Newspaper Page Text
F?1MY, 19> 1892'
IN SENATE. .. * i ^ 1 ,w* indulr tffice of the Senate to make *toU ***snMi' M follows. utter baa just been published in the 11Mf' ^tbia'oUy ^dressed by Col. Davis to the editors Union of th>s oitv, ^ copie(1 froul the latter paper, cf.th? M'2PIS it does, to some of the positions 1 hare w^ch, relating. a?^ ^ u elsewhere, seems to me to taken in the Sena , niy true views, in one respect at least. b h done rae with that spirit ot ^C^^romes hi, character. And while he rii??ents from my conclusions, as he hail a right to do, he dissents rrom j ^ odiou3 charge, never, indeed, JSSiwS-*? foundation,* truth, tbat I d.?g? Ll to deceive the South as to my real opinions in my Nichol son letter Somjj time since, when I first learned this ac cusation, I appealed to Southern Senators upon thisioor and said it was well known to many of them that the rlain language of my letter corresponded with my views, 2S thit my opinions were perfectly understood when the ITtter was first published. *You will recollect, sir, that not one member oontradicted this statement, and that se veral of them gave their assent to it, and among these was C?I ani not going into a review of the old controversy, connected with the general subject of the Wilmot proviso. I desire, principally, to put myself right in one part^u lar, where Colonel Davis has misunderstood me. It will be recollected that when my Nicholson letter waa written we had not acquired California. It was yet during the existence of the war, and the principles I discussed had therefore relation to the usual form of 80T??* mente, as established by the authority of Congress My object was to show that Congress had no constitutional power to insert the Wilmot proviso in the organic laws, because the" right to establish such Governments being founded upon necessity alone, oould extend no further than that necessity required, which is satisfied when t Governments are organized, leaving to the people all other rights in their administration. These organic laws, all of them indeed, grant or recognise the right of legislation in the Territories, to be exercised in the mode pointed out. It is a general power, embracing all the objects ot human legislation, unless in particular cases, where re strictions are imposed. My opinion is, that |-ongrcss can impose no restriction upon the power to regulate therela tion of master and servant, including the condition of slavery, in the Territories, any more than tliey can upon the relations of husband and wife, or of parent and child. Every Territorial Legislature which has existed has ex ercised full power, uncontrolled power, over the two latter domestic relations, by virtue of being the depositories ot legislative authority, and not because those object., or indeed any others, were specially committed to their charge ; thus assuming that it is a just object for such action, in consequence of the grant of general powers ot legislation. And in the Territories, where there has been no Wilmot proviso, the power to regulate the condition of slavery has been freely exercised among the other objects of legislation, without any express grant whatever; and in all of them it could be exercised in the same manner, either to establish or abolish slavery, unless controlled by superior Congressional action, in oonformity with the constitution. 1 should like to have any man point to me a single reason why a Territorial Legislature, if left un controlled in this respect by Congress?and all who are opposed to the Wilmot proviso believe they should be thus left?can legislate upon one of these domestic relations and not upon the others. 1 speak of the legal power, for that is the question at issue. Upon what principle can a line be drawn on the chart of legislation which would divide those great objects of social life, and leave one of them without the sphere of legitimate control, and the other within it? . The same general terms of power which include one in clude all; and yet we are called upon to deny that power in a particular case, and to leave it in unquestionable op eration in all other cases. If, indeed, as 1 have hereto fore said, and now repeat, the right to take slaves into the Territories is one, as has been contended, which is se cured by the constitution, there is an end to the question. It would be a right which would override and overthrow both Congressional and Territorial legislation in opposition to it. I have never been able myself to see the force ot that construction which gives this effect to any ot the constitutional provisions, but I was always willing, ana so expressed myself, that the question, being a claim of right, should be submitted to the Supreme Court, and that its decision should be final. But it will be observed that Col. Davis, in his letter, and I believe those whotalce similar views of this question, place their opposition to my doctrine, not upon the establishment of such a oonftl" tutional right, to be found in the constitution itself, but upon the probable practical result of the territorial pow er, that it would give a peculiar direction, in the early periods of the governments, to the legislation of the coun try, and if not establish, at any rate exercise a powerful influence upon its permanent policy. No doubt, sir, it would be so; but it is one of those consequences tha cannot well be avoided. There are wide difierences ol opinion in many portions of this country upon questions of internal policy, and little uniformity of system in then adjustment Each settler, during the period of settle ment, naturally prefers that state of things to which bt has been accustomed, and thus is it that an early charac ter is given to these local institutions which it is after wards difficult to change. It is not alone the condition of master and servant which feels the effect of this im press, but it extends to all the objects of legislation, which derive their color very much from the views of the nrst settlers. If a newly-settling Territory is first occupied bj a majority of emigrants from a slave State, they will b? ?ery apt to establish slavery in their now residence. If, on the contrary, they come from a nonelaveholding Stat*, they will probably be equally strongly inclined to estab lish that exclusion to which they have been accustomed ; and so with relation to all the objects of concern which are re gulated by law. And where was there ever a community whose political and social