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? NATIONAL INTELLIGENCES.
gsr : 1 1 =ss i.r-?_- i, iM I i "f ? 1 ? 1 < 1 1 * = TIIE CASE OF GENERAL GRATIOT. The case ofGeneral G*xtiot, who was dismissed from the Amy seme years age, caused much sympathy in this community, where he is so favorably kuown. His oase is again brought to our notioe by a Report of the Judicia ry Committee of the Senate, made at the close of the last session of Congress, which was ordered by that body to be printed, and a copy of which has just come into our hands. As this document will be interesting to all our army readers, as well as to the numerous friends of Gen. G. throughout the country, we copy it below entire. The committee, it will be eeeu, speak in high terms of the career of General Gratiot in the army for a period of nearly forty years, and virtually acquit him of the charges alleged against him in 1838, which were made the grounds for his summary dismissal from the army. They regret that they cannot go farther than this, "as it is not in their power to afford an adequate remedy by reconimeuding the passage of any law for the relief of the petitioner." It may not be in the power of the committee to afford re dress to this officer, whose career in the army for forty years they declare " may justly exoite the pride and ad miration of every Americua citizen but if a wrong has been done to him, us seems to be admitted, the power of remedy should exist somewhtre in the Government. The pleas of General Gratiot are, first, that the summary dis missal was the exercise of n power arbitrary and con trary to the true meaning and intent of the act of Con gress conveying it; aud, secondly, that the imputed de falcation did not exist. It is admitted by the committee that both these pleas ore reasonable, and should receive attention. Those who think so, it seems to us, should give that attention to those reasonable pleas, and if they prove well-founded, and that General Gratiot has been wrongfully deprived of his commission, and of the rights and benefits pertaining to ?t, then the wrong nhonld he repaired. Distinct from its individual bearing, it appears to us there is a i>rinciple involved in this case which should be settled. In the Skxate of the United States, August SI. Read, und, in concurrence therewith, ordered that the committee be discharged from the further consideration of the>ubjeot; that the injunction of secrecy be re moved from the roport, ami the documents submitted thyewith ; and that the same be printecf for the use of tU: Senate. Tfce Committee on the Judiciary, to whom was referred the memorial of General Charles Gratiot, after a care ful consideration thereof, ask leave to report : That the prayer of the petitioner is for the expression of the opinion of the Semite upon the legality of the pro ceedings in the dismissal of the petitioner from the army of the United States. The simple expression of such an opinion scarcely seems consistent with the duty of the Senate, or compatible with the public interest lor it would, very possibly, imply the necessity of ulterior proceedings not contemplated in the petition, and which it flpuld be manifestly improper to originate on this wise, or from this committee at all. As far, however, as the committee may be justified in pursu ing the course desired, they will proceed very cheerfully. The career of the petitioner in the army of the United States, during a long period of nearly forty years, is a matter of history that may justly excite the pride and ad miration of every American citizen. Brave in battle, he presided, for a long time, with distinguished honor and ability, at the head of one of the most difficult and ardu ous bureaus of the military department, and has left to the country lasting monuments of his skill and science in tho construction of various magnificent fortifications, both to exhibit her strength and to ensure her safety. While thus honorably and usefully employed in the pub lic service for 60 ninny years, he was constantly confided in by his country, and never abused her confidence in the disbursement of immense sums of money, and lived hon ored and respected by all classes of men, with no taint of suspicion attaching to his name. With n character so high to sustain him, the charge of malfeasance in office should be received with great cau tion by the people, and rigidly scrutinized by Congress, and no unjust influences, of any nature whatsoever, should be permitted to prevail in his case ; but if, unfortunate ly, such influences do obtain ground, then it is obviously the imperative duty of Congress to remove them; for no higher duty devolves upon the Federal Legislature than the protection of the honor of its military officers, of which it is, necessarily, to a very great extent, the chief cus todi&n. In the attainment of this object no obstacle whatever should b? allowed to interpose. Wherein legislation is deficient, it should be supplied, and all bar? of rales and regulations of the service should be removed; for nothing can be, so dear to the American officer as his honor, and nothing should be more assiduously guarded by the Ame rican people thnn that, for the honor of the soldiers of the republic is in no small measure the life and spirit of enlightened freedom. With these brief general observa tions, the committee will, ns briefly, revert to the case of the petitioner. * The case of General Charles Gratiot, who was the chief of the corps of engineers in the army of the