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place* of holding the courta, as to them shsll Pr0Per aLd
convenient. ,L^~artrA- That the constitution, ?"llD"el States. enacted, That the provisions Sec. 18. And be tt fwthguvpen(ied until the boun of this set be and thej are 8iate of Texas shall J!fy.tol!!rn d when such adjustment ahall have been ef beedjuatrfL*ndwfc??,?g ^ ^ #hsiH j hli fected, the Preatoeo act to be in full force and open 5Sj32ii'5?3<?W" *r.oake" he"in tmM " tTftUWif**" ">o dli?n of lh? IT % JL~ \ball be deprived of hia life, liberty, or pro perty in^ai?Territory, except by the judgment of his peer, and the law. of the Und. HQWE^L C0BB| Sneaker of the house of Representatives. WILLIAM R. KINO, President of the Senate pro tempore. Approved, September fillm0RE. Ptjbiic?No. 24. An act for the admiaaion of the State of California in o Union. Whereas the people of California have presented a consti tution and asked adnmaion into the Union, tion wee submitted to Congreaa by the Presidentlof th. Unitad State, by message, dated February thirteentb. e.gh e^ hun dred and fifty, and which, on due examination, is found be republican in its form of government? . Beit enacted by the Senate and House of Representative* of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the State of California ahall be one, and ia hereby de clared to be one of the United SuusofAmenca, ??*?!* ted into the Union on an equal footing with the origin Th., ?.J ss zissrs t? sar?i.Tsar??s the 8t?? of California ihJI b? entitled U Wo repreeeatttivei in .t furttiar gnocttd, Tbet the Mid State of California ia admitted into the Union upon the expresa condi tion that the people of said State, through their Legislature or otherwiae, ahall never interfere with the P"m^d*^8? of the public lands within ita limits, and ahall pasa no law and dono act whereby the title of the United 8tatea toiand right to dispose of the aasne ahall be impaired pr questioned, and that they .hall never lay any tax or assessment of any description whatsoever npon the public domain of'thes Urnite States, and in no caae ahall non-rea?dent proprietors, who a citizens of the United Statee, be taxed higher than residents ; and that all the navigable waters within the said State shall be common.highwaya and forever free, as well to the inhabi tants of said State as to the citixens of the United State*, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor : Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be ao eonatrued as recognising or rejecting the proportions tendered by the people of Cnh formats articles of compact in tbeordm.n^adoptedby the convention which formed the constitution of that State. Approved, September 9, 1859, [Pontic?No. 25.] TT , AN ACT to establish a Territorial Government for Utah. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of ReP^nt(^v" of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 1 hat all that part of the territory of the.United Statea included within the following limita, to wit, bounded on the west by the 8tate of California, on the north by the Territory of Ore gon, and on the east by the aummit of the R^y Mountams, and on the south by the thirty-seventh parallel of north lati tude, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Utah ? and when admitted aa a 8tate, the said Territory, or ?ny ^rt.on o the same, shall be received into the Union with or without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time ot their admission : Provided, That nothing in this act con , tained shall be construed to inhibit the Government of the United 8tales from dividing said Territory into to two or more Territories, in such manner and at such time. aB Congreis shall deem convenient and proper, or from attaching ?y por tion of said Territory to any other 8tate or Territory of the U sS a^And be it further enacted. That theexecutive power and authority in and over said Territory of Utah shall STvitd in a Governor, who shall hold his office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and q*??; fled, unless sooner removed by the President of the Unrted States. The governor shall reaide within said Territory, shall be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof, shall per form the duties and receive the emoluments of superintendent of Indian affairs, and shall approve all laws passed by the legis-. lative assembly before they shall take effect ;_he may grant par dons for offencea against the lawa of said Territory, and re prievea for offences againat the lawa of the United Statea until the deciaion of the President can be made known thereon ; he shall commission all officers who ahall be appointed to office under the laws of the said Territory, and shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That there shall be a Secretary of said Territory, who ahall reside therein and hold his office for four years, unleaa sooner removed by the Presi dent of the United 8tates? he ahall record and preserve all the laws and proceedings of the legislative assembly herein after constituted, and all the acts and proceedings of the governor in bis executive department; he ahall transmit one copy of the laws and one copy of the executive proceedings, on or before the first day of December in each year, to the President Of the United States, and at the same time, two copies of the laws to the 8peaker of the House of Rcpre sentives and the President of the 8enate, for the use of Con gress. And in caae of the death, removal, reaignation, or other necessary absence of the governor from the Territory, the Secretary shall have, and he i* hereby authorixed and re quired to execute and perform, all the powers and duties of the governor during such vacancy or necessary absence, or until another governor ahall be duly appointed to fill such * Sec.^4. And be it further enacted, That the legislative power and authority of said Territory shall be vested in the Governor and> Legislative Aaaembly. The legislative assem bly shall consist of a council and house of representatives. The council shall consist of thirteen members, having the qualifications of voters aa hereinafter prescribed, whose term of service shall continue two years. The house of representa iives shall consist of twenty-six members, possessing the same qualifications as prescribed for members of the council, and whose term of service ahall continue one year. An apportionment shall be made, as nearly equal as practicable, among the several counties or districts, for the election of the council and house of representatives, giving to each seqfion ot the Territory representation in the ratio of its population, (Indians execepted,) aa nearly as may be. And the members of the council and of the house of representatives shall reside in and be inhabitants of the district for which they may be elected respectively. Previous