system was not more or les? influenced by the predominant opinions and character which marked its early inhabitants ! But this objection, sir, whatever weight it is entitled tc in the scale of expe-liency, does not touch the question ol right That does not even depend on Congressional ac tion, but upon the Constitution, which does not even look to this subject of early or of late legislation, nor the prac tical consideration, to which it may give rise. The "gp1' ful power, therefore, is not affected by the mode in which it may be exercised, whether bearing upon one ?r another of the vast variety of objects of civiliied life which fall within the scope of legislation. All, therefore, I claim for the Territorial Governments was the rght of legisla tion in all cases not in conflict with the Constitution ; the same general rights of legislation which enabled the Ter ritorial Governments of Mississippi, of Alabama, and other Southern Territories to control the question of slave ry within their limits, and which the Northern T?imv>rie" might have controlled at their pleasure had there been n< restriction upon their power. This was no question o " sovereignty," but of right, under the sovereign autho rity of the Constitution. And if the first settlers in th< Territories might establish their future policy upon thi subject, by early legislation, I know of no constitutions principle which could refuse the same powers to all th. others. .lav A few words more, sir, as to California, and what ha been oalled 44 squatter sovereignty.". I have already sak that my Nicholson letter referred only to such Temtona Government* as had been established by C ongres", an< it looked only to Buch GoTernments to be thereafter e? tablished by the same authority, over future acquisitions should suoh be confirmed to us by atreaty of peace Ai to the condition of things in California which followed, 11 consequence of the failure of Congress to provide govern mente for the Mexican cessions, no one foresaw it; cer tainly no one endeavored to provide against it. My let ter, therefore, did not toueh that point at all. But th< difficulty came, and a large body of American citueni upon the shores of the Pacific found themselves withou government, and exposed to all the fearful evils whirr suoh a state necessarily brings with it. Life, property, all the objects, indeed, of the social system, were a' hazard, without some prompt and efficient action. I ha' action we refused to take, and the people had no othei reliance but upon their own wisdom and energy. The re suit was honorable to themselves, to the country, and tc human nature. It was the most trying experiment per haps ever made upon th/s capacity of man for self-govern ment, but they passed through the fiery furnace unscathed, untouched, indeed, by tho devouring eleirvent.. They es tablished a Government, and I am aot going to argue with any man who denies their right to have done so. I as sume it as a self-evident proposition in this middle ol the nineteenth century. It was not, as it has been called, an aet of revolution, for how can there be a revolution jrhen there has been no pre-existing Government! It was an aet of political organisation, essential to the very ex istence of society. Well, sir, if they had to establish a Government, what kind of one must it have been ? Some say Territorial. But. sir, that was impossible ; for that kied of govern ment pre supposes certain relations with the United States which Congress alone can define and regulate. It was impossible for a self-constituted Government to put itself in that position, with its laws and offioers controlled by Pederal authority, without the action of that authority Nothing else was left to the people but to do as thev did, to lay the foundation of their own Government, and then oome to Congress with their work Conceding, then, that thev had the rieh* to provide for their indispensable poli tick wants by this oourse, what limitation was there upon the exercise of their powers In framing their Government? Why, sir, If they could any thing, they could do every thing not in oonflict with ti?e Constitution of the United States. And this brings me back to the original question, whether the (_ onstitution does expressly or by neces sary implication prohibit the exercise of this contested power, or whether it grants any rights which render its action incompatible with their superior obligation. I have already said, I can find for myself no such provision in that instrument. It will be recollected that the whole basis of my argument, whether right or wrong, was found ed on the indefeasible right of every distinct political community to regulate its own government, when not rightfully controlled by some superior authority. The only superior authority which, in this country, could limit this right, must be derived from the Constitution of the United States, and therefore every political power not thus limited belongs to tie people of the Territories. That was and is my view. As to the term squatter sovereignty, or landlord sove reignty, and the reproach it is intended to carry with it, they become neither our age nor country. Men are entitled to government even if they are landless, and human life and human happiness are worth protection, notwithstand ing a remote authority may be the great landlord, hold ing vast domains in a state of nature, which it neither grants nor governs. Many of the doctrines upon this subject <>*rry U5 <uack ^ the ape3( every thing an*! man nothing. We have arrived at a period when better views prevail?when human nature assert* its rights, and the exercise of political power does not depend upon the accident of property, but upon the great principles of freedom and just equality. One of two things is inevitable: either the people of California had the right to establish a government for themselves, without reference to " squatter sovereignty or landlord sovereignty," or they were necessarily condemned to live without a government, or rather to die without one ; for human life under such circumstances would be far more precarious than in the bloodiest battle on record. They chose to do what we refused?to found a political system, affording protection to the great objects of human society; and I know nothing of the character of my countrymen] North or South, if, on calm reflectioh, they do not approve the proceeding. Nor do I believe there is one of them no matter where, who, had he been in California in such a perilous crisis, would have hesitated to substitute esta blished law for lawless violence and physical strength. observe, what had not struck me before, that in an extract from his speech, which C?L Davis refers to, he says that I spoke of the fanaticism of the South. 