greatest effort of his mind, and bequeathing it as his richest legacy to posterity. Cheerful in a sick chamber, none of the gloom which usually attends the progress of disease annoyed him ; severe in ascertaining the truth of conclusions,because unwilling to be deceived himself, he scorned to deceive others; skilful in ap preciating the past, and impartial in his judgment of the pre sent, he looked to the future as dependant on existing causes, ar.d fearlessly gave utterance to his opinions of its nature and character; the philosopher and the statesman, he d scarded expedients by which men "construe the times to their ne cissities." He loved the truth for the truth's sake, and believed that to temporize is but to increase the evil which we seek to remove. The approach of de ?th brought no indication of impatience?no cloud upon his intellect. To a friend, who spoke of the time and manner in which it was best to meet death, he remarked, " I have but little concern about either ; I desire to die in the discharge of my dutyI have aa unshaken reliance upon the providence <>f God.1' I saw him four days after his last appearance in the Senate chamber, gradually sinking under the power of his malady, without one murmur at his affliction, always anxious for the interest of his country, deeply absorbed in the great question which agitates the public mind, and earnestly desiring its ^honorable adjustment, unchanged in the opinions which he ihad held and uttered for many years, the ardent friend of the 'Union and the Constitution, and seeking the perpetuity of ?our institutions, by inculcating the practice of justice and ?the duties of patriotism. Aggravated symptoms, on the day before his death, gave inotice of his approaching end. I left him late at night, with but faint hopes of amendment; and, on being summoned early -the next morning, I found him sinking in the cold embrace of death. Calm, collected, and conscious of his situation, but without any symptom of alarm, his face beaming with intelligence, without one indication of suffering or of pain. I watched his countenance, and the lustre of that bright eye remained unchanged, until the silver cord was broken, and ihen it went out in instantaneous eclipse. When I removed my hand from closing his eyes he seemed as one who had fallen into a sweet and refreshing slumber. Thus, sir, closed the days of Johi* Caldwell Calhoun, the illustrious Ame rican statesman. His life and services shall speak of the great ness of by-gone days with undying testimony. Another jewel has fallen from our crown ; an inscrutalle Providence has re moved from among us one of the great lights of the age. But it is not extinguished. From a height to which the shafts of malice or the darts of detraction never reach, to which envy cannot erawl, or jealousy approach, it will shine brighter and more gloriously, sending its rays over a more extended ho rizon, and blessing mankind by its illumination. The friend of constitutional liberty will go to his writings for truth and to his life for a model. We, too, shou'd be instructed by his erperier.ee, wUle his presages lor the future should infuse caution into our counsels, and prudence into our actions. His voice, now no more heard in the Senate, will speak m< st potentially from the grave. Personal opposition has died with his death. The aspiring cannot fear hun, nor the ambiious dread his elevation. His life has become history, and his thnughts the property of his countrymen. Sir, while we weep over his grave, let us be consoled by the assurance that "honor decks the turf that wraps his clay." He was our own, and his fame is also ours. Let us imitate his great example, in pr. fernng truth and duty lo the appro bation of men, or the tiiumphs of parly. Be willing to stand alone f.ir the right, nor surrender independer.ee for any in ducement. He was brought up in the society of the men of the Revolution, saw the wo>k of our constitution since its for mation, was profoundly skilled in construing its meaning, and sought by his wisdom and integrity to give permanency to the Government which it created. If such high purposes be curs, then our sun, like his, will go dnwn serenely, and wo shall b.ive<wcured "a peace above all other dgnitics?a calm and quiet conscience." The question was then taken on the resolutions offered by Mr. Hoi.mkr, and they were unanimously agreed to. And thereup >n the Hou<e adjourned. PKOCEEDINGS IN CONGRESS ON TUESDAY. The two Houses of Congress on Tuesday were engaged in the performance of funeral rites over the remains of the lion. John C. Calhoun, and the Senate chamber presented a solemn and deeply in teresting aspect. The corpse of the deceased States man?enclosed in a metallic case, bearing the fol lowing simple inscription on the plate: "John C. Calhoun: born March 18, 1782 ; died March 31, 1850"?was placed on a bier in the centre area, around which were grouped relatives and friends, amongst whom were a son of the deceased, the sur viving Senator and the Representatives in Congress from South Carolina, and veteran statesmen as pall-bearers, some of whom have been Mr. Cal houn's contemporaries during the many years he has been in the National Councils?Mr. Clay and Mr. Webster, Mr. Mangim and Mr. Cass, Mr. Berrien and Mr. Kino. The other members of the Senate, in two semi-circular rows of seats, en closed the melancholy group. The President of the United States was pre sent, seated on the right of the Vice President, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives occu pied a chair on his left. The Chaplains of the Senate and Heuse of Representatives occupied the Secre tary's desk, to tl:y right and left of whom were the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House, and immediately in front were the Committee of Arrangements. The subordinate officers of the two Houses were in appropriate positions around the platform. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, and its offieers, in their robes, and two of the Judges of the United States Court for the District of Columbia, were as signed seats in the chamber on the extreme left of the Presiding Officer, and the extensive Diplomatic Corps were on the right. The Members of the House of Representatives, with the Heads of De partments, occupied the residue of the body of the chamber, leaving the outer circle behind the bar for Officers of the Army and the Navy. Ex-Cabinet officers, Senators, Members of the House of Repre sentatives, Mayor and Councils of Washington, Heads of Bureaus, and other civilians entitled to admission, were accommodated beneath the marble gallery and in the adjacent aisles. The circular gallery was exclusively appropriat ed to ladies, leaving only the limited space in the marble gallery behind the Reporters for such male spectators as could gain admittance. The Service performed was that of the Episcopal Church, of which the Chaplain to the Senate, the Rev. C. M. Butler, is a Minister. The ritual, commencing with " I am the Resurrection and the Life," was followed by a Sermon, brief but im pressively appropriate, from Psalm 82, 6 and 7: " I have said ye are gods ; and all of you are chil dren of the Most High. But ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes." The funeral cortege left the Senate chamber for the Congressional Burial-Ground, where the body is for the present deposited, in the following order : The Chaplains of both Houses of Congress. Physicians who attended the deceased. Committee of Arrangements Mr. Masobt, Mr. Davis, of Miss. Mr. Atchisok, Mr. Dodoe, of Wisconsin. Mr. Dickiwsow, Mr. Greeke. Pall-Bearers : Mr. Makgum, Mr. C*s?, Mr. Clay, Mr. Kikg, Mr. Webster, Mr. Bkrrikh. The family and friends of the deceased. The Senator and Representatives from the S;ate of South Carolina, as mourners. The Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate of the United States. The Senate of the United States, preceded by the Vice Pre sident of the United States and their Secretary. The Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives. The House of Representatives, preceded by their Speaker and Clerk. The President of the United States. The Heads of Departments. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States and its officers. The Diplomatic Corps. Judges of the United States. Officers of the Executive Departments. Officers of the Army and Navy. The Mayor and Councils of Washington. Citizens and Strangers. THE SUPREME COURT. Pursuant to adjournment, the Supreme Court of the United States met on Monday morning at the Capitol. Present: The Hon. Roger B. Taney, Chief Justice. " John McLean, 44 James M. Wayne, | 44 John Catron, ^ Ass"e Justices. 44 Samuel Nelson, | 44 Levi Woodbury, J Upon the opening of the Court, the Chief Jus tice said: That the Court had learned, with much sorrow, that Mr. Calhoun died yesterday morningand from his long public services, and the high stations he hud filled under the Govern ment, the Court deemed it proper, as a mark of respect for hie memory, to adjourn to-day without the transaction of any business. The Court thereupon adjourned. SMITHSONIAN LECTURES. Professor Reed, of the University of Pennsyl vania, gave a highly instructive lecture on Monday evening before the Institution, which was listened to with profound attention by a large and intelli gent audience. The subject was the growth of the American Union during the colonial period, ex hibiting the philosophical principles which prompt ed and shaped the Government of the United States. The lecturer traced in the events of early American history a gradual tendency to the future result of Union, arguing from the concurrence of events a Pro vidential purpose. The period of discovery was con sidered with a view to show, by the direction given to Portuguese, Spanish, and English voyagers re spectively, that the country was destined to be occu pied by the race that speaks the English tongue? a phrase which Professor Reed preferred fb that of 44 Anglo-Saxon," the inadequacy of which was explained. The origin of the principle of union was traced to the Saxon element of local govern ment as distinguished from absolute centralization, and the characteristic difference between the Eng lish and French races in this respect was noticed. The unsuccessful attempts at colonization in the sixteenth century were reviewed to show that it was a period unfavorable to the partition of the country into several colonial settlements ; and the perma nent colonization of the seventeenth century was shown to have led, by its free and more various process of occupation, to the formation of the thir teen distinct political communities. In connexion with the attempts at colonization in the sixteenth century, Professor Reed mentioned a fact recently discovered by investigations in the State-paper office of the British Government?that Sir Philip Sidney meditated a voyage to America a short time before those which were equipped by Sir V alter Raleigh. The subject of the next lecture, that of this even ing, was announced to be the growth of Union among the several colonies, the first lecture having shown that the materials of Union had been pre paring during a long course of time. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT IN VIRGINIA. At the late session of the Legislature of the State of Virginia, appropriations of money on State ac count, in subscriptions to stock companies, and in State guaranties of company debts, were made to the large aggregate amount of two millions three huudred and thirty thousand eight hundred and twenty-live dollars; of which #244,900 were on State account; $1,102,425 in subscriptions on the joint stock principle; and $983,500 in the form of guaranty bonds. The items of appropriation are very numerous, and some of them quite small. Those of large and significant amount are the following : Completion of James River and Kanawha Company Canal from Lynchburg to Buchanan, - - $110,000 Louiaa Railroad to Covington, - Couisa Railroad from Richmond to junction, Hazel River Navigation Company, Fredericksburg and Valley Plank Road, - North River Navigation Company, Southside Railroad, (booda of Petersburg,) James River and Kanawha Company, extension from Buchanan to Covington, Richmond and Danville Railroad, Rockingham Turnpike, - Boydtou and Petersburg Plank Road, LOUISIANA. The Legislature of this State terminated its An nual Session on Thursday, the 21st ultimo, having refused to give any sanction to the proposed Nash ville Convention. The Legislature adjourned without taking any any action on the subject of the Nashville Con vention (says the Picayune) or the Southern "Cri sis." A series of resolutions got through the Sen ate by a compromise among members of different opinions, in which it was recommended to the peo ple of the State to send delegates to Nashville. In the House they were never brought to a vote. Af ter two or three days' debate, in which they met with strong opposition, they were postponed from week to week. All efforts to get them up again failed, and they thus.dieda natural death. OPINION IN FLORIDA. The Pensacola Gazette oflMarch 23 has the fol lowing : "Some of our friends have spoken of a public meeting here to express approbation of Qov. Browin's course in re lation to the Nashville Convention. We deem it unneces sary. There is not and never has been the least excitement here, and demagogism is unknown among us. In spite of the unbounded popularity in this part of the State of one of the Florida delegation, in spite of the confidence felt in bis purity and his discretion, the letter of Gov. Brown is looked on here as a standard of opinion. It is thought to be goo I enough in itself. The popular heart approves it, and it needs not the aid of public meetings. We mean it is good enough so far as it prepares a platform for the People of the State. For the rest, so far as it relates to matters of personal cour tesy between public functionaries, we have nothii.g to say. They roust settle all matters of taste and decorum among themselves. FROM NORTH CAROLINA. The Nashville Convention, we take it, is pretty nearly on its last legs in North Carolina. By reference to the proceedings of the District Convention held recently in Wil mington, it will ba seen that even in the portion of the State where the most strenuous efforts have been made to put the public mind in a ferment upon the slavery question, after the loudest and most fiery sort of exhorting, the leaders, out of one of the largest districts in the State, were able to bring to gether only one hundred delegates, and even this corporal's guard was at last brought up to tiife scratch only by the most strenuous efforts. The Editor of the Aurora is out of humor with the resolutions. He thinks they sing " our title pretty c!eai to mansions in the skies." Don't mind it, friend Au rora. The Oin North State is somewhat given to judging for herself, and giving to rash and dangerous counsellors a sharp rebuke. She is sound upon the slavery question, but has no idea of being led by the nose blindfold into disunion. Our friends of the " ahead of the time*" school must live and learn. They are rather slow at .taking the hint, though. [Newbemian. FROM MISSOURI. FROM THE ST. LOUIS " CHIOS'." The Nashville Convention.?The disfavor with which the proposed Convention at Nashville has met in many fec tions and several entire States of the South, renders it doubt ful, we think, whether this body will assemble at the time and place contemplated. Already the course of some of the Southern States has shown that this Convention could not be truly termed a South ern Convention, as indicative of the voice of the South. The great South has not spoken in its favor, nor will it. Its pa triotic citizens pronounce against the mad project, and it ia worse than a misnomer, the name thus arrogated. If those delegations of Southern citizens who had designed assembling at Nashville persist in carrying out that design, let them spare the South the disgrace of their treason by withdrawing the title they have applied to the proposed assemblage, and honestly inscribing on their ftag a name expressive of its true character. Their m )tto should be " Treason to our common country, and desolation to the South !" FROM ALABAMA. FROM THE "FREE PRESS," (LINOBN, ALA.) MARCH 19. Southern Convention.?The mode by which delegates were appointed to this Convention by the members of our last Legislature seems to have been almost universally con demned throughout the State. Continual appeals are made to the people to give it their sanction by primary meetings, &c., but the people will have nothing to do with the matter? at least they will make no move in it. So far, however, as we ore able to ascertain public opinion on this subject, the people disapprove, not only tk^mode of appointing the de'egates to this Convention as a usurpation of*| their lights, bat the pretentions on which they were appointed. Hence we come to the conclusion that the State of Alabama will not be represented at the Nashvillo Convention, as we think she ought not to be. And, indeed, we see that in Georgia, where the Legislature had recommended the e'eclion of dele gates by the people, that they refused to come together for that purpose. So that it seems the people are not ahead' of their leaders on this subject, and it is probable that they will refuse to follow the lead of their leaders. The evidenco respecting the handwriting of the notes pro nour.ccd to have been writteu by Professor Wkbstsh is among the most curious that the recent trial has developed, although there was nothing novel in its nature. Men ac customed to examine handwriting acquire such a wonderful facility that they can dctect resemblances through the most labored attempts to disguise and conceal; and not only this, they can tell with great certainty a counterfeit signature, even though they are not familiar with the genuine; brokers, bank officers, and engravers acquire this faculty in the high est degree, but they enn give no explanation of the mannrr in which they make