to the first election, the gover nor shall cause a census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the several eounties and district* of the Territory to be taken, and the first election ahall be held at such time and places, and be conducted in such manner, as the governor shall appoint and direct; and he shall at the same time declare the number of members of the council and house of representa tives to which each of the counties or districts shall be enti tled under this act The number of persons authorixed to be elected having the highest number of votes in each of said council districts for members of the council shsll be declared by the governor to be duly elected to the council; and the person or persona authorixed to be elected -having the higheat number of votee for the house of representatives, equal to the number to which each eounty or district shall be entitled, shall be declaied by the governor to be duly elected members of the house of representatives: Provided, That in case of a tie between two or more persons voted for, the governor shall order a new election to supply the vacancy made by such a tie. And the peraons thua elected to the legialative aaaembly ahall meet at auch place and on such day aa the governor ahall appoint | but thereafter the time, place, and manner of holding and conducting all elections by the people, and the apportioning the representation in the aeveral coun tiea or diairieta to the council and house of representative*, according to population, ahall be prescribed by law, as well as the day of the commencement of the -regular sessions of the legislative assembly: Provided, That no one session shall exceed the term of forty days. Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That every free white male inhabitant above the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of said Territory at the time of the pas aage of thia act, ahall be entitled to vote at the firat election, and ahall be eligible to any office within the aaid Territory; but the qualification of votera and of holding office, at all aub aequent elections, ahall be auch aa shall be preacribed by the legialative aaaembly : Provided, That the right of suffrage and of holding office ahall be exerciaed only by citixens of the United 8tatee, including those recognised aa citixens by the treaty with the Republic of Mexico, concluded February second, eighteen hundred and forty-eight. Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the legislative power of said Territory shall extend to all rightful subjecis of legislation, consistent with the Constitution of the United 8tates and the provisions of this act; but no law shall be passed interfering with.the primary disposal of the soil; no tax shall be imposed upon the property of the United States; nor shall the lands or other property of non-residents be taxed higher than the lands or other property of residents. All the laws passed by the legislative assembly snd governor shall be submitted to the Congreaa of the United Statea, and if die approved ahall be null and of no offect. Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That all township, dis trict, and county officers, not herein otherwise provided for, , shall be appointed or elected, aa the caae may be, in auch , manner a* ahal be provided by the governor and lagialauve assembly of the Territory of Utah. The governor shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and conaent of the legislative council, appoint all officers not herein otherwise provided for ; and in the first instance the governor alone may appoint all said officers, who ahall hold their offices until the end of the first session of the legislative assembly, and shall lay off the necessary districts for members of the coun cil and house of representatives, and all other officers. Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That no member of the legislative assembly shall hold or be appointed to any office which shall have been created, or the salary or emolu ments of which shall have been increased, while he was a member, during the term for which he was elected, and for one year after the expiration of such term ; and no person holding a commission or appointment under the United State, except postmssters, shall be a member of the legislaUve assembly, or shall hold any office under the government of said Territory. Sec. 9. And be it further enacted. That the judicial power of said Territory ahall be vested in a supreme court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices of the peace. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and two associate justices, any two of whom shall constitute a quorum, and who ahall hold a term at the seat of government of said Territory annually, and they shall hold their offices during the period of four years. The said Territory ahall be divid ed into three judicial districts, and a district court shall be held in each of said diatricta by one of the justices of the supreme court, at auch time and place as may be prescribed by law ; and the said judgea shall, after their appointments, respec tively, reside in the diatricta which shall be assigned them. The jurisdiction of the several courts herein provided for, both appellate and original, and that of the probate courts and of justices of the peace, ahall be aa limited by law: Pro vided, That justices of the peace ahall not have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy when the title or boundaries of land may be in dispute, or where the debt or aum claimed ahall exceed one hundred dollars ; and the said supreme and district courts, respectively, shall possess chancery as well as common law jurisdiction. Each diatrict court, or the judge thereof ahall appoint its clerk, who ahall also be the register in chancery, and ahall keep bis office at the place where the | court may be held. Writa of error, billa of exception, and appeals, shall be allowed in all caaea from the final decisions of said district courts to the supreme court, under such regu lations aa may be prescribed by law ; but in no caae removed to the aupreme court shall trial by .jury be allowed io said court. The aupreme court, or the justices thereof, shall ap point its own clerk, and every clerk shall hold hia office at the pleasure of the court for which he shall have been ap pointed. Writa of error and appeala from the final decisions of said supreme court ahall be allowed, and may be taken to the Supreme Court of the United 8tates, in the same manner and under the aame regulations as from the circuit courts of the United States, where the value of the property or the amount in controversy, to be ascertained by the oath or affir mation of either party, or other competent witness, shall ex ceed one thousand dollars; except only that, in all cases in volving