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WASHINGTON: SAT APRIL 26, 1851 THE WEEKLY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. The subscription price of this paper for a year is Tbbbb Oollabs, payable in advance. ?, For tha long Sessions of Congress, (averaging eight ?montha,) the price will be Two Dollab* ; for the short Sessions 0?x Dollar per copy. A reduction of 30 per cent, (or one-fifth of the fall charge) will be made to any one whoshall order and pay for, at one tune, five copies of the Weekly paper; and alike redaction of 35 per cent, (or one-fourth of tha fall charge) to any on* who will order and pay for at one Uom ten or more conies. . J*o uccvunta being kept for this paper, it will not he for warded to any one unless paid for in advance, nor eent any longer than the time for which it ia ao paid. February, from the United States Navy, Free and Accepted Masons, I. O. O. ?., Sana of Temperance, dtc. :J < ' NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. THE WHIGS OF TENNESSEE. The Whigs of the State of Tennessee have, as oar readers already kaQWklfilected as their candi date for Governor at the ensuing election the Hon. William B. Campbell, most favorably known here from his service fojr seferal years as a Representa tive in Gongr0?0, a* l>???? (Vwui ills excellent public and private character, and in the field by his con duct as one of the most gallant of the commanders of citizen soldiers in the late war in Mexico. We eannot allow ourselves to doubt, under these cir cumstances, of his being elected to the honorable trust &r which he has been nominated. 0ur object, however, in bringing this nomination jpmp diately to the notice of our readers to-day is ?o introduce to them the capital speech delivered by the Hon. Meredith P. Gentry, the distin guished Representative' in the last and preceding Congresses from the State of Tennessee, delivered on the 20th of last month, before the Whig State Convention by whom this nomination was made. We shall leave the, speech to speak for itself* believ ing that it will meet the same hearty approbation from our readers which it has commanded from us. EXTRACT FROM MR. GENTRY'S SPEECH. Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Convention.' It ii a grateful task to me to congratulate you and the Whigs ol Tennessee upon the selection of a candidate for Governor, which you have this day made. I first met the distinguished citizen whom you have nominated in this chamber, fifteen years ago, as a member of the Tennessee Legislature. I wai afterwards aasociated with him for many years, aa a colleague, in the Congrers of the United 8tatee. It waa our castom tc travel to and from the city of Washington together, and u ? live together at the same, whilst attending the aessions of Con grese. I know him thoroughly. It we had been twin bro thers, and bad sported away our childhood together, I couk not know him better. And, although Tennessee is rich ii noble sons j though, like the mother of the Gracchi, she cai proudly point to her children, and eay, with truth, "thes< ere my jewels," yet, in my opinion, she has not within he: broad limits a nobler son than William B. Campbell. Ii integrity and honor; in fidelity and troth ; in courage ant patriotism ; in all that constitute! a high, neble, and manl1 character, he has no ruperior. I regard his nomination a aotamount to his election. Independent of hi* late brillian miliary vbievpmenu. he,bM a trpogbold upon the a&e tiona and confidence of his country men, of which they ha* .given repeated and striking manifestations. As coaunande; of a yolucteer company in the Florida campaign, he distin .guished himself for courage, patriotism, and military qualifi cations. He was, when quite a young man, an honorei member of the Tennessee Legislature; and he has been honor ably distinguished by repealed elections to s seat in the Con gress of the United States?succeeding by large majorities -though competing with his preseot distinguished opponent Governor Trousdale. Since his return from Mexico, the Le giilature of Tennessee unanimously elected him to the honor able and responsible office of Circuit Court Judge. Thesi are conclusive proofs of the high estimate which the peoph place upon his talents and patriotism. But, from the daj that the newspapers heralded to the world a faithful accoun of the battle of Monterey, and told how nobly Cawpbbll, amidst the iron-storm that waa vomited forth from the Blad Fort, upheld the fame of Tennessee ,? and with what heroii courage, when his comrades were falling by scores and bun dreds around him, he led on that charge of death and glory, the people Of Tennessee bave placed him first in their affec tions, and hare eagerly desired an opportunity to add a civi< wreath to the crown of military laurela which he then won m -gloriously. Your nomination of to-day presents to them thai -opportunity, and I have not the slightest doubt of his electiot to the office of Governor by a much larger majority than hai been known in the political contests of Tenneaaee for masj ?yeare past. Confidently assuming that the election of our candidate foi Governor is a certainty, let ua turn our attention to an objec .less certain, and far mote important. I mean the elec ion o a W hig majority to the next Legislature. In responding t( your invitation to address you on this occasion, I will not en ter into a discussion of those measurea of public policy whicl have for many years constituted the subjects of difference be tween the two great political parties into which the countr] is divided; because, in the addreaswhichyoubave just adopt ed, Uie principles and opinions held and advocated by tb< Whig party are so clearly and lucidly set forth as to msk< that task unnecessary. Therefore, auch a grouping of thi political ls??es which will be determined by the next elcctioi in Tennessee as in my opinion ought to inspire every Whij in the State to an appreciation of the vast importance of tha election, and arouse aim to a full exertion of all bis anergic to achieve- success ; and a presentation of the causes whlcl -tend to detest us, with some practical suggestions aa to tb< means by which thoae causes may be obviated, is all that ] ? shall attempt in the residue of ay remarks. VV bat are the political isauea to be determined by the nexi e ection in Tennessee f Upon the next Legislature will de volve the duty of pawing an act re-diatricting the State, so ai to adapt the diatricta for the election of members of Congres. ? .i# 7 *')P0|t'on'n8 representation under the census re> -cendy taken. It will likewise be ire duty to establish new *h 1? "? T 1 60 ?f ?