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SOUND AND HONEST VIEW8.
We commend to our readers the sound opinions and true National spirit of the subjoined article, copied from a late number of a Philadelphia paper, of the popular order, but which has nevertheless the honesty to prefer speaking the truth to that evanescent sort of popularity to be acquired by flattering the follies of the day. We shouldneither <lo justice to our own impressions, nor to the merit of the paper from which we copy the article, were we not to add, that, for several months past, we have rarely opened it without finding under its Editorial head just views and wise counsels to its readers on the topics of the day : FROM TBI PHILADELPHIA LEDGER OF JDHS 22. National Duties.?As a nation, we belong to a family which is governed by a code. In assuming nationality, we did not assume the position of Ishmaelites, with our hand against every man, and every man's hand against us. This is the scrip tural definition of piracy and highway robbery ; and the nations of Europe, in acknowledging our independence during or after our Revolutionary etruggle, did not intend to admit pirates and high waymen into their fraternity. In assuming nation ality, we assumed all its obligations as established by international law, and have been acknowledged by other nations on that ground, and on no other. Upon any other, we should have been equal with the Barbary Powers, the common pest of civilized nations, whose exclusion from their common high way was necessary for their mutual safety, and for which exclusion they would have the right and the duty to-combine. Such being the duties of ouruational position, we must discharge those duties voluntarily, or all other nations must compel us to it by force. We must act in good faith, or be punished for the con trary. A case is now before the world which must be a test. It will prove whether we have or have not an honest Government; whether we are worthy or unworthy of our institution?.; whether all other maritime nations, as strong on the ocean together as we, will tamely permit us to take the Isnmaelitish position of Buccaneers, or will unite against us for mutual protection. This case is the Cuban case, and all the intelligent will admit that it is well fitted to induce serious reflections. Some of our editors and their correspondents, some of our public servants, some of our merchants and traders, some of our adventurers and fortune seekers, talk and act as if we, as a nation, had un limited license to conquer or plunder all other na tions, under the pretence of extending the area of freedom; that our national flag was a felon ensign, under which we might make free goods and free lands and free servants of all other nations upon whom we were strong enough to trample. We ad mit that the disposition is old, and a well-establish ed element of the Anglo-Saxon character. But never before has it been so openly avowed by a portion of ourselves, however acted upon by our Anglo-Saxon cousins. Our Government, so far as the evidence has been heard, has thus far acted in good faith to maintain national honor and national obligations. But it has been opposed and defeated in these attempts, in some parts of our country ; and it is now plainly told by some that its efforts to maintain its laws and its honor are inconsistent with public opinion, and will not be sanctioned by a majority of the nation. If this be true, though we do not yet believe it, then a majority of us are entirely unworthy of our institutions, too debauched and profligate for popular government, and no better than the Buccaneers and Algerines of the seventeenth century, or than any other pirates in any other age. And if we are foo debauched to permit an honest Government to discharge its obligations, or to elect an honest Government, all civilized nations owe ahd must discharge a duty to themselves and each other. A war with Spain involves a war with England, France, Russia, maritime Germany, and the Scandinavian Powers. All these Powers have maritime rights, which cannot endure the doctrines which some of us so boldly proclaim and would force upon our Government. And some of these Powers have colonies, and Russia has an Asiatic empire on the Pacific, which would greatly profit by our good behavior, and be endangered by the corrupting influence of our bad faith. But what, in the language of Round Island rodomontade, could all Europe do against us? We admit that all Europe could not conquer us on land, but also admit that Europe could and would sweep our commerce from the ocean. Without mending our ways, we may need and receive such lesson; and therefore we commend the subject to all merchants and ship-Owners disposed to favor Cuban and other predatory exhibitions. If the majority of us are not honest enough to sustain an honest Government in its duty, then we must undergo the ban of all civilized nations, and be punished to the full extent of their power. So it is time for us to determine whom we will serve, God or the Devil. We understand that Gen. Jones, the Adjutant General of the Army, has been so much indisposed for the last ten days as to confine him to the house, and that he is not yet able to attend to the duties of his office. Ohio Credit.?We have just received a des patch from the Auditor of this State, now at New York, by which we learn that the total premium received on the sale of Ohio stocks is three hun dred and thirty-seven thousand dollars. The amount of stocks sold was ?1,600.000 of 6 per cents, and $1,000,000 of 5 per cents. This is a very handsome sum to save. The debt is not increased one cent. So much for the glorioua credit of our noble Buckeye State! [OAto State Journal of Hit. Seat or Govbkkmbkt of Tsxas.?The official returns of the vote for establishing the seat of government of the State of Texas were canvassed At Auatin on the 3d instant. The following is the complete result: Austin received 7,679 votei* Tahuacana 3,143 i HunUville 1,216 ; Washington 1,143; Palestine 1,884 ; and scattering 24 ; miking the aggregate vote returned 15,088. Austin having received a majority of 270 votee over all other places voted for, is, therefore, the place selected by the pvople for the seat of Government until the year 1870. The Cleveland Herald says that the company of Germans from Baden, and its vicinity, who were on board the steamer Griffith, at the time of her destruction by fire, considerably exceeded one hundred in number, and amounted perhaps as high as one hundred and fifty. The fatality was terrible. The saved, as far