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?<Liberty and Union, now and forever, one Inseparable." THURSDAY, MAY 22, 1851. The President may be expected in a day or two to return to the seat of Government. He left Buffalo, agreeably to appointment, on Tuesday morning, and, stopping a while at Rochester on his way, reached Syracuse the same night. At both places he was welcomed with public demonstra tions similar to those that hare signalized his visits to other towns. From Syracuse he was to resume his journey homeward yesterday morning. The Secretary of the Navy, the Postmaster General, and the Attorney General are with the President. The Secretary of State re mained at Buffalo to fulfil his engagement to par take on Wednesday (yesterday) of a public dinner that had been tendered to him by its citizens. Mb. COBB'8;8PEECH AT 8AVANNAH. The Savannah Republican of Friday contains Hon. Howell Cobb's speech, from which we make the following extracts: " He did not believe that South Caboliba had the right to jeopard the institution* of the South by her hasty end ill advised action. Other States were equally interested in those institutions, and she could not in justice to them take it upon herself to decide upon such momentous issues, and drag them down with herself into the bottomless pit of revolution and disunion. For one, he hoped that Gzobsia would give her to understand, so far aa we are concerned, that she need look for no aid or sympathy from this State in her efforta to over throw the Government. We may .regret the couree she has marked out 5 we may even sympathize with her?but nothing more. We can never raise our hands against the Union for any thing in the past. "Mr. Cobb deprecated the formation of sectional parties, whether they be called 'Southern rights' or otherwise.' Or ganize sectional parties at the North and South, at the East and West; let them meet in the Halls of Congress ; let each insist, ' at all hazards and to the last extremity,' that it ia right and the others wrong, and he did not believe the Union would endure one month. It could never survive the bitter ness, the hatred, and the violence which such a state of things would engender." The Basis Question in Virginia.?It is now considered as a " fixed fact" (says the Alexandria Gazette) that the compromise settlement of the basis question will be inserted in the new Constitu tion to be adopted by the Virginia Convention; and however much it may be objected to, and how ever disappointed many will be in the East at the result, it is more than probable that, if the remain ing provisions of the Constitution contain the re forms which the people have called for and desired, the Constitution as presented will be accepted by a large majority of the people. FROM 80UTH AMERICA. The city of Montevideo was still besieged a* late as the 20th of March by the forces under Gen. Oribe. There were eleven French and seven Bra zilian vessels of war lying at Montevideo, watching the result of the blockade. The immigration to Buenos Ayres for the past year, according to the 14 British Packet," was 12,500, principally men in the prime of life. The speech delivered by Judge Chambers on the Judicial tenure, in the Maryland Convention, has been published in pamphlet form. It is a pow erful and overwhelming argument, proving by re ference to the past, and the experience of all Gov ernments where dependant judges have to decide and administer the law, that there is no safety for the people against wrong in such a system, and no security for justice, whenever the passion, the pre judice, or the personal interest of those on whom the judge is dependant is exerted against those who are seeking it. History is example teaching by experience. Let each citizen of Maryland look into the array of facts set forth in this speech, and listen to the voice of the great men in all ages, whose warnings are recorded in it, and if he be not led away by prejudice, or his judgment warped by passion, or bewildered by excitement, political or personal, he can hardly fail to recognise in the ad monition of the venerated Chief Justice Marshall the wisdom of a sage and a prophet, when he warn ed the Virginia Convention against altering the ju dicial tenure, and agree with him when he says : ??I have always thought, from my earliest youth * till now, that the greatest scourge an angry Heaven * ever inflicted upon an ungrateful ana a sinning * people, was an ignorant, a corrupt, or a depen * dant judiciaryand, so agreeing with him, will struggle with every good citizen to prevent that scourge being inflicted upon the people of Mary land, as it is proposed to be done, by the form of a constitution which has been framed for its rule and government.?Baltimore Patriot. FROM THE WE8TERN PLAIN8. Capt. S. Van Vleit, of the Quartermaster's department, U. S. Army, arrived at St. Louis on the 13th instant, direct from Fort Laramie, which place he left on the 16th April. He, with his lady and escort, made the trip across the Plains to Fort Leavenworth in seventeen and a half days. On the route they encountered two very severe snow storms, which greatly impeded their progress. At the O'Fallon Bluffs, they met a war party of the Chayennes who were going out to attack the Paw nees. The Captain made them some presents of tobacco, and was treated kindly by them. The first train of emigrants was met by the Captain's company the 2d of May, near the cross ing of the Little Blue; and, from that point until he arrived at the frontier, he met them almost every day. The main body of the emigration was for Salt Lake. He found, in all he passed, but two companies for California. They were getting along very well. The past season at Fort Laramie had been more than usually dry, but little rain having fallen during the winter or spring. The report of the Indians and traders at the Fort was, that the snow in the mountains was very heavy. At one period before he left the Fort there had been a considerable rise in the river, but, owing to the succeeding cold weather, it suddenly subsided. On the Plains the grass was short, but otherwise abundant. The principal emigration across the Plains this year will be the Mormon trains for the Salt Lake, and a few trains for California and Oregon. Mr. Kzkbbdt, the Superintendent of the Census, we ? Understand, will depart from this city, on his European tour, on Fridsy next. The clerks connected with the Census Bureau, some eighty we believe in number, have unanimoualy addressed to him a letter of respect, in which tbey thank him for the courtesy and kindneee they have received *t his handa, I and express their earnest wishes for his welfare and safe j return. Mr. Kenned? has replied