#D,tor" "d Representativee tc he Legislature of Tennessee, so t0 ipportion reprefen;? n 'mo?* "unties of the State, aui.ably t? its present popu.ation. These arrangementa will !.? for t<m y#tr#, ,nd we know our p^iticaJ adversaria ,?o well not to know that if they obt.in power at the next el,ction they will be reatrain ed by no principle of justice from ao arranging the Congres atonal and Legiaiative diatricta aa to exclude the Whiga ol the State, in a great degree, |rom a fair participation in its . honore. To be dofoted at the next election is to be defeated for ten years at least. Let thia fact addresa itself to the se rious consideration of every Whig in Tennessee, and have all the influence upon bis conduct which ought to attach to a truth f'sught with consequences ao grave and important. A j?at and proper pride, laudable ambition, and the highest pa Iriotlsm uqlte in demanding that it shall amuse every true W bij to the exertion of bis utmost energies to prevett such a consummation. It wiH be the duty of (he next Legislature to elect a United States Senator to succeed tbe Hon. Hor aijrs L Tubwbt, whoes term of service expired on the 4th of March last. Mr. Bell s term of service will expire on tbe * 4ih cf March, MM ; aud, as tbe Coaetitutioa of the United Statee makea tbe Senate a perpetual body, it ia, in my opin ion, ibe duty of tbe 8tatee, by timely action, to guird against aod prevent all vaoanciea in that body, except such aa are produced bj death*, resignation*, or impeachment*. If I am right in thia opinion, tod the next Legislature should lake the wbm view of its duty, it will elect two Senators to repre sent Tennessee in the Congress of the United States?each for aiz ycara. 8hould we fail to elect to that Legislature a majority of Whigs, 'it is needless to say that those two Sena tors will be Democrats. Are the Whig* of Tennessee wil ling to see those public men in whom they confide and whom they have delighted to honor, crushed under the iron heel of Democracy f As one of the sovereignties which united con stitute the Republic, Tennessee wields in the 8en?te of the United States an equal portion With every other State of all the power of the Republic. Shall the voice of the 8tate be spoken in that high body for or against the political principles and measures of public policy for the ascendency of which the Whigs of Tenneaiee have, in aunahine and atorm, struggled with persevering patriotism ? It aeems to me that they will answer this question by promptly buckling on their armor for a fight sUch as was never fought before 1 If they are true to theoMlves, true to their principles, true to their country, such ^plainly will be their action. , , , , , ? ,,, , fl,|. But, gentlemen, there is yet a greater question thai* any which I have yet stated, that will be decided ty the nejtt election. That queationia: Shall Tennessee approve or mndemn the conduct of President Fillxobi, in hit admin titration of the Executive oown nf ii* c,.*.. ?uient f As th? *!??? ufUie otate in August next shall be for or against hia friends and supporters, so will it be construed as approving or condemning his Administration. This is an iasue which ia all-embracing in its character. Its decision by the people involves a judgment upon the conduct of the Whigs in rela tion to those measures which, all candid men will now admk have involved the Republic in its present perilous difficulties, and also a judgment upon their position in relation to the remedies propoeed ?o extricate it from danger. It connects . itsilf in its consequence* with the past, the present, and the future. Should the decision be against us, 1 repeat that it will be construed as a condemnation of our past action, it will conaiga the men of the Whig parly of Tennessee to political non-exiateooe ? and it will, for reasons heretofore stated, de termine the political poaition of the State for ten years at least adversely to our principles and views. Never, in my opinion, hate the people of Tennessee been called upon to express their judgment at the ballot-box, when queations of auch high and enduring importance lo them were to be de termined by their voica. Prf aident Ftllvoxe acceeded to his high station at a period of extraordinary difficulty. Congress had been in session for an extraordinary period of time?engaged in abortive efforts to adjust the sectional questions which had been precipitated upon the country by the acquisition of extenaive territories from Mexico. The extreme opinions and prejudicee of the North and South seemed to be in irreconcilable conflict < and loud above the roar and din of maddened factio&ists, the thunders of disunion broke in terrible and startling peals upon the ear of tha nation. The most sanguine patriots were al most ready to despair, and the most resolute trembled for the fata of the Union. The public anxiety, especially in the Southern State*, was intense beyond description. Tt?e im pression had been industriously propagated, during the preced-. ing contest for the Presidency, that Mr. Fillmore waa him , aelf an Abolitionist. The national heart throbbed high with , anxiety, i All eyes were fixed upon the Capitol with intense . solicitude. Had the President listened to the suggestions of , a mean and aalfish ambition, or heeded the counwUof a tow I aidly timidity, God only knowi what would have beeh the , result. But he did not heeiate a moment. With that promp , titude which characterizes great men in great emergencies, t ha chuaa his line of conduct. With a ccitfega and .patriotism . unsurpassed jn history, ha determined to throw himself ttt> , tha breach and save hia country, reckless of coMeqncncec to . himself. Defying the ravings of Northern Abolitionists and . Southern Disunion!*!