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?? Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and Inseparable." MONDAY, MAY 31, 1852. CONGRESS. It is related by Bacon, that once, duriug the reign of Queen Eliaabeth of England, when Parliament had cut long, and the House of Commons especially had done in effoct nothing, the Spbakkr of that body coming one day to the Qikkn, she said to him, " Now, Mr. Speaker, what has passed in your House V* To which the Speaker repjied, " If it please your Majesty, seven weeks."' If our Sovereign (the People) of the United States could be supposed bodily to address the same ques tion to Mr. Speaker Boyd, of our House of Repre sentatives, what much more satisfactory reply than this could the Speaker make, substituting six months for seven weeks ? Yes, this very day completes the sixth month ot the Session, and to-morrow begins the seventh ! And yet, though Congress has been in session for six months, the Message of the Prksident, transmitted to Congress on the second day of the Session, crowded as it is with recommendations of measures of the highest import to the interests and welfare of the People of the United States and their Govern ment, has not yet received, in the House of Repre sentatives, the respect of a special consideration : nor to tbit> day, from the first week of the session, (exoept on two occasions, as we think,) has it been ia order for any Member of the House of Representatives, without "general consent" or a formal suspension of the rules " for regulating the ? order of proceedings, to introduce to the notice of the House any original or independent proposition! To do the Members of the House justice, there is a disposition on the part of most of them to discharge the duties for which they were sent hither by their constituents, which would have produced valuable fruit, had not^leir action been paralyzed, not only by the Rules, but by the incubus of the Presidential topic, which seems to have found its way into almost every question, from that of the mere Printing for Congress up to that of the gratuitous distribution of all the Lands of the United States, and thus converting the public domain from being an inexhaustible source of revenue to a field of boundless speculation. Even in the week before last, set apart beforehand to the consideration of business of the Territories of the United States, for the first three days the Presiden tial Election, instead of the wants and wishes of the People of the Territories, which were the order of the day, became the subject of contention, though the three latter days of the week (which might be termed a lucid interval) were profitably and usefully employed upon the proper business of the House. .During the last week, under the influence of a new and salutary change of the Rules, a few reports from committees have been received, and the num ber which, as we learn, are in readiness to be pre sented, when an opportunity is afforded, proves that the committees of the House, acting in their lesser circles, have been far from remiss in their duties. To-morrow is the day fixed for the meeting of the National Democratic Convention in the city of Bal timore. Little business will be done, we presume, for ?veral days after this day, and hardly any this week. The prospect is, we think, a very faint one that the " Deficiency Bill,'' for want of which so many branches of the public service arc suffering, ?will be finally disposed of in all this week. It may be satisfactory to our readers, in that event, to know that the termination of the fiscal year is not as near at hand as it was made to ap pear by an unaccountable slip of the pen in our last. It ends on the 30th of next month, (June,) and not on the last day of this month, as then stated. There is such a spirit of Nationality in the fol lowing communication, whic b we find in the Char/e* tfjH Courier of one day last week, that we cannot deny ourselves the pleasure of laying it before our readers, to show how different is the tone* of this writer from that of moot of the articles which We have within the last few years had the pain of read ing in journals of the same city: FROM THE CHARLESTON COURIER Of MAY lifj. Mr. Fillmore'i Claim* on the Whiyt and on the C'/untry. The choice of Mr. Fillmork at the ensuing Whig Con vention it due to the wisdom and firmness with which he has administered the Government. It has not been a i-omm. n occasion. The times were fall of peril. The ex istence of the Republic was at stake. Danger, the moat formidable to the Constitution and the Union, from the ma<kicss and folly of Northern factions inflaming with just indignation the hearts of the Southern people, per plexed the minds and counsels of the best and ablest men of our country. Mr. Flllmorx became Preaident. A calm succeeded the storm. A feeling of aafety pervades the whole country. Prosperity, unexampled aince the revo lution, invigorates the enterprise and industry of the United States Abroad and at home, one voice only is heard, a voice approving with just eulogy the vigor, the prudence, the wisdom of Mr. Fillmore's Administration. It may therefore be confidently affirmed that he pos sesses the cordial admiration and unhesitating preference of all the whole 8outhern Whigs. This preference has been distinctly expressed in many of the Southern States. It remains to be seen whether we also in South Carolina duly appreciate the purity, honesty, and ability which command the emphatic approbation of our aistfr States. If there ia a State in the Union whose applause is pe culiarly due to the wisdom and justice of the present Ex ecutive, it ia the State of 8outh Carolina. The high spirit of her people, impatient of insult and'wrong, had placed her in the front rank of oppoaition to whatahe con sidered aaaaults on her liberties and rights. If civil war had been the result of the rash and heedless counsels that ruled our country, South Carolina would have been the first to endure its dangers and sacrifices. 