title to slaves, the said writs of error or appeals shall be allowed and decided by the said Supreme Court without regard to the value of the matter, property, or title in con troversy ; and except, alao, that a writ of error or appeal shall also be allowed to the Supreme Court of the United States, from the decisions of the said aupreme court created by this act, or of any judge thereof, or of the district courts created by this act, or of any judge thereof, upon any writ of habeaa corpus involving the question of personal freedom ; and each of the aaid diatrict courta shall have and exercise the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the constitution and lawa of the United 8tates aa is vested in the circuit and dia trict courta of the United States ; and the said supreme and district courta of the aaid Territory, and the respective judges thereof, shall and may grant writa of habeaa corpua in all cases in which the same are grantable by the judges of the United 8tates in the District of Columbia ; and the first six days of every term of said courts, or so much thereof as ahall be necessary, ahall be appropriated to the trial of cauaes arising under the said constitution and lawa; and writa of error and appeal in all such cases ahall be made to the supreme court of said Territory, the same aa in other cases. The aaid clerk ahall receive in all such cases the same lees which the clerks of the district courts of Oregon Territory now re ceive for similar services. Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That there shall be appointed an attorney for said Territory, who shall continue in office for four years, unless sooner removed by the Presi dent, and who ahall receive the same fees and salary as the attorney of the United 8tatea for the present Territory of Oregon. There shall alao be a marshal for the Territory ap pointed, who ahall hold hia office for four years, unless sooner removed by the President, and who shall execute all processes issuing from the said courta, when exerciaing their jurisdic tion aa circuit and diatrict courts of the United States ; he shall perform the duties, be subject to the same regulation and penalties, and be entitled to the same fees as the marshal of the diatrict court of the United Statea for the present Ter ritory of Oregon, and ahall, in addition, be paid two hundred dollara annually aa a compensation for extra services. Sec. 11. And be it further ent.cted, That the governor, secretary, chief justice and aasociate justices, attorney, and marshal, ahall be nominated, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appointed by the President of the Uni ted 8tates. The governor and aecretary to be appointed aa aforesaid shall, before they act as such, respectively take an oath or affirmation, before the district judge, or some justice of the peace in the limits of said Territory, duly authorized to administer oaths and affirmations by the laws now in force therein, or before the chief justice or some associate justice of the 8upreme Court of the United 8tates, to support the Con stitution of the United 8tates and faithfully to discharge the duties of their respective offices ; which said oatbs, when so taken, shall be certified by the person by whom the same shall have been taken, and such certificates shall be received and recorded by the said secretary among the executive proceed ings ; and the chief justice and associate justices, and all other civil officers io said Territory, before they act as such, shall take a like oath or affirmation, before the said governor or secretary or some judge or justice of the peace of the Ter ritory, who may be duly commissioned and qualified, which said oath or affirmation ahall be certified and tranamitted, by the person taking the aame, to the secretary, to be by him re corded as aforesaid ; and afterwards, the like oath or affirma tion shall be taken, certified, and recorded, in such manner and form as may be prescribed by law. The governor shall receive an annual salary of fifteen hundred dollars as governor, and one thousand dollara aa auperintendent of Indian affairs. The chief justice and aasociate justices shall each receive an annual aalary of eighteen hundred dollars. The secretary shall receive an annual aalary of eighteen hundred dollars. The said salaries shall be paid quarter-yearly, at the Treasury of the United 8tates. The members of the legislative as sembly ahall be entitled to receive three dollars each per day during their attendance at the aeesions thereof, and three dol lara each for twenty miles travel, ingoing to and returning from the said sessions, estimated according to the nearest usually travelled route. There shall be appropriated annually the sum of ene thousand dollars, to be expended by the gov ernor to defray the contingent expenses of the Territory ; there shall also be appropriated annually a sufficient sum, to be expended by the Secretary of the Territory, and upon an estimate to be made by the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, to defray the expenses of the legislative as sembly, the printing of the laws, and other incidental expen ses ; and the secretary of the Territory shall annually account to the Secretary of the Treasury of the !,'n:ted States for the manner in which the aforesaid sum shall have been expended. 8ec. 12. And be it further enacted. That the legislaUve assembly of the Territory of Utah shall hold its first session at such time and place in aaid Territory aa the governor thereof shall appoint and direct; and?t said first session, or as soon thereafter as they shall deem expedient, the governor and legislative assembly shall proceed to locate and establish the seat of government for said Territory, at such place as they may deem eligibles which place, however, shall there* after be sutject to be chsnged by the said governor and legialative assembly. And the sum of twenty thousand dol lars, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appro priated, is hereby appropriated and granted to said Territory of Utah, to be applied by the governor and legialative as sembly to the erection of suitable public buildings at the seat of government. 8ec. 13. And be it further enacted. That a delegate to the House of Representatives of the United States, to serve during each Congress of the United 8tates, may be elected by the voters qualified to elect members of the legislative sssembly, who shall be entitled to the aame rights and privileges aa are exercised and enjoyed by the delegates from the several other Territories of the United States to the said House of Repre sentatives. The first election shall be held at such time aod places, and be conducted ,in such manner, as the governor ehall appoint and (Hrect, and at all subsequent elections, the times, places, and manner of holding the elections shall be prescribed by law. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be declared by the governor to be duly elected, and a certificate thereof shsll be given accordingly: Provided, That said delegate shall receive no higher sum for mileage than ia allowed by law to the delegate from Oregon. Sec. 14. And be it further enact/d, That the sum of five thousand dollara be, and the same is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be expended by and under the direAion of the said Governor of the Territory of Utah, in the purchase of a library, to be kept at the seat of Government for the use of the governor, legislative aasembly, judges of the supreme court, secretsry, marshal, and attorney ol aaid Territory, and such other persons and under such regulations aa shsll be prescribrdby law. 8ec. 15. And be it further enacted, That when the lands in thfi naid Territory ahall be surveyed under the direction of the Government of the United 8tates, preparatory to briog ing the same into market, aectiona numbered sixteen and thirty-six io esch township in said Territory shall be, snd the wtme are hereby reserved for the purpose of being applied to schools in said Tsrritory, and in the Statea and Territories hereafter to be erected oat of the sftme. 8ec. 18. And be it further enacted, That, temporarily, and until otherwise provided by law, the Governor of said Territory may define the judicial districts of said Territory, tad assign the judges who may be appointed for said Ter ritory to the several districts, and also appoint the timee and places for holding courts in the several coaptiea or sub divisions in each of said judicial districts by proclamation to be issued by him ; but the legislative assembly, at their first or any subsequent session, may organize, alter, or modify such judicial districts, and assign the judges, and alter the tiuies and places of holding the courts, as to them shall seem proper and convenient. Sec. 17. And be it further enacted. That the constitution and laws of the United tStates are hereby extended over and declared to be in force in said territory of Utah, so far as the aame or any provision thereof msy be applicsble. [Approvtd] September 9, 1850. [Public?No. 8.] JOINT RESOLUTION instructing the Secretary of State to furnish tlio 8tate of Alabama duplicates of the books and documents heretofore supplied by Congress, and which were destroyed by the recent burning of the State Capitol of said State. Whereas, by reason of the recent conflagration of the State Capitol of the State of Alabama, the public library belonging to the same was entirely destroyed, including the books and public documents heretofore furniehed to said Slate by the Congress of (he Uaitsd States : Therefore, Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of State be, and be ia hereby, authorised to trsnsmit to the Governor of the State of Alabama duplicates ol all such books and public documenta destroyed as have been by the acts and resolutions of Congress heretofore dis tributed among the States of the Union. Approved, September 9, 1850. [Public?No. 21.] AN ACT supplementary to the act entitled ? An act providing for the taking of the seventh and subsequent censuses of the United States, and to fix the number of the members of the House of Representatives, and provide lor their future ap portionment among the several States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Interior be and he is hereby authorized to increase the compensation allowed, the marshals or agents, and their assistants, tor taking the seventh census in California, Ore En, Utah, and New-Mexico, so as to secure the prompt and thful execution of the work. Sec. 2. Jind be it'further enacted, That in enumerating per sons residing in California, Oregon, Utah, and New Mexioo, the several assistant marshals or agents shall Include those who may have removed from their residence in any State or Ter ritory of the United States prior to the first day of June, 1850, and settled subsequent to that date in either of the said coun tries. Sec. 3. And be it further enacted. That each assistant mar shal or agent shall be paid for making out and returning com plete copies of the original census returns, as required in the eleventh section of the act to which this is a supplement, eight oents for each page of the two copies of the original census re turns required to be furnished by the eleventh section of the act to whieh this is a supplement. Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That in any of the dis tricts of the United States where causes beyond the control of the marshal shall have tended to delay the taking of the cen sus, so that the same could not be taken and return thereof made within the time prescribed by the act of 23d May, the Secretary of the Interior may, if ne sees proper, extend the time to any day not later than the 1st January, 1851 : Pro vided, That the said Secretary may extend the time for com pleting the census in California, Oregon, Utah, and New Mexi co, to such time as, in his discretion, may be deemed advisa hle- [Approved, August 30, 1850. [Public?No. 22.] AN ACT to amend the act entitled " An act to amend in the cases therein mentioned the ? act to regulate the duties on imports and tonnage.' " Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled. That f om and after the passage of this act the collection district of Ocracoke, in North Carolina, shall embrace all the waters, shores, harbors, rivers,creeks, and inlets within the limits here inafter described, to wit: Commencing at Drum Inlet, on the sea shore, twenty miles south of Ocracoke: thence running in a northerly direction to the thoroughfare so tailed, and through said thoroughfare to Point Marsh, near the mouth of the Neuse river ; thence to the point ol Long Shoal, in Pamlieo Sound ; thence across said sound, in a southwesterly direction to the outer bar ol Cape Hatteras inlet, twelve miles northeast of Ocracoke, and thence along the sea coast to Drum inlet. Sec. 2. And be it Jurther enacted, That all acts and parts of acts inconsistent with the provisions of this act be and the same are hereby repealed. Approved, August 30, 1850. FOREIGN. FROM OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. London, August 22, 1850. The session of Parliament has just closed, and time has read, during the progress of that session, j at least, one very important lesson to the world, j and particularly to England, and to all countries that are connected with her, either by political and social ties or commercial interests ; and that is, the entire hopelessness of her ever recurring again to a policy, of which protection to any class, in oppo sition to the natural rights of the mass of the people, will be the end and aim. No direct at tempt has been made to reverse the system of free trade, but