as ascertained on the 19th instant, were a middle aged man, two young men or boys, two women, and two girls?seven only of the numerous company who bid adieu to all tbe endearments of the Fatherland for the new world of hope and promise?aUs ! to them of disaatar sudden and overwhelming. A late number of Dickens's Howehold Words contains an article on the Greenwich Observatory, in which the writer, in ?peaking of a contrivance by which the wind is made to re cord on sheets of paper ita direction and force for all hours of the day, observes, that when these sheets are bound up into b3oks, as they always are, tbey might with truth be lettered, "The History .of the Wind, written by Itself; an .ASolian Autobiography." Tub Revolt m Gcadaloupb.?Later advices from Point Petre, Guadeloupe, received at New York, confirm tbe ru mor published some days since of the burning of Point Petre. It is said the Degrees were put down, but not until several of ringleaders bad been shot. FROM OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. London, Junb 5, I860. The United 8tates attract, at the present mo ment, much of the attention of the newspapers and other public journals of England, on two accounts ; the first and most material to the immediate interests of the country, is the state of your cotton market, and the amount of the probable deficiency of the last year's crop, coupled with the prospect of the present one. The result of the expedition to Cu ba is another prominent subject of discussion with our politicians, who enter thereon with more zeal than knowledge, and with more desire to establish a theory than to communicate information.. I his theory, as oracularly enunciated by the Times, is the existence of a desire on the part of the United States " to bring every province and island be ? tween Hudson's bay and the river Plate within <? the grasp and dominion of their Government. The prospect of a deficiency of cotton has direct ed much attention to India as the source of future supplies of that necessary raw material. Some tune airo it was stated that the prospect of establishing railways in India, to facilitate the transit of cotton from the place of growth to that of shipment, was a very cheerless one; in fact, that there was scarcely a hope that such an event would be accomplished, in any reasonable time. The Economist now as serts that arrangements for making the first section of a line from Calcutta, in the direction of the north west provinces, are proceeding in the most satisfac tory manner. , The last papers from India state that there is yerj little chance of either the press or the people of Western India falling asleep over the cotton ques tion. The subject of cotton cultivation is receiving more attention at Bombay than any other; and it is not regarded, by any party, in a desponding point of view. A very general conviction appears to ex ist there that India may be made to supply the fac tories of Great Britain with the raw material of their cotton fabrics. It is contended, however, by some writers, that too much is not to be expected from the establishment of railways in India, as the only line which is in a fair train for construction, does not pass through the principal tracts of country adapted to, or now under, cotton cultivation. The most important tract of cotton growing country in India lies in Goojrat, and is but a short distance from the coast. The great Indian Peninsular Rail way does not pass through this country ; and Col. Grant, an officer of the Bombay engineers, says: " If the Liverpool and Manchester merchants and ? manufacturers wait for the improvement of the " cotton trade until the Bombay railway has pene " trated the heart of the cotton-growing districts, " they will, I fear, be sadly mistaken." Near as the district of Goojrat lies to the cpast, there is literally scarcely any available road by which the produce can be transferred to a place of shipment. Col. Grant demonstrates that a good common road for transport by wheel carriages will afford a much cheaper mode of transportation than a railway ; and that the former would realize even three times the profits of the latter, and confer ten times the benefit on the country. , . The Times and Morning Chronicle, and others of our journals, are rather harsh in their comments on the expedition to Cuba, making it to be altogether an American affair in its conception and its objects, fancying that it is part of a J?lan of almost universal conquest, so far as the Weslern World is concerned, and blaming the Government of the United States for allowing the expedition to start. The writer in the Times says: " It will not, we fear, be very easy to convey to the general English reader an adequate comprehension of that state of society, or that tone of political morality, which could permit so outrageous a violation of all principles of international right; but the experience of the Mexican war has combined with that spirit of license engendered by the lax and incom petent authority of the 8upreme Government in the States to bring about a state of opinion under which such projects are considered both feasible and attractive. "Although, however, in the eyes of Americana, habituated by the occupation of new territory, and the expulsion of weaker races, an expedition against Cuba would probably appear little less natural than a voyage to California, it is not to be supposed tbat the present enterprise has been undertaken without motives of greater depth, and prospects of a more extended character. Cuba has long been the object of Amer-k ican desire, and it has been seldom that a year has lately pass ed, without a manifestation, in some shape or other, of thee? ambitious hankerings. At one time negotiations were report ed with the Court of Madrid for an equitable bargain and sale ? at another, the opinions of the Cubans themselves were des cribed as irresistibly tending to ?'annexation," and even the rumored descents upon the island were calculated to keep alive the impressions respecting its ultimate destiny. Mean time, surer methods were adopted of supplanting Spanish in terests in the colony. Either by purchase or mortgage Amer ican citizens became the virtual owners of many of the plan tations, and, as far as this kind of influence extends, it is piobable that the Spanish Government has long ceased to possess any material hold upon its dependency. Indepen dently, therefore, of the love of enterprise and conquest, there are motives of a very powerful character disposing the opinion of the 8tates favorably towards the expedition. << On