8ir, that is a deduction from my remarks, and one which I think their tenor does not justify. I used no suoh term. I made no suoh charge. I did, indeed, complain of a too prevalent indisposition among our Southern brethren to make just allowance for the position and natural opinions ot Northern men. It was not enough that they should recognise and defend the constitutional rights of the south, as zealously and honestly, and, I may add, under circumstances of a good deal of personal difficulty, as those of their own section of country; but they were al most denounced as abolitionists, as Northern fanatics, I said, in some quarters, unless they avowed and believed that slavery was the best condition of human society. I his is the substance of my remarks upon that topic; and 1 know that this sentiment of regret was participated in by some of the most steadfast friends of the South upon this floor; and certainly those remarks were made not in a spirit of hostility, but with feelings of pain that so lit tle confidence was placed in exertions rightfully and hon estly made. BILLS PASSED. On motion of Mr. HAMLIN, the following bills'were considered in Committee of the Whole, ordered to a third reading, and were subsequently read a third time and passed i Anwfc0* *? authoriie the issuing of a register to the brig Kossuth1 ^ autil0rize the issuing of a register to the ship Mr. GWIN observed that the consideration of the reso lution affirming non-intervention was made the special or der for Monday next. He had given notice of his inten tion some time since to call up the bill to establish a naval depot at San Francisco; he felt persuaded that the Se nator from Louisiana (Mr. Souls) would yield the point, as he (Mr. G.) desired to leave the city on Tuesday. The bill was one of practical importance, and he desired to have it disposed of; he would, therefore, give notice of his intention to call it up at that time. PRIVATE CALENDAR. following bills were considered, and postponed un til Friday next: . Bill for the relief of Thomas H. Leggett. Bill for the relif of Ira Day, of Vermont Bill for the relief of John W. Simonton. . ac' '"or the benefit of the Carmelite Nunnery of Bal timore. J The bill for the relief of Joseph D. Bowman, after dis cussion, was laid on the table. The following bills were severally considered in Com mittee of the Whole, and, after explanation and discus w5rc ordered to be engrossed and read a third time ? Bill for the relief of 0. Thomas Howard. Bill for the relief of William C. Easton. 'or St. John's church, in the city ol n ashington. Bill for the relief of Bryan CallaghaH. On motion of Mr. BRADBURY, the Senate proceeded to the consideration of Executive business, and, aftei some time spent therein, the doors were re-opened? And the Senate adjourned to Monday. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. After considerable discussion as to what business should be taken up, the House went into Committee of the Whole (Mr. Chandler, of Pennsylvania, in the chair) on the private calendar, and resumed the consignation of the bill for the relief of the legal representatives of Oen. James C. Watson, late of the State of Georgia. A long discussion ensued, which consumed the remain der of the day, and was participated in by Messrs. JOHN SON, of Georgia, SACKETT, EVAN8, and STUART, when, without coming to any conclusion on the bill, The committee rose and reported progress. Mr. EWING moved that when the House adjourn to-day it adjourn to meet on Monday next; which motion was disagreed to: Yeas 24, nays 95. The House then adjourned. ARE WE JOLLYKOR ARE WE NOT? FROM THE NEW TO?K (nr.*.) KVEKINO POST. That the wisest and best men sometime^disagree was first remarked, we believe, by a celebrated Roman Con sul; but its truthfulness has received its latest illustration in the case of two eminent living statesmen, each of whom is willing to be an American Consul after the Roman model. Messrs. Cass and Buchanan have each recently made a public expression of their views of the condition and prospects of the Democratic party, from which we make the following extracts: Oen. ( ass in a Letter Mr. Buchanan in a Let to rorso men or Balti- ter to >UK*D8 in Balti MOB?L ? MORE : "The political prospects "If I rightly read 'the artio bright that they can- signs of the times,' there not but add to the social has seldom been a period p.easnre of the evening; when the Democratic partv .t . 5re* ft9. ,8?.nc of th* country, to which forth that the next Admin- you and I are warmly at ist ration of the General tached, was in greater pern overnment mutt be in the than at the present mo hands of the Democratic ment" party." Now, (says the Post,) the question is, is the Democratic party in peril, or is it not ? Are we jolly, or are we not T If the various candidates for the Presidency will give the public their opinions upon this critical question, it will facilitate the selection for a candidate. If we read the signs of the times right, no man can be nominated at Bal ti more who is not sound upon this question. A generous latitude will be allowed on every other, but there roust be no dodging the issue here presented by these two eminent lUtMnn. Is the Democratic party jolly, or is it not? The following from the New York Tribune may be s?t <k>wn (says the Rhode Island Journal) as "important, if tr?e. We fear that it is wanting in the latter quality. Still it cannot be denied that, if there is truth in the spiri tual manifestations, such a thing might be, and if the spirifs do not give us a specimen of that, or similar mani festations, they are humbugs: A 'SriRirrAi. " Joke?Rev. LL Bi shnei.l, of Hartford, onneeticut, has been lecturing at length on "Snperna tiirali-.ro ?of course in opposition to the modem " Mani ( testations. Andrew J nekton Davit Has more recently been replying to him. One evening last week Dr. Bushnell was to give his closing lecture, and Davis gave one the , evening before. In the course of it he .aid, in substance: " Ladies and gentlemen, as oneevidenoe of the realiiy and ' accuracy of this clairvoyance, prevision, or whatever you ; r!ea"e ,*"n 1 wiI1 no? pre yon tke lectnre which ; I*. Rushnell wU give