a series of acknowledgments has marked and settled its irreversibility. The navigation laws have not been re-enacted, but supplementary bills have strengthened the law which last year gave the nation a free trade in shipping. Instead of land going out of cultivation, as was prognosticated last year, from the low price of produce, improvement in agricultural management is gradually spreading over the face of the country. Wages, even in the most depressed districts, have not been depreciated so much as the cost of living has been reduced, and therefore the condition of the working-man has been improved?the strongest proof of this is, that pauperism is every where diminished and the poor rates reduced. It is true that the session of 1850 may be said to have passed only three important bills, viz: that for the Australian colonies, the Metropo litan Interments Bill, and the Irish Franchise Bill. , But if many important forward steps have not been taken, it is consolatory to reflect that there have been no retrograde ones, and that the session of 1851 is not likely to be called upon to undo any thing which that of 1850 gave its sanction to. The preliminary steps made respectively in the direc tion of constitutional government in Ireland and New South Wales are good and wise, so far as they go, and they possess one very good feature, in not bearing the stamp of finality upon their faces or in their tendencies. The principle has been pro claimed that in every place where British rule pre vails the inhabitants are to be treated as English men, and enjoy all the rights and privileges of the British constitution. In fact, the great question has been settled that henceforth taxation and repre sentation are to be co-extensive; this admission will lead to great reforms and important results. So far for domestic affairs, as affected by the doings of Parliament during its late protracted session. As respects our foreign status, the passage from | Her Majesty's speech when she prorogued the Parliament, in which she says, " I continue to maintain the most friendly relations with foreign powers, and I trust that nothing may occur to dis turb the general peace," is a very satisfactory evi dence. And the majority of 310 in the House of Commons, whose steady votes enabled Lord Pal merston to triumph over the Tory reactionists and the scribes of the Holy Alliance, puts the stamp of approval upon the foreign policy of that enlightened statesman. Then, again, we had an actual surplus of ?2,000,000 for the last financial year, and an estimated surplus of ?1,500,000, which will be much more than realized, for the cur rent year, with rapidly increasing exports and im ports. We have had an absolute reduction of taxa tion, and have a great prospective one almost at hand. What may be required next session it is impos sible to foresee. We hope that Parliament will then, and at all future times, look at facts, and not defer, as it has formerly too often done, to usages and theories. The two circumstances stated by Lord John Russell?the necessity to consult the public, and the increasing knowledge of members? are cardinal points of the new Parliamentary com pass, by which legislation must steer. One session has now been brought to a satisfactory close, and we need not, at present, speculate on the prospects with which another will open, and on the duties which must then be attended to. Our financial prospects are satisfactory. How much has been accomplished since 1816, and during the peace which we have since that year enjoyed! Then tho interest of the national debt was ?32,938,751; i in 1844 it was ?27,827,000. The failure of the potato crop, the scarcity of 1840 and 1847, and the ?20,000,000 spent in the redemption of the West India slaves, have retarded its further reduc tion ; last year the interest of the funded debt was ?27,708,609. If we are blessed with a continu ance of peace, and of healthful and fruitful seasons, and commercial prosperity, we may now calculate upon its rapid reduction, and a proportional les sened taxation. Besides, there will be a great re duction of the national debt during the next twenty years, from the termination of various annuities. This reduction will be, to the 5th January, 1860, no less than ?3,207,500, and on the 5th April, 1867, the diminution will have reached ?3,793,200, leaving the annual charge for interest, should we not have been enabled further to reduce it by other means, ?23,915,409. Another favorable circum stance in our social condition is the great reduction in the increase of our population by emigration. The Registrar General's return for the last three months shows an increase of 62,727 in births over deaths ; but the emigration during the same period has been very nearly equal to this increase, being 61,778. The returns of the new Population Act, which will be made next year, will develop some curious facts. The census throughout Great Bri tain will be taken on one day?Monday, March 31, 1851?each householder returning all the persons within his house on the preceding night. Means will be taken to ascertain the number of house less poor, of persons travelling, and on ship board. The condition of Ireland is always a subject of great anxiety in England, and eager inquiries are always made respecting the state of the potato crop, as being the quarter from whence danger is most to be apprehended, since that vegetable has hither to been the staple article of food for the bulk of the Irish people. Most contradictory accounts reach us almost daily respecting the state of this crop, but we are inclined to think that no great amount of disease has yet appeared. The present state of Ireland, however, is very different from that in which the had to face the last terrible dearth ; and, though the potato is still of an importance far too great for the happiness of her people, it does not exercise the same overwhelming in fluence upon their existence as it did at that time. At the period of the late dearth in Irelabd, the immense majority of | her teeming population were entirely dependant for their ex istence upon the crop of their small potato patches. If this failed they had no refuge in their distress. Famine and dis ease struck down the people by thousands. The condition of Ireland, and its liability to these periodical inflictions, called upon the Government to devise a preventive for the evil, and that has been supplied by the combined effects of the act re lating to incumbered estates'and the poor law. A total failure of the potato crop could not now produce the suffering which it has hitherto done. Two other circamstances deserve especial notice. The first is, that although a very large breadth of land has been planted with the potato, it is no longer looked upon as the exclusive food of the people ; neither does the land planted with it bear