the other hand, the Federal Government has obeyed the imperative dictatea of justice and propriety in pronouncing decisively against such a violation of right, and the circum stances of the expedition have enabled it to exert its most dis posable force, by ordering the United Slates' squadron now serving in the Gulf of Mexico to intercept the invading force on its passage. This movement may perhaps be successful, or it may even be anticipated by the operations of the Spanish cruisers, which have received orders to watch the narrow channel of Yucatan, through which the invaders must pass. If, however, General Lopez and his band should succced in effecting a landing, they will be virtually beyond reach of the Federal Government, and the question will be brought to the issue of the sword. ??It la much to be hoped that the interference of the Gull suqndron may be exerted in time ; for, if blows are once ex changed, it ia difficult to anticipate any thing but embroilment and confusion. Should the invaders be worsted and subject ed to that retribution for their offence which Spaniards are not likely to forego, it may be taken for granted tbat the sy m pathizers in the States will muster in great strength, while, in the event of their success, it is equally certain that there will be no inclination to quit so valuable a prize. Once conquered by American citizens, Cuba will be considered throughout the Union as American property ; and although the supreme Government may be honestly disposed to resti tution and amends, its inherent weakness in this respect is such that its effective resistance to the popular opinion is a result almost beyond reasonable anticipation." Sir E. Buxton has brought forward a motion in the House of Commons relative to the duties on sugar, declaring that it is unjust and impolitic to expose the free-grown sugar of the British Colonies to unrestricted competition with the sugar of foreign slave-trading countries. This was evidently the motion upon which the dexterous Protectionists relied for producing an effect on the country. The division showed a majority of 41 against the mo tion, in a house of 509 members. The motion was' brought forward on the ground of humanity, and enlisted the support of a number of real and semi-Free-Traders, and several of the Liberal party, with Joseph Hume at their head. They voted on this motion purely from a desire to take another step towards extinguishing the slave trade, i he Protectionists greedily seized this opportunity to embarrass the Ministers, which was extremely well exposed in the opening of Lord Palmerston s speech : "My honorable friend who introduced this motion pro posed it on the ground of humanity, and as a mode o K*liin? rid of the slave trade ; but scarcely had his arguments fallen on our eara when the debate took another turn, and fnm tha time his motion has been chicfly supported on the groun o protection, a principle which 1 believe my honorable friend had not himself intended to advocate. [Hear, hear J Almos the only example of consistency which we have witnessed in the course of this debate, is that consistency of talent and ability which have been displayed by the honorable member who has for this first time spoken on thi* question, and who has proved himself to be the consistent representative of that father whom we have so often heard with admiration within these walla." This last move of the advocates of protection and dear bread, has been the shabbiest and worst they ever made. The compliment in the conclusion of Lord Palmerston's observation was paid to Mr. Stanley, M. P. for Lynn, and son of Lord Stan ley, who made his maiden speech on the occasion. The effort has been highly complimented both in and out of Parliament. If figures can prove any thing, they prove in this sugar question that our rapidly increasing consumption of that article is every year more and more exclusively supplied by British colonies and free labor, and less and less by fo reign countries with slave labor. This being the case, we think it very doubtful policy, as a measure of West India relief, to perplex the steady, although slow im provement of our sugar plantations there, with threatened changes of their fiscal regulations. The entire consumption of sugar in Great Britain has increased from 289,477 tons in 1846-'7, when slave labor sugar was admitted into consump tion, to 318,177 tons in 1849-50. Of the former 227,570 tone was the produce of British possessions, aod 61,907 tons that of foreign countries ; of the latter 282,057 tons was British produce, and only 36,120 tons that of foreign coun tries. 8o that, under the present regulations, the consump tion of home-made free labor sugar has increased in the ratio of about 14 to 11, whilst that of the foreign made slave-labor sugar has diminished from 5 to 3. Would it not be prudent to "let well alone ?" The House of Commons decided on the 30th ultimo, on the motion of Lord Ashley, to address her Majesty on the subject of causing all 8unday labor at the Post Offices throughout the country to cease entirely. This motion was carried against Ministers by a vote of 93 against 68, and chiefly by the vote of 8cotch members, who usually support the Government, but who, in this instance, yielded their better judgment to the wish of their scrupulous, but very partially informed, constituents.. If these ultra-religious peo ple had been informed, as 8ir Chahlis Wood informed the House, that about 8,000 persons have been relieved from either the whole or the greater portion of their former Sunday work by the very means which they had been taught to be lieve had caused an extension of Sunday duties, they would probably have expressed a different opinion to their represen tatives. But so runs the world 1 81ave-labor sugar is rapidly diminishing in consumption in England, but the people are taught to clamor against the very system which has caused its diminution. 