*, be openly and fearlessly directed all . the influences which legitimately attaoh to hia high poai I tion in support of those bills, then pending in Congress, gen erally known aa the compromise measurer, and under hia aus pices they became laws; and the dangerous crisis which menaced the safety of the Republic was safely passed for a time at least. Good men of all parties ceased their bickerings, and united in congratulating one another upon the safety of the , Republic, and in pronouncing plaudits upon the President , who had so nobly performed hia duty. But curses loud and , deep came up from Diaunioniata and Abolitionists and con centrated upon him. But Northern Abolition, and Southern Disunion have not baen quieted. Forcible opposition to the execution of the fugitive slave law is threatened in the North s and South Carolina proclaims it to be her purpoae to secede , from the Union. Agitators and Extremists, Nullifiers, Seces sionists, and Disunionista, are united in furious and malig nant opposition to the < President; and, by every meana in their power, are seeking to break down his Administration, and deatroy ita capacity to serve and save the country. Calm amidst the raging storm, be firmly performs hia duty to the whole country ; and refure* to be the auppie instrument of any faction. With a moral courage, which high patriotiam , and conacious rectitude could alone inspire, be has stretched forth one arm to the North and the other to the South, and throttled the monsters, Abolition and Disunion i and be calli upon the lovers of the Union, upon all good men of every party, to come to the teacue and aid him in strangling them to death. Will Tennessee go to the rcacue and aid .him in his great effort ? Will she invigorate bis arm with a cheer ing voice of approval ? Or will she strike it nerveless by a sentence of condemnation f These questions will be answer ed on the first Thursday in Auguat. This is the great issue to be determined by the approach ing election. With the exception of one Senator, the Ten i nessee delegation in Congress were united in supporting the i measures of compromise to which I have referred, and the i people of the 8tate of both political parties have exhibited a remarkable unanimity in approving those measures. Scarce . a dissenting voice ia heard ; and when heard it comes from some one engaged in a futile effort to sustain the waning for i tunes of those aspiring public men of the State, who have so blunderingly identified themselves with the inglorious fame , of the Nashville Convention. But these voices are faint, " few and far between." I think I may safely say that but for the party divisions among u*, and the habita of antagon iata which those divisions have created, the people of Ten nessee would, as with one united voice, approve the conduct of the President in relation to the questions to whieh I have been referring; and they would with equal unanimity sus tain and support his administration. In my opinion, high considerations of policy connected with our sectional interest* demand that we should thus approve and sustain the Pre sident. I trust that I am justified in entertaining the hope that there are many of our political adverseriee,- lees maddened by party passion* and prejudices, who, *eeing the high policy of such a course, will unite with us in giving to the voice of the State a loud tone of approval on the fi st Thursday of August next. What motive can we present to any future Northern President to imperil himself by oppoeing the mad schemes of fanaticiam, if under exiating circumstances we fail to approve, austain, and support Mr. Fil'more ' Party diviaiona and party animosities ought to be cast to the wind*, and all ought to be united in this matter. But I fear this approval must be given almost exclusively by the Whig*. Well, be it st, if it must be so. We are equal to the duty. We have to-day chosen a breve and skilful leader, one whose lead leeda to victory. No obstacle* discourage him?<no dan g*ra intimidate. Worthier to follow such a leader, we must diamias timidity from our boson*, and march with unfalter ing steps, else we shall b? left eo far in the rear that we can not hear the about* of triumph when Campbell conquers. Let every Whig do his whole duty, and all will be wail. Gentleman of the Contention, having tone attempted to preaent to yohr conaidantion tha political iaanee involved in the approaching election, with tha view of impressing upon joo tad the Whig, whom you represent tbe vast im, ?>ce of that elect.on, .How me to claim your attention h I* longer, whilst I adcer, to i0me of |he c>|jwg f fear may endanger our .ucce?, ,nd m.ke some sugg? ? ,he me,ni ,h#t o?*bt ,o be employed lo overcome cau? If the sound element, of each party should union mum be upon the platform on which the WJus Fennewee, and Southern Whig, generally, have stood, ?? beginning. We have never committed ourselves to extreme and geroos theories of any sort, either with respect to .lav any other subject relating to the proper administration, Uoveroment, or ,j,e poweet that belong (o ?t. We the constitution in its amplitudes end reetrfctione tbe existence of no power which it confers, but insia in the adminiatraUon of it. powers a wise discretion < dfnt moderation ahall be regarded. Firmly reaoJved ttai, under all circumstance., aU our rights, we have thelew refuted to co-operate in any measures that let plunge the Republic into civil w.r and diaeolve the We are for upholding the Conitjtutio.1 and the Gov it ea'abliahea in fall efficiency, and for presarvinc uiMmpeited, as the only reliable mode ef Asjnt nghie and preserving public liberty, n?sce, and bappuMto. if (tto p.ku. is disturbed by civil commotion and by the apprehension of great impending dangers, wTaS not re.pon.ihle for this state of things. For tei. years pJt we have opposed those measure* of policv which all candid men now adm* have hrought the country into iu preaent difficul ties ; and in defiance of fierce popular pasaiona and loud po pular clamer we have warned our countrymen of the dangers upon which the Republic was being precipitated. Whoever will take the trquble to look over the Congressional debates upon the annexation of Texas and the Mexican war will find in the speeches of Whig statesmen life-like portraitures of the present state of affairs in our country. 8ome of those public men who were foremost in denouncing, deriding, and oppoe ing our views of public policy, it would seem are pow seeking to escape the responsibility of their own *c>s by propoane ex reme remedies for the evils which they have brought Ipon the country, remedies which involve a dissolution of the ? W?ar <? Lare 8,ruMlin8 by other mean, to extricate our country from the connquence. of a policy which we strove in vain to avert, and to save the Union from the perils into which it has been brought by counsel* adverse to our own. In view of these indisputable facts, why should a Tenneasee Whig, or any true Whig, falter in his party fidel ity or grow lukewarm in hi. party zeal > If he needs addi iont,l .t.mulant. to awaken his patriotism, let him contemplate the lofty bearing of those veteran chieftains who have so Ions been the most distinguished representatives of Whig prlnci Pies. I need not say that I allude to Mr. Clat and Mr. WaasTia. I refer to them with the most exulting pride. 