United States, has been so elaborately discussed in every circle, and ho fully reported upon to Congress, that the history of the whole ca^e is familiar to every one. The alleged grievance which constitutes the cause of his dissatisfaction was the summary dismissal of the pe titioner from the army, in the year 1638, by the Presi dent of the United States?first, upon the plea that the power thus exerci?ed was arbitrary, and contrary to the true meaning and intent of the set of Congress conveying it; and, secondly, that a defalcation in the accounts of the petitioner, which was the cause assigned for the removal, did not and never did exist in truth. In support of his first plea the petitioner exhibts a maw of testimony, which is certainly entitled to be very calmly weighed and measured: and amongst the same is the opinion of the general commanding-in-chief, upon a parallel case, than which no authority can be higher. In support of the second plea, ke denies totally the truth of the charge of defalcation, and contends that he is not and never was indebted to tie United States for mo neys misused by him, and thai a just and legal adjust ment of his accounts will bring the United States in debt to him; that the withholding of the funds, upon tho de mand of the Secretary of War, was a measure of self-de fence, justified by the circumstances of the case, and that he was then and is now prepared for an equitable settle ment, which is his demand and desire. It seems to tJ?e committee that both of the pleas are reasonable, st>d should receive attention, urged, as they are, with tAe earnestness of conscious rectitude, by a gal lant soldier, who has acquired a right to be heard, from the blood he has spilt in battle. Further than this the committee regret they cannot go, as ii is not in their power to afford an adequate remedy by recommending the passage of any law for the relief of the petitioner; and they therefore ask leave to be dis charged from th? further consideration of the subject. WAsntJtoToii, July 12, 1862. Sir : In addition to the proofs of facta submitted in my memorial referred to your committee for examination, 1 respectfully beg leave, through you, to add thereto the accompanying printed brief of the ease, with farther evi dence as to the state of oppre**i*e duresi I was placed un der at the time the demand was made of an alleged bal- i ance as due by me to the United States. This evidence is contained in the letter of General Macomb, of the 24th January, 188U. The original was lost in the Department; but is certified to with reference to its existence, and the condition? upon which I might be allowed to pay the sum illegally asked. These proofs are found in the letter of the Secretary of War of the 2?Uh ultimo, and in the letter of Mr. Hanford, and certificate of the 8<1 of the same month. The character of Mr. Sanford can be established if needed by the Senators from Missouri, to whom he is well known. The proposals made through Gen. Macomb show that a close analogy exists between my case and that of Lieut. Roberts, for whose relief the Senate's com mittee reported a bill, asserting in their report " that the proceedings (in his case) were, in every respect, exceptionable." I am fully aware that the 8cnate | cannot, without the interposition of other branches of Government, restore me to my legal position in the i army; but certainly it is not barred, as a conser- | vative body, from the power of expressing their opinion j whetlier the grounds assumed by the President, in his or der of dismissal, were founded in truth, sustained by law, or protective of the guarantied rights of theet'/tefn direct ly affected by that act. Such an expression is all that 1 now ask. The printed report in the case of Lieutenant Roberts, adverted to above, is also enclosed for reference I take the liberty to enclose a copy of tho printed brief for each member of the committee,-und, if not incompati ble with propriety, may I ask the favor of you to hand them over, according to their respective address. 1 am, with much respect, sir, your moat obedient ser vant, C. GRATIOT. Hon. A. P. Butl*k, of the Senate. Review of Oen. Gratiot's ease, a* submitted to the Senate of the l/mted St a let. The act of the 81 st Jannary, 182.1, (memorial, p. 46,) gave authority only to the President to dismiss an officer from the public service when he failed to reader his ac- j counts lor settlement. Mr. Van Buren expressly so charges, " tliat having neglected to render his account* j in obedience to the law of January 81, 18-8, the said Gen. Charles Gratiot is hereby dismissed from the service of the United States." The right to dismiss under ihis law, is the iaihng to " render bis accounts for settlement.' Hut the accounts of Gen. Gratiot were regularly rendered; sucb ia Hie proof. This being the case, evideutly the authority of the President was wrongfully exercised, because the cir cumstances to authorize it did not exist; his accounts and vouchers had been regularly rendered to the proper audi tor, awaiting his examination. (See Fowler s statement, No. 10, p. 48, and llagner's, pp. 4'.