8unday labor is very nearly abolished in the Port Office, and yet nearly 1,000,000 signatures are obtained to petitions against the very improvements which have so far carried out the views which the petitioners advocate, and which ought to have rather called forth their warm eulogiuma. If the mails be stopped, then we suppose no ships will be al lowed to put to sea on a Sunday, t and if they cannot leave port on that day, why should they be allowed to come in. In short, we cannot tell how far this system of restraints and restrictions may be carried under the pretence of superior ho liness and unwordliness. The Australian Colonies Government bill has been read a second lime in the House of Lords, without a division. The great triumph of Ministers has been, however, in the House of Lords, in the rejection, by a large majority, of the Bishop of London's bill for the reference of questions of doc trine to a Synod of Prelates. The debate was sustained on both sides with an earnestness and zeal which showed how strongly questions of this description have affected our insti tutions, and how deeply they have stirred the consciences of men. The Bishops of Losuow and Oxroan showed, by their speeches, that they, as heads of the Church, claimed the right not only of passing an exclusive final judgment on points of doctrine, to be binding even on the Judges of Appeal, and on the Crown itself, as rupreme head of the Church ; but this judgment is apparently to rest on nothing more distinct than their own personal opinions of what is catholic truth. We may judge what the law of the Church would soon be come, if expounded without appeal upon the principles enun ciated during this debate. The motion was rejected, after a very animated and eloquent debate, by a vote of 84 to 51? the Bishops of Durham, Down, Norwich, and Worcester voting in the majority. Mr. Fob's bill for promoting educa tion was rejected on its second reading last night in tte House of Commons, by a vote of 287 against 58. ' The committee appointed to report respecting the erection of a building for the great exhibition of 1851 have reported the reception and consideration of no fewer than two hundred and forty-five plans, which have been submitted to them. They have been unable, however, to select any one design,.! as combining all the requisites which they consider essential. They have directed the preparation of a new design, embo dying these essentials, from the suggestions in the plans sub mitted to them. The Royal Agricultural Society has been invited by the Royal Commissioners to promote an exhibition of stock in Hyde Park, as a part of the great Industrial Exhibition of 1851, and has consented to do so. The exhibition will com prise specimens of all our various breeds of domestic animals. Cattle are exported fiom Switzerland, Italy, and Eastern Europe, and also from 8pain, Holland, See. The Austria* Government has undertaken to make the necessary arrange ments for the proper representation of that Empire at the Ex hibition. All the arrangements are going on well and ra pidly. There seems to be, however, a slackening in the sub scription. Upwards of ?60,000 has been received, but more than twice that amount will be wanted. No doubt is ex pressed that the whole will be readily forthcoming. Liver pool, and one or two other important places, have hitherto been unaccountably backward. The Bank of England has decreased its circulation during the week ?459,976, and increased its bullion ?70,869. The public depositee have increased half a million; all other items nearly the same. The entire stock of bullion and coin ia ?16,701,949; the circulation ?20,199,440. The money market continues very easy. The Funds are steadily creep ing up, and the animation in the railway market continues. Business of every description, excepting that at Mark Lane, is brisk and cheering. The weather is fine, and the face of the country throughout is strikingly beautiful. We have seldom seen England wearing a more universally attractive appearance. We should like to show our native country to our transatlantic fellow-citizens at this delightful season of flowers and verdure. Our great metropolis has dis persed her swarflns of beggars, or they have spread themselves over the provinces ; her streets are clean, though crowded ; her atmosphere comparatively pure, aod her healthiness al most unparalleled. The deaths during the last week were only 736; the average of the last ten years, allowing for in crease of population, would have been 938. Our Theatres appear to be doing a good business. Many new books are advertised, but none of very startling intereat. The Ltureateship is in abeyance. The Lord Chancellorship will, probably, become a divided office, under a new name; and the Viceroyalty of Ireland is about to be abolished. So old things pass away, showing the present to be an age of change. We trust it is one of progrese and improvement. Science continues to make new developments, and the great mass of mind in Europe appears ta be directed towards ac quiring a knowledge of things ; or, in other words, of what is prsctical and useful. It is discovered that a ray of light ia, striclly speaking, a compound of three rays, namely, a ray of light, a ray of heat, and a ray of chemical action. All me tals are found to be very much increased in their power of supporting weighta, and other valuable qualities, by being al layed with certain other metala. We ara further told that the mode of navigating balloons through the air with certainty and security has at last been discovered. Thus, one by one, man subdues the material universe and the elements to his will, and makes them the ministers of bis pleasures and his advantage. We never take up the Timet newspsper and its mammoth supplement, without reflecting upon the vast amount of me chanical labor?independent of the mental exertion of the highest kind in its previous preparation for the press?which has been employed in its production. Ita 72 closely printed columns contain 17,500 lines, made up of more than a mil lion pieces of type. Thirty four thousand copies of this paper and supplement have I een printed in about four hours. Tbe greatest number ever printed in one day w? 54,000, and the paper used weighed aeven tons, tbe usual weight beiog four and a half tons. The surfsce printed every night (with a ainglc supplement) is thirty acres , the weight of type in con atant uee is ssven tons, and 110 compositors and 25 pressmen are constantly employed. Junk 0, 1850. The nations of Europe may be classed under two divisions?those which are enjoying repose, under settled constitutional forms of government, and those which are either in a transition state, or existing in apathetical endurance beneath the weight of autocratical oppression. Our neighbor France I belongs to the transition class, though through what changes she has yet to pass, or what will be the next phase she will assume, no one can presume to guess. In the first place it is very generally believed that the misunderstanding with England is arranged, and ii will, probably, be soon acknowledged, seeing that the great end which it was to answer has been accomplished: the passing the new electoral law, and the reduction