1 am proud of them as American patriots, orators, and state. men. I am proud of them a.' the most illustrious representa tive. of a political party of which I am an humble member. How gloriously they have borne themselves! If they were both to die to-day they have achieved enough for fame. His tory would eternize their patriotic deed-, and remote age. would hail them great and glorious. When the sectioaal controversy growing out of the acquisition of territory from Mexico began to aseume a portentous and alarming aspect, Mr. Clat bad withdrawn himself from public cares lo spend the evening of his illustrious life in retirement. But the roar of civil discord and the muttering thunders of disunion pene trated the quiet shades of Ashland, and roused him from bin th? ,0Vnd of 1118 lrumPet rou*? the war horse. Ashland lost its charms. Retirement and quiet and repose could no longer sol.ee the veteran statesman. His country was in danger?the Union was menaced?the fair fabric ol freedom, erected by aages and patrios, was threatened wuh demolition. He accepted a commission from Kentucky \c reappear Uijon theatre of public affairs, and hastened tc the Capitoi. Again he rl<es jn the Senate chambpr, the scene of so many former triumphs. That clarion voicrf, whlcb so often before "enchained the liatening Senate," again ringt Uueagh its chamber and resounds through tbe country, strife togtsuor to Um hearts of ceospirt'orflf ami imparting ooofi* dence, coo rage, and hope to desponding patriots av?ry where How eloquently and persuasively be pleads to harmony atu conciliation, and that apirit o4 til iT tir #>iVifclMTTllIj ?1. promise m which the union was foviaed end wUeh alone of preserve it. With what power does he portray tbe advan tagea of the l/mon and the inappreciable evils that will follow its dissolution. How terrible his denunciation* of those whi conspire against it! Abolition and disunion stand rebukec and abashed in his presence, and cottar under his patriot indignation. r AthJTnlTr8 iDlelIec,u*J ProP<5rtions above olhcc nrtfi, * Atlas lowers above tbe mole hills at iu base, Mr. WteaTii ,deba,e- He ? a NoXrnm!l"m rtr fmm ?" infected with fanaticism. He i. a Sett ,"nd the faTorite most honor* wk , 5 the hot-bed ofabo wni'. ^ rU. hi ,ake? What will he say Will he forfeit his position in Massachuaetu and in the North n^inn ?h-gh n I 6 be braTe ,he Sunders of iodic V* m "S bur9VUPon him ? He 'peeks?and speak, V ?"n before spoke-not for the North or the South, he East or the West, but for the country, the whole ewe try, and nothing but Ihe country?for tbe Union, aod the lib eryr end happiness which it secures. Reckless of couac quences to himself, be gave to hi. country, what was no m?rhl * ?r ? "*c,ion?hi? Powerful intellect arl( 3S1 ^ aD<J al1 ,be influence ?*hich these Mgl ?MW enabled him to witld. Thus have these great chiff par'J Vln<lica,ed u? from all imputations agains TatTla ?0?n<?1 ion wilh PfeMDt P01'1*"1 i?ues, ai Tatmh and Scott, and Camfbk,.,. and HAnniHG, w diilof11 ? 0f,.0,ber Wbi? heroes, by their glorioa Mexican war, vindicated us againa *en m"de- 1 the question, Wh" party fidelh^T-8? ?'v* ?r Uu? Whi*' hher hi' 1,t^Lor 8*?* lukewarm in his party zeal > But gent emeo, the patriotism, wisdom, prudence, and firmoeti' of Fitt*oa?, aided by the combined eloquence of Ciat ant WaesTB., and by the exertions of Cass, DiccrJsT bo?th?D.?/ lU'TO*' and man7 other patriotic statesmen o nnin? ? l ot aDn?hilated abolitionists and dis unioLiits, nor crushed agitators. I wish I could close them dewltory remarks by confidently assuring vou that Ml d? '?OZZ: ^ tbat the *epab,ic " But l c nn"; Genilemen cry peace, peace, but there is- no pesca." Tc delude ourselves with unfounded hopes weuld be a weak ?Z7t0 W^i tbe ^W be moir^: ? ihe pre^nt aspect of public affai?> 7r f ? r unmi,l,k??ble evrdencei of aaotimeota of atroag aod deep opposition to tbe "eomnr*. mm Bwani" of U,. 1?, ?b.S: slave law. Ita execution ia resisted, its repeal demanded and ambitious men are seeking to subserve their disatisfaction with these laws sen n * f" f1? 01 tbe occasion. A dissolution of ih?. r?; j demanded by of a confederacy ctaSing f rLma,!on States seems to be the MmaJv ; sl.veholding ?nd South Carolina electiona h.^^en'M i"'; ^ ?*?r|U with the legislative acta referred to f >T coafortaty [ Hon?in Mississippi no election has been vet hZt I ^??ven" waa the firat S ate to speak at the b>ll^ kL Owwgia preaented. South Carolina fi h'"0'4** aP?" i?ues Georgia into her schf m a and' purpoaes h?f in the work of disunion. treJoriKbeml dsy came, and the loyal and XSiT^of 1 overwhelming majoritiea, declined ih- by ?nd proclaimed them^veV ^ r.r !le ****** t "compromise measures" and ofadherina ,?<T'T,nf "L,he patriotic action of the people of G* f nion. This io the hope, of the coS .?1?* and gava hope and confidence to ihe'imw j ?//W* * in all the 8tatea. Had Georgia Artr.tx.k* tbe Uoiun probable that by tbia day we would have^enTr^'h 'r dvil war and revolution ; moat effective!, " T of work of cutting one another's throets?h?m?n,n loa phic employment which from the earlieet r*efl?i rl^ h.. occupied so targe a portion of th7S JZf' mankind. So?b Carolina h^ ?0teMrF~ o( tioo, held an election for members of the t iMd by a laav of ibet State; and it app*are ^ T members elect (4 that Convention are pledged to al!!^^! r the Union by the s^aie sct,on of lina. It aeew to be tbe calculation of many of the Im lin* anmlbx 9m*, mm at co-operation with South Carolina in the work i Union into which tbey are not willing to J tbeir calculation that, if South Carolina pca rinto violent warbke coUiaiion with the Federal ka other Southern Slates will, by the foroe of kiting from an iosiitution common to them all, _i make common cau*e with South Carolina ; 4 union of the Southern States ao earnestly tnged _i published some two years ago by certain member* I from the South, and re-urged in an addnns pub convention which assembled in thia oily not long I accomplished?a union which haa (or ita object a " the Union, the deetiuciion of tha Government our father*, and the eetabliahment of a South f, of which 8outh Carolina, it is supposed, M and controlling State, and Charleston the I entrepot Gentlemen, if any man suppoass .ja which have arisen relative to the Territories .j acquired from Mexico constitute the cause of j which menace the durability of the Union and j of the Republic, in my opinion they are mista are but pretexts for a Migone conclusion. The ? ot the North desire a dissolution of the Union f CwKitutton of the United Stales is ? barrier to i of emantipetion > and, aince the day* of flu If kioua meu of the 8outh have desind a dissolu :ause, by their coura* in reference to thmy M?imi att prospect# aT a'taieing the highest offices of tfan Union. I bam no desiiatodo injustice to the living or tfte. 4?