*, 60.) It is denied that Gen. Gratiot could rightfully be con sidered a defaulter until his accounts were properly set tled at the Department; and, even when so ascertained, the President bad no legal control over him, <wliat wan derived under the law ot January -5, 1 - ? v- ^ni? rial, p. 44,) which authorized a stoppage of pay until U?e debt should be liquidated ; and this was done m the case under examination ; for, at the time of his dismissal, more than twelve thousand dollars of pay, &c. had been retain ed and credited to bis account. (See pp. 41 and 77.1 As regards the power to dismiss from service, the 1 re sident has no authority except under the law ot -,an""y 81 1823 ; even then he could do so for.no cause other than the law assigns, " failing to render his accounts. 1 hey were rendered, and hence the law failed to apply. documentary evidence shows: I 1 That at the time the dismissal took place, au indebt edness was alleged to the amount off 81,712, which Gen. Gratiot had been ordered, on the 28th November, 1 i8, (see p. 43,) to pay into the Treasury, as duz from htm to the United States. . . 2 That before suit was brought against him, viz. on the 80th January, 1889, this claim was reduced by admit ting some credits, for which he bad contended for years prior to the 28th November, 1888, to $29,-9?18, (Memo rial, p. 84,) a difference of $2,419.87 against the settle ment reported on by the Secretary of War, and this before the accounts were officially settled, consequently prior to suit for recovery being instituted. (Memorial, p. 41.) 3. That after suit was brought, another portion ol his claims, amounting to $6,034 (one-filtli of the amount first claimed from Gen. Gratiot) was abandoned by the Gov ernment, clearly showing that he was dismissed for not paying $81,712; whan it w? afterwards voluntarily a<l rnitted that the demand against him was erroneous and unjust, at least to the amount of $8,463.87 ; and that the President required him to pay into the treasury at least $8,4^3.87, which, as was afterwards admitted, was actu ally his own money. (Memorial, pp. 88-4.) In this state of affairs, Gen. Gratiot was peremptorily orderhd to pay the $31,712 ; not only to do this, but also to surrender his commission. It was a state of duress, cleat ly mani fested by the facts. General Macomb, who appears a mediator in this mat ter, says: "Some days before your dismissal, perhaps I five or six, you called on me. Afterwards I saw .lie ^'0" I retary, when he stated, I may say to you, that you couUl pay the balance due by you to the Government, and resign; or that you might pay the balance and be tried by a court martial ; and that if you did not pay tltc balance, you must be dismissed from the army. ' (Sec his letter and that of Mr. Sanford, enclosed.) There were three alternatives?J'ay resign, pay and be tried by a court, or be dismissed. The acceptance ol either proposition would have carried the impress of d':; hynor. Certainly with no expectation of a favorable re sult could an appeal to a court-martial bo sought, since the pay ing the sum demandeded would have been evidence of the imputed embezzlement. Gen. Gratiot, in this oon j dition of actual duress, could act in no_ other way than I yield to the determination the President might think pro per to adopt. , . If, under this coercive proposal, a resignation had been made, a restoration being asked for, would have been al lowed, for iu some eases the Senate has so ruled; but be tween such cases and the present, both being compulsory, no difference in /rinciple can be perceived. But Gen. Gratiot was not a defaulter. A claim arising under his brevet pay, and audited by the Secretary ol War, was sufficient to cover the alleged balance charged against him. (See Memorial, Lewis's and Eaton's depo sitions, pp. 85, 86, 87.) That paper was lost, or most . likely was taken from the files of the accounting officer, whereby its benefit was lost on the final trial. It is not I reasonable that an individual should be prejueiced by the accidental or designed loss of papers by bureau officei - ^ charged with the settlement of accounts. Had this paper i been recovered, it is confidently believed that no judgment would have been rendered against him: and yet, notwith standing, an arbitrary balancc was assumed to be due, i and payment demanded upon tirms and conditions most , humiliating. It has been said that President Van Buren urged that Gen. Gratiot should pay the balance, deduct ing tho amount which was claimed by him. Ihis is not true. The only propositions offered are those contained in the letter of Gen. Macomb above referred to. Be it conceded that the President can at pleasure dis miss a military officer, with or without reasons; yet, " h? undertakes to give a reason which turns out to be ill founded, untrue, the act ought to be regarded as void. <>flic?r? hold their commission?, as is on their face ex pressed, " during the pleasure of the President;" but this | cannot mean an arbitrary exercise of "pleasure. Indeed it is denied that the " pleasure of the President " can be exercised in any case made punishable by the articles "1 War. In all such, guilt being imputed, the accused is en titled to the benefit of a court-martial, n?id can be pun- I ished in no other way. Prerogative rights do not exist ! with us. The President can do nothing that is not autho- j rized by the constitution and laws. I Every citizen is bound to obey the laws : and every offi- i ccr who enters the military service is under an express obligation to regard the Rules and Articles of War. or he is amenable to their penalties, after the manner and on j the terms there presented. There can be n<> contract, ( where both engaging parties arc not bound. While, then, the officer, on entering the service, pledges himself strictly to regard the rules of War, the President engages that nisiiBACES and I'IXIkunksts shall not befall him, except in the mode and manner, and on the terms, which they prescribe.