8he cannot be insensible to the calm, unostentatious, but thoroughly efficient and successful statesmanship that has disarmed the intrigues of bad men, and given peace mad prosperity to the country. She u not insensible. Kot only do the Whigs of 8outh Carolina justly appre ciate the eminent services of the President, but they are rightly estimated by the Democrats of the State. It may be confidently affirmed that, out of their own party, no man in the Union possesses so entirely the confidence of the Democrats of South Carolina as Mr. Fillwoik, nor is there one in whose election they would to readily ac quiesce as in bis. He has won that confidence and ac q'uiesdnce not by subserving little interests, but by an administration of the Government evidently and entirely conservative, national, and successful. If, then, a Whig voice from South Carolina is heard in Convention, it must .be, it can be, for no other man than Millard Fillmore. JUSTICE. \ B*w and simple yet most complete and efficient ma chine for splitting the timber used in making matches, has been lately introduced in Augusta (Gn.) by Mr Al den. of Philadelphia. It splits with ease twenty thou sand a minute, or one million an hour, and turns them ?out into blocks ready to be dipped. IMPORTANT DECISION ON THE REVENUE LAWS. The Supreme Court, just previous to ita recent adjournment, decided that the 58th and fVJth sec tions of the act of the 2d March, 1700, as regards rates of tare and allowance for leakage, are not in force under the tarif act of 1846. lTn<Jer this de cision, in future, no allowance beyond actual tare can be made in estimating the quantity subject to duty of any weighabl? article, and the allowance of two per cent, on liquids for prospective leakage will also be disallowed, but any leakage during the voyage of importation will still be subject to deduction from the dutiable value. The same decision also declares that the construc tion put by the Treasury Department upon the re venue laws, as regards the imposition of duty, is bind ing until reversed by judicial proceedings; and that no claim can be made for a return of duties under such Treasury construction unless the parties, at the time of entry, made a protest specially stating the ground of objection. . f ? WHIG MEETING AT CHARLESTON, (S. C ) A preliminary meeting of the W higs of the Charleston Congressional District, in favor of send ing delegates to the National Whig Convention, was held at Charleston on Wednesday evening, Dr. F. Y. Porter presiding. A committee of five gentlemen were appointed to prepare an Address to the W higs of the State, and the following preamble and resolutions, reported to the meeting by a committee,^ were unanimously adopted: That it is highly important that the Whig party of South Carolina should be represented in the National Whi^ Con vention to be held in Baltimore on the 16th of June next; therefore Rttolved, That, in order to give an opportunity to the State at large to be represented in the National Con vention, this meeting stand adjourned to the 10th of June, and that the Congressional districts be invited to send delegates to a Convention to be held here on the evening of that day for the purpose of nominating a dele gation to thv g*a?TAl Convention. THE LEGISLATURE OF MARYLAND. The General Assembly of Maryland no doubt closed its session at twelve o'clock this morning, in pursuance of a resolution previously adopted by both Houses. The Baltimore American of yester day says that the bill to establish a Chancery Court in the city of Baltimore, having been reconsidered, is now a law. The Assessment Bill has also be come a law. So also the bill regulating the fees of clerks, &c. The bill allowing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company to loan its credit to the Northwestern Virginia Railroad is a law. The sub ject of a reduction of the direct tax was postponed to next session. Socialism.?The real object of Socialism is to depress and not to elevate the social standard?to bring down distinguished greatness to the level of irremediable inferiority. This is what is really meant by the changes which are continually rung upon those cabalistic words, " liberty and equality." It is not often, however, (says the Boston Journal,) that so frank an acknowledgment of this design is made as is contained in the following paragraph from the New York Tribune: " Great men do a deal of harm. They have bedevilled the world from the beginning. We used to regret that the term of human life is so short. We have grown wiser, and rejoice that people die so soon. Great men ! What do great men do but mischief? There is here and there an exception, but the history of this country and all countries bear us out in the declaration that the principal public acts of the greatest men have been pre-eminently mischievous.'' NEW EXPEDITION TO THE SOUTH SEAS. The British ship-of-war Herald, Capt. H. Man gles Denham, and the armed steam tender Torch, Lieut. ClUMMO, sailed from Woolwich, England, on the 12th*ultimo for the South seas, to proceed by way of Sydney, ind not around Cape Horn. The London Illustrated News says that they eo islands between Australia and Valparaiso, and par ticularly the Feejee islands, and adds: "Although Capt. Cook tod teveral other navigatort have touched at these groups, and marked their position on their charts, yet very little is known respecting them, further than that many of them are surrounded with coral reefs, the land exceedingly fertile, and the climate salu brious; and also that the natives are addicted to canni balism. The Herald, although a frigate, carries but six thirty-two pound carronades and four long guns. The Torch has one long thirty-two pouad pivot gun, capable of being trained in every direction, whilst, to prevent the natives boarding from their canoes, she will be completely enclosed with nettings. The experienced officer who has been entrusted with the command of this expedition is already distinguished by his love of scientific research, his skill in maritime surveying and construction of charts. Lieut. Chimmo is alto an officer of considerable scientific attainments. Mr. McOillivray, the well-known naturalist, has been appointed to the Herald, to take charge of the department of natural history; and Mr. S. 0. Wilson has been appointed