*d ( but I must apeak my opinions. Let them pase for what they are worth. It ie my ^pinion that the late distinguiahed 8enator of South Carolina (Mr. Calkocx) was, from the flrat day that he en tered puNic Hfe to the day of his death, morbidly ambitious to reach the Presidency of the United States) and thia fact ia the key which opens to a full comprehension of his public life. Though gifted with genius io an extraordinary degree, in my opinion he was a monomaniac in all that related to his aspirations to the Presidency, and his whole public life had reference to that predominant and controlling aspiration. I believe he wa/honest and ainoere, for the time being, in the opinions which he expressed and the policy he advocated. Like toost other aspirants to the Presidency, he believed that to be beat (or his country which tended most to make him ha President. When by hie quarrel with Gen. Jackson be brought down upon himself the cruahing popularity of that great favorite of the people with such force as to completely blight hi* prospects for the Presidency, too .intensely ambi tious to despair of hi* darling object, he determined, as a last forlorn hope, to meke orie mighty effort te unite and rally and concentrate the stavehaldint States upon aome iasue purely sectional in ita character. Nullification, reaistence to the re venue laws of the Government, wae the first plan which thia purpose assumed- The result of thia firat experiment waa ex tremelv disastrous lo His hopea. It brought a deeper gloom oter hts prospects, and plunged him deeper into despair. But he waa a ?*?that Mvyr despaired. He determined to seize the question of hero rt*Ung ? tha Southern Slatee-that question which almost prevented the formation of the Union? and make it the means of exciting, influencing, and unitmg the Southern States in a sactional furor, of which he intended to be the " herd and frontand thua he expected to com mand the support, as allies, of a sufficient number of North erh Stiles to become tb? President of the Uplted 8tates. If he^ould have accomplished this object, hie ambition would hate been satisfied^ and I believe be Would have been an ex cellent Union meu.fud ope of the best.Presidents that ever held that high office. I think he would have chosen to be the Preeident of the United States if he could ; but I think his alternate waa to be the President of a Southern Confederacy. And he was, in my opinion, a Union or Disdnion man, as, in bis estimation, We hopes and pnwpects rose or sunk tn reftr ence to thoeis objects. Gentlemen, though yet a young man, by the favor ot tne people I haWwen for a considerable period of time a member of the Coogtees of the United Statee, and, though a quiet member, I link I have not been anunobeervantone. I think I have observed, and etudied with some euccesa, the public tie country ; and I know thai the di.tingui.hed Se ' Ijom I am referring 'has labored for more than ten with all (lie addreee and talent which belonged te , time after the election of Gen, Taxioa to the Pre r sidency, a meeting of the Southero members of Congresa was ' to take into consideration the dangers that menaced us ' as connected with the questions arising out of the acquisition 5 of Territory from Mexico Opposed to all movement* and organisation* of a purely sectional character, I refueed to at tend the meeting. But, though absent, Governor Metcalfe, of Kentucky, who presided on theoccaaion, appotetea BM one of a committee of which Mr. Caxboox was chairman, whic was charged with the duty of preparing an addreee to the country. I attended the meetings of that committee. The character of the address, prepared by Mr. Camocw and sub mitted1 lo' tha committee, as well aa other developments, strength*#^ and confirmed my previous conviction that the Union Would presently be amulted by a formidable and wide apread organization. The addrers, alter being considerably modified, was finally signed by many Southern members of Congres*, and published to ibo country. The legislative pro eeedinga of South Carolina, Mississippi* and Georgia, pro viding by law for State Conventions?the Nashville Conven tion, with its " argument for disunion" and its recommepua tion of the flection of a Congress composed exclusively or members from slaveholding Statee-wem the natural and le gitimate offspring of the address to which I refer. It was with feelings of humiliated pride, as a Tennessesn, that I read in the Charleston newspaper Mr. Rhktt s offensive boas , in a speech wh-ch he made reporting to South Carolina the effects of the Nashville Convention, that Tennessee wheeled into line in two days ! Wheeled into what l ine ? Into the line of Rebellion and Treason ? Disunion and Cm War I deny it. Ttnnewee haa not taken and will not take por tion in any such line. Tennessee waa not in the Convention. True, there were in that convention respectable and distin guished citizeni of the State, but a sufficient number of the peopfe did not co operate in sending them tbera to impart to them the character of representatives. They were essentially volunteers. Doubtless there were patriotic citftens m thai Convention, who were uninitiated aa to the final result aimed at by the chief actors. But this remark cannot apply to d s tinguiehed public men, who have been intimately asaociated With the public men of the day, and conepicuously engage J in public affa rs. Such characters as these must have known into what line they were being wheeled ; and they must not be permitted to shrink from the responsibility which they have coun ?d. The loyal and Union-loving people of Tennessee, Whigs and Democrats, mu*t not permit the honors of the State lobe conferred upon them. Whatever casualtiesmsy befall the Whigs in the next election, they will at leasl have power enough in the Legislature to prevent such a result; and I hope the purpose will be universal among them not to confer the hopes of the State upon any who have been in guilty dalliaaea with the harlot of Disunion. No explanatory cards, nor embiguoui speeches, made and published after the Convention had ad jo*rned and disperted, can obtein absolution for them. Ten neasec roust s:amp ber disapprobation upon them, in charac ters as indelible as thoee with which God imprinted his curse upon Cain. ' ,. But, gentlemen, I have difiwgd mi+tf from the position which I wM endeavoring to enforce. I wis seeking to en force the conclusion thai it is unsafe to afltyme that the Re public is safe. Other eyes may see dear ikies, but to my vision derk and portentous clouds ere gathering. In the North, the repeal of the fugitive slave law is becoming the rallying cry of detnegoguee; and