the detection. They only say, "thisis a g od bill, that is a bid one < I cannot tell why, or how I know the d fference, but so it is." Every thing in nature militates against what is falss. Every falsehood contains the elements of its own detection, constantly struggling towards the light. ?? Providence Journal. The Wekpino Ctprksb.?This splendid tree has been recently introduced into England from the Bast. Imagine an cveigrcen weeping willow, with compact habit, and close, feathering foliage, like the littlo cypress vine, and you will have some conception of this tree as we hate seen it described. If our little plant of four inches, which has just reached us, nt a cost of some ten dollars, ever makes itself into a tree, we can perhaps describe it better from personal knowledge. There can be little doubt, however, that it will prove one of the greatest acquisition* to our list of hardy evergreens. [American Agriculturist. 420,000 100,000 45,000 60,000 60,000 323,500 360,000 200,000 60,000 96,000 VOICES FROM TENNE88EB. j FROJC THI BASH VILLI! 1 illll. The people of Tennessee do not want their State dishonored by another Hartford Convention ; and, if the Mobile Register is ambitious of th6 distinc tion, let him invite those who go for a M Southern Confederation with a Capital at Asheville"?those who wish to " elaborate plans for a Southern Con federation"?let him, we say, invite them to do it at Mobile. Then, at least, the Old Hero who told the people of South Carolina, in times past, that, "com pared to disunion all other evils are light," will not have his sleeping dust shaken by the tread of those whom, when living, he made quail before his presence whilst contemplating similar plot*?his grave will not be dishonored; and, in conclusion, we would just hint that it will be time enough to hold ? war-dance over bis tomb when the people of Tennessee invite them to do it. Until that time, it would be just as well for the Register to keep homilies for those bet ter able to appreciate the value of them. FROM THK NASHVILLE "TRUK WII1S." The evidences of strong love of the Union are now begin ning to be unmUtakeably disclosed every where. The people are making up to their real danger. The feeling ot the great American heart is precisely nothing short of the sentiment, tht Union shall not be distolved. We hope the Convention at Nashville will not be held. I We hope soon to announce that the idea is abandoned. If its object be disunion, some other location should be selected. If the real design ia to "awe the regulardelibera'ions and action of the constituted authorities" of the Government, it ia at war with the most fundamental principles of the Gjvernment. If it is intended to ailbrd an occasion for inoffensive expression of opinion, it is more than useless, as other mode* and forms are more authoritative aud leas liable to exception. If it is intended to allow an expression of unity of aeutimact in the Sot)th, it is a sad mistake, as there is now no appearance of uni^r or concord among those who have urged the call of a Convention. Whatever may be the plausible pretences, those who meet in such Convention will be stigmatized. The impudences of the restless or wicked few, will stain indelibly the ihole body. The surviving members of the old Hartford Condition have often appealed, but in vain, to their recorded proceeding*, to vindicate themselves from the churge of being traito* to th? Union?it has never removed the stigma rest ing u^n them. i FROM THE MAURI 1 NT KLLItt K SC B R.. It is'antrue that this Southern Convention finis any con siderabB sympathy with the people of either party at the South. Whvreia the evidence ? Where is the spontaneous moving ; the " liigent" action of those who are deeply interested > It is not tc be* found. And ^et there is deep feeling at the South on this slavery question, The people, however, see no more reason for a concert*! movement of this kind now, than has existed for the last twtipty years. With wonderful patience they have borne the insdence of Northern fanaticism, believing that it was limited n its extent and harmless as to results?believing that bey hale friends at the North, " true as steel," who will stand bj^and defend.them "at all hazards and to the last ex tremity "f-and why should they make any movement which would embarrass these friends, and the natural consequence of which wiuld be the very opposite of all their wishes. They will not <o it. They know when it will be time for them to act, and ihould that time ever come?and Heaven knows they do not deaire to see it?there will be no mistake as to their determiqation. We aw sorry, for the honor of Old Maury, that a meeting has been called here for the purpose of sending a representa tion to this Southern Convention from among her citizens. Upon whom the responsibility rests we don't know, nor do we cart to know. We have nothing to offer in the way of reproach?we simply express our sincere regret at such an an nouncement. We have no doubt that it originated in good iatentioos, but wc think, so lar as cur judgment of the people is concerned, that they do not desire such a representation. We know, if the object of this Convention is such as has been intimated by more than one journal at the South, so far from I being desirous of a representation, they would prefer that the soil of Tennessee, and the capital of our State, should never be desecrated by such an assemblage. To be sure, the De mocrat, and other papers of its political stamp, repudiate with indignation any such object as has been elsewhere avowed. We are glad that they have done so?but wou!d it not be infi nitely better for us to have no affiliation at all with those who avow as the object of thia Convention "to form a hew con stitution or the UirrrKn States or North America"? to elaborate plans for "a separate Southerk Confedera tion." What Tennesscan wishes to be represented in a Convention containing within itself those who cherish such lentiments * from the franklin review. The Southern Cohvention.?The