to this in a very handsome and feeling oote, in which be expretees the gratification he faU in the pleasant remembrance be ahsll bear with him of the many ger.tleimo who hava so k'ndly offered this voluntary manifestation of their regard.?Telegraph. *' Is your note g<>od asked a wood man, the other dsy, of a person who rffiwed a note for a load of maple. " Writ," replied the port hsser, " I should think it oug' t to be ; every body's got ooe!" THING8 IN 80UTH CAROLINA. In transferring to our columns the following bird's-eye view of the contents of Charleston papers of late date, it may be proper to accompany it with the explanation that the 44 military encampment" spoken of is only a school of discipline and ma noeuvre such as is often held for days together in other parts of our country, without any bloody in tent or disposition: rmox rmm iichmorb (va.) i*?oi?ib or mat 20. . South Carolina, in Arms.?The Charleston Mercury revels in delight over the 44 brilliant" mili tary encampment at Orangeburg, where there is 44 great political animation and enthusiasm in the camp, and their countersigns and paroles are strongly indicative of the feelings which predomi nate. 4 Calhoon,' 4 Secession,' and 4 8tate Action,' are the constant watchwords." Such is the spirit with which brothers are allured to civil strife with brothers of kindred bone and flesh. We sincerely trust that these 44brilliant" movements may come to nought, and that the arms may perish with rust, rather than to be turned against the breasts of citizens of our common coun try. Even should South Carolina, in defiance ol the known wishes and affectionate appeals of hei sister States of the South, persist in the mad policy of secession, to avenge wrongs whose brunt Vir ginia and other Southern States must first bear, w? shall not even then despair of seeing the rest of the Union move on harmoniously, even without th? shedding of blood. The sagacious Washington correspondent of the New York Journal of 90/1?' merce gathers some curious facts from a 44 hignlj respectable source 44 The first, and, as it is believed, the only drop of bloo< to be ahed in soy contest that may take place in consequenci of the aeceaaion, will be spilt in collision between parties ii 8outh Carolina. In Charleston a large majority will be fount to be opposed to secession ; and, should the 8tate agree t< secede from the Union, the city of Chsrleston will secedi from the 8tate. There will be no necessity, therefore, fo the blockade of that port. The city of Charleston will b< enabled to sustain herself in the straggle, and the necessitiei of trade will soon bring things right. 44 If the Union is worth a straw, the secession of a sinxlt State cannot impair its strength nor endanger its prosperity Like a polypus, it ought to be able to endure the excision oi a portion of ita body. But if we can add half a continent tc the Union by a stroke of the pon, by a single treaty, and at tach thia new and heterogeneous body at once to the bodj politic of the nation ; if the Union can stand that, why surelj it would not be hurt by cutting off a small section." We deprecate the experiment; but it may b< that a star or two can be dropped out of the galaxj of States without breaking up the whole gloriout constellation. It is admitted, on all hands, that three-fourths ol the people of Charleston are utterly opposed tt separate State action; and though some of th< speakers declared in the Charleston Conventioi that, rather than the State should submit, it wouli be better to see Charleston a second Moscow?li up by a splendid but fatal conflagration?-we can not yet abandon all hope that the conservative at titude of so large and flourishing a seaport town of the South as Charleston is, will exert a might] influence in checking the progress of wild ambi tion and inconsiderate passion. We have the bes authority for believing that Charleston is just taking a new bound forward in the race of prosperity can she, then, be expected to unite in this fearfu experiment, set on foot by political visionaries after unknown and fallacious results? Will thi people of the State allow their chief city to bi sacrificed by a movement against which such mei as Chbves, Butler, Poinsett, A. P. Hayne, ant other noble sons of Carolina earnestly protest The picture of what Charleston now is, and wha she is likely to be, if Mr. Rhett's experiment bi carried out, will not be uninstructive at the presen moment. W e have before us the sketches, drawp by native artists, and the contrast is most emphatic With the blessings now enjoyed, will South Caiip lina be induced to throw away the present, an< grope in the darkness and danger of the unknowi future ? What Charleston now is may be gathered fron the article (in the Charleston News) already pub lished. What Charleston most probably will be, shoult separate secession be urged through, may be gath eredfrom the following speculations of44 A Native,' in the Charleston Courier. We are glad to sei such sound arguments laid before the people Though at present secession seems to be the gene ral feeling of the State, the truth must spread, a re action take place, and wisdom and moderatioi leaven the whole lump: 44 It would not be merely the losj of our beautiful city, bu it would be the loss of our State. The merchants have i great stake in the present condition of things, and Charles ton pays half or two-thirds of the whole 8tate tax, and cer tainly has a right to be heard. Whatever affects the pros perity of the 8tate is felt by them, and because the people o the city generally are opposed to separate State action, thej are deemed aubmissionists and cowards. Who is it who can not see utter ruin, if the 8tate secedes alone ? Secessior does not deprive the planter of getting enough to subsist on i secession will not prevent his raising a crop sufficient to sup port him in such an emergency ; but secession will starve tb? merchants and others in tbecity; when the State secedes alone, such a state of things will exist as to starve all in the city < and I for one am not so reckless as to wish to ruin my family by sacrificing all I have labored for, at least till I see a greatei necessity for doing so than at present. 8uppose we secedc alone, where are we to get supplies except being taxed tec per cent.?which rate seems already fixed by the supporter! of single 8tate action?and on what> Why, on all the arti cles we now get free of duty. If we are to pay ten per cent, on all imports after secession, let us estimate the amount: We get now about three-fourths of all articles consumed here free, and about one fourth a doty is paid on to the Govern ment. So we can readily see that if we pay thirty per cent, one one-fourth, it is better than paying ten per cent, on the whole. 