in the8ouib, its maintenance and execut on are the conditione upon which alone even mo derate and unexcited citizens propose to remain in the Lnion. Previous to the late glorious election in Georgia, South Caro lina mide the co-operation of at least one Stale an indispan ssble precedent condition lo those violent reeoris which she has so long threatened. But since Georgia indignantly spurn ed the offered honor of leading in Treason, South Carolina seems to have become desperate, and announces her determi nation "solitary and alone" to secede from the Union* ami. I before remarked, the has elected memberaof a Ste'e Con ventiwi, which is to ae?emble in December next, nearly all oi whom are pledged to that course of action. Whatever may be her political errors, it ie unquestionably true that her people are remarkable for high pride, courage, and chival-y. With these characteristic*, I do not see how she can recede from the potion which aha bee taken. If she persevtres. the Presi dent i* bound to see that the laws of the United States sre executed, and a collision between South Carolina and the Federal Government will be inevitable. To my mind the prospect of a safe solution of the difficulties which menscetbe republic was never leee promising. Now, every day, in almost every Southern State, distin guished and able men are propagating the doc time that a State has the right peaceably to secede trom tha Union, sod the people are impressed with tha belief that eeee* ion wiU be al together a peaceful proeeee. Strange absurdity ! Is the ex istence of the Union?the daraiion of this Government, thia great wonder ol the world?dependant upon the wUiv caprice* of South Carolina ; and the whims etch and e*erv one of the thirty-one Ststee which, united, constitute the KepaW.c > If this isthp cbesacter of oar inbe ritance, we have wealed our gratitude j and the world baa mis applied iu admiration and applause. Washington a fame a a mistske, and the renown of ail the heroes and *???? wbo co-operated with him in achieving Ibe success of We Ameri can Revolution ia but a gseet humbug. . , ? k, The doctrine that the illustrioua men who founded this Government did not intend to impart to it the power of aell preservation, aeems to ate tn be the greatest and mo?t p re pos ter cu? of all absurdities It cannot be?the ?"gbty work o our fslhers?this &ir fabrie of Liberty?the Union?oar in valuable inheritance, can nev?r have such a termination. When sacrilegioua hands are upraised to des roy. will no arms be s<retched forth to sate ' When traitors assail, will not patriots defend ? Far diets at be the day?may k never coma? when thia high debate ahalt resolve itaell into the argument of arma. But when it cornea, if come it muat, more blood will be ahed for the preservation of the Union than was abed in than gnat straggle which established it. "fctoae incarna dine," inatead of bloody rivule's, will mark and immortal ?e the mighty conflict. No : this Government of ours, the peat prod act of the toils and sufferings, the heroism and wtsdom of our fathere, can never pata away like a ?oib?? dream < it cannot vanieh from thf vision aod hopes of mankind hka a summer cloud. Come what may, I tru?t that Tcnmutt wd always .land aa abe now stands, united in Union ? and flrtnTy reaofvoJ defend, ??srJ, and preserve Ji against sll who aaseil it, come they from the North or eome they from the South. ETHNOLOGICAL RESEARCHES RESPECTING THE RED MEN OF AMERICA. Historical and Statistical Information respecting the His tory, Condition, and Prospects ?f the Indian Tribes in the United States. By Hswav R. ScKooicairT, Un published by authority of Confess. Part I* ** phia : LireivcoTT, Gnawao & Co. 4to pn. 6?0. We have been favored by the learned author with a copy of thia superb and interesting volume, and, expressing for ourselves only ovw admiration of its splendid execution in typography and artis tic illustration, we subjoin the following philosophic notice of the work from the pen of the eminent Professor Lisbs R, of South Carolina College: The Indiana ara receding every day. They recede west ward before the white race, and they vanish daily more and more into the past. The time will c?me?and no distant one it seems to be?when the red race will be no more within the broad dominion of our eagle, with the exception, perhaps, of a few dot* of communities heio and there, whtbh, listening to the warning voice of all history, have taken out a permit of existence by forsaking the roving b.w and becoming sons of sericulture, not wholly dissimilar to some gipsey commu nities on the continent of Europe planted, like islste, in the midat of other and vaat races. But the red man, is, we believe, destined to expire. The breath of the white and red man doe* not mingle. The one race oeaees before the or er, aa our native gray fox cannot withaUnd nor co-ex ist with the ted fox, which encroaches every year furtbea southward upon the territory of the other. \ et these are views which we have a right oqly to entertain we have died every means to arrest the destruction. We are not ep mled to this conclusion before facta have not unanswerably proved it, when history shows that it could not be otherwise; end what thtn may be the result of coaaprshenwve and con scientious observation would be arras* cruelty if adopted be forehand in older to suit our interests, leaving a whole race to extinction because it may be in our. way. Yet there is one distinct condition upon which.alone the Indian can be saved, (f he can he saved at all: that any race which hopes to live in contiguity with working, toiling, striving, onward races, can do so only on condition of beooming a uller of the eo?l. Man, in the hunter's stage, ia for ^history ages are in geology. God mide the land to be ploug ? Civilization is not, imaginable without dense population, an dense population caonot subsist without ?*? i^th wm"Hhe enttoe raoe of Aborigines to be ewept from the surface of our country without a record, wifhoat s faith ful accouql of th? vast mu!tjt\pl* qi ffUow-fciOg" of their languages, dielf floVefnmenls, poetry, traditions, *tif>erstiiloDa, of their good and bad traits, and of their whole peculiar type ^ I. not even their tale to be left to future generations ? But if it is to be done, is it not high time to go to work to collect, remember, and snatch from total oblivion aU thai Ib ra|Wy fading away ere it be too late ? In either case, whether we wont to know exactly what is to be done VP011 M and enduring plan, in order to offer to thi. race the rae^i of co-existence with ourselves, or whether we feel obligeil grant them at least a record in exchange for our mtrancn ! true account of them in return for their extinction?it is little ie ?d give for all that we uke-in either case it is necemty to have a pUster cast, if so it may be expressed,.af the whole existence of the race, in all its modes, and to take that plaster cast now and at once. . It seems that these views induced Congress to decree s collection of all the knowledge of the Indiana scattered over our country, or yet to be obtained, and to order its publica tion. It was * -e, it was justjit waa what?