artist, to make drawings of any objects in these islands likely to prove interesting, and for which purpose he has been supplied with a photographic appa ratus. The medical officers have been selected for their taste and leal in natural history: and in short the Herald and Torch have been fitted and equipped in the most effi cient manner for the long period of from five to seven years." CuoLxaA ox the Tlaixs.?The St. Louis Republican reports that the cholera it carrying off a great number of the California emigrants on the Plains. A panic had seized several of the trains, and many of the emigrants were turning their steps homeward. The tame paper ftddt: ? Holliday'a train, which left St. Joseph a fewdaya be fore oar informant did, had lost some eeven or eight ner tont; and it was rumored that the detachment of U. 8. troops under command of M^jor Stkik, en route for New Mexico, bad suffered tome lots previout to reaching Grasshopper creek. It it hoped the reportt from the Plaint are exaggerated."' The PiAOft.?The citiiena of New Orleans art begin ning to manifest much alarm at the approach of a new and terrible diseate, known as the plague, and which It repretented as being more terrific and devastating than the Atiatic cholera. The Botton Medical Journal, in an article upon the tubject, remarks : "It is certain, from accountt received both here and in England, that the true plague has been introduced into Madeira, and its work hat been really appalling. The question has frequently been agitated, will that dreadful disease ever reach this continent T There is reason to be lieve it will; the wonder is why it has not already. Our cotnrner i*l intercourse is extensive with various ports of Africa an'l the Asiastic shores of the Mediterranean, where this great scourge is never dead or dying, but simply reposing from one period to another, like a fatigued giant, to gather new strenjth for a renewal of slaughter. Should it come, it may be hoped there will be founJ more science, and a stronger barrier of medical skill to meet and disarm It of its terrors, than has been exhibited in tropical climates, or in the filthy, scourge-inviting regions of Moslem Turkey. Plague appertains to the Arab in this age: and where the same condition of things exists as characterizes their mode of life, their social condition and the absence of all common-sense efforts to avert or arrest it, it will have an abiding foothold." The impulse towards emigration to the United States appears to be working among the 8wict>tES almost as pow. erfully as upon their southern neighbors. The Oothrboryt I Inndfit oth Sjtfarti TUning has the following: ?? Emigrants to the United States of North America ar rive h?re almost daily from the interior. It is now quite common to see a whole train of wagons closely packed with household gear and children moving through our streets, followed bv the men and their wives on foot Some of these people have just sufficient means to enable them to secure a passage ; others o* so poor and desti tute that, to raise the necetsaiy money, they make a com pact with better furnished emigrants, engaging, in return for passage money, to serve with them a certain period at laborers after their arrival in America." to the Sou'.h Pacific to survey TO THE WHIQ8 OF THE UNION. The annexed invitation, issued by the Whig Con vention of the city of Baltimore, id addressed to the Whigs of the United States, and conveys to them an earnest and hearty solicitation to be present at the National Whig Convention which is to be held in that city on the sixteenth of the present month. We trust, nay, we are sure^ < says the Baltimore Amerieun,) that it will be met in the generous and fraternal spirit in which it has been tendered, and j that numerous delegations from each and every State in the Union will be present, to witness and ratify1 the nominations then made. We need scarcely add the assurance that a cordial weloome and kind hos pitalities await all who may come : to (he Whins of the Union. The undersigned have been directed by the Whig City Convention of Baltimore to solicit the attendance of their fellow-Whigs from all parts of the Union, at a meeting of the National Convention on the ICth June. The invitation which they are instructed to extend is on behalf not only of those whom they Immediately re present, but of the body of the Whigs of Maryland. On memorable occasions heretofore, our fellow-Whigs have honored us by assembling here in council. Ye are not aware that any have had cause to tax us with the lack of cordial welcome. If kindly intercourse and the interchange of opinions and good offices have contributed, on former oopasions, to strengthen the bonds of good fellowship, suoh consequen ces, more than ever, must follow from them n?w. The thought that the Union has been in danger must make the feeling of brotherhood more warm, when brethren of all sections, in the name of the Union, are met tq consult for its continued preservation. Let our fellow-Whigs, then, from all quarten, bring themselves among us. Let their delegations bepumer ous, enthusiastic, and confident. The inspiratiooef their presence will give the vigor of triumph to the fitst bl?w of the fight. E. 8. Thomas, Wm. H. Tuavbes. G. F. Sable, L. Jarrett. James C. Nindb, Samuel McCubbix, Richard T. Merrick, Edward Hinckley, R. B. Clarke, Sukitard A. LeaKin, Committee. S&T The Whig papers throughout the Union are re quested to give a prominent place to this invitation as soon as received. Baltimore, May 31, 1852, The New London Chronicle recoids the death at the parsonage in Franklin, (Conn.) on the 26th ultimo, of the venerable Dr. Samuel Nott, in the 59th year of his age. About a week before his deoease his gown caught fire while sitting alone in his room, and before it was extin guished his hand was badly burnt. The injury and ex citement consequent upon this accident probably hasten ed his death. Dr. Nott had been settled in the'parish more than seventy years, and was probably the oldest pastor of a parish in New England, or perhaps in the United States. Found at Last.?Our readers will no doubt remember, with a painful recollection, the