to-morrow evening." Whereupon he proceeded to reel off what he declared that lecture would be, several of the audience taking netes. Theae walked m at Dr. B.s lecture next evening, notes in hand. and lo. the Doctor, lecture proved verbatim what Davis had declared it would be the evening before a" ? is flyintf about, oniy warranting tta*t it has lost nothing in its progress from nartford hither. We understand that the facts in the case what ever th*y may be, are to be duly authenticated and pnb WASHINGTON. ** Liberty and Union, mw and forever, one and inseparable." SATURDAY, MARCH 20, 1852. GRANTS OF LAND FOR RAILROADS. Several bills parsed one branch of Congress W ed nesday making large grants of public lands for the construction of various Railroads in the West and Southwest. We arc glad to sec Internal Improve ments aided by the General Govern meat in any form, and care not whether the aid is given in the shape of land or money. To be sure, a direct ap propriation of money from the Treasury would be preferable for the object; but, to save the consistency of some gentlemen who doubt about the power} we are willing to take laud Instead. The bill making Bounty Land Warrants assigna ble finally passed both Houses of Congress on Thurs-1 day, by the adoption of the report of a committee of conference on the disagreeing votes of the two branches in relation to amendments which had been inserted in the bill by the House. There is no reason to doubt that the bill will at once receive the signature of the President, and thus become a law. It will benefit many of the recipients of this bounty of the Government, who, possessing warrants for land, are themselves unable to locate them. WHIG CONVENTION OF LOUISIANA, A Telegraphic despatch informs us that the Whig State Convention of Louisiana, which met at Baton Rouge on Wednesday last, nominated by ac clamation Millard Fillmore and John J. Crit tenden as the candidates of the Whigs of Louisi ana for President and Vice President of the United States. The Convention was largely attended, and its proceedings enthusiastic and harmonious. NEW HAMPSHIRE ELECTION. We only repeat an old story, annually told for many years past, when we say that on Tuesday the Democracy of New Hampshire were entirely success ful in carrying the elections in that State. Accord ing to the latest reports from Concord, they have elected Dr. Noah Martin Governor by a majority of about a thousand votes, besides securing a majo rity of the members in both branches of the State Legislature. This will enable them to choose a United States Senator of the same politics, to take his seat in March, 1853, when the term of Mr. Hale will expire. DISPERSION OF THE RIO GRANDE INSURGENTS. We learn by a Telegraphic despatch from New Orleans that the Mexican insurgent leader Carva jal, the nominal instigator of the recent insurrec tionary movements on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, has been captured on the American side of the river by Gen. Harney, of the U. S. Army, and taken a prisoner to Brownsville. He will be tried, we presume, and we hope justly punished, for hav ing violated our neutrality laws. His followers, it is stated, have been all dispersed. It is not unworthy of remark that the late advices from the Pacific bring no confirmation of the report, brought by a previous arrival, of a rebellion in the Territory of Utah. It may therefore be presumed that our original conjecture as to the origin of this story was correct. The Whig Convention for the State of Iowa, r lately held at Iowa City, unanimously adopted the following resolutions : I Re sol red, That we moit cordially approve the Adminis ' tration of President Finwoni, and have the fullest confi dence in the Executive officers of the Government; and that the administration of our foreign and domestic affairs deserves the highest admiration and firmest support; and that we have the assurance that, under such an Adminis tration, our Republic will always be safe. Rrtohfd, That our wannest gratitude is due to those, of [ whatever political party, who have, within the last two 1 years, battled for the union of these States, and that we now regard the question out of which our apprehensions of disunion arose as settled, now and forever. Rttolrrd, That, as our motto has always been, and will ever continue to be, " p*ixcirL*s, hot mkn," we will cor dially support the nominees of the Whig National Conven tion for the next President and Vice president of the United States. The Convention is represented to have been the largest ever held in the State. David W. Kil bourne, Samuel M. Ballard, G. L. Niohtin oale, and A. M. Kinney were appointed Dclegajes to the Whig National Convention. In the Fifth Congressional District of South i Carolina the Hon. F. W. Pickens and Capt. Preb i ton 8. Brooks have been nominated for Congress i in the place of the Hon. A. Burt, whose ill-health ' will prevent him from being a candidate for re i election. ' Five States, out of the original Thirteen, have, so far, taken measures to be represented in theCon ' vention to be held in Philadelphia on the fourth of July, with reference to the erection in Independence i Square, in that city, of Monument* commemorative i of the Old Thirteen States which formed the federal 1 compact at the time of the Declaration of Indepen dence. The States that have chosen delegates thus ! far arc: Massachusetts Now Jersey, Pennsylvania, t Delaware, and Georgia. The legislature of Indiana, after having been in session about one hundred days, ha* adjourned i over to the 20th of April, when it is to re-assemble and resume its business. It is stated that, although ' under the new Constitution of the State the legis lature is relieved from all local legislation, only a few bills have yet been passed, amongst which arc the tax bill, a bill districting the State, and a bill exempting a certain amount of property from execution. Mortality among Generals.?Within the five years which have elapsed since the commence ment of the war with Mexico, no less than thirteen i American Generals have departed this life, viz . ! Taylor, Worth, Mason, Brady, Kearny, Hamer, I Hopping, Belknap, Duncan, Croghan, Brooke, Ar ' bucVle, and Whiting. M. Kossuth, it would seem, has been even less ! successful at the West, in levying contributions in i the form of material aid, than wore the committees of management at Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, with whom he fell out, on