* But Congress has thought proper to proceed somewhat further, and, in their solicitude for the safely of the 1 rea sury, in the act of January 31, 1823, declared that the i President should havo power to dismiss an officer. But in what case ? When the officer " fails to rpnder his ac-1 counts." The account being rendered, (as was done in Gratiot's case,) the law ia stripped of its penalty ; *ad if ( punishment is to be sought for, on accouut ol public mo- ? neys not being paid over to the Treasury, it must be through a court-martial, on a charge of embezzlement and j unofficerlike conduct; or under the provisions of the act of January 26, 1828, which authorizes the sequestering of his pay until the default be liquidated. Such has been the practice since the enactment of this law, and to its j provisions many are now subjected. But three excep tions are to be met with, it is believed, to this rule since 1828?the one Gen', Gratiot, the other Lieut. Roberts <d ( the army, and Lieut. Hunter of the navy ; and in my hum- ; ble judgment, the pronunciamitJtto, in each ca*e, is illegal | and void, and should by the Senate be so declared. 1 he , legislative arm should ever be ready to resist every arbi trary exercise of power, and when practicable to correct it. Respectfully submitted. C. GRATIOT. W ashijwtoh, July 12, 1852. ? 0?n. (Iratiot wa# ttrirr pani*hed, first by stoppage of pay, | second, by d'mmiscal.for the same imputed crime, irithunt rruit j hif hi' prert, rontrary to the provisions of the constitution and j the law* flowing from it. FraCD upon tiii: Prussian Government.?In the month of July last we noticed the arrest of Theodore Pritman, Antoine Carvucci, and others, charged by the Consul Ge neral of the Prussian Government with having feloniously made and procured to be made copper plates in imitation of the genuine Prussian Loan Office Bill plates, and with j having forged, by taking impressions from these false , plates, % large number of Loan Office Bills of the deno initiation of one thaler each, and with having them in New York for purposes of fraud. The matter has, since that time, been under investigation in New York before 1 Justice Stuart. The defence claimed that, even admit ting the charge to be true, they had committed no viola tion of the laws of the United States. This point was the subject of close investigation by the magistrate, and he has come to the conclusion that not ouly is the oharge of forgery sustained by the evidence adduced, but the crime is one for which the parties may be made amenable to the | laws of the United States. He has therefore held the ac- i cused to bail to answer the charge. Statistics op Onn Fellowship.?From the official reports made to the Grand Lodge of the United States for theyear ending HOth of June last, we learn that there are in the United States two thousand seven hundred and twenty nine Lodges, with nearly two hundred thousand members. The revenue of the Order during the year is about one million two hundred thousand dollars, of which some five hundred and fifty thousand dollars wore disbursed for \ benevolent purposes, vi?. for the benefit of sick members, ' widowed families, or the schooling of orphan ohildren. Struck RY Limitrino.?The Demooratic pole erccted laat week in Jamaica (L. 1.) was struck by lightning I on Tuesday afternoon while the election was going on ip the hotel of Caleb Week, which is immediately in front of the pole. There were about two hundred persons assembled at the time, three of whom were injured, but not fatally. One man had his clothes torn from his per son, but escaped with slight injuries. FROM MEXICO. The New Orleans Picayune Las advices from the city of Mexico to the llHh ultimo, twelve Jays later than previous accounts. An extra session of Congress convened on the 15th. There were no attempts at revolution. The only important act passed by Congress during the four dqys was one abolishing the late arbitrary law against the press. Considerable excitement existed at Vera Cruz in coliseum ace of the receipt of intelligence thai a French squadron would soon arrive to support the French Minister in his demands for the payment of the French creditors; also, for the liberation of La j mont, the Frenchman, who, it will be remembered, j was cast into prison a short time since. A Spanish war vessel was likewise expected at San Francisco, i ( Mexico,) to enforce the payment of claims and debt# ! due the Spanish Government. The condition of the frontier States was very de plorable, and revolutionary attempts were of almost daily occurrence. We learn by Telegraphic advices from New Or leans that the steamer Pmolmtan, Com. Newton, with Judge CoNKUN, United States Minister to Mexico on board, arrived at Vera Cruz on the 1st instant, and left next day for Pensacola. Judge Conki.iN designed proceeding to the capital iu a few days. The Commissioners appointed by the President to examine the alleged site of the Gardiner mines reached Vera Cruz on the 1st instant in the steamer Fulton, and at once proceeded towards their desti nation via the city of Mexico and San Louis Potosi. Charges had been brought against the Minister of War by the Supreme Tribunal for not fulfilling the terms of the resolution passed by Congress, calling for information relative to the non-fulfil ment of the 11th article of the Treaty of Guada lupe, and inquiring whether any negotiations had been