of the number of voters to a more manageable amount. The Electoral bill finally passed the Assembly by a vote of 433 against 241. The number of electors disfranchised is variously estimated as being from two to four millions. About twenty members of the Mountain refused to vote. It is now stated that the negotiations so often spoken about, as going on between the two branches of the Bourbons, have been abruptly terminated, and that there is at present very little chance of their reconciliation. A club of Socialists, under the direction of a female, Madame Jeanne Derouin, has been lately arrested in Paris. We hear a good deal about bands of conspirators in various parts of the provinces, but, if the army can be depended upon, there appears to be very little cause to dread any thing ?eriou? from them. The differences which were ?aid to exist between General Chavgarribr and General Hautpool, the Minister at War, have been removed. The Government appear* to have more apprehension of the Pen than the 8word, since it has forbidden the circulation of Euokxk Bus's My uteres du Peuple in several of the depart ments. The celebrated but unfortunate Chief, A?d-*l Ka dbr, is dangerously ill at the Chateau d'Amboise, where he is detained a prisoner. Fears are now entertained that the party in the Assembly which have carried the Electoral bill by a large majority, will now attempt further arbitrary mea sures in the abridgment of the liberty which France hoped to enjoy nnder s republican form of government, and which she might hsve possessed had she been true to herself, or Seen fit for, or rightly understood, the true principles and the pro I?r basis of sucb a government. The next measure attempted will be a bill seating the appointment of the Mayors and other municipal authorities in the hands of the Ministry. After that they will probably attempt the passage of a Trans portation bill, to enable the Government to ship off by whole sale those whom tbey may chance to find guilty of disaffec tion. Care must be taken, however, not to press measures like these too hastily or too heavily ; the people may endure much, but they will not endure all things. We hear little of Locis Napoleon in the midst of these important incidents in the history of the country over which he nominally presides He gives parties at the Ely see, and rides to a review, accom panied by General Changarnier and bis suite, and occasion ally appears at the theatre ; and this is about all we have lately beard of the nephew of the great Napolkor. The Austrian Government has come to the wise and just conclusion that a compromise with some of the leading men in Hungary is absolutely necessary. Count Aitthovt Szecsen will be the new Imperial Hungarian Commissioner; the Count belongs to the moderate Conservative party, or lhat which in France would be called the " right centre be is a politician of high talent and sound judgment; and, aware of the fact that th? well-being of both Austria and Hungary will be best promoted by their union upon just and equitable principles, he will watch over and promote that union with out treating Hungary as a conquered province. German po liticians have been brought to a stand-still, apparently by the Emperor of Russia. A congress of Princes is about to be held at Warsaw, under the presidency of the Czar, to take into consideration the questions of German unity and the dis pute of Dumakk with the Duchies, which, strange to say, is as far from being settled as ever. The Emperor of Russia, the Prince of Pbussia, and Prince Schwarzrxburg, the Austrian Minister, are already at Warsaw. Late letters from Bey rout speak strongly of the rapid pro gress which the Turkish Empire is making in civilization, commerce, and military power, and states that the erroneous opinion entertained in England lhat Turkey is tottering to her fall, is quite preposterous. The Sultan has given hii decision on the Hungarian refugee question. The Magyars are to be located at Kutaya, under the guard and protection ol the Porte, until the 1st of October, 1850, which will be one year from the date of their first crossing the frontier. At the expiry of that term they will be permitted to reside in Con stantinople, and in the Asiatic cities of Turkey. Kossuth's children, under the guidance of their tutor, are on their way to join their parents at Kutaya, having received permission to do so from the Austrian Government. June 7, 1850. In the House of Lords last night, Lord Lans downe stated, in answer to a question from Lord Stanley, that negotiations were in progress tending to re-establish amicable relations between England arid France ; and he, therefore, wished to postpone the discussion of the Greek affair until the 17th instant, which was agreed to. The Irish Parliamentary voters' bill was read a second time in the Lords?Lord Stanley postponing his op position to the measure unUl another stage, when he will make an appeal for its rejection. His, Lordship appears to have great dread of the increase of democratic influence in Parliament, and says that the Irish people have no desire to become electors. Nothing of importance took place in the Commons. Preliminary measures are arranging for taking the census of the United Kingdom in 1851. The cost of the last census was about ?100,000. The Board of Trade fyas publish;d its returns for the month which ended 5th May, showing a great increase of exports and imports of all the principal articles of manufacture and consumption- The declared value of our exports for May, 1848, was ?3,555,528; for May, 1849, ?4,014,614; and for May, 1850, ?5,412,846. Whilat for the four months ending May 5th, in those years, it has been, in 1848, ?15,239,861 ; in 1849, ?16,836,647 ; and in 1850, ?20,. 