^m^ed. The great and serious task devolved on Mr. BAoolcmft, a gentleman who had ahown his mUmate knowledge with the Indian in various works on their government* h***. end language. No superior man to him coald have been selected, we believe; none equal tp him 'R fa1 th'" GXttnsive UH We have now the first part of his labors before Us, embo died in a large quarto volume, which, in beauty of execution, both as to letter press and the many accompanying engravings, corresponds to its sterling contents, and to the noble design of CongTtai. The (hdlans of our country do not belong to what we would call the in?titu(iomal race*, aucb aa the Pelasgic, Italic, or Teutonic tribes ; nor dci tbty fairly form a part of those races which have an interest fn ?oih< of natural history in deed, but are pawed ?*?r by the khtoflan, because tWy do not enter as integral parts ia the changing drama of bUmsn history?contributing nothing, receiving as little. True tory requires institutions. Their changes, development*, and breaking up is its backbone. All that i? pefsorwI?*? ? ter arotmd them, gracing or deforming ; but without fnatha tions there is no true history ; there can only be a string o anecdotal events at beet. Our Indians occupy something of a middle ground. ->c sionollv they show the incij ieut stages of history. Like the Celtic race, for the Europeans, they form the list of the tapes try in the great loom at which history busily weaves our na tional life with many a changing de?gn. It " worth whi e, then, to know even that list, though it be but the indifferent list; and it seems to us that Mr. Schoolcraft has thoroughly understood aod well performed his taak- He gives us the antiquities of the Indian with pains taking accuracy, wuhou felling into the error of swelling them into imaginary impor tance and dimensions, which they ne*erj*~e???d He gives us en account of the stngla tribes?what_they were when their destrojers brought over the warrant ot heir ex tinction. or what they still are. Whatever of hwtory hey he rfcords it; whatever of statistic, could be collect ed we have it in his work. Throughout the whole, it can be clearly perceived that the author is animated by the best spi rit?the desire of giving all necessary (acts, and of preeenung the true and entire type of tfce race. 0 e of the most elemental yearnings which God has in grsined in the human soul, a* one of the ?ery mgTedtents of humanity, is the ardent and unquenchable desirei of View ing what they thai were before us did ; and of letun* thoea that shall be after us know what we have done- Wiihou it there would be no continuity of society.; withou. contmu ty of societv, men could succeed each other only as the buffaloes of to-dsv foTow thoee ot yesterday. The roort ctvillted man has this yearning in the intense*; degree; sod hence ihetMrst for history, for monuments and record, tbat irrepreHiwa de sire of not belonging to the fitting dsy aloca. tne civilned?the Caffre, the Papoo, has the same deeire ia ite incipient stages-but all have it; and every living tribe of men contrives, in some way or o;her, more or lose *ucce*e fully, u record ite doings end its suffering*?to erreet ihe bas'ening day end bring it to the witnees-box in the grand court whose grave justiciary is history. h foil ws that when we w.*h to have a true knowledi* of whatever ribe, one of the irimary items aod symptomatic facts f? r which we must inquire is, how do th^r record ? Mr. Schoolcraft has jusUy given, therefare, a large space to the picture-writing, or, to use his own term, to the picto gra, hy of ihe Indiens. The strict grammarian may object to this word as a barbarous mixture of Latin etd Greek ; but m single and a malleable noun was wanted, from which en ad jeenw and other nouns might be formed. We see no why thie word should not. be readi y received. A|fHoy? graphy is derived from the Qieek, it has become so M" " M ?ur ears Uiroigh jfnfrvphy and other terms tbat it My n feel, Englith, and so is picture. Eicotiograpby tod eicono graph would have been purer, bat would it have been as EmglUh i that is, would it beva addressed itself as foaitiariv Jo ooi mi * We think not * and we accept the word. If there be any thing in tbe work to which we night object, it is the title. ?? Historical information respecting the History of the Indian Tribea" might hate been expressed mom conve niently f bat the reader cannot foil to observe that if iD so great a work we have to object to this oftly, we most have fotrad very Dttfo indeed fit for a as an. i ' The meat interesting aubjact of all thai relate* to our In dian n, unquestionably, bis iangwage, which, with a very complete structure and amazing regalerity, diflkte ft&m nearly aU enajing toaguee. Thia straet?r? uniformly pervade all Indian languages, from the oortkeruaMel point to Cape Horo, (with ?nly a single exception of a small tribe kn Mexico,) although the worda of two contiguous tnhsa msy diflbr as much as Hebraw doea Norn French f so that, Msri, it may be said that all the thousand Indian trjfbes speak one language, although their vocabularies wholly differ. This characteristic >Uuc*o?b has bee* called by us, and since than by philologists generally, hohphrattit. We know but one instance af a holopbrastic language, that of the Burmese, besides tbe Tndian ?ad tits many Polynesian languages. Thia peculiar method ?323^ ef dividing andcompeeheftding ideas, and of viewing thinga \ thta plan of thought os "ailasin Uric cast i into articulate utterance, is necessarily ene of the most pro minent subjects, pwhepe the mow prominent? end ste are glad to have it in our power to ass are the reader thai the Ia J,"D'?"tuages, properly grouped and systemali^ally treated, will be given la the eerend volume, whieh we malm no doubt whatever ou? national Congmas will order to be printed, ae it has done the first part. The expenses cannot ke trifling; but it is the white man's duty to pot on resort all that relatee to evanescing race, and ne-one sfcet neither individual nor public body, can do it. Works soe* as Mr. Schoolcraft has given and k promising to give io the world belong to those which are eminently wanted, and yet Cannot bo under taken by the private scholar, nor be published!