any thing like the propor tion to the whole of the cultivated land in Ireland which it formerly did. There is an increased distrust of the potato, and a greater dependance upon bread. A people living upon potatoes must starve, if, perchance, that crop should fail. They are living at the lowest rate at which human life can be sustained, and if an accident happen, they cannot have re course to a lower description or a smaller quantity of food. The other circumstance to which we alluded, as indicating an improved condition in the Irish people, is their depending more upon wages for labor and employment, which they can now procure to an extent unknown until lately, than upon their potato crop. This they are enabled to do through the chang ed condition of the land, which has been brought about by the operation of the act for the sale of incumbered estates. We hope the Irish potato crop is safe, but should it be again dis eased, we trust that it will have a very mitigated effect upon the conditi6n of Ireland compared with that which such a ca lamity has previously produced. The London Industrial Exhibition of 1851 is [ progressing favorably, and the building progressing as rapidly -as favorable; from Ceylon and Calcutta, from Persia and Peru we hear of preparations for the great assemblage of nations. Mr. Jobs Jay Smith, of Philadelphia, the projector of the American Exhibition of 1852, left England for the United States, in the Atlantic steamship yesterday, having put matters in train both in this country and on the continent for the successful carrying out of his great undertaking. Our com market is in a very variable state. Every fine day increases hope and every rainy one raises alarm respect ing the crop now harvesting, and, as the weather alternates between wet and dry and wind and calm, so alternates the market We are sorry to have to add that reports respecting the crops come more and more unfavorable. From the west of England we hear of much disease among the potatoes, and that the wheat crop is from twenty to twenty-five per cent, below that of last year. From the east of England, and the fine wheat-growing country from Huntingdon to York, we are assured that the wheat and barley generally are seriously af fee ted with the mildew. " Scarcely a field, for many miles, ' is seen bright and golden, but all looks dull and dingy, and * in many places afBictingly discolored." " The wheat straw ' between Lincoln and Boston," says the Lincoln Times, "is * blanched with mildew, and the grain shrivelled up. Crops * which, a short time sgo, promised a large yield, are now * barely worth the expense of cutting. On the Cliff Row and ?the Wolds the mildew is not so bad, but the grain is very ? small and the straw weak. It ia feared, from present ap * pearances, that the average yield for Lincolnshire will bare * ly reach three-quarters (twenty-four bushels) per acre." The Economist confirms this account, and gives many other particulate. The potatoes through aH this district are said to be very much injured. The accounts from Scotland are fa vorable, with the exception of potatoes. From the conUnent of Europe the rumors are very contradictory. At Amsterdam wheat rose during the week which ended on the 12th from 3 to 5 florins. The Theatrical world, like the Parliamentary one, is at the end of its annual session. It has not been a very brilliant one, but, we believe, more profitable to those engaged in it than many of its immediate predecessors. Mre. Farht Kkmbli is continuing her Shakspeare Readings, with great success, at the 8t. James's Theatre. There ia nothing new and worthy particular notice in Literature. The sister arts of Poetry snd Painting have lost a distinguished votary in the person of Sir Mirtii Arthur 8hbe, the President of the Royal Academy, who died on the 20th instant at Brighton, in the 81st year of his age. Another literary character, M. dk Balzac, a celebrated novelist, has also lately deceased at Paris. The most noticeable circumstance connected with the fine srts is the sale and dispersion of the fine gallery of paintings collected by the late King of Holland. The prin cipal purchasers are said to be Continental and American connoisseurs ; the latter have possessed themselves of some of the finest pictures. The Marquis of Hirtford is the only British nobleman who has yet been a purchaser. Mr. Whithm, in his very interesting book, " Pictures of Nuremberg," recently published, has the two following curious notices respecting the Western Continent: " In the ? library at Nuremberg is an interesting globe, made by John ? Schoner, professor of mathematics, in 1520. It is very 4 remarkable that the passage through the Isthmus of Pana ? ma, ?o much sought after in these times, is on this old < globe carefully delineated and distinctly laid down." Mr. Wbilling evidenUy supposes that this communication was destroyed by earthquake or volcanic eruption. In another plsce he mentions a yet older globe at Nuremberg, made by Martin Behaim, in 1492. " Nothing w?s known of the ex 4 intence of the Western Continent at this time, yet there is 1 laid down on it a supposed island of considerable magni ? tude, cslled Antilia. Behaim lived a considerable time in ? Portugal, and constructed this globe while sladtbolder ot ? Fayal, in the Aiores?an appointment which he held for ? some time. He is aieo said to have made several voyages ? to tod from the western const of Africa. He has even been ? credited with having anticipated Columbus himself. Ben ? baim is celebrated in the Portuguese archives as a great ? mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and navigator. It ? is, moreover, certain that he intimately knew Columbus, ? and that his opinion and couosel were required by the King 1 n la the proposal and intentions of that great discoverer. We give these statements in the words of Mr. Whitlibq. One of the on dita of the day is, that the Pribce di Joib v i llk, feeling the utter hopelessness of his family being re called to the throne of France, has determined to offer himself as a candidate for the next Presidency. Thus there are already at least four " Richmouds in the field : ' the present occu pant, the Prince de Joinville, General Changarnier, and Gen- j eral Cavaignac. The Duke of Bordeaux is holding splendid receptions as Wiesbaden ; among other visitants there, were sixty workmen from Paris. These legitimist blouses were ?ery kindly received, invited to sn evening party, and much caressed by the higher class of Bourbonists assembled there. Truly, France is full of strange combinations, and her people are a very perplexing and " non understandable" people. The Duke oi Bounleaux's lameness is said to be very percep tibly increasing. There is a diminution in the French cus toms duties, and a general decline in commercial activity. The news from Spaiw is