account of their supposed ex travagance in incurring expenditures, or their want of energy in pressing collections. It does not ap pear that th? contributions to the Koaauth fund were of any consequence either in Indiana or Ken tucky, and from the large and prosperous city of St. Louis we loarn that only seven hundred dollars were realised by the sale of Hungarian bonds. One reason of bin failure is, we presume, that every con siderate man has become satisfied of the impractica bility of his schemes i There are now thirty thousand tens of railroad iron Ivine at Dunkirk, New York, waiting shipment to the West, most destined for Ohio, and there Is dally more receiving. DIPLOMATIC AFFAIRS. The annexed extract# from the generally wcll-in forrned Washington correspondent of the Philadel phia American convey some information of interest to the public: '?Washington, March 15. " It is pretty well understood in tlie diplomatic circles, and therefore no State secret, that the taxis of an explana tory convention between Great Britain and the United States in regard to Central American affairs, to which the Republic of Costa Rica is introduced as a party, and the Republic of Nicaragua (without consultation) is also an indirect party, has been determined upon between the dis tinguished negotiators, and, in fact, that the protocol will be adopted during the present week, or in a very short time. Regarding this whole subject in its political as pect, as affecting the American continent, of vastly more magnitude thaii it is generally esteemed, I shall decline to comment upon the proposed arrangement until its lead ing characteristics are more clearly understood." Although, to my limited appr?he&3iva, il is not appa rent why Costa Rica, which is known to be under British influence, should be admitted as a party to the pending negotiation, still there may be reasons, which I do not comprehend, that justify such a participation. Of course they will be fully canvassed hereafter, and be well con sidered by the Senate before the treaty will be ratified. "When it is asked why Nicaragua, the principal in in terest aud the rightful proprietor in this whole business, does not appear represented by any diplomatic agent to claim her just influence, we are ,told the Minister now here has no sufficient powers, and that our Charge d'Af faires has not been able to find anyGovernment to receive his credentials. Literally this is true ; but it is not the whole truth. A proposition for a confederation between the States of Nicaragua, Honduras, and San Salvador has been entertained for some time. This scheme con- | templates a General Government or Union, to be entrusted witli the management of the collective foreign affairs. Consequently, each of the Republics surrenders so much of its existing sovereignty. It was supposed this confede ration would have been consummated months ago. Under these circumstances, Nicaragua, having acceded to the pro ject, has declined to treat concerning foreign relations in dependently, expecting to form a State in the proposed Government, which would be charged with all such ques tions. In tills condition of things it would seem precipi tate to negotiate without the presence and concurrence of Nicaragua; for, although the new convention may, and probably will, impose conditions, making its fulfilment dependant upon the assent of that Republic, or of the Confederation, should it be merged, the refusal to concur would necessarily defeat the desired object, and the nego tiation would be but love's labor lost. It is a very good and safe reason for the United States to decline admitting Costa Rica to the share of influence which she now claims in this arrangement, because England insists that she ought to be admitted. Sir Henry Bulwer, with his far reaching sagacity, suggested as much a year ago, and Lord Palmerston and his successor have profited by the advice. The just rights of Nicaragua are abundantly pro tected under the Clayton and Bulwer treaty, if it is exe cuted as was intended, at least until such time as Nicara gua can appear to vindicate them with her own voice, in stead of the doubtful agency of interested diplomates." The Opening ok the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad to Massillon was celebrated last week. The Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, starting front Pittsburg, where it connect* with the Pennsylvania Central Railroad, runs through Reaver and Salem, connecting there with the Cleveland and Wellsville Railroad, recently opened, thus giving Pittsburg an uninterrupted communication with Lake Eric. At Massillon, its present terminus, it crosses the great Ohio State Canal, running from Cleveland and Lake Erie to Portsmouth, on the Ohio, and from Massillon it will be continued to Oallion, wliere it intersects the Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati Railroad, and connects with the Bcllefontainc and Indiana Railroad, which latter connects at Indian apolis with the 'IVrrc Haute and Richmond Rail road, which last wiirhave ite terminus at the city of St. Louis. The Courier aud Enquirer, discussing the return of the Cuban prisoners, remarks : " The landing upon our shores-of the released Cuban prisoners closes the eventful drama of the Lopez expedi tion. Unlike most tragedies, it commenced in bloodshed and terminates in congratulations. The restoration of these unfortunate deluded men to their homes will doubt less afford universi^ pleasure, for they arc our countrymen, and their guilt, though great, has been amply expiated by suffering. Their final freedom, through the direct merci ful act of the Queen of Spain, was brought about by the prudent policy and humane interposition of the present Administration. It hat not cosf any sacrifice of right or of honor; it has not been extort*! by intimidation, or wiled outb) finesse: but has been the simple result of just, fair, and amicable dealing upon the part of our Govern ment, such as could not but inspire esteem and confi dence" The French Elections.?The annexed article of Paris news, showing the activity of candidates in canvassing for election, would seem to countenance freedom of choice in the voters, rather than the idea of arbitrary governmental coercion being exerciwd over them : " Paris, Fr.BBr.iRT 27.?To-day the walls of the capi tal are covered with placards of different shades of yel low, containing what is called prpfessions of faith of the various candidates for the