067,999 ; being an increase of 1850 over 1849 of ?3,231,352, and over 1848 of ?4,826,138 ! And this enormous increase of exports stands side by side with an increased import and consumption of tea, coffee, and sugar; an unerring proof of the increased prosperity and comfort of the great masses of the people. The navigation returns are equally satisfactory. The President of France has hitherto been kept poor; and although it might be saying too much to stats that his yield ing to the new electoral bill was the result of sn absolute bar gain, yet it seems to be understood here that there was a tacit understanding between him and his Ministers. The electoral law is passed on Monday, a motion is made by Min isters to quintuple the President's salary on Tuesday. There is certainly a very suspicious propinquity in the proceedings. The increase of the President's salary is announced as a Ca binet question. The increased salary is to date from January 1, 1850. There will be a very hot debate upon this measure, and information from Paris is, that it will be rejected; in wbich case there will be an additional complexity of affairs, for the electoral law is not the only scrvice required of the President; but, if the terms of the money bargain are not made good to him be will be at liberty of courae to withdraw from it. The basis of the arrangement concerning Grricb is said to be, that the Government of that country shall substitute the terms of the London convention for those of their own con cluding in Athens. It will cost the Greeks ?2,000 more, but if it gratifies their vanity and heals the wounds of French sensibility, the price is not exorbitant. M. Thiers is about to make a visit to England ; his ob ject is said to be a conference with Lor is Philippe, whose i life is thought to be fast drawing to a close, under the pro gress of a fatal disesss. The Emperor of Austria has left Vienna for Warsaw. The six Prussian fortresses of Erfurt, Msgdeburg, Torgau, Wittenberg, Neisse, and Glatz, are ordered to be completely armod and placed on a war fooling and provilioned, f /r a twelvemonth. The warlike preparations in Prussia are great er than have been witnessed for many years. It appears cer tain also that the great majority of the German States adhere to the Union, and are resolved to stand or fall with Prussia. One thing is said to be certain, the King of Prussia is deter mined not to give way to the claims of Austria. Russia and Prus?ia are stated to be on the most amicable terms. Prepa rations are making at Frankfort for the reception of the Peace Congreaa which is to open there on the 23d of August. It was staled at Frankfort that more than one hundred delegates are expected from the United States. FROM OUR PARIS CORRESPONDENT. * Paris, June 0, 1850. I he agitating discussion is at last over: and the bill limiting the elective franchise has become law by a vote even larger than was anticipated?*83 ^gainst 241. The capital remains perfectly calm. No demonstration, either hostile or pacific, has been ventured upon by the Republicans. Insurrection is in good faith indefinitely adjourned, thanks to the measures taken for prompt repression. I have heretofore explained the character of the bill and its effects. It passed with very slight modification rrJ i f?rra by *he committee of fifteen. The latter clauses were voted with great dispatch. On Thursday morning the President of the Assem bly made the urgency of this course apparent by the announcement that twenty-three amendments had been rejected, but forty-nine remained to be disposed of. Articles 1, 2, and 3 had been voted, but the bill contained 17 : and ten days had already been consumed in debate To the judicial con demnations operating exclusion from the elective franchise was added that for adultery. By exist ing laws this was already cause of ineligibility. Larochejaquelin carried with him on the final vote only fifteen of the two hundred Legitimists who are in the House. The party voted with great unanimity in favor of the bill. After the passage of the bill, it was discovered that a most important oversight had been made. The law was found to be applicable only to elec tions for members of the Assembly. Universal auffrage remained unimpaired as to all others. The joy of the Republicans upon the detection of v-u Was .?^ 8b?rl duration. A supplementary bill has been introduced correcting the fault. In the departments calm is being restored, though the South, which has been the most active seat of agitation, has not yet resumed its normal state. Near a hundred arrests have been lately made in Paris, chiefly members of secret societies. The result of their examination and of domiciliary inves tigation has been proof undoubted of the reality of the intended rebellion. Many private (I may al most say domestic) establishments for the manu facture of powder and arms in Paris and the de partments have been broken up. Phe long-talked of project of giving to the Pre sident of the Republic a more imperial eivil list than that contained in the stipend of $20,000 per month already allowed him, is at last about to be realized, it seems. Day before yesterday M. Fould, Minister of the Finances, introduced a bill appropriating to him orer and above his salary 250,000 franca per month, for what is styled his " expenses of representation." Article 62 of the consti tution is the only one which touches this subject. It says : "He (the President) is lodged at the expense of the republic, and receives a salary of six hundred thousand franca per year." The palace of the Elys^e National was assigned to him as a residence, and this was held by many as full compliance with the prescription of the sonstitution that he should be lodged ?t the public expense. On the 12th of March, 1849, how ever, the Conatiluent Assembly itself complaisantly passed a law appropriating other six hundred thousand francs for his " expenses of representation;" that is, for lighting and warm ing his palace, the keeping it aud its furniture in order, wash ing, servant hire, and clothing, the giving of Stale dinnera and soirees. Thus, for the last fifteen months, instead of 110,000 per month allowed by the constitution, he has been receiving just the double of that sum, viz. $20,000. This, you may be sure, did not pass without comment and censure, as an evident forcing of the constitution and a pernicious pre cedent. But it was a money matter, and French vanity was ?oth to appear 100 regardful. Besides, it was declared to be an affair touching the dignity of the Assembly, of the Executive power, and of Franee itaelf. So the constitutional question was let go, and the $20,000 per month paid without any dissatisfaction. But many a time have the reactionist jour nals declared the sum quite insignificant and insufficient, and many a time have the friends of the Ely see been on the point of proposing an increase. But they have hitherto recoiled before the inconsistency and unpopularity of the measure. The late triumph of the reaction, and the compact state of the majority in the Assembly upon that occasion, were supposed to afford a favorable moment. It was seized, and the bill in troduced. If it passes, the President of the French Republic will enjoy his palace and civil list of three millions six hun dred thousand francs per annum. This is equal to $1,972 per day ! The constitution allows expressly $10,000 perl month. It is true, and