fate of the steamer Co lumbvt, belonging to the port of Baltimore, which, on a trip in November, 1850, caught fire and was entirely de stroyed, together with Capt. Hollinqhkad, her comman der, and eight others. She belonged to the Powhattan Steam Packet Company of Baltimore, and had just been thoroughly repaired. The last seen of her, we believe, was from Smith's Point Lighthouse, in the Chesapeake, where, in the shape of a mass of flame, she was going ahead. The company made every effort to ascertain where she was sunk, and have just succeeded in getting infor mation. Mr. Reilly, of Baltimore, found the wreck on Saturday last, on what is called Barn Island bar, off the mouth of Potomac river, in about four fathoms water. Vessels have been dispatched to raise the wreck and se cure the machinery. There is a melancholy interest con nected with the loss of this steamer, and we write of her j with a painful recollection.?Sun. The Telegraph.?It is just seven years this week since the line of telegraph was completed between Washington and New York, and Prof. Mors* sent his first despatch from the Federal to the Commercial capital of the country. Since that time ab4ut /ewfefii thoxuand milet of teltyraphic linrt have been put up in the United States, and one half of these number of miles under the superintendence of He.hrv O'Rielly, Esq. This fact tells more effectually than words or arguments can of the enterprise of those engnged in this important and generally prosperous nn dertaking. The associated press in New York, number ing seven of the leading morning papers, and of which the Express is one, pays at least $70,000 a year for news to the various lines leading to New York.?N. 1*. Fipru*. THE RELIGIOUS ANNIVERSARIES. The meetings of the various anniversaries fat BosUra and New York) during the past week have been much more largely attended than usual, and the proceedings of many of them have been of the most interesting character. One sign as to them has been remarked upftn?the grow ing indisposition among the leading sects to mingle with their affairs judgments on the political measures of the time. For the most part violent abuse of political men. and we may add of even the slave law, has been left to the anti-slavery convention, and in some cases, when the slavery question has been handled, it was done in t far different spirit from that which prevailed a year ago. This sign we interpret to be, that good sense, a wider patriotism, and a deeper insight into the position of the country are fast taking the place of that wild fanaticism, and local spirit, and flippant indignation that charac terized the action of these meetings only a year ago. The sober second-thought of the people is at work. Reason is supplying the place of vituperation. The good and grand old love of country is coming up in rebuke of the spirit of disunion ; and in place of contention and strife, of demagogism and fanaticism, there are signs of a re storation of harmony and of intelligent and discriminating appreciation of the political duties that belong to the people as fellow-countrymen. This may be deplored by those whose sole dependence on riding into place and power is on the top of some hobby, but it will be hailed as a harbinger of better times by those who elevate the good of the country above the desire of place.?Boston Pott. AN IMPORTANT CORRECTION. The Harrisburg Keystone says: " It has been asserted by several papers in the State that the list of public de faulters reported to the last Legislature by the State Treasurer contained in the gross defalcations to the amount of more than $3,000,000. This is a foul slander upon the fair fame of the Commonwealth, and any and all papers that have given currency to it should lose no time in making the proper correction. By adding the several amounts contained in the Treasurer's report al luded to, they come to about $297,000. running through a period of near half a century, and during a time when the receipts and disbursements of the treasury hare ex ceeded $'200,000,000. As these defalcations amount to less than one-sixth of one per cent of the money handled during their occurrence, they certainly reflect no discre dit upon the State or upon its receiving an I disbursing officers. It would be difficult to find in sny country or in any age where such vast sums of public money have been handled with more honesty or with less loss." i The United States steamer Atlantic sailed from New York for Liverpool on Saturday, with $582,900 in specie and 148 passengers; among whom are Bishops Vaitoi vildr, McCosrrt, and Drlarct ; OrroOoLnscHMiDT^nd lady, (the late J?>kt Lisd ;) several of the C lergy of the Protestant Episcepal Church, and " Grace Oreenwood," the magnxine writer. Kii.i.m> ?r LxOHTWJWO.? A young man, residing with Mr. Rothier, about three miles from Rockvllle, (Md.) named John Bowers, was struck by lightning and iMtant ly killed on Thursday. He, with two others, were at work in the fleld, and had taken shelter under a tree. The other two were very much stunned. GIVING AWAY THE PUBLIC LANDS. FBOM THK MiW YOB* SVBMIJ.Q FOST OP FBIDAT. A GREAT LAND REFORM MEETING. A large gathering of the friends of LaniBefurm was held in the park Ia#t nosing, but, owing to the rain, it was not so numerow as it otherwise would have been. Mf. JOH>f Cochrane was called to the chair, and the usual number of Vice Preheat* and Secretaries appointed. Ou taking hie seat, Mr. Cochbamk made a brief butelo queut speech, and Mr. Paic* read an address and the sub joined resolutions: JEStr^tfou!LU fm^^. h*il", w,th *?tUflu*tlon the recent SttS ^ I l/mUd State* ST > ? 'i' 'M "eV0 "le honorable Senate of the ^TT fT UvorMe ??ursfln tb0 (ludre to lexUlnt* Cor lU.. int JL ? i ?w* *?/"u in lt? decision by a di meted Wh?Ie. P00"16' ratlK>r jiut or patriot*?f p,'n,0,M wU'' ??" *??* nothing u tud* to WtW?fcllowiTl^nl ,eJf (five them full lati to perpetually extrJt rnm^/V'. * PoriUon ?" ""able them appropriated to nwure tWmmTl i ,"i "J1""?