electoral districts of Paris. It is to be remarked that among these figure the addressee of the opposition candidates. M. Mortimer Ternaix, tin independent candidate of the second district, open* his address with words equally bold and apt: ? We live,' says he, ' in a time when words and promises mean nothing.' " Both branches of the City Councils of New York, on Monday last, rejected a resolution which pro posed to appropriate one thousand dollars for the re lief of the ninety-odd Americans who were taken C'soncrs in Cuba and have just returned to that city m Spain. They are said to be in a state of great destitution, and unable to return to their home* without obtaining relief. The Ward elections held by the Democrats of the i city of Raltimore on Wednesday evening, for the purpose of selecting delegates to the Convention which is to elect delegates to the National Demo cratic Convention, resulted in every instanoe in the election of persons who are in favor of the nomina tion of Gen. Cask for the Presidency. A Whig meeting was held in Uniontown, (Pa.) on the 7th initant, at which the following resolutions, reported by the Hon. A. Stiwart, were unanimously adopted : Re*ok*d, That as Whigs we are proud of the Adminis tration of Millard Fillmore, who, during a period of extraordinary difficulty in our affairs, foreign and domes tic, has conducted the country through all its troubles with unsurpassed wisdom, prudence, and success. Rfolvfd, That we consider the late Compromise a fortu nate settlement of the distracting and dangerous questions embraced br it, and that, as the established law of the land, it ought to command the acquiescence and support of all true friends of the harmony and perpetuity of our Union. A correspondent of the Portsmouth Journal states that on the forenoon of Wednesday last the Aurora Borealis wm distinetly Seen at that place. The auroral arch stretched from the west to the east horizon, the corona of which was near the xenith, while streamers flashed tip from the north and east. The arch was wide, the streaks of light of differing and varying intensity. The peculiar flickering motion of the aurora was evident to all whose attention was directed to the phenomenon. Thirty thousand dollars of the Bonds of the 8tate of North Carolina, recently advertised by the Public Trea surer, were sold a few days sinoe at an average premium | of H per cent. A number of ladies and gentlemen ef Boston have sub scribed 9100 each to purchase, in Paris, a complete set of anatomical, and physiological instruments for the New England Female Medical College PROGRESS OF TITE MORMONS AT SALT LAKE. Governor Brigiiam. Young, of the Territory of Utah, communicates to the Mormon Editor of the Frontier Guardian" the subjoined particulars con cerning improvements in the Valley of Halt Lake, which, though not altogether new, are given more in detail than in the accounts heretofore received. The Governor's letter is dated at the City of Salt Lake on the 26th November last: Since you left this place, myself, in company with Brothers Kimball, Professors Pratt and Carriugton, Geo. A. Smith, Judge Snow, and several others, accompanied the committee to Parowan Valley, who were appointed to locate the seat of government for this Territory. We found a beautiful site on a creek, heretofore known as Chalk creek, the Indian name of which is Nuquin. The times are continuing rather dull for the merchants and traders, but we find plenty to do. The tabernacle is progressing, and will, if the present fine weather continues, sovu ^"red nn'J rea,lv f?r use, although we dp not expect to fully finish it Wore spring. Our other build ings are principally covered, and all the works seem (o be progressing as well as could be expected at (Jus inclement season of the year. The Indians are generally peaceably inclined at the pre sent time, and in fact all seems quiet and peaceful throughout all the settlements in the valleys of the mountains. The settlements ore now becoming quite extended. The two settlements made this fall in Juab, on Salt creek, and Millard county, on Nuque, render it quite safe to travel with but a small escort from here to Parowan, in Iron county. There is also an extension of that settlement south about twenty-five miles, on what has been known as the Big Muddy, now , called Coal creek ?, being the creek in the canon of which coal is found. Dr. Caruthers has been appointed to preside at that place, and about seven ty men have located there. Dr. Bladen and others, who understand the manufacturing of iron, are in the Compa ny, and we indulge the hope of soon having the pleasure of announcing the iron manufactory in successful opera tion. We can now travel to that place by making about thirty-five miles a day, without camping away from settle ments more than two or three nights, a distance of two hundred and eighty-five miles. We have made arrange ments with the brethren of San Pete to furnish on the ground early in the spring, in Fillmore city, all the joiner work, ready prepared, for the State house, one wing of which we contemplate having in readiness for the next winter'9 Legislature., Passing through Utah and Juab valleys by the lower ford of the Sevier, and across Lake Valley in one hundred and fifty-one miles they reached Chalk Creek, in Pauvan Valley, October 28th. October 29th the site for the seat of government was determined, about one mile east of the ford at the west slope of the table lands lying on each side of Chalk creek, and the survey thereof began : this city is called Fillmore, and the county Millard. The few Indians who appeared at the city professed very great friendship, and promised good behavior to Bishop Call and company, who were on the ground ready to build a fort fortwith?a work preparatory to fencing fields and building up the city. The Governor and company returned by way of San Pete Valley, where Judge Snow organized the court of the second judicial district at the city of" Manti, the county of San, and reached Great Salt Lake city on the 7th inst. The Clay Medal.?The carpet-bag of Mr. But ler, which contained the Clay medal, the abstrac tion of which in* the city of New York has been mentioned, was found on Monday broken open and rifled of its contents. It will be seen by the fol lowing letter that the original subscribers have re solved to have another medal struck for Mr. Clay, and declined the liberal offer of Mr. Butler to furnish one at his own expense: 4*o. 29 Wall