44 This branch of the subject is not of much importance. We shall have no customers, for the trade within the State proper is as one to three. Three dollars are sold to country merchants out of South Carolina to one aold to country mer chants in it. We must remember, then, if we secede alone, Georgia and North Carolina?now our border 8tates?will be as foreign as England is in a national point of view. Can we carry on our foreign commerce without a navy to defend us from the weakest island ? Let people pause. If this excite ment is kept up we must soon have a crisis ; the banks will first feel it; the bills of our banks, which now circulate in several States freely, will be no doubt returned for specie ; the banka in torn will call on their debtors ; and thus will begin a com mercial crisis, and brought oo entirely by the recent self urganixed Convention. Already have a number of invest ments been made in other stocks than thoee in our own State ; and from day to day will they continue, till all the surplus capital will find iU way out of the State. The time has not come for such desperate action. When it does, all, ah, every son, native or adopted, of 8outh Carolina will be ready to de fend her. Cotton is the peace-maker, and if the cotton States would only pass an act in any form which would pre vent its being sent to the North, we should have peace, and especially to keep it from being sent to Boston or sny port in Massachusetts. Non-intercourse is our beat remedy ; and any plan which would keep our Southern produce from being sent North would have more effect in getting jusuce done us than fifty meetings of Congress." Lmn?The house of Robert 8herwell, Esq., in Columbia s'reet, near Pierrepont, Brooklyn, (N.Y.) has been rented for Jsunt Lmn, who intends making that city her residence f<?r the ensuing three months. It is undsrstond that f rr cousin, together with BenedeUi, 8alvi, and Belletti, will THE WORLD'8 FAIR. Ubitib 8ta.tbs Orrics, Irdustbial Exhibitiob, Lav dow, Mat 6, 1851. 8ia : You have already learned from my letters, and jou may perhaps have noticed aa much in the column* of the English newspaper*, that the only thing to be regretted in the contributiona aent here from the United States is their paucity of numbers. Rich, ingenious, novel, thoroughly made, handsomely finished, valuable, and well worthy of examina tion, as are the articles our countrymen have contributed, they yet fall ahort in amount, in tjuantity, of what our Eng lish friends had expected. Next to France, they expected from the United 8tatee the greatest repreeentation of indus trial condition and progress; and, while they commend upon almost all occasions our skill and ingenuity as they examine and report upon our goods, they ne*er fail to regret their paucity of numbers. Until now, deeply a* I have lamented this, I have never supposed that the evil could be remedied. In converaation to-day, however, with Lieut. Col. Reid, he expreesed a strong deaire that contributions to tbe exhibition might still be forwarded from the United States. It seems there is every probability that the close of the Exhibition will be postponed to a late day in the coming autumn, perhaps as late aa tbe lat of November, and I have Col. Reid'a assurance that there thall be no hindrance to the admission of articles from our country up to the lit of August. In view of this fact, I most respectfully propoee to the Exe cutive Committee at Washington that they iasue a circular announcing this fact to the American public, and apecially calling to it the attention of the State committeea. From the whole line of our seaboard, from Boeton, New York, Phila delphia, Baltimore, and Charleaton, there ia ample time to ahip contributions here, up to the middle of July. Directed to me at the Great Exhibition, no delay attenda upon their progreas either at Liverpool, Southampton, or London. From the workshops, manufactories, and homesteads of New England and New York, from the plantations of tbe South em States, and from the great marketa all along our aeacoaat, there is yet time to aend to this great gathering of the peace ful arte much that would fairly repreaent us in what we are not represented now. Flannels, cloths, calicoes, caoabrica, shoes, hats, hosiery, tools, machinery, (not for steam mo tion, for there if no further room for that,) cutlery, nails, muskets, swords, glassware, cotton, tobacco, rice, tarred cordage, and I know not what cite and what not, are wanted here, fully to impreaa upon the nationa gathered upon this spot what we really are as a nation. Even at the late day at which shipments made would arrive, we shall be but little, if at all, in the rear, in point of time, of many European nations. And I have this to say, that could our countrymen be here upon the spot for but a single day, and witness the regret that every American feels in the full consciousness of the greatness of his country, and what she might have done, at the little we have done, he would aend the very carving knive from his table, or the blanket from his bed, before his country should be other than fitly and fully repreaented in her productions and resources before the world. It is not too late to redeem our reputation now. Indeed, in all patented articles, it is just the time ; for, until now, full protection from piracy has not been afforded us by the British Parliament. I leave the matter entirely with you for your discretion, at the same time asauring you of my full convic tion that, were you returning home from England by the same steamer which takes you this, you would not hesitate or delay in announcing to our American people immediately that there is still room for them to vie with the world, in this Industrial Exhibition, in the results of their skill and handi work. j The interest of the Exhibition is now very great. The resort of all classes, at all hours of the day, are these broad . avenues and extended galleries. The immense variety of j the articles exhibited cannot suffer the interest to fiig up to the latest day the building ahall be kept open. There is the ' atudy of a lifetime here for men of science. ' It ii such a studio of the Fine Arts aa the world never before saw. And for the practical man, the ramifications industry exhibits iteelf in here in ten thousand ways furnish a field of thought and speculation that is boundless. I write you but a ahort letter by this simi-weekly steamer. Begging you to accept the assurance of my highest regard, t I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient a servant, EDW'D RIDDLE. Hon. J. C. G. Kkshidt, Secretary, icc. [ No one who has ever heard of it