advocates of this Erecious bantling of the Mississippi repudiators arid the South Jaro'ina nullifiers, are moving heaven and earth, so far as they can, to draw together at Nashville in June next a large assembly of the people of the Southern States. This effort will b? fruitless ; for we do not believe that a single sober-minded citizen of Tennessee will give them a welcome to the capital of our 8tate. If Tenne^seans are willing to consort with the disunionisis of the South, and to aid the views of the rabid abolitionists of the North, here is a chance. FROM THE ROBERTSON BAC K WOODSMAN. Souther*. Cosvention.?The Convention which is to meet in Nashville in June next, so far as we haveaeen, is ad vocated by the Democratic press, and denounced by the Wb'g presa as treasonable. We presume the Convention was got ten up by some broken down politicians, whose greatness de pends upon the dissolution of the Union- If tbis is their foul method to dissolve the Union, we for one protest against it. If we will stand by him who is determined, by the aid of the people, to be the great pacifier?who now sits in the balls at our proud metropolis, animated by that glorious sentiment, "THE UNION MUST BE PKESER VED," in a short time there will be thirty-one proud States, marching on in all the beauty of fraternal sisters of one glorious family. The turbulent waters ?f sectional agitation will calm down ; and the getters up of this Convention will be looked upon with tn famy, and pointed at by the finger of scorn by all who love thi? glorious Union. The Philadelphia papers record (he death, at Naples, on the 22d of February, of Charles Carroll Batahd, a Passed Midshipman in the United States navy. He was a son of the Hon. Richarh H. Batard, formerly United States Senatoi from the State of Delaware. Being on a ciuisc in the Me diterranean the vessel to which he was'altached stopped at Naples, and he obtained permission to visit Mount Vesuvius. While at the crater of the volcano an eruption suddenly took place, and some of the stones thrown out by the convulsion fell upon Mr. Bayard's right arm, shattering it so badly as to cause his death. We sincerely condole with his bereaved relatives and friends under this great affliction. The eruption alluded to was the most brilliant and tremen dous that has been witnessed for many years. It was, more over, remarkably sudden, as none of the usual signs had pre ceded iu A letter states that the mountain literally roared with the efforts it made to disgorge itself. The noise was like the firing of cannon at sr a, and at every discharge there was thrown up a mass of lava and rock ', which at night looked l.ke balls of fire. A guide, who w as on the mountain at the time, says : " In the middle of the mountain, towards Sjmma, in an instant a grotto was formed full of stalactite of salt nntftia rine talt. I was about to gather some portion of it when the grolto began to open as if under 'he influence of an earth quake, and, as I fled, I found that my clothes were burnt upon my back. Had I not quickene.l my speed my life would have been sacrificed, for in the same moment there issued forth a current of lava forty palms in breadth ; whence, ns also f<om the crater, wero thrown up bombs and lightnings. In ten minutes the lava extended to the foot of Somma, forming a most wonderful and beautiful scene." Advrrtisiwo.?-The Ijtver by which fortunes art made. At ii banquet given to the employees of a Urge establishment in New York city, the owner of the establishment (*ays tho Sun) in the course of a brief history of his ri?o and progress as a manufacturer, alluded to his indebtedness to the press as the great medium by which he had made the public acquaint ed with his business, and drawn them to him as customers. He said he regarded the press, in this age of competition, as the great fulcrum upon which the tradesman rested his adver tise nent. and by that means overturned his adversaries. That is, he who advertised most judiciously and extensively, wss sure to reap the reward of triumph. If every man dealing wares to the public was guided by as truih'ul con*ictu>n of his intc/esta aa thia manufacturer, few would have cause to coinplain-of small sale?, or ill success in tr de. A few en terprising men of the varioua trades and professions, have got hold of the great secret of success, and it is not stiange 10 us that they rise to fortune and eminence, to the wonder and an noyance of their less sagacious, non advertising neighbors. A stoiy some time since went the rounds to the effect that a California emigrant by the name of Watson lud been flay ed alive by Indians. An acquaintance of the young man writes to the Chicago Democrat in contradiction of the story, and states that Wasson is now digging gold in El Dorado. THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION. The American Institute of New York has re ceived from the Hon. Abbott Lawrence the fol lowing letter, which needs no other prelude or in troduction : London, February 23, 1850. Dear Sib : You have doubtless been apprized through the public press that an industrial exhibition is proposed by Great Britain, to take place in May, 1851. The invitation embraces all nations. The plan has met with general approbation here, and by the representatives of the different countries of Europe accredited to this Court. It has commended itself to my judgment as the represen tative of the United States. I have taken an interest in its success, in behalf of the people of the United Slate*, believ ing that great benefit may be derived, not only by the citizens of the Union, but by all mankind. I entertain an abiding confidence that we posses* the mate rial to present at the proposed exhibition such combinations of science and art as will gratify the highest anticipations of that class of men who have been, and will continue to be, the creators of wealth, and, through their inventions and labors, the civilizen; of mankind throughout the world. If such a response should be given to this