Street, (N. Y.) Makcu 1G, 1862. Dear Sik : I have the honor of acknowledging the re ceipt of your favor of yesterday, communicating the cir cumstances attending the loss of the gold medal recently presented to Mr. Clay by a number of his personal and political friends in this city. The gentlemen associated for the purpose of presenting that testimonial to Mr. Clay have instructed me to say to you that they warmly reciprocate the feelings which you express, and unite with you in regretting that the mishap should have occurred. They further desire me to say that they have given or ders for a medal to be struck in every respect similar and equal to the one which has been lost; and that while they highly appreciate the motives of yeur honorable request " that a perfect duplicate" should at once be prepared at yonr cost, and regard your action in the premises as in every way worthy of you, yet they feel constrained to de cline your liberal proffer. I am, with great respect, you/obedient servant, DANIEL ULLMANN, Chairman Committee. Charlrs Bi-tleu, Esq. Tub Steamer Hermann again Returned.?The steam ship Hermaim, of the Southampton and Bremen Line, sailed from New York on Saturday, the 28th ultimo, but, having struck bottom while crossing the outer bar, and sprunk aleak, she was compelled to return to port. Having been repaired in the naval dock at Brooklyn, she left for Southampton on the 7th instant, and on Wednesday morn ing again returned to New York in consequence of an ac cident to her machinery, in having broken the centre shaft of one of her engines when nearly eight hundred miles on her voyage. The passengers good-naturedly take this occasion to issue a card, attesting their sense of the good accommo dations of the ship, and of the coolness, decision, ur banity, and kindness of her commander. The Sb* betart or the Treasury, in a circular dated March 16, instructs Collectors of Customs that newspa pers from Great Britain, whether daily, semi-weekly, or weekly, printed on one sheet and not intended for sale, are to be delivered by the boarding officer at once into the hands of those to whom they are directed, without duty charge, in the same way that our United States papers pass into Great Britain. Publishers are of course enti tled to receive their exchange papers by the steamers in this manner outside of the mails. The trade and travel between New Yore and Savannah have so greatly increased that subscription books have )>een opened in the latter city for the construction of another steamship in addition to the Florida Ami Alabama now running. From the San Diego Herald of February 14 we learn that the Mexican Boundary Commission arrived there three days before from the Desert, having lost nearly all their animals rom starvation. H. C. Pratt, artist of the commission, had the likenesses of several Indian chiefs, and also a beautiful portrait of Inex Gonzales, the captive girl. Dr. Webb had to abandon all the specimens, but Gcoroe Thvrber had a fine colleotion of plants. Henrv Gibson, one of the Revolutionary soldiers who fought under Gen. Washington, died at his residence in Orange county, on Monday morning, aged 101 years and 29 days. He was in the city of New York attending the late celebration of Wxshinotor's birthday, and excited considerable curiosity. A committee of the various con tinental companies were to leave town for the purpose of conveying the remains of the deceased veteran to that city. He is to be interred at Greenwood with military honors. The continentals of New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey will Join in the funeral ceremonies. National Shin in South Carolina.?Quite a long pe tition from Charleston, South Carolina, In favor of the Collins line of steamers, has reached Washington, and is about to be presented to Congress. The petitioners say that they are moved thereto by national not sectional con siderations. This is a streak of bright sunshine from a horizon a long time overcast with clouds. Let South Carolina take her old elevated position in the fraternity of States, and she will eoon discover that the talents and accomplishment* of her citizens will still command that respect and confidence which has enabled her for a long period of years to exercise a controlling influence on the destiny of the whole country. The stars in the heavens are held together by mutual attraction; and so must the union of these States be preserved by mutual affection and love. That which binds people of the same tongue and origin together, and shapes their eommon destiny, is not merely a problem in political economy?Savannah Republican A WEEK LATER FROM EUROPE. Ihe steamer Niagara arrived at Halifax on Wed nesday with Liverpool dates of the 6th instaut. At Liverpool cotton had been in active demand during the week preceding her departure, at an ad vance of one-eighth ot a penny, with sales of near ly HO,000 bales. The <(uotatious are as follows : Fair Orleans 5$d., Middling do. 6 8-16d., fair Mobile and Upland 5gd., Middling Mobile &fcd., Middling Upland 5 l-10d. Breadstuff's were quiet; corn in limited demand, and flour declining in price. The money market very easy. The bulliou in the Bank of England had increased to ?19,239,000. The Anti-corn Law League was being revived. At Manchester a subscription of ?40,000 wuh go ing forward for the agitation of the question, and the re-election of the new Ministers, whose seats haA become vacant. Sir J no. Packingham, Lord J no. Manners, and Lord IIenhy Lennox had been re turned. The speeches of these gentlemen on the free-trade question were very cautious, throwing the subject for the present 6verb&a?d, Mid for ward to the next general elections. The new Chancellor Suoden had taken his seal in the House of Lords as Baron St. Leonards. FOURTEEN DAYS LATER FROM CALIFORNIA. New York, March 15.?The steamer Daniel Webster has arrived from Chagres, with $400,000 in specie and three hundred and twenty-five passengers. 