the fact should be mentioned in ex tenuation of the proposed measure, that the commission on the constitution, through M. Makbast, its organ, and a noted republican, submitted its work to tbe consideration of the I Constituent Assembly, accompanied with a long expose or report. In this report is remarked the following passage ? " Also we desire that he (the President) should be pieced by the Republic in a condition as to honors and prerogative befitting him who represents France before other nations? and if the salary which we have attached to bis office has appeared to you too reduced, we answer that we have supposed the national treasury would provide for all the expenaes of repre sentation, the sum of which will certainly exceed that which we have fixed for his person." The expose, however, has of course no force as law ; and how absurd does it seem that the constitution should so care fully determine the amount of the Presidential salary, if it be permitted in this underhand manner to raise it by mere law to a sum six times as large as the constitutional allowance. This bill suggests to a Paria journal the following remarks : M. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, after a service in his office of eighteen months, which history will appreciate, asks of the National Assembly an additional sum of three million francs per annum : six thousand francs a day for expenaes of representation' M. Manm, Preaident of the Republic of Venice, a man who for a year was the soul of a whole people, who, with a few gon doliers, for months together kept a whole empire in check, while civilized Europe waa shouting with admiration: who was the last to quit tbe laat citadel of Italy : M. Mauin mounted to power poor, and descended from power poorer still. ^ He refused the offer of a national subscription made by his friends ot France, Italy, and Europe, and ia at the present moment gaining his daily bread by giving Italian lesaona in Paris. It is said that this bill will 6e made a Cabinet question: that the whole Cabinet will retire if it is rejected or even modified. Its passage seems somewhat doubtful. There are symptoms of strong opposition on the extreme right. The bill is sent, ministers opposing, before a apodal committee. The Assembly is determined to proceed promptly with the other strong measures composing the system they are pur suing. The final discussion of tbe deportation bill is fixed for to-morrow. The bill interdicting political meetings comes up to day. The Polytechnic school bill, abolishing the gratuitous in struction which was instituted by the Provisional Government after the revolution of February, has passed the third readiog, and is now law. I have expressed confidence that we would soon have in the National Assembly that pestilent agitator, Emile de Gi rardin, editor of La frette. This is not so certain. The Democratic pirty was in April, and doubtless still is, largely in majority in the department of Lower Rhine, but the sup port given to Girardin will not, it seems, be unanimous. There are two Democratic candidates : while the Reactionists centre upon one. Government has been in high glee for tbe last ten days, in the confident belief that M. de Girardin had been detected iu a violation of law iq the matter of the print ing of a petition, which would enable them to spoil hia pros pec's of election by a conviction and six months' imprison ment. These hopes have been blighted. His printer was convicted- Girardin himself has been acquitted. The project suggested to the municipal authorities of Paris, by the permanent threats of barricades held over them by the revolutionary party?I mean the project of removing the pavement of stone, and macadamizing the whole boulevards, from the Madeleine to the Baatile, and ihe rue Faubourg St. Antoine from the Bastile to the barriere du Trone?ht* been suddenly resumed, and ia now on some half dozen points of the line in full process of execution. This ia generally deemed a most deplorablo measure, and one that must of necessity be soon abandoned. It will render that ap'endid thoroughfare most of the time almost impassable, and the whole of the time almost uninhabitable, and, unless extended to numerous other streets, the measure will but very imper feclly guaranty us agauiat the barricade* it will* b?P aves, ? render it mere difficult for future insurgents to embarrass circulation of the public force Intended to act against them. A letter from Strasbourg i la tea that an American citizen, Hiht Wuhi, of Boston, arrived in that city aonoe time before from Radstadt, when he had been accused of high treason. He had been discharged in consideration of hie American citizenship and sent off with a pass, but without, regular papers. He had been living in Strasbourg, awaiting letters from the United Statea, and supporting himself by giving lessons in EnglisU. Three or four days ago he wa* arrested by virtue of orders from Paris. He is to be escorted by gendarmes to Havre, where he will be shipped to the Land of the Free. There let him stay, enjoying fully aa any of ourselves the protection and the liberty which our lawa extend to him. Should he come again to Europe with any violent revolutionary intent, he will have no sympathy of mine if he meets severer treatment than that which has just overtaken him. Last accounta from Stockholm state Jenny Lind had juat arrived in the Swedish capital from Lubeck, and had been re ceived with most extraordinary demonatrations of public re spect and pride. 8he will give there a series of concerts, after which she will proceed to the springs of Em*. It is her in tention to embark for the United Statea in September next. It is announced that a promising son of Kossuth is about entering one of the colleges of Paris to complete his education. The President of the republic is about paying himself the compliment of having his portrait copied in Gobelin tapestry from the splendid canvass of Vernet. The processes in this famous establishment are very slow. The work cannot be completed in less than three or four years. I have heard doubt* expressed whether M. Bonaparte will ever have the satisfac tion of contemplating hie features wrought in this celebrated national establishment. Lamartine, now that the debate which aimed ao severe a blow upon his republic is finished, has asked and obtained a three months' leave of abeence from his seat in the Atsembly. He goes to the East, to take possession of the lordly domains recently conveyedVto him by the Sultan, near Smyrna, j Larochejvjuelin, reporter of the legislative