invitation as may be expected, the exhibition will present to the world a victory gained by a Congress of Nations, not acquired by arms or physical strength, but the triumph of mind over matter. The details of this great plan will be published at an early day, which I shall have the pleasure of transmitting to you. In the mean time I send with this note a copy of the Report of the Eleventh French Exposition, with the Royal Commis sion establishing the proposed exhibition, and the proceedings of the first public meeting. Will you do me the favev to place these papers before the government of the Institute ; and, if the plan should be approved, to open a correspondence with similar institutions in other States, that there may be concert of action in the arrangements for the exhibition ' I have the honor to remain, sir, your obedient servant, ABBOTT LAWRENCE. To the Secretary of the American Institute. ' Presentation of the Travelling Writing Case oj General Washington. On Tuesday last, the Board of Managers of the Washing ton National Monument Society, accomoanied by G. W. P. Custjs, Esq., assembled at the President's House, by ap pointment, to present to General Taylor the Travelling Waiting Case or Portfolio of General Washington, sent to the Board for that purpose by Doctor R. S. Blackburn, of Jefferson county, Virginia. The members of the Board were received by President Tat lor in the Circular Reception Room, where had also assembled a number of visiters, who had casually called. The venerable Mr. Ccstib, as a connexion of the family of Washington, was selected to present this cOrious relic to the President, and, in doing so, addressed him in the following terms : Mr. President: In behalf of the Managers of the Wash ington Monument Society, I have the honor to present to your Excellency a Revolutionary relic of the Father of his ; Country. Ah ! sir, within this ancient envelope what mo mentous despatches were contained in the "limes that tried men's s mis," and during the mighty struggle that gave liberty to a people and an empire to the world ! Letters lrom the Commander-in-Chief to the Governors of the States, urging them to recruit the ranks of his gallant army, was'ed by battle, by privations, and disease ; letters to the Congress of the Re volution detailing the painotism, the services, and sufferings of his faithful companions in arms, their toilsome marches, their disastrous reverses, and their glorious triumphs, from the heights of Cambridge to the plains of Yorktown ! i This venerable memorial of a patriot and hero of a past age is most worthily bestowed upon a patriot and hero of the present. Permit me, sir, an old American, one who hath seen much of the great men and great things of our bygone days, to off<r to your Excellency my warmest wishes for the suc cess and prosperity of your Administration. May yon, sir, with the illustrious example of the beloved Washington as the polar star to guide you, grasp with stalwart hand the helm of State, and, undaunted by the rocks and tempests that sur round her, s'eer the good old old ship Constitution into the haven of peacc, of union, and of national aggrandizement, and when your task is done, your political life is ended, may your grey hairs enjoy long years of domestic happiness in the re tirement of a private citizen, and you ??? "Sink to rest, With a whole nation's wishes blest." The PnEsinssT made a brief but appropriate reply. He returned his sincere thanks to Mr. Custis and the Board of Managers for the very interesting relic they had presented of one who had been emphatically " the first in war, the first in peace, and the first in the hearts of his countrymen he regarded it with feelings of the deepest interest, as having belonged to a man to whom his country and the world owed so large a debt of gratitude, and especially as having been used by him, through all bis struggles, privations, and sufferings, in that contest which led to the glorious consummation of his wishes in the establishment and recognition of our national independence. Every thing, said the President, that belong ed to such a man, however small or apparently insignificant, must possess a value in the estimation of ail who admired and revered as he did the character of Washington, whose parallel could not be found in the history of mankind. His example, he said, it bad been his anxious desire to follow, and bis wise ' and patriotic precepts ever to cherish and obey in whatever was calculated to conduce to the happiness and the glory of his country. Among these precepts was one which enjoined upon his countrymen the necessity of Union, without which our great Republic would fall into ruin, and become the mock ery of the world. This ptecept he would endeavor, as far as he had the power, at all times to obey, to preterve the glori ous Union of thq States as the sheet-anchor of our safety, strength, and prosperity. He was aware, be said, that his admiration of Washington, and his desire to imitate, though in on humble manner, his illustrious example, had been ridi culed by the party press of this country, but neither ridicule nor ceneure should ever deter him from doing what he believ ed to be right, or from humbly attempting to follow in the footsteps of the great benefactor of his country, as a model worthy of all imitation. He observed, in conclusion, that so interesting a relic should be placed where it might be seen and preserved ; and he should theref>re feol it his duty to dc posite it in the gallery of the Patent Office, among the other relics of the illustrious Washington. The Board then took their leave of the President, and withdrew. Extent or Telegraphic Operations in one Dat. The Associated Press of New York of one day contained telegraphic despatches, ail received the same day, (28th ult.) from the following points, viz : Milea. From New Orleans, by the way the wires run, about. .2,(100 St. Louie do do 1,600 Cincinnati do do about. 