* wbich ?hould be KimArnl Th.f ?v^ '"e ooiofort and ladepondoure of tlieir tkmilie*. aeSnrSeuJl^^bSiSS^^ Whk'h 11 theoppo instruct our iwnt A' thU time we are doIlberatliiK how to ?Ks-si???s2*sr<?: r="- "? sa^^SrSSsS'-'?? The address and resolutions were adopted. The following letters were received by the committee: acceptance of the Invitation, I ahill p,rev?ut my JuT' VCry w^ctftU1y."d with many thank* vour obodient *er WILLI AM U. SKWARD. Jo^tt^,L7yoduu;ic^3nSF' y[*Frt" pendin* in the ^nat,,5^7 ^ <*?????* bill If now duty requir* m* to be ready ? ?feS?.PJ? "* S. A. DOUGLAS. ?s?S9?SES' or7X^*7^^ z ^TSttTS.'S sss ?Tt measure, I "ubsoribe myself your friend and fcUoi^SSn, J, P. WALKER Mr. Ghekley then came forward and spoke briefly, and introduced Mr. Johnso*, of the House of Representatives o t e United Sutes, who made a powerful appeal to the people to agitate this subject until the bill passed by the House of Representatives had received the concurrence of the Senate. He was followed by Mr. Booth, of the MH *<?<*? Free Democrat, Gen. Walbbidqk, and Thiodorjc Tomlinso.v, whose remarks were received with the most deafening cheers of applause. It was one of the most spirit*! meetings that has reoently taken place. [Intending to prove, by citations from the respec table and powerful body of the Press of the Interior as well as the Seaboard, that the passage by the House ot Representatives of the Bill which is known as the " Homestead Bill" has been a mrprise upon all the thinking and reasonable classes of the coun try, and is utterly condemned by almost all intelli gent men of every class and occupation, (out of ( ongress) and having, moreover, something more to say ourselves upon this startling (and even appalling) measure?we shall, instead of enlarging uP?n the foregoing proceedings, defer for the present this intention, and avail ourselves of the striking commentary of a New York paper upon the whole concern.?Nat. In tell] FBOM TH? NEW YOBK COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER OF FBIOAT " VOTE YOURSELF A FARM. ' There are not a few citizens who would rather have a farm given to them than purchase one, and they would very naturally prefer that it should be a well-stocked farm, with homestead, barns, and fields ripe unto the harvest. We think It exceedingly probable, also, that the same Clase of ciH.en3 would feel additional gratification If the donor of the gift would add thereto a yearly appro priation of money for the payment of laborers' wages, feeding of stock, and other contingencies, which, by an inevitable anti-progress law, are the certain concomitants of agricultural pursuits and possessions. Indeed, the man who wants a farm gratis would be exceedingly likely to want all other things on the same terms, and it is not very probable that he would be " content with hi* lot," though never so easily acquired. The cream of the joke is, that among the most prominent of those who want farms trithout working for them are a knot of men who have named themselves the Industrial I Congress; but except in the matter of tongue-labor we do not see that they are entitled to any such pre-eminence above their fellows, hundreds and thousands of whom are I toiling severely while the* ? Congress" as a body is rest I mg?save the talking?somewhere to leeward of the tea room in the City Hall. The worthy "industrials" greatly I err, however, if they suppose that they are " the People of America," or of New York 8ute, or even of New York city | The People approve not of their Agrarian and Utopian , Kb ernes, and, were there the slightest danger that the Senate could be guilty of the folly perpetrated by the House of Representatives in the passage of the homestead ? il. a voice would come forth from the masses that would very emphatically prohibit this wresting of their lands from them for the purpose of gratuitous distribution. For some days one widely-circulated journal in this city I has been crowding steam ia attempts to make this home | 3tead bill popular, and to gather a large crowd at the meeting in the Park announced for Ia?t evening, the ob | ject of which was declared to be the procuring of ?? free I homes for all." Yet, strange to say, the meeting ?u not to large that the Park would not oontain it, and it v<u so small that either the lobby of the City Hall or one of it* small rooms could, for the number was too insignificant to keep one another warm in the Park, and thej prudently adjourned to the City Hall, out of the public gate. It U true that the weather was unfavorable, for it rained; but the men who would not come out in the rain to help to get a farm would not be likely to expose themselves to the weather in cultivating it when they had obtained it. That is as clear as glass. So that the thinness of the attendance was a rebuke of the folly of the movement, and " a heavy blow and sad discouragement." Nor were the masses the only men who gave the preposterous scheme the cold shoulder. Honorable gentlemen at Washington, who bod been invited to attend and speak, very prudently and somewhat coldly declined the honor. We know not to whose pen the world is indebted for this address, but its opening paragraph is excruciatingly funny. And the second not less so. Listen: " The great question of the suitable disposal of the lands belonging to the citiiens of these States is not only one in which u involved the future security and perpetuity of our admirable system of government, but in its judi cious adjustment is contained the perceptible guaranty ; for the development and happiness of our citiiens. Un less we shall be directed by that intelligence which should be the distinctive attribute of those who are fore most in the councils of the nation, and at whose option the destiny of this young empire stands bridled for the race of achieving commensurate good or proportionate evil, we shall limp into the arena of history with all the visible and prominent defects of those States which have heretofore paeed on to ruin at the will of improper riders.'' Just imagine the wonderment and vexation of hard fisted artisans, almost expecting to learn the exact loca tion of that mug little farm which has been so long a time " coming," on being informed with all gravity that this " young empire stands bridled for the race of achieving commensurate good or