can read the subjoined account of two decisions on the same day 11 in the County Court of Baltimore (as reported ii the American of yesterday) without being remind* 11 ed of the saying of one of the old commentators that " the Law is as nice as a new-laid egg In the case of Edward Pittman vs. George W. Wolfe, an action to recover on tbe endorsement of a promissory note ~ was taken up and concluded'by a verdict for the defendant. The note, it appears, was drawn by Elbert W olfe, who forged e on it, as endorser, the name of his brother, Geo. W. Wolfe. After the note became due the latter promised Mr. Pittman t > pay it if no steps were taken in regard to it for two days; When the two days were up, however, payment was refused, and it was then found that Elbert Wolfe, the drawer, bad left the city. The court held that the promise given by tbe de fendant, after tbe note became due, was a promise without consideration, and could not be enforced, and a verdict was accordingly rendered for tbe defendant. Another case between the same parties to recover on the endorsement of a second promissory note was next taken up. In this case the endorsement had also been forged by the same party, but a promise having been made by the defen dant to redeem the note before it became due, the court held that the promise was a valid one, and a verdict was accord ingly rendered for the plaintiff for $244.21. MAIL STEAMERS FOR EUROPE. The Europa, with the mails for Europe, sailed from New York at noon of?yesterday. The following steamers, also canying mails, will sail from the same port during the pre sent month : Arctic, fer Liverpool, May 24th; Ohio, fpr Havana, Chagres, Panama, West Coast of South America, Calfornia, and China, May 26th ; Franklin, for Cowes and Havre, May 31st; and the Cambria, from Boston for Liver pool, May 2Sth. ROTATION OF THE EARTH. The Bunker Hill Aurora states that, at a meeting of the Bunker Hill Monument Association on Thursday, it was voted ta permit the interior of the Monument to be used for the pur pose of repeating the experiment of M. Foccaclt, with a pendulum, to demonstrate tbe rotation of the earth. The privilege waa granted on the application of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, and the experiment ia to be made under the superintendence of Mr. Bobd, of the Cam bridge Observatory, and Prof. Honsroan, of the Scientific School. The experiment is to be repeated in the ahip-bouae at the Charlestown Navy Yard, where a wider space may be obtained for the sweep of the pendulum. The length of the pendulum at the Bunker Hill Monument will be about 216 feet, and the time of each vibration a little more than eight seconds. ? - ^ The Circuit Court of Micbioait has been engaged in the hearing of motiona to put off the trial of peraons indicted, charged with conspiracy, dcc. until the next session of the court Our latest dates from Detroit are to the 17th, and the papers of that morning announce that the trial had been set down for Wednesday, the 28th instant. Tkuahts fbo* School?The firat caae under the new law of Massachusetts concerning truant children and absen tees from school came before a Justice's Court in Boeton a few daya ago. The defendant waa a lad about ten years of age, and was proven to have played truant several times. His master testified that when in achool he waa a very good boy, but he had abeented himself ao frequently that his name bad been stricken from the roll. He was sentenced to one month's imprisonment in the house of reformation. We learn, with great satiafaction, from the latest papers from Nashville, that the person who was lately arrested at that place on a charge of having confined his wife and starved her to death, has undergone a judicial examinaiion, which re sulted in eaisblishing his entire innocence of tbe charge. He ia a respectable mechanic. Hia wife waa worn down by die ease, c intracted by her own intemperate habits, (as a ??ost mortem examination of the body proved,) and other evidei ce showed that suspicion had only attached to the hoeband, who waa a kind and affectionate man, on accoont of his effrts to conceal her degradation and hie own coqesqnent misery from the vi* w of hia neighbors and friends. The testimony on this p >int waa such as to coawhsce all who heard it. 1 THE METHODIST CHURCH CASE. rmo?f th* n?w ion comuacuL itrimm or mojcdat. The L cited StilM Circuit Court room *u thronged at u early hour this morning with persona desirous of bearing the argument in the controversy between the Methodist Episco pal Church and the Methodist Episcopsl Church South. Among them we noticed several clergymen of various denomi nations, and the gallery was occupied by a number of ladies. Judges Nblsow and Brrrs took their seats on the bench at ten o'clock, and the counsel for the parties aoon made their appearance at the bar. Southern clergy present, Rev. Dra. Early, Pierce, Smith, Northern clergy present, Rev. Dr,. Scott, Du.b.u, Peck, Kennedy. , The title of the cause is Henry R. Bascotn and others va. George Lane and others, and the complaint i. filed in equity for the purpoee of enforcing . division of the funds of the Me thodist Book Concern. The Hon. RtniDt Jon?.0,, 0f Baltimore, and Da?izi D. Loan, Esq , ofthis city, appeared for the complainant, Mr. who is aUo engaged on the ..me side, being ?been . or the defendants, appeared the Hon. Rtrrua Choate, ofMM.achu.etU, and G.oae? Wood, Esq., of this city. Hon. Thomas Ew,^ wa. tIlo pre?nt, he being 2U0^l?r? w o DU int,imilar ?* ftio-t the branch Melhodiat Book Concern of Cincinnati. aeMtal'hcts^an'd'circum6'! ^ "7 I*"* " b"*f deUiI of ^e general iscu and circumatancea of the caae. The aubiect of "W1*- '? -ir nation, theprese was resorted to by Mr. Wesley for the pur pose of dominating . rel.giou. l.terature. Th* nuclei of the eetabliahment m this country wa. in PhiWelph".?whence it waa aoon after removed to New York. It bw.me nW mately a concern of great magnitude. In 1836ISTbuild ing was burnt down, but was soon rebuilt, and the Concern Sm kSiMte!