very unimportant. There i?, however, either something preparing among the Carlists, or the Government has been successful in getting it believed so. The Carliats are said to be provided with Russian money, and upheld by the secret influence of the Jesuists, and are preparing a vast conspiracy for the overthrew of the thrones of Queen Isabella of Spain and Maria da Gloria of Portugal. The only tidings from Pobtdoal are, that since the Gov ernment learned your Commodore Moroas had no orders jo make reprisals, they have assumed a bold attitude, and refused to attend to your claims. The United States frigates Constitution and Independence have arrived at Na ples, having Mr. Cut, your minister at Lisbon, on board. The session of the States General of Hollasd hast just closed ; all their deliberations appear to have been upon ques tions of domestic policy, and their business to cultivate the "fair delightful arts of peace." The Kingdom of the Nether lands presents a beautiful feature of an industrious, quiet, and prosperous people, living under just laws, and a liberal Gov ernment. And we may truly say the same of Belgium ; few heads which have been decorated with a crown have been less occupied with ambitious or selfish projects, or more devoted to those objects " for which kings should reign and magis trates decree justice," than that of King Leopold, and he has his reward in beholding the people happy and the nation | prosperous; progressing in all the useful mechanical and | manufacturing arts, as well as in all the higher branches of artistic skill, with a rapidity which will cause some older and more influential nations to look about them, if they would not be overtaken and passed in the race for priority of position. We are sorry to hear of great devastations in Belgium through the late heavy rains, and consequent inundation. We scarcely know how to approach the subject of German affairs. The following paragraph relating to Austbia is very gratifying; we earnestly hope that it will prove literally true: ??The fine of 2,000,000 florins imposed on the Hungarian Jewa has at length been formally remitted, and they have pledged themselves to deposite in the hands of Government 1,000,000 florins as a fund for Jewish school*. This ?volun tary tax ia to be paid within two years. It is not the inten tion of Government to proceed to the sale of any of the estates confiscated in Hungary, but to farm them for a period of two or three years. There can be little or ho doubt that they will eventually be returned to their former proprietors." August 23. The proceedings of the Diet at Frankfort ap pear to be so far satisfactory. Austria has de clared that she has no intention to propose or de sire the return to the political state of things prior to 1848. Depending upon this declaration, Saxony, Bavaria, Hanover, Wurtemburg, Hesse, Holstein, Mecklenburg, and several smalltStates have recom mended the formation of the restricted Diet, with a view to the full and free discussion of all questions connected with the unity and well-being of Ger many. Ihree o'clock.?The Queen of England is on a visit to the King of Belgium. Louis Napoleon has been well received at Strasburg. Gen. Jung Bahadoor, the Ambassador from Nepaul to Eng land, has arrived at Paris, on his return home. The Journal of Odessa gives a melancholy ac count of the state of the harvest in the south of the Russian Empire. The crops have suffered severely from drought, locusts, and other insects. In the district of Cherson, too, much injury has been done by the heat, and the price of corn is rising at an alarming rate. FROM OUR PARIS CORRESPONDENT. Paris, August 19, 1850. All the journals are*occupied with details of the progress of the President of the Republic through the departments which he is visiting. From the Debats down to the Evenement hardly any thing else is spoken of. Each views the excursion with the bias of its own political prejudices, and reports it to be triumphal for the political aspirations of the President, or the contrary, according to the po litical color of its own spectacles. The Debats, whose correspondence may upon the whole be re lied upon as the most impartial, admits that, throughout the whole of Burgundy, it appears that the republican manifestations have been the loudest, but expresses doubt whether the " obstinate vocife rations" with which the passage of the President has been hailed indicates the veritable feeling of the country, or merely the effort of a party to im pose a fictitious public opinion. At Macon, at Dijon, at Chalons shouts of Vive la Republique! have prevailed with an energy that looks, says the Debats, very like affectation. In some cases it has amounted to personal insult to the President, and the po lice had to make several arrests. The officials every where are as supple and fawning as the mere creatures of power and the humble expectants of future favors are of course presum ed to be. Since his accession to power, it has been the inva riable system of the President to fill the prefectures and all the minor departmental offices with men devoted to himself. At Macon the prefect commences his little address with " Prince ! and concludes with the following toast: " To the memory of the glorious Consul of the great Emperor! To his worthy and popular heir, Locis Napoleon! ' I must report* portion of the reply of the President to the address of the Mayor of Lyons. It is a reply the sincerity of which will be very variously estimated to the reports so pre valent of late, ascribing to the President ultra constitutional projects for the rcaliiation of his ambitious aspirations. Per haps it will reassure some of your readers who entertain doubts at to the durability of the republic in France. I must con fess it has no such eflbct upon me. Actions speak, to my mind, more convincingly than words : and actions have long been of very different purport. Besides, closely examined, his words themselves become equivocal, and leave upon the mind a painful impression that the President has not uttered his whole thought. He says : ??I am not the representative of a party, but the repri tent ative of two great national manifestations, which, in 1804 as in 1848, were intended to save by the establishment of order the grand principles ofthe French revolution. Proud, there fore; of my origin, and of my flag, I will remain faithful to them. I will be wholly the country's, whatever it exacts of me, whether of abnegation or perseverance. The rumor of a coup d'etat haa perhaps reached even you, gentlemen. But you have not believed it: and 1 thank you for not believing it Surprises and usurpations may be the dream of parties without support in the nation ; but the elect of six millions of suffrages executes the will of the country : he does not betray that will. Patriotism, I repeat, may conaist