committee on Napoleon's tomb, reports in favor of a reduction of the appro priation asked for, by about $80,000, and the auppression of the equestrian statue, part of the original plan. FROM OREGON. The California papers have advices from Oregon to the 18th of April. The Oregon Spectator thus notices the partial success of the expedition which had gone in pursuit of the deserters from the United States service: ** Governor Lane has returned from the Umpqua, having arrested and brought back some seventy or seventy.five of the deserters. Col. Loring continued the pursuit after the re mainder. There is a rumor in town that, after progressing as far as the Kanyon, he was obliged to return to the Ump qua, having found two of the bodies of the deserters. Strong fears are entertained that the whole band will have perished by starvation, ere they can be reached with pro visions." Further explorations of the newly-diicovered south pass of the Columbia river show its practicability and superiority to the north entrance. A difficulty occurred at Fort Vancouver between Mr. 8hort and Dr. David Gardner, in relation to a land claim, which both paities pretended to hold, which resulted in the death of Dr. Gardner and a Kanaka, whe was in the Doc tor's service. ? '' A . , Major J. 8. Hathaway, U. 8. A., in a fit of mental de rangement, bad attempted to commit suicide by cutting hm throat. Hopes were entertained that the wound inflicted would not prove mortal. The machinery of a new steamboat had arrived at Astoria, accompanied by the workmen and engineers to construct and run it. It is contemplated to have it running at the earliest possible period. The Spectator of the latest date says : " We are happy to learn that the farmers throughout the Territory are actively engaged in putting in crops. We are assured, on good au thority, that the amount of grain in the ground is nearly, ? not altogether, twice as great as it was last year. A?.?? the general demand for seed potatoes, we should thmk, it the season proves favcrable, that potatoes would be cheaper next fall than they are at present." The Governor had issued his proclamation for the Legisla ture to convene on the let of May. I The murderers of Dr. Whitman it is said have been arrest ed, with the exception of one or two, who had died subse quent to the massacre. An arrival from Puget's Sound brings a report that Inspec tor General Dorr had arrived there from Columbia river, and seized the Hudson Bay Company's schooner Gadbaro for smuggling. The company's warehouse also was taken poe session of by Inspector General Dorr, in consequence of smuggled goods having been found therein. AN INDIAN COUNCIL. The vicinity of St. Paul, Minnesota, has recently been en livened by an animated scene, consequent upon the meeting in Council of two hitherto hostile bands of Indians?the Sioux and Chippewas. The 8t. Paul Chronicle furnishes the pro ceedings of the Council, from which we learn that it was held at Fort Snelling on the 11th and 12th instant. The object of the Council was to endeavor to make peace between the two tribes, and the appearance of their respective deputation* is thus noted : "The Chippewa deputation came in on Sunday evening, under escort of Capt. Todd, commandant at Fort Gaine*. They numbeT between eighty and ninety of the chiefs and braves of the Mississippi Chippewas. They were received with due honors by Capt. Monroe, at present in command at Fort SnelUng?Gov. Ramsey and other civil officers, together with many citizens, being present. ?? Hole-in-the-Day, the head chief, placed himself under the protection of the United 8tates Government until the disposition of the Sioux might be known. ? ?, . ??The Sioux appeared at the fort, about 12 o clock on Tuesday, decked out in the most characteristic manner, and numbering about three hundred souls. Some were mounted on horses, and as they galloped over the plain, cheating and yelling terrifically, a sight was presented which was reallv picturesque and beautiful. There was much excitement ex hibited among the comparatively few Chippewas on the arri val of their old enemies, which arose in a great measure from the consciousness of their superiority in numbers, and also from their mutual instinctive enmity. ' After some delay, caused by the time necessarily occupied in posting sentinels, arranging preliminaries, dcc. a deputation of b<Uh sides ad vanced towards each other, meeting half way ; and the cere mony of shaking hands was got through with, evidently, how ever, without much cordiality, or bon gout; for, even while their hands were clasped, they eyed eaA other in a suspicious mmner, and tried to force a smile, but it terminated in a mu tual grin of hate." The chiefs and head-men were then invited into the pres ence of Gov. Ramsit, who was surrounded by a large con course of citizens. After all had been comfortably seated, the Governor, on behalf of the United States, delivered an address which was interpreted by two persons, the different tribes not speskiog the same Indian language. The Governor concluded by recommending each to appoint four of their mu tual friends to negotiate for them, which the Indians acceded to, the Chippewas appointing Mr. Warren, Mr. C. Beauleo, Rev. Mr. Gear, and Capt. Todd, to negotiate for them; and the Sioux selecting Mr. Forbes, Mr. O. Faribault, CapU Monroe, and A. Faribault, as their representatives. After various other meetings and ineffectual attempts to settle the matter, it was finally agreed that an armistice should exist between the two tribes until the questions in volved could be submitted to the authorities at Washington. The council was then adjourned sine die? FROM THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. The advicea from ilonolulu are to the l&th of April. On the 10th of that month tbe Legislature was convened. The King was present, attended by bis consort and Ministers, and delivered an address. Among its recommendationa were, the establishment of a saving's bank, with proper regulations ?the removal of unnecessary legal impediments to ths inter marriage of natives and respectable foreigners?a project for a criminal cede?the founding of schools and hospitals, Ac. The ?' Poly nesisn" says that the business aspect of Honolulu is more than usually favorable this season. Ths brig Excellent, of New Orleana, arrived at Norfolk on the 19th, in charge of Lieuts. Bruce and Gansevoort. Tbe Excellent'was captured off the coast of Africa, by the United Slates ship John Adams, on suspicion of being engaged in the slave trade. Left the African squadron all healthy.