^ Th" 0P!r,ti??a UDtiI 11 reach8d Pre sent large extent. The profits of the fund were devoted to making up a provision for superannuated preachers, thTwI n? ani?r'' ?' deceased ministers, 6cc. The affairs of this denomination are governed by what are called annual conferences and a general conference. In 1784 . Ttitl00*!.con,ereDce' but afterwards, and for circuit In 1844 there were thtrty-two or thirty-three annual conferences. The general system of the Methodist cleriry is to itinerate from one church to another. Many of ityw were unable to pay their'ministers, and the confercncee Provided for them as far as they could. When the conferences were too poor to provide for them, a deficiency of course occurred, and it was lo iupply this deficiency in part that the surplua funds of the Book Concern were appropriated. In 1808 the power of the general conference became so absolute that the more.conservativemembers of the denomination began to fear that it would be dangerous, as it might even alter the doc trines of the church, and a change waa then made in ita or ganization, providing that it ahould be compoaed of delegates inatead of all the preachers, and a number of reatrictions were imposed. Among other things they were restricted faom di verting the surplus funds of the Book Concern to any other purpose then the support of superannuated preachers, &c ... *reat 9u?",io? in this case as to the effect of Th gr.*W 0Ut 0f the ?ubj?ct of slavery. 1 he Methodist denominauon at an early period took hiah ground on temperance and slavery. They excluded from membership any oqb who bought and sold human beings for the purpose of enslaving them, and these provisions were found to be so impracticable that they were rescinded at the next General Conference, and the matter was left to the legis lation of the various States in which their members resided About the year 1836 the agitation of abolition began very ae riously to disturb the Methodist Church. The bishops and But idi 1844 tke matter became critical and decisive, and a state of things then occurred which necessarily led to a sepa ration of this church into two parte. A minister named Harding had been complained of as possessing slaves, and 'h? Baltimore Conference auipended him, although it was impossible for him to manumit them under the laws of Mary land. He appealed to the General Conference, and that body confirmed the suspension. Another difficulty occurred in the caae of Bishop Andrews, in Georgia, who had two alaves, both of whom it was impoeaible for him to manumit. The abolition "Pint was up, however, and it was delermined to at |"k. ,j Without trying him, they passed a resolution that he should suspendhie episcopal functions until he manumit ted his slaves. I hese thinga convinced the Southern mem bers of the church that it was unprofitable for them to go on In connexion with their Northern brethren. They presented a document to the General Conference of 1844, protesting gainst the action taken in the caies of Bishop Andrews and the Kev. Mr. Harding, and declaring that if it was persisted in the Methodist 8ociety in the South would be extinct. Sixteen Southern Conferences elected delegates to a Con Methodist Church South, held at Louisville in 1845, and thsy resolved to organize themselves into a church independent if the North. They appointed commissioner! to meet commiestomrs of the Church North, and arrange i time be?) overtaken by conetitutionai scruples, and refused to recogaise the action of the Louisville Conferee. notwiifc standiig it had been held at their own suggestion. The Louisville Conference adopted the whole creed and discipline Me'hodist Church as it bad existed in this country since 1784, and did not change a single doctrine. The Southern claimants to their share of the profits of the Book Concern are therefore just as oithodox as they ever were, and just as much entitled to their proportion in the fund which haa been accu mulated by the joint exertions of their fathers and husbsnds. Mr. Loan then read (he complain'. After which Mr. JoHirsea (a son of the Hen. Reverdy Johnson, we believe) read a portion of the answer, and Mr. E. L. Fakcher con cluded the reading of the same. The reading of the applica tion was dispensed with. her* 11"* th,t Bish?P having died since tie brings of the auit, he had obtained a consent from the defendsnta to substrate the name of thtf Rev. William A. Smith as one of the plaintiffs, and an order of the court ?naking *och subllitution waa accordingly made. Loed cot3menced hi* argument by stating that Emory's History, the Book of Discipline, the printed journals of the conference prior to 1848, ibe manuscript journals of the confer ences prior to 1840, and other document*, were to be intro duced aa evidence, by agreement between the parties. i He tbeo read extracts from the Bo6k of Discipline of 1840, 1 page 198 ; Dr. Emory's History, under the year 1800 ; the Articles of Religion ; the 8ix Restrictive Articles ; Wesley's Letter to Dr. Coke, Mr. Francis Asbury, and the brethren in North Americs, dcc., and bad not finished reading the au- I thorities upon which his argument is to be founded when this report waa closed. Tbia caae was resumed on Tuesday. There is, as we leam from the Commerciel Advertiser, such a mass of document ary evidence to be read that it will probably occupy the greater part of the week. No speechee have yet been made by the counsel on either side, except the opening address by ! ! Mr. Loan. On Tuesdsy that gentleman continued to read extracts from the Book of Proofs, at pages 64, 68, 73, 74, 75, and also from the Debates of the General Conference of 1844 pages 22, 23, and 24 He also read the laws of Maryland prohibiting the manumission of slaves within that 8tate, and referral to the written opinions of Judge Key and the Hon. Mr Merrick, on the case of the Rev. Francis A. Harding, which were presented to the Baltimore Conference, which ?uopended tbat minister. The Rev. Dr. Skitii, at the request of Mr. Lord, read the protest of the Minority of the General Conference against J the action of the Majority in relation to Biahop Andrew Mr. Loan then read a letter from the late Bishop B.scorn the author of ibe protest, explaining some portions of that I document which bad been misconstrued. Mr. Woo?, for the defendants, asked that they might here be permitted to read the reply to the protest, and the counsel [ for the complainants making no objection, it was, with the assent of the Court, read by the Rev. Dr. Peck. The points upon which the complainants rely are as fol | lows : I. The capital arising from the profits of the Book Concern I WSS tbe result of the common labors and services of all the members of all the conference* It was not a chsritsbie fund merely from donations. It waa a fund of earning., to make up the deficiency of compenaaiion for aervicea rendeied, and to provide for those who earned it when they became in capable of labor, and for thoae who were dependant on them. 2 It was distributed hy the annual conferences, but be longed in actual right to the benfic.anes, and, aa such, was ? and is protected by the sixth restrictive rule. 3. The title of the beneficiaries at the lime immediately be fore the separation of the church into two parts waa perfect, and ii cannot be defeated or forfeited without a clear proof of breach of condition by the beneficiaries. 