1,000 Charleston do do 700 Washington.... do do 240 Baltimore do do..... 200 Toronto, C. W.do .do 700 Montreal, C.E. .do do 300 Albany do do 150 Boston *'o do, ? ? 250 Total miles. ' .7,400 There were additional lines from Boston to Halifax, and from New York lo Galena via Deiroir, Milwaukee, &c., and from Galena to St. Louis, and from Louisville south through Tennessee, making about 5,000 miles more, over which news was not transmitted for the piess. The whole length of wires on the continent may bo safely put down at not less than 10,000 miles, and the Associatod Press received news over 7,040 mile's of ihem on the ssme day. Clover in Florida.?Some three years since, Governor BHowie, of Florida, received from the Patent Office in this city a packet of clover seed from Chili, which he planted, but with much misgiving, ai every previous experiment with other varieties of seed had resulted in utter failure. It has flourished, amid all the trying changes of ihe climate, and appi ars especially adipted to the region of Florida- This ii a most valuable sdditi n to the wealth of that State, for it supplies, what was m "?( needed, a nutritious grass for stock. Wi in ma or. o* 8u!?oat.---A case was recently decided by Judge Lkwis, ol Pennsylvania, which involved a ques lion as to the validity of n will made on Sunday. The de rision of the court was, first, that a will made on Sunday, while the testator was in danger of immediate death, or entrr airieJ a well grounded belief that *uch danger existed, is valid ; and, second, that if a will waa made on Sunday, un der no ?uch pres ure, the court would, in the absence of [>r#of, presume that circumslancca of necessity existed to justify Lhe act. NATIONAL CENTRAL HIGHWAY, " From St. Louis, on the Mississippi River, to the Bay of San Francisco, on the Pacific Ocean. Ma. BENTON'S BILL. The following is the bill for the National Cen tral Highway from St. Louis to the Bay of San Francisco, ol which Mr. Benton gave notice on Thursday, in the Senate, of his intention to aak leave to introduce yesterday, but the Senate not being in session, to enable him to comply with hi? notice, and desiring the bill to be published this week, he has left it at this office to be published in the National Intelligencer: A BILL for the location and construction of ? Central Na tional Highway from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean. Be it enacted, Jrc. That the proceeds of the sales of th? public landi sbail be net apart and applied, as far as needed and anticipated, by hypothecation when necessary, in open ing communications with California, New Mexico, Oregon, and the Salt Lake settlements, by means of a central nation al highway from Bt. Louis, in the State of Missouri, to the - Bay of San Francisco, to connect with ocean navigaton in that bay ; with a branch of said highway to Santa Fe, in New Mexico ; also, a branch to the tide-water region in lha Columbia river, so as to connect with ocean navigation to that river; and also a branch to the Mormon settlement on the Great Salt Lake, if the said highway should not pass sufficiently near that take. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the said central national highway i-hall consist of a system of pirallel roads, adapted to different modes of travel and transportation, and s margin for lines of electro telegraphic wires, whereof one common road, and one iron railroad, sbail be immediately opened and constructed ; and such other roada shall be here after opened and constructed as Congress from time to Him may authorize ; and, in order that the said national central highway may be construct!d on a scale commensuiate to its importance and adap*ed to the want* of present and future time, and in order to allow convenient space for all the paral lel lines of road which commerce and travel may require thereon, a breadth of one mile shall be reserved through the public lands ; and the said branch roads shall equally consist of a common road and a railway, and such other roads as Congr.su may from time to time authorize and direct, with a margin for a line of electro telegraph wires, and a breadth of one thousand feet shall be reserved through the public lands for such branch roada, each respectively j and each track for ! a road shall be entitled to a space of three hundred feet wide, and the telegiaph lines to a space of one hundred feet wide, and when finished the said iron railway, or ways, shall never be subject to any toll or tax beyond that which may be neces sary to provide repairs; and the said common roads shall be forever free frotn any toll or tax whatever, and shall be kept in travelling order by the care and expense of the Federal Government. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the President be authorized and requested to cause all the authentic informa tion in possession of the Government, or in its power to pro cure, necessary to show the practicability of a route for =aid central highway, to be collected and digested'into brief me moirs, illustrated by topographical and profile maps, to be I laid before Congress as soon as possible ; also, that he be authorized and rrquested to cause further survrys and exami nations to be made, and the results to be laid before Congress j as soon as possible ; and for that purpose to employ as many | citizen civil engineers as may be necessary. Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That, as soon as Con gress shall fix upon the route for said central highway and branches, the President shall be, and hereby is, authorized and requested to cause the Indian title to be extinguished upon a breadth of one hundred miles, to cover the rout* of said central highway, and also to extinguish the Indian title upon suitable breadths covering the said branch roads; and the location and construction of the central higbway shall immediately be commenced, both for the common road and the railway, and with a force calculated to finish the common road in one year, so as to be passable for wagons and car riages, and the railway in seven years. Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That, as soon as the said common road is finished, the same shall be a post road, and a daily mail carried thereon in wagons or coaches, ot sleighs, when necessary, at the rate of at least one hundred miles in twenty-four hours ; and a daily horse mail, for light letters and printed slips, at the rate of at least two hundred miles in twenty-four hours. Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That so soon as said railway, ot any sufficient part thereof, shall be completed and fit for use, the use thereof shall be granted for a limited time to such individuals or companies as shall, by contract with the Government, sgree to transport persons, mails, munitions of war, and freight of ail kin<l-<, public and private, in vehicles furnished by themselves, over the same, at such reasonable rates as shall be agreed upon : Provided, That if other roads shall hereafter be constructed on the ground reserved for roads by this act, the same company or persons shall not be allowed to have the contract for transportation, or any interest, ! in more than one road at the same time. Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That military stations shall be established on the line of the central highway and its branches, at such places as the President shall direct. Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That donations of land, to the extent of one hundred and sixty acres, shall be made to each head of a family, widow, or single man, over eigfai ? teen years of age, who shall be settled on the line of said cen tral highway and branches, and within the bounds of the ex tinguished Indian claim, within twelve months after the time of such extinction of title; and pre-emption rights, to the same extent, shall be allowed to all similar settlers after twelve months. Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, shall be and the same hereby is appropriated, and placed at the disposition of the President, to defray the expenses of carrying into effect the third and fourth sections of this act, for the collection and preparation of in forms'ion, and the extinction of Indian titles, necessary to the selection and location of the route for said central national highway and branches. , Referring to a small meeting at some town in the State of Kentucky, for the purpose of sending Delegates to the Nashville Convention, the Louisville Journal adds : " Any individual wbo shall go into thot body, assuming to be a representative of the State of Kentucky, bad better not come back within her limits." The Explosion at Buffalo.?The Buffalo Republic of the 25th has the following additional particulars in regard to the explosion of the steamer Troy : " The cabin pamagers known to be saved are the follow ing : Messrs. Reed, Miller, Menell and his wife, Pragoff and two boys, Sec.>r and two sisters and child, Sertwell, Norton, Knspp, Miss Scott, S'zer and mother, Hutchinson, and Mana han. Mr. Hu'chinson is budly but not dangerously scalded. He is now at Black Kock. Mr. Manahan is also badly scalded, and is still at Black Rock. The escape of Mr. Miller from ? watery grave was almost miraculous. He was knocked into the river, and being unable to swim, undertook to save him self by getting upon a cabin doir, but he lost this and sank three times, when being carried into an eddy, found floating pieces of timber with which he sustained himself till rescued. He was very much chilled, but is not seriously hurt. There were thirty-three cabin aid twenty .seven steerage passengers. The officers and crew numbered twenty-six, making a total of eighty-six souls on bourd. The cabin passengers, from whom nothing has betn learned, are Messrs. Brown, Faxon, Dr. Wright, (who is beheved to ba drowned,) Curtis, Willis, Howe, Grant, Baily, Vesey, Bowen, and Arnold. The steerage passengers not heard from are Messrs. Brandt,' Irwin, Knight, and eighteen, mostly. Itiah and German, whose names were not taken. The Coroner's jury on the bodies of those who were killed" have found that the expl< e on wan occasioned by a lack of wa t r in the boilers, owing to the omt?ston of Levi L. Post, the deceased engineer, 'o employ competentand attentive assistant*; and that Thomas Wilkino, muster, and bis officers are not re sponsible. Great Conflauration is Chira.?The New Haven Register has the following letter from Cbarlzs W Brad lkt, Esq., the United States Consul at Arnoy, giving an ac count of a large fire which occurred there on Chr s'rnas Eve : U. S. Corsclstr, Amor, Crijta, Decemtar 26<b, 1840. On Sunday last, at 2 o'clock P. M., a fire broke out m this city, which laid waste about 500 house', covering an area of many acres, and comprising the handsomest and richest mer cantile estal lishmens on the island. There was a loss of six lives, and of pr? perty ?stimated at from ?6,0*10,000 to $10,000,000! As a general rule, in Chinese cities, mer chants or handicrafts of the same kind, are g'ouped together in a single street or neighborhood. Thus, blacksmiths, shoe* makers, grain-dealers, siono-cutters, t'uiterers, <5tc , have each "heir particular locality. 'I he sufferers, on this occasion, ? w<re the large dealers in silk <, furs, teas, paper and books, the gold and silver souths, shoemakers, sto< kng-makers, ar d other miscellsneous art?'n? a>>d merchants. Among the ruins are those of the large and beautiful Joss-bou*, "Qu an te bio," in the street to which it gave name?built 500 yearn ae.?i and that called ?? Ta-ti kong-kiung-chiung," or the. Temple of Mamtn <n?where the god of wesl'h ia worshipped.. The streets are nowl ere more than ten, and usually not iwm than six feet wide. On these the narrow buildings are juii>e<t in solid mass?two stories in height?composed of bricks, but with a good deal ot external wood work. Mala of plantain ind palm-leaves are also stretched Irom the eaves of the louses on one side of the way tolh >seon the other, intended to ihuioutlbe nearly vertical rays of the sun, but which now, of soursc, materially asaisted the conflagration.