8he brings California dates to February 14th, and Chagres dates to the 6th instant. The miners in California were doing well, and many new and rich placers had been discovered. The small-pox had broken out at the mines on Long's Bar. Business at 8an Francisco was moderate, and generally unchanged. Flour had declined ; coffee was firm ; dry* goods unchanged. There was three feet of snow on the Ridge, below Fea ther River Bar. Very rich placers had been discovered at Beale's Bar. On Upper Feather River the miners were averaging $10 per diem. Judge He.vry A. Tlkt, of San Louis Obispo, and three others, were drowned on the passage, between Santa Bar bara and San Francisco. Hon. John B. Weller, United States Senator from California, Hon. R. M. McLane, and Judge Smith, art among the passengers by the Daniel Webster. The fugitive slave law had passed the California Legis lature. The snow lies forty feet deep at some points between Marysville and Jamison's Creek. The civil debt of California was estimated at$779,000, and the war debt at $1,445,000. The sheriff of Calaveros county had recently shot ? couple of Frenchmen who refused to obey an order of the court, on the ground that they recognised no law in Cali fornia. A large body of them had got together and assumed a hostile attitude. A Jew had been punished with fifty lashes by the Vigi lance Committee for robbing his partner. SECOND DESPATCH. New York, March 15.?The steamer El Dorado, with the mails, has arrived. She brings one million four hun dred and eighty thousand dollars in gold, and one hun dred and thirty-three passengers. The dates from California are to February 18th, and from Chagres to the 6th of March. The time through was only twenty-six days and four hours. The steamer Gen. Warren was lost on the bar of Colum bia river on the 28th of January, together with forty-two lives and a cargo of produce valued at eighty thousand dollars. The United States ship St. Marys arrived at San Fran cisco on the 16th from Callao. EDITORS' CORRESPONDENCE. Baltimore, March 19?i P. M. It is now known that John Glkxs, Esq. has been nomi nated for the judgeship of the United States District Court of Maryland, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge Heath. This is an admirable selection. Mr. Glenn ranks among our best and most successful lawyers. He has had long practical experience, and will make a profound judge. His father filled the same high office, and retired from it with honor. The son will, I am con fident, discharge its high functions with equal ability and | talent. I observe that the Hon. Robert Mc Lane, our former representative in Congress, who has been in California for i a year or eighteen months, has returned home. He looks well and eiyoys good health. He speaks in high terms of the new country. Business in our city is gradually becoming more active and prosperous. Merchants are coming in from the South and West in great numbers. Flour is dull. Sales to-day of 1,000 barrels Howard street brands at $4 12X, In ore than which cannot be ob tained ; City Mills $4 vl\ ; small sales rye flour at $3 76; 1 corn meal $3 a $3 121. The sales of flour for the week amount to abont 20,000 barrels, and inspections 29,000 barrels. Grain steady. Sales of red wheat at 90 a 981 white 96 a 103; white corn 56 a 57; yellow 57 a 68; oats 32 a 37 ; rye 72 a 74. Cloverseed is in active de mand ; sales at $5 75 a $*i; timothy do. $3; flaxseed $1 17 per bushel. There is an active demand for Guano. Sales of Peru vian at $45 to $46. and Patagonian at $3/> to $36 per ton. Plaster of Paris has advanced to $6.25 to $5.31 per ton. Provisions are very firm Mess pork $17 ; bacon firm; lard 9J to 10 cents ; groceries steady; sales of 8.000 Rio coffee for the week at 9J to 10 cents per lb ; sugars and molasses quiet, prices unchanged ; whiskey 21 to 22 ; cents per gallon. Tobacco is without much movement. Some sales of Maryland at 50 cents per 100 pounds, a decline on previous quotations. Ohio has also declined about in the same ra 1 tto. There are several French purchasers now in the market, who would buy largely, but holders will not ac ' cede to their offers. The inspections of the week are 160 | hogsheads Maryland. The telegraph reports the New York market without much change to-day. U. S. 6's 117 J to 118 ; other stocks quiet. Flour $4.56 to $4.62^ for Southern, and $4.62 to $4.75 for State brands. Wheat quiet, prices unchanged. | Corn 63 to 64 cents. Cotton firm at 1-6 to 1-8 cent ad vance, with sales. Restrictive Law Repealed. HARRissrao, March 18.?The Senate to-day, after con siderable debate and a good deal of excitement, passed the celebrated bill repealing the sixth section of the act , which forbids the u?e of prisons for the purpose of de | taining fugitive slaves. Alignment of the Aueta of the U. 8. Bank. Phti.aoki.fhia, March 17.?The stockholders of the i United States Bank held a meeting to-day and passed re i solutions making a general assignment of all rights, titles, credits, Ac. belonging to the bank, by a vote of 730 yeas, representing 9,60? shares, to 126 nays, representing 8,160 shares. The following trustees were elected: A. W. I Schwab, Martin C. Rogers, James Cooper, of Pottsville, I Charles Macalester, and Daniel L. Miller. The new trustees are not to be salaried . officers. The director* | took no action in the meeting. The result has knocked down the price of shares. * i L ECT FAMILY S ( H o o L. " Wewteheater, Pennsylvania. THE summer session will open May 1st. The number it limited to ten boy*, between the ages of 7 and 15. I?. | (traction in English, the Languages. Ac. Terms: (100 per session of Ire months. Rkfrrrscrs : Right Rev. Bishop Potter, Philadelphia; Rev. J. B. Clemson, Westchester, Pa. Circulars containing particulars, with farther references, may be had on application to Til OS. B. JACOBS, feb IS?wpSw Westchester, Pa. THE GLADE KOR^ HALE.?I offer for sale my farm in Jefferson, known as the " Oiade," containing M6 acres, 156 acres cleared, and 150 in timber. The quality of the tand is unsurpassed by any in the county of Jefferson. On the tract is a comfortable log dwelling, a well of good water, and a stream running through one end of the farm. A moro particular description is unnecessary, as those wishing te purchase will first riew the premises. The farm willbeslioWn at any time by Mr. T. A. Lewis who resides near it, sod who will give information as to terms, Ae. Application may alee be made (postpaid) to Mr. Edward E. Cooke, Charleston, Jef ferson county, Virginia, or to Mrs. Alexander <1. Gordon, Fort Hamilton, Long Island, New York. jaa *1?wtfwy NOrriCR TO NEXT OH Kl?.- OWKN BRADY, late a sub-Constable of Police, who died on tbe OTth Oct? ber, 1861, at Trim, eounty of Meatb. in Ireland, bad a son who went to America about twenty ys*1^ *B<" BOt been since heard from. This son or his representative will hear of something to his advantage on application to JOSBPH 8TOCK, Proctor, mar 19 13 Henrietta street, Dublin, Ireland.