4. Even if a breach of condition by the annual conferences by whom the fund was to be distributed could forfeit, there ? fo'ki'ure, because the General Conference of h,d ,he P?wer lo consent to an amicable division of the Ibe Church ?? tonchin? the general efficiency of 5 The General Conference of 1844 did in feet and on a proper groand consent to such division, to take effeet immedi y, ,0.y?* cho'?* ?f the Southern Conferences, and without ?ny condition. 6. The Qenetal Conference of tbe CburtS *Wh was duly a. d property organ zed according to the plan of separation, and is in wry napect u propery a general conference with in iu limit* m the General Con ere nee of the Church North. 7. The beneficiaries of the fund in question, therefore, who belonged to the Sou then conferences, did not by the new organization loee eny riglts, nor were they disqualified in any manner from claiming heir share of the fund < and such claim is appropriately mate, through the General Con ference Sooth, which succeed* to the place oftbe prior Gene ral Conference of the whole church. 8. An account should, tbenfore, be ordered of the propor tions of the profits of the Book Concern, according to the numbeis in the minutes of 1844, and at the same ratio of the profits since. Also, the cspitsl of the fund should be decreed to be divided in the saipe way, and paid orer to the com miasioners South aa new trustees, or to proper trustees to be appointed by the court. The profis of the past are to b? subject to distribution, according to tbe directions of thfe Gene ral Conference 8jutb, whether tbe fund remain with the pre aent truntees, or be paid over to new trusteee. Movement or Troops.?Four c >mpaniea of the 7th U. 8. infantry, Lieut. Col. Plimpton commanding, arrived al Little Rock (Ark-) on the 8th instant, and proceeded up thi river to relieve the 5th infantry, atationed at Forta Smith, Towson, Gibson, Washiu, ice. Tbe 5th are ordered tc proceed further wast, an the route to 8anta Fe. Four othei companies of the 7th iofantry, under tbe command of Majoi Holmes, were proceeding from Fort Leavenworth to Fort 8mith, and the two additional companies to Corpua Christi. There are in the port of New Bedford, at thia time, sixty sir ships and barques, and no other town in the Union (says tbe Providence Post) can boast such a whaling fleet, at boms or at aea. We are obliged to acknowledge that the Poet li right. We can only aay for New London that ahe can al most boast of a whaling fleet of that size, at home and at sea, and a year or two before she could have boaated beyond that j for she had about eighty ahips and barques in the whaling business. At present ahe has leas than half the number ol New Bedford in port.?New London Chronicle. The Steamboat Disaster near Philadelphia, whick was briefly mentioned in our paper of yesterday as havin| occurred on Monday night, was fortunately not attended wit] much loas of life. Tbe collision happened off Greenwicl Point, one mile from Philadelphia. The ateamer Ohio, c the Union line, (the regular packet between Philadelphia an Newcastle,) was so much duugaJ that ?Im ?uk in tweot minutes after the collision. She was on her return from l\ew cattle, with the passengers from Baltimore for the Eastward, being about one hundred in number. The Gloucester steam' er Commodore Stockton, which run into the Ohio, was sc much crippled as to be unable to render any assistance it saving tbe paqaengers. The ainking steamer was pointed foi the Jersey shore. The passengers were soon driven from be low, and forced to seek the most elevated places of safety oti the decks, and, amidst tbe consternation and confusion thai prevailed, aome of them jumped overboard and swam ashore. It is feared that two or three were drowned, but the body of only one young man, named Taylor, a clerk in a hat alorc at Charleston, (8. 8.) has been recovered. Mr. Jobs Fin lat, of Baltimore, is miaaing; Dr. Wood, Gen. Taylor'i aon-in-law, lost all his baggage and many valuable papers < Lieut. Wise lost his baggage and$1,000 ; Mrs. Toothakir, (so spelt in our despatch,) of Washington, lost her baggage and money, but saved her child ; John Wills, of Baltimore, who swam ashore, recovered his baggage. Soon after the collision the alarm was given to the shore by tbe Captain's boat, and the ferry-boat Champion and a number of small boats promptly went to the rescue of the passengers, who were taken from the Ohio barely in time tc prevent their meeting a watery grave. That numbera were not drowned, is indeed wonderful. Many of the passengen lost their baggage and other effects. Nothing hardly wai saved from the boa*, la twenty minutes from the time o the collision she had almost entirely disappeared ; a part o: her upper deck, wheelhouse, and chimney atack being all thai was visible in the dark. NAVAL.?Insubordination in the Mediterranean The Philadelphia Ledger has a letter from on board thi United States ship Independence, giving aome news from th< Mediterranean Squadron. It is dated Bay of Naples, Feb ruary 13 th : 4* The squadron are all at anchor in thia place ; officers and crew all well. We came bere on the 9th of October, and have been lying here aince. I am sorry to say that thinga gc on badly in this squadron since the abolition of corporeal pun ishment. Thefts, drunkenness, and desertion (or what it termed taking French leave, that is, leaving the ship for a few day a without permission) are much more frequent than com mon, and the officers, notwithstanding the greateat exertion cannot preaerve even tolerable discipline ; and, until Congres adopt a more efficient mode of punishment than mere con fiaement, thoeb scamps (mostly landsmen and boys) will con tinue to laugh at ail Older, for what is thirty or sixty days ii a prison room in irons to such men, many of tbem boastlnj of hsving served five and six years in a State prison. Then are at present thirty of those fellows confined in this ship, o which fourteen are for stealing their shipmates' clothes and carrying them on shore to sell for rum." A Slave Case in California.?A case wss lately de cided in favor of the freedom of a slave in California onder the following ciscumstances : Mr. Callowat, of Pope coun ty, Missouri, carried with him across the plains to Califvtrni** body servant named Frank. Tbey arrived in California about the first of August last, and worked in the minea until aome time In March, when the master and boy went to 8an Fran cisco for the purpose of returning home by way of the Isthmus, and had taken passage on board a sail vessel for Panama. But, a writ of habeas corpus having been procured by the friends of tbe slave, he was taken before the county court at Ssn Francisco, (Judge