proportionate evil," sad this too at the " option" of " those who are foremost ia the coun cils of the nationthat unlets we?the man meeting in the lobby of the City Hall?shall be directed by aa intel ligence which should be the distinctive attribute of some bod/ else, we?said members of nu9 meeting?would " limp iuto the arena of history," with certain horrible defects thathavedistinguished other horses, "which hate heretofore paced on to ruin at the will of improper riders"?yes, "limp Lq|o the ar^na" themselves, wlffle "young empire stands bridled /or ?he race," digmg notllfog but champiop' his bit i^ortificafon that; he cannot tan for the cup f^r liwjfc of jrrider, T^is writer's imagination needed bridling; <y that, which i| probacy trvys, he did not earuestly feel upon and thoroughly understand the subject about which he was writing. As we think it exceedingly probable that Senators haye not yet felt the force of all the argument* employed in sup port of the appeal now made to them, and may feel grate ful for a clear, lucid, terse, concise, Cobbett-like state ment of the reasons why the United States Government should give away farms, we copy the folio wing paragraphs from the address, hoping the Senate will understand them better than we do: " Your committee, in viewing this question, stand upon the ground that as the earth has been oreated for the in heritance of the race, we hqjd that that statesman who would attempt to throw up a barrier within whose limits no other people should be permitted to find a resting-place and a home, usurps an attribute of the Creator, and there by acquires the distinction ef being an enemy of his kind! Believing, then, in the broad ^hilosephic and humane pro vision of the constitution which secures the welcome and free access of the exile to these shores, we nevertheless entertain the opinion that the only way by which we can be relieved from the unequal disproportion with which the people ot this metropolis have boon hitherto burdened, will be through the adoption, by the Senate the United Stated, of the " homestead bill," recently passed by the House of Representatives. '?Without atU-mptlng to solvo the problem of the liuue of ooming resistance to tyranny in Kurope, through blood and devastation, we know that It should be the duty of our statesmen to nee that suitable circumspection shall be exercised in preventing the interest of our people from being jeopardised in the least ky u too careless indiffer ence as to the precarious disposal and subsistence or the gathering multitudes who seek this Ark of refuge in search of a more hospitable ami liberal ho">e. '? As It Is not the intention or policy of our Government to reduce it* citizens to the degraded condition of other nations, It becomes the duty of our representatives to see that all the means which they have at their disposal be so used as to protect us from those afflictions with which the operatives of other countries hare been scourged. Situated as we are by the dispensation of Provide Me, with such amplitude of rvsourtes. It is in tbo uower of our rulers to guard us from those vicis situdes with which other nations have been visited. " We are not confined within * circumscribed boundary wherein there need be manifested any hostility between labor and capital. As capital never complains where profitably employed, to labor Is never dissatisfied when it is adequately compensated. Uke capital, labor should bare a choice of Investment. W bimerer the prioo of labor Is so far depreciated as not to afford to him who exercises it the means of living, let him be free -to go to the land and there force It to yield that sustenance which artificial contrivances have denied." No doubt it is " all right," but we confess our inability to appreciate very highly the grandiloquent phraseology of this exposition of principles. Pierce it ever so alightly with the point of criticism, and it collapses into a couple of truisms and a non-sequitur. The most remarkable action of the meeting, however, was the adoption of the resolutions attached to the address. One of them is in the following words: " Resolved, That this meeting, looking as it does to the action of the Senate, cannot but believe that it will be governed in its decision by a desire to legislate for the interests of the whole people, rather than be directed by the appeals or threats of persons who can view nothing as just or patriotic save that wbich they suppose will give them full latitude to keep their fellow-citizens in such a position as will enable them to perpetually extract from their labor those means which should be appropriated to secure the comfort and independence of their families." In familiar phrase, we can " go that" heartily. It is the land reformers' condemnation of themselves, and we marvel that the meeting did not see the lurking sarcasm that seasons it. The meeting, by adopting it, says in fact: We have confidence in the Senate that it will legislate for the interest of the whole people, and net for the land re formers alone. It will not be influenced to do wrong either by their appeals or- their threats. It will not, at the expense of the whole people, give away farms to a certain class, and thus allow them to rob those who, by hard labor and rigid economy, have honorably purchased farms, to the free gift of which they have equal claim with these reformers. We believe this. We have not the remotest idea that the Senate will pass the bill. The prin ciple of it involves a wrong which the Senate will not be a party to ; and not a wrong only, but an absurdity which cleaves to every detail of the bill. Indeed the idea of car' rying it out is so utterly absurd that we marvel to see the names of intelligent and honest men among its advocates. I The scheme is altogether visionary, and its momentary triumph in the House of Representatives has alone given it any importance. Adjournment or thc Lbqiulatu&k.?The Legislature of Maryland brought its session to a final close at 12 o'clock on Monday night, and a large number of the members reached this city yesterday. John V. L. Mc Mahon, Esq., of Baltimore, and Otho Scott, Esq., of Harford