* the individual bookseller. We have no doubt tat ihat the united koJj of scholars ol this country and of Ear ope, together with thou sands no* professionally scholars, joia ua in aur earnest da are and relying hope that Congress *dH not stop short with this first excellent volume, but will liberally aid in the publi cation of the following onee. We cannot aondude this arti cle, far too loo* wafer* for a newspaper, but much too brief for any adequate view of the labors- of Mr. Schookmft, with out expressing our thinks to him for this monument of Indian history and> eharaater oa the ono hsml, and> el American ychalarship on the other. Such works go for to elevate and confirm ? nation's eharaater for solid endeavors- m the path of adsaocing civilization. It will be hardly necessary to add . that the work contains also a complete history of all that the.. Larted States have dote for the Indian, with the intention... of aiding him. p. l. interesting ITEMS. (otnsrssNsct or thx nmistrau anbbtcait. ? ' . ? WaaauiaToir, AAtis SO, 1UL Despatohes were yesterday received from Mr. McCubdt, United States Charge at Yieooa, of the date of March 2fifth, tating that the Austrian Government had refused the appli cation of tho Sultan for permission to release Kossuth and the Hungarian patriots, hit companion*, from confinement. ? By a compact existing between Austria and Turkey, the latter Power was charged With and aceepted the surveillance af tham unfortunate exiles, numbering several hundred j but, finding the expense of their maintenance becoming burden some, abe applied to be released from the incumbrance. Pet ? mission was granted in reference lo all exoept Kossuth and eight or ten others. This decision waa communicated befora intelligence reached Vienna respecting the recent action 6f our Government. An urgent appeal will ha aiitltu?ail to Austria on this subject; . ..>b . ? ,.j; Tbe Aacar>Duu, flu brother of tfta flmjtpmi afcwhle r Austria!.na?jr. will virit tip baa so long engagedih? Mention ?>/" the Cabinet, (? jet su?penJed. Mr. Cobwi* will not rraunw hi* ?eat unOT it is settled, barings before becoming a member of the Gov ernment, expressed an opinioA in the matter as counsel. _ The late French Ambassador and his family will leave the I United States on the 14th of May. Lady ifrnwaa will visit England in the same steamer. Four or five of the principal diplomatic houses are already closed, or are about to close, with great disadvantage to aoeiety io Washington. ' 1 LATEST FROM HAVANA. Hataba, Aran. 14, 1801. Having an opporluaity to write you by a vessel sailing, to day for Key Wee>, I accordingly embrace it, and aend what little news is stirring at thia dale. That another project for the invasion ol this island it io contemplation there is not a shadow of doubt, and thdt the Csptain-General is well aware of the fact ia equally certain, from the vigilance be diaplays in exercising with the greatest precaution and skill the gigantic meane of defence at his dis posal. 8ince the departure of Mr. Cur, the gate? of the different military posts recently erected here arid elsewhere are closed to all except those who are entrusted with a pass or countersign from the Grand Secretary, and upwards of twenty thousand men are under arms at night, ready at a mo ment's Warning to march in any direction. It is to be hoped that this blockhead undertaking will be abandoned < for, if the invaders should secure a leading, and place every min, Women, and child in the island under sub jugation, the scenes that would ioeritably follow wjuld bo truly frightful. The British and French fleets io the West Indies would make common cause with Spain, and Earl Dun ci onafd is known to have expressed to tb* Captain General his readiness to protect Cuba at the aboTfwl notice. The Cumberland Civilian stales tbatduring (he Weekend* ing on the 17th instant 1,648 tone of icosl were shipped on the Cheespeake and Ohio Caoal to Alexandria, and 9,756 taws to Baltimore by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Haif a Millios in Goin Dust.?The stoamahip Chsro kee arrived at New York on Sunday from Chagree, with a full complement of passengers, and about half a m llion of gold duet on freight. | In the U. S. District Court at St. Augustine, Florida, o* the 10th instaat, several timber eases were tried, whieh re sulted in a failure on the part of the Government to cuavfct. A case of eonsidsrable importance relative to entering upon public lands for the purpose of establishing lun?nlioepUnta tieos was si so tried, sad a verdict rendered in favor of tho Government lor dama^a* thha eettllag the fuhwMs against such trsspasses. , " Laboi Carso.?Tbe British ship Unite* King+m, Csp*. Cottsb, cleared from New Yoek en Friday by Usui Haaraa, Stkwsbt 4k Co., ^s on houm) the following cargo : 4,026 bales cotton, (3,a?S Upland ami 201 Baa (al and,) 103,267 foet F. F. lumbee, a?d7,0d0 oak staves; value fld89,126.87. , . , The Cumberland Ctvilma a^ys ihal the Blasl Fumaess at Mount Sa?age aee boss in fi|U opmaboa, ami that on Monday [this day] the rolling mill will go into operation for the manu facture of the celebrated compound tail, that baa already woo ?o mUch reputation throqgh&H the country Bait. Patriot. Judge Bueavan, of Kentucky, hea decided agaiost the law of that Stale taxjng insurance compsniss of other States having agenoice there. He eeye the law conflicts with that provision of the Federal Constitution which declares that "the citizens of each 8t?e shall be sntitled to all privileges and immunitiee of citraeos in the several States." Fieb at Palmbs DxroT.?Tbe beautiful village at Palmer Depot was visited by a terrible fire on Wednesday nigh?, which laid almost ua entire business part in ruins. "It is supposed that at leMt $70,000 worth of property wu <Ij atroyed, including th? tioest buildings io the place. I'M fire broke out at i I i o'clock at night in the wooden bui Jiog owned by E'ieha Coo verse, and occupied by M. C. Mungsr as a general dry goods and grocery siora. From 'h J build ing it spread in each direction, involving on tbe no.th all Ibe buildings in the row, and on tho south the Palmsr Hotel and ths Nsssowanoo House, one of the largest snd finest boteie in Western Msssacbusstts. There was ne engine owned in the village, and the wind olew heavily ?|| ths time, ee it did every where. Every large building touched by ths fl* wee burnt completed to ashes. Not a timber itauda, and thern terpeiMOg oiUv^u foal that they have suataiosd a blow which it will take mm ysara to recover from. [fyrtngf-rfd [Mqii) Ryvbliom'