Morrison presiding,) for its decision as to whether the boy should be tsken out of the State againat his will. The fact of tbe boy being a slave in Miasouri was proved, but Mr. Calloway claimed him under tbe act of 1793, n relation to body servants. The slave waa set at liberty. Forty passengers, for tbe World's Fair moatly, sailed from Philadelphia on Saturday in the ship Chaos. Thtf dteatn propeller Franklin, running from Newfound land to Halifax, was sunk last week, but no lives were loet. Miss Dix, the philanthropist, is now visiting the poor houses, jails, &c. in tbe Southern Statea. The distilleries of Filyaw & Brothers, at Wilmington, N. C., were destroyed by fire on 8aturday. Henry Wellman waa killed, at Cincinnati, on Thursday week, by being run over by a fire-engine. Minerals in Missoobi.?The character of the country upon the line of the Pacific Railway, in the 8tate of Missouri, is peculiar and interesting. It is for the most part a good agricultural country. It is alao well Umbered a large part of tbe way, and in tbe weatern portion it is diversified with fer tile prairies. Mineral substances of various kinds are found nearly tbe whole distance. The mineral region commences within about fifty to aixty miles of St. Louis, and something of the character of the mineral depositee may be seen in tbe collections which the engineers of the company have picked up on their aurvejs and returned to the office. For example, here are specimens of the rich iron ore of tbe Merrimack; copper and lead ore and fire-clay from Franklin county; gyp sum from Osage and Jackson counties; lesd ore from Ver saillea; cannel coal from different pointa; some specimens of coral from the high point of Tibo; fossils, petrified wood, flint, chert, glaaatiff, sulphate of berytes, See., all from tbe lina of the railway. There are probably minea of great wealth yet undiscovered, aome of which will be developed by tbe mere construction of this road. Theee products of the mines, of agriculture, and of tbe forests, Wrought with facility into our city, will ba*e tbe inevitable effect of encouraging the eetablishment of manufactures, and of enabling our city to be the aeller, instead of the buyer, of innumerable articlea now imported from abroad.?St. Louis Republican. Mr. John Wilson, of Charlotte county, (Va.) waa mur dered on hie plantation on tbe 13th instant. He had forbid den peraone from hunting on his farm, aod, bearing the re port of a gun on hie premises, he took hie own gun and went in the direction of ihe noise ; but nothing more waa known of bim until he waa found in a branch, where he had evidently been dragsed by >be murderer, his tody perforated by a rifle ball, aod hia own gun lying loaded by hia aide. Life waa not extinct when be waa firat found, but he bad paaaed the power of speech, and survived but a few hours. He waa unmarried, aged about thirty, and was generally esteemed in hia neigh borhood for bis moral habit* and many good qualities. Canadian Post Orricaa?Hoo. James Moams, tbe new Postmaster General of Canada, was lately complimented with a public dinner at Brorkvtlle. In the coarse of an ad dress, in snswer to a toast in hta honor, be remarked that at the present tim? there were aix hundred |>ost offices in the province, yielding s gross revenue of nearly $400,000, which, in proportion to the population, was as large as that of the same drp*r>ment in the Uoited 8tates. Tits Cleopatra.?It iastaled that Mr. Jomm L. O'Sclli van, one of the pereons arrtsted in New York aa being im plicated in the Cuban expedition, baa put in a claim to the steamer Cleopatr^ae being hie own private property. FIFTEEN DAYS LATER FROM CALIFORNIA." The steamship El Dorado, from Chagres, by way of Havana, arrived at New York on Saturday. The dates from California by this arrival are to the 15th April. The San Francisco Courier of that date says: "Both par tie* are preparing to marshal their forces for ? thorough party organization throughout the Bute. The mi ners heretofore have in a groat measure been unconcerned apec tatora. Wow they are preparing to take their poaitiona aa PW'y ?,n. and will appear in force at the polie. i i! ^U>C* 0U,r ( reP?rt painful rumora and severe charges of bribery and corruption have been made sgaivat several > member* of the Legislature. Tbat body hs?e now toe whottf ? aubject under consideration; and it ie to be hoped, for the ? honor of the Legislature and the character of our 8tate, that the charges will be proveJ to be without the slightest foun dation. " Our Indian Commissioners, sustained by the United States t 8ttte troops, have succeeded in a great measure in arnica , bly bringing our Indian difficultiea to a close. " The abundance of rain which has fallen during the last 1 fortnight has enabled the minera to wash out the ore from the > earth thrown up during the dry season. The raina have alao r been of great service to our vegetable and agricultural proe r pects. It is thought that at least one-eighth of our population t during the spring and aummer will turn their attention to the cultivation of the eoil. " The large immigration this spring of respectable families and females to our shores have added greatly to the social and ' moral improvement of aociety in the State. i " Gambling is fast falling into disrepute over the 8tate, and i especially in the principal cities. In Portland, Oregon, the , proprietors have been required to abandon their tablee and close their establishments. " The mining interests appear to be in as prosperous a con dition as ever. New discoveries are made weekly, and even daily. An article of first-rate anthracite coal has been diacover ; ed at Puget's Sound, and an article of tolerable fair cancel coal f has been discovered near Benicia, in this State. " The market is glutted with all kinds of merchandise, and on this account goods of every character are selling at remark l ably low rates. It is expected, however, that when commu nication is freely opened with all parts of the mines, businsss I will greatly improve." ? FROM THE MINING DISTRICTS. The intelligence from the Feather and Yuba river vicinity " was not very favorable, the great quantity of snow which had d fallen having proved dissstrous to the prospects of the miners. y At Onion Valley it was so deep that it was impossible to ap . proack within twenty-five nitfo* of that point with mules. The Sacramento Transcript publishes a letter from Giles ' O. Stubbins, detailing a rich discovery made by him. While prospecting with his partner, John 8teel, in October last, > near the headwaters of the Feather river, they found a place i where they washed eight hundred-dollars of gold from one r pan of dirt. They have remained there