county, were appointed to codify the laws. The high abilities of these two distinguished gentlemen, and the general respect and confidence extended to them by ; the community generally, combine to render their ap | pointment for this difficult and responsible duty most ' proper and acceptable; but it is not positively known [ that either of them will accept. Mr. McMahon, it ap pears, had early in the session declined the proffered ho i nor; and Mr. Scott had also authorized the withdrawal of his name ; but, under the present circumstances, the I Legislature seems to hare hoped that they might both be induced to forego their previous disinclination. William Prioe, Samuel Tyler, and Frederick Stone, Esqs. were appointed to simplify the practice. These gentlemen alpo are every way competent to the task. It will be seen that the bill to sever the joint property of Baltimore city and county has become a law; and that the bill to take the sense of the people in relation to the sale of spirituous liquors was rejected by the Senate. There were in all 369 laws and 17 resolutions passed dur ing the session.?BaUimort Sun. Profitable Votaok.?The whale ship Saratoga, late ly arrived at New Bedford, (Mass.) has been absent thir ty-two months. The whole proceeds of the voyage amount ed to $128,000, exceeding that of any cargo ever arrived at that port. From Para.?The barque Peerless, Capt. Littlefleld, arrived at New York on Monday, in fifteen days from Para, having on board Mr. Consul Morris, Lady, and two children. The United States brig Dolphin, S. P. Lie, command ing, woe at Para homeward bound. All well on board. Lieut Wm. L. Herndon, of the United 8tates navy, from Peru, via the river Amaion, joined the Dolphin at Para, and is coming home in her in the oourse of three months. Lieut. Herndon has been for some years engag ed in a scientific exploration of the regions watered by the Amazon, and has just accomplished the task of floating down that great river from its sources to Para in a bark canoe, and almost entirely alone. The Peerless brings home a large collection of natural historical specimens gathered by Lievt. Herndon. Emigration to Muwaukbr.?The Milwaukee Sentinel of the 21st May says that the steamer Wisconsin arrived at that port on the previous evening, with a large freight and about three hundred passengers, making about 1,200 passenger! landed there within forty-eight hours. Wool.?The Leeeburg (Va.) Washingtonian states that Mr. Thomas Roobrs, of that county, slipped this spring seventy-nine pounds of wool from eight lambs, two of the fleeces weighing twelve pounds each. Job* D. Camprrll, Esq., of New York, who died a few days ago, was a mnn of large attainments in a cer tain department of learning. He was fond of the study of language, and made it the recreation of each hours as he oould spare from the pursuit of his profession, which was that of the law. He had a familiar acquaintance with fifteen language*, so far as relates to the written literature, among whieh were Hebrew and Arabic ; and in his list of modern languages he included the dialeet of one branch of our ancestors, that of Holland. His ac quirements were never ostentatiously displayed, being for use rather than for show. His personal character was extremely amisble, and his life most exemplary [Afar 1 ark Pott. Stram-Boilrr Expuosioh.?One of the boilers of the stationary engine at the plane on the Portage (Pa.) Rail road exploded on Wednesday last, (says toe Harrisbnrg Keystone,) separating near the middle, part of it being thrown a considerable distance down the plane, and part entirely through the stack on to the railroad in front of a store-house. The upper works of the engine were swept off by the explosion, the stack destroyed, the foundation , mae.h shattered, and three persona, Owen Reilly, ?? Purcell, and Felix Hanlin. killed. The engineer, Mr. Wtstfall, escaped with * slight contusion from a brick. THE MISSISSIPPI AND IT3 TRIBUTARIES. mis " Christian Advocate" of a late data eon klj interesting article on the " Topograph/ and h of the Mississippi Valley, accompanied by a uting the Mississippi and its numerous tribu te author was unable to ascertain precisely the which each stream was navigable; but he has liuself that the aggregate exceeds twenty tkoutand From this fact some idea may be formed of the vast influence which this stream and its tributaries are to exert upon the commerce and industry of the North American continent. It will be seen from the recapitula tion, which we subjoin, that the total length of " the Great River," with all its parts, is 51,000 miles. Rieert. ' Stilts. Mississippi and tributaries, not including those given below?aggregate length...... 14,386 Red and all tributaries?aggregate length 4,126 Arkansas.........do do 5,540 White do do \. 1,060 Ohio do do 10,760 Missouri do .....do 12,170 Illinois do do 1,270 Wisconsin .......do do.... 676 Mississippi, with all its inlets 50,546 Outlets or bayous (in all) 456 Total length of "The Great River," with all its parts 51,000 The New Orleans Chamber of Commerce have memo rialized Congress on the importance of removing the ex isting obstructions to commerce at the mouth of the Mis sissippi, and state that some idea may be formed of the immensity of the outward current of trade through it from the average annual quantity and value of the following articles, which are the chief but by no means the whole of the productions of the South and West which seek their market through this obstructed channel: Valut. 1,000,000 bales cotton .* $35,000,000 60,000 hogsheads tobacco: 4,600,000 50,000 hogsheads sugar 2,500,000 100,000 barrels molasses 900,000 600,000 barrels flour 2,400,000 875,000 barrels pork 4,600,000 59,000 hogsheads "bacon 3,600,000 1,150,000 kegs lard...;...... 