in abnegation as well as in perseverance. Before a general danger all per sonal ambition should disappear. In this case patriotism is recognised as was maternity in a celebrated judgment. You remember the two women who claimed the same child. By what sign did they know the yearning heart of the veritable mother } By the renouncement of her right?a renounce ment enforced by the peril of a precious life. May the parties which love France forget not the sublime lesson. As for myself, I will remember it if need be- and on the other hand, if eulpable pretensions revive aud once threaten to compromit the repose of France, I shall promptly redoce them to insignificance by again invoking the sovereignty of the people \ for I reoognisc ? in no one a better right than I have to call himself the people s I representative." | By "culpable pretensions," the President alludes to the Congress of Legitimiata now being held at Wiesbaden, on the Rhine, at which are preaent many notabilities of the As sembly, and even some of the membera of the commiaaion of twenty-five, nominated to remain in Paria during the raoitioa. This legitimist meeting oo the border* France givea to Gov ernment much disquiet. It ia said that the chief of the police in Paria haa sent to Wiesbaden several secret agents, charged to make reports on men and incidents occurring in thia re nowned pilgrimage of Belgrade square. Gen. CHAasaaaiaa, notoriously legitimist in his feelings, haa not been to Wies baden, but ia evidently becoming leas and leaa sympathetic with the Preaident. He censure* in very plain terma the' military banquets of the President; seeing clearly to what they tend, and auapecting their intent. The President would rejoice in the opportunity of placing either Gen. Magnau or Geo. Baraguay d'Hilliers at the head of the army of Paria. I see so ofton in foreign journala extracts from American journals, containing what are called curious advertiaementa, and exemplificationa of life in the United 8tatea, intended to ridicule and disparage American society and institutions, that I cannot resist the temptation to retort, by extracting from two of the principal Paria papers of the last week now under my eye a couple of serious advertiaementa. I give them without comment. They will speak for themaelves in the way I would have them to every American mind: The King of Denmark has just contracted a morganatic marriage with a pretty milliner girl, Madame Rasmuasen, who haa long been sustaining to him the relation that the famous Lola Montes sustained in Munich to the King of Ba varia, and who previously led the same brilliant and dissipated life in Copenhagen that Lola Montes did in Paria some seven or eight years ago. 8he exercises over her royal alave a more despotic sway than be over his subjects, and makes her influ ence sensibly felt in the march of politics. This marriage ia not without high political importance, for h renders certain what waa before doubtful, the extinction of the dynasty now upon the throne. Artiata and traveller*, just from Munich, are talkiogofa colossal bronze statue, the work of the celebrated sculptor Schwakthaleb, representing Bavaria, which baa just been cast. The colossal female figure is already erected upon the heights of 8endling, about half a league from Munich. Ita inauguration is to be made the occasion of imposing cere monies in October next. Home idea of ita dimensions may be formed from the fact that the bronze of which the atatue ia cast weighs one hundred and fifty-six thousand pounda, ot the value of #35,000. In the interior of its bead two couplea may waltz with eaae, while the musician will be very com fortably accommodated in the nose. (I should add it waa a lady who haa described the statue to me.) A flowing robe descends to the ankle, and a bear skin thrown negligently over the shoulders, in guise of a shawl, composes a toilet, aimple and of mcMt imposing effect. At her feet appeara a remarkably well-executed coloasal lion. The figure, holding a crown in her hand, preserves throughout all ita large pro portions, a graceful and natural symmetry, and represents | Bavaria in a manner at once touching and aublime, in the features and attitude of an heroic young woman. Gen. Cohcha ia going to Cuba aa Governor-general, with larger powers than have ever before been entrusted to a Gov ernor. The garrison is to be much increased from 8pain. Four sailors have deserted from the United 8tates frigate Constitution, now at Marseilles. It ia supposed that, in order to make good their escape, they murdered a boatman of the harbor, with whom they were laat seen. Tbe body of the murdered man has been picked up, but nothing aa yet heard of the sailors. Paris, August 22, 1850. It is not politics that should have the first place in a Parisian correspondence of this week. It is the immense loss which French literature has just sustained. I mentioned in a late letter that the dis tinguished writer Honore de Balzac was lying at the point of death. He died on Sunday night last. The disease beneath which he has finally succumbed waa dropsy of the heart. It would seem that tbe cold to which he was subjected during hfc late aojourn in Russia, whither he went to marry the Ruasian countess, whom he had loved ao long and so romantically, contributed powerfully to tbe de velopment of the diseaae. He went north in aearch of bap pinesa and fortune. He found both, but brought back death. The political news to day ia of little or no interest. The President is pursuing his tour: of the incidents of which yoa have very variant accounts. The truth ia, that the excursion will probably satiafy him that his persona] popularity with the mass of his countrymen will never bear him to the Tuileriea ; that the army alone will be able to realize for him hia ambi tious dreams. He has received in the midst of the military and functionary ceremony with which he is surrounded, quite as much evidence of antipathy to his person and government as the contrary. At Besanpon he narrowly escaped personal violence. Warned not to attend a popular ball, be persisted, was separated a moment in the midst of the room from his escort, surrounded by twenty or thirty men, who grossly in sulted him, and were proceeding to personal violence, when Gen. Caatellane, who had lost him in the turbulent crowd and uproar, had to draw his sword and rush to the rescue of the President. The chief rioters were arrested. M. Bona parte, by laat accounta, waa at Strasbourg, on the Rhine. We are expecting accounta of violent scenes from there. This is the department whose democratic socialists have lately sent Girardin to the Asaembly. Orations and speeches op eowaro EVERETT, 2 ,ols. 8vo. Specimens of Newspaper Literature, with personal Me moirs, Anecdotes, and Reminiscence*, by Jos. T. 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