from tbat time, averaging fifty dollars a day, as the result of their labor. He says that they have gold enough, bu* that they have suffered 1 much for the want of good food and comfortable clothing. I Latterly their garments were made of skins. During the winter tbey found two fat mules, which constituted their , principal food, with the addition of bear and deer meat once in a while. ' The Stockton Times furnishes some interesting statements ? of the discovery of rich quartz veins in the Southern mines, i The editors consider tbat it has been satisfactorily established . that these quartz depositee will eventually prove an inexhaus tible source of wealth to the country. The gulches in that vicinity are now supplied with water, ' and the miners are actively employed in washing out the auriferous soil whieh they have thrown up. The same paper ssys : "We learn from Mr. Stevenson, , of Castoria, who has just arrived from the mines, that a lump of gold weighing fourteen pounds and a half, was found on the Mariposa diggings. On the 2d, two lumps were tsken 1 out at the ssme place, one weighing four pounds and a halt, > and another worth $570. The miners generally were work i ing harder and doing better of late." , _ The Stockton Journal says that the weights of these three pieces are fourteen pounds seven ounces, forty-eight ouncee, and thirty-five ounces. The last piece is pure gold. The others are considerably impregnated with rock, though their f intrinsic value is more than half of their weight t The Alta California says that the Alisal mines, in the vi cinity of Monterey, have been purchased by J. P. Leese, of that place, and Messrs. Howard & Green, Yale, and Major Snyder, of 8an Francisco. A shaft has been sunk about forty feet, from which ore has been taken containing about one 5 dollar in silver, from ten |o fifty cents in gold, and five > ounces of lead to the pound of mineral. The lead it is sup . posed will pay for working the mine. The metals are eaaily extracted, and a furnace is now erecting on the ground to reduce the ores to the combined metals, with the intention of I bringing the bars to 9an Francisco to separate the metals. I MORE LYNCH LAW. Andrew 8cott, of St. Genevieve, Missouri, has been hung 1 at Brown's Bar, Weber Creek, without any trial before the constituted courts. He had some slight misunderstanding t with his partner, Charles O. Baker, wham he stsbbed in five s places. He was taken into custody, tried before a jury of - twelve empanneled on the spot, found guilty, and immediately executed. It is said that Scott bad killed two or three per ' sons previous to this occurrence. Mr.. Baker was alive at the , latest accounts. f .Three men, named RigW, Alien, and Milled, had been tried I before. Lynch court at Nevada city for Healing two thou sand (hilars from Naj-per. Fifteen hundred Jollars were re covered from them. ? The first Aimed was sentenced to re celve thirty-nine lashes, the two others twenty each. At Fremont two thieves, named James and 8taggers, were hung up, allowed to remain until nearly dead, and then cut down and most severely whipped. The suflVrers made com plaint to the authorities, and eighteen or twenty persons were plscdd on trial on a chargo of aiaault; but, after bearing the testiraocy, the prosecuting attorney abandoned the case and entered a'rtol. pros. The reasons which prompted this may perhaps be"gleaned from the following extract: "The cithens of Circle Creek held a meeting at the time thoee implicated gale themselves up, and passed resolutione declaring themacWs parties to the act. "Several hundred persons, embracing friends of both par ties, appeared in Fremont on Friday last, all armed with ( bowie knives, pistols, muskets, and shot guns, and a serious affair was generally apprehended. "On Friday one of the parties used some insulting lan guage, and pistols were drawn, but fortunately no shots were fired. Those who saw the whole affair assure us that one . shot would have been the signal for a general fight." THE LEGISLATURE. The Legislature of Cslifornie was to adjourn on the 30th of April. No United Slates Senator is elected, nor will there be at the present session, the subject having been postponed to the 1 st of January next. The 8enate have passed a bill to regulate the coining of money by individuals, and compelling parties to redeem the same at par under a penalty of fine and imprisonment. It has yet to be acted on in the House. INDIAN AFFAIRS. A letter from Msjor Grsham to the Sacramento Trans cript, dated at Johnson's ranche, says that four hundred war riors were collected on the South Fork of the American river, about fifteen miles up. In bis opinion things " look squally.'* FROM THE 8ANDWICH I8LAND8. By the way of San Francisco we have advices from the Sandwich Islands to the 10th of March. There was a report at that time that Honolulu was to be immediately blockaded by the French. A correspondent of the Alta California says: " Matters with the French are drawing to a crisis, but how they will end no one knows. If the Hawaiian gets its due .1D0# I1" ?ckDO",ed*e that co treaty has been broken, and will pay $150,000 for the wanttta destruction of its property." Another correspondent is of opinion that there will be no blockade. The U. 8. sloop-of-war Vandalia waa at Honolulu, hav ing been detained there on account of the difficulties with the French. She was announced to leave for Panama direct on the 10th of March, with despatches for the Government at Washington. Despstches for the Government were also on board the ves sel which had arrived at 8an Francisco. An article in the " Alta California," founded in a letter from a corrwpomleht, the future publication of which ii pro mised, says that the French have demanded : First, tbat the French and American missionaries should be placed on a par ' in the distribution of moneya by the Government for their support. Second, tbat France should be represented in the Cabinet or Ministry of the King, on the ground that Mr. Wyllie, a Scotchman, and Dr. J odd, an American, are mem bers of the Ministry. Third, thst all correspondence between the French and Hawaiian Governments shall be carried n? ia French, instead of in English, as at pressnt. The Aha Ca lifornia says: "These demsnds being resolutely resisted by the Govern ment and persisted in by the French, affaire have become very threatening st Honolulu. The French had sent in their ultimatum snd gi?sn un'il (lie 20th of March fjt the Govern ment to accede or refuse. Much excitement consequently prevailed at the latest dates. The King's palace was closely gusrded, ?o?ernmeutal papers and funds were removed to place of safety, and other precautionary stepe taken."