4,200,000 52,000 barrels beef. 364,000 400,000 pigs lead 1,200,000 800,000 sacks corn 800,000 Making together the sum of $69,904,000 Add to this a voriety of other products, amounting by well authenticated records to $30,000,000, and an aggre gate of $90,000,000 will be shown to be the amount of this outward current of trade. They state also that within the last few weeks nearly forty ships have been aground on the bar, for various pe riods, from two days to eight weeks; some of which were compelled to throw portions of their cargo overboard, and others to discharge cargo into lighters, before they could be got through the channel, occasioning heavy expense te the goods, and great straining and injury, besides involv ing pecuniary losses which cannot be estimated at less than $500,000. They further state that the duties of importations on foreign productions brought into the country through this channel within the last year, and collected in the city of New Orleans, was $2,260,790; which, added to $700,000 calculated there, hut collected in the por^s of Cincinnati, j Louisville, and St. Louis, makes a total of nearly three millions of dollars of revenue which goes into the coffers of the Federal Governmept. They do not recommend the undertaking of any gigan tic and costly work with a view of permanently deepening the channel over the bar; but the opinion of almost all scientific men who have given the subject their consider ation authorizes the belief that an annual appropriation of from $100,000 to $150,000 will be sufficient to induce parties owning steamboats to contract to keep the chan nel open by constantly raking up the mud, so that the current of the river can diffuse and carry it forward into deeper water; and they believe that such parties would be willing to make this compensation contingent upon the successful result of their work. THE IRON INTEREST. The great iron works nt Boonton, New Jersey, were ad ?ertised for sale by the sheriff on the first of this month. These works have been in operation some twen ty-two years, and have paid out for labor an average of about $250,000 annually. The stockholders, we learn, have received but ten percent, in all on their investment; for in good times the money made was devoted to improv ing and extending the works, and in bad times they had none to divide. The establishment closes with all debts paid except what is owing to some of its own stockholders for advances. In reference to the stoppage of this extensive concern, which cannot longer continue business at a loss, the New York Tnbune remarks: " We know what Free Traders say of such an occur rence as this: ' The failure proves that these works ought never to have been constructed. Let them sink; if they fall, it is because we can get iron cheaper elsewhere.' But no, gentlemen ! cheaper in dollart, (which are mere signs,') we may ; cheaper in productt or actual values, we shall not. For much of the labor whereby these works produced iron will not be so profitably employed else where ; much of the capital embarked in that production is destroyed by this disaster; many of the products for which these iron works made a market can never be so well sold elsewhere. The farmer who sold his hay there for twelve dollars per too ma; now get as much for it la New York, but it will cost him half of it to bring it here and sell it; and so of many tilings besides. What com pensation for the loss of his home market to a seller of charcoal or cordwood at the iron works on Lake Superior would be a like market, at even double prioe, in Balti more, when treble the value of his product would not pay the expense of transporting it thither ?" The efforts which have been so industriously and so per severingly made by the adversaries of the protective policy, to induce the belief that an antagonism of interests exist ed between manufacturing and agricultural industry, have worked out so large an amount of mischief that we must believe the time for a wholesome reaction is at hand. The accidental occurrence of a great scarcity In Europe, aris ing from a failure of crops soon after the passage of the tariff act of I&4G, gave occasion to the advocates of that measure to take much glorification to themselres, and they pointed exultingly to the large foreign demand for our grain, breadstuffs, and provisions, as illustrative of the benefioial effects of the new tariff. The case present* a different aspect now?an aspect which must continue to grow worse and worse for the farmer, unless the act of 1846, among its other results, can be made to create an other famine across the water.?Boltimort American. THE CATHOLIC NATIONAL COUNCIL. Bishop Vaxdkvkldk, of the Diocese of Chicago, sailed from New York on Saturday for Liverpool, in the steam ship Atlantic, en route f?r Rome, whither he goes as bearer of the decrees of the recent Catholic National Couneil, held in Baltimore, to be laid before Pius the IX, whose sanction they must receive to give them validity. These decrees propose the creation of anew Archiepiscopal 9e? at San Francisco, in California; a See at Santa Fe, to supersede the present Vicarate; an Apostolic Vicarate to be formed of Eastern Florida, and another of the upper peninsula of Michigan. Sees are also to be erected at Burlington, in Vermont; Portland, In Maine; Brooklyn, on Long Island; Newark, in New Jersey; Erie, in Penn sylvania; Wilmington, in North Carolina; Covington, in Kentucky; Quincy, in Illinois; and Natchitoches, in Louisiana.?Svn. The American Mail Steamer Arctio, whose arrival at New York from Liverpool was announced yesterday, has again made a fine run across the Atlantic, having beaten the Cunard steamer Cambria three days in the delivery of her leliert,, which were only received one day in advance of those by the Arctio, which sailed from Liverpool four days after the Cambria. No pLAOtrs in Madura.?A letter has been received in town, dated Gibraltar, from Dr. F. J. Bukstrao, of Bos ton, who passed the winter in the island of Jamaica. Ia reference to a report that went the round of the papers some two months sinoe, that the plague had broken out in Madeira, he writes: " Madrira is the laet place in the world for the plague to make its appearanoe. They have never had the enolera there, notwithstanding the ten dency to bowel complaints on the island." Madeira, ac cording to Dr. B., is blessed with one of the moat agreea ble, balmy, and healthy climates that is known to exist, and is eminently adapted lo per sens subject to pulmonary complaints as ft winter residence.