made with the United States to relieve them from the obligations of the treaty. A plot to assassinate President AursTA.had been frustrated by the vigilance of Senor Ramirez. The newspaper " El Siglo" says that the policy of the Administration will soon undergo a radical change. Yanessee has accepted the post of Secretary of Foreign Affairs tendered him by the Government. The Senate had rejected the proposition to grant an amnesty to the insurgents of Vera Cruz. A proposition had been introduced into Congress for a loan of $3,000,000; also, to increase the di rect contributions levied upon the States.' The revolutionary party in Guadalajara wore making great headway, and the rebellion wore a formidable aspect A plan had been offered to tranquillize the coun try by convoking a Convention to reform the Con stitution, and elect a new President. The recall of Santa Anna is also urged. IIraga was invited to head the movement, but he declined, as also did Gen. Velasquez, to whom the same proposition was made. Nothing new had transpired concerning the Tcliuantepec Treaty. Ramirez was preparing a document on the subject for publication. FROM OREGON. The advices from Oregon are to the Otli October. The Oregon Spectator furnishes the following in formation relative to the overland immigration : " We learn that fully one-half the immigrant* were yet , beyond the Dalles, and that many of them are wholly or uearlj- destitute of provisions. The late rains have doubt less increased their difficulties and their sufferings. Many I die from exposure and illness l>efore reaching the valley, while others get into it but to find a final resting place. | Kelief parties have been sent out from several points in | the Territory but the provisions thus far dispatched I are inadequate to meet the necessities, and further aid must be had." Governor Gaines has made a requisition upon the com mandant at Vancouver for Government stores and means of immediate transportation to relieve the immigrants. Col. W. W. Chapman, Capt. Z. C. Morton, and Stephen Coffin, on the 17th of September, made an examination of the bar of the Columbia fiver, ami fouud twelve feet and three inches water at low tide and at the very lowest stage of the river. They express it as their opinion that one hundred dollars would remove.all the obstructions which have keen heretofore so serious a hindrance to the navigation. FROM HAVANA. A Telegraphic despatch from New Orleans gives the subjoined particulars respecting the last visit of the steamer Crescent City to the port of Havana : " As the ship was approaching the port of Havana, on her pasilage from New York, a pilot came alongside and inquired if either Lieut. Porter or Win. Smith were on board. He was informed that Lieut. Porter was not, but Purser Smith was. The pilot then declined taking the ship into port. "Cuptain Davenport, who was in command of the ves sel, however, paid no attention to the remarks of the pilot, and, taking the responsibility upon himself, soon brought the ship to her anchorage. The captain of the port shortly afterwards came alongside, and, on being informed that Purser Smith was on board, ?tated that no communica tion with the shore would be allowed until he had,had an interview with the Captain General, and returned to' the vessel. "On his return he toldCapt. Davenport that the orders of the Captain General were that the mails and regular passengers for Havana would be allowed to land, but no one else would be permitted to come on shore. Captain Davenport thereupon exhibited to the captain of the port a letter, which he stated he had received from tbe Ame rican Consul, in which assurance was given him that the late difficulty had been fully settled at an irU-rriew be tween Judge Couklin, tbe 'American Minint' r, and the Captain General?the former having notified the Ameri can Consul to that effect, except that Lieut. Porter or Purser Smith would not be allowed to come on shore. " The captain of the port remarked to Capt. Davenport that it was a mistake ; that the difficulty was not settled, but that the mails and passengers this special time would be allowed to land. Should Purser Smith, however, re turn in the vessel on her way from New Orleans to New York, she would in no case be allowed communication with the shore. The captain of the port further stated that the Span ish Minister at Washington had written to the Captain? General, informing him that Purser Smith should posi tively not be permitted to go out in the steamer again to Havana. Capt. Davenport replied that Smith was a pri vate citiien of the United States, and could go where or when he pleased without any hindrance or interference of the United States Government. " The captain of the port then had another interview with the Captain-General, previous to which he gave the officers stationed to guard the vessel permission to land the passengers alongside. "('apt. Davenport, however, would not allow them to come on board until he had been apprized that the Ame rican Consul had been fully informed of the condition of affairs. The captain of the port here returned with the permission from the Captain-General for all the passen gers and officers of the vessel to land, with the exception of Purser Smith, who would not be allowed to come on shore under any consideration. He further reported that should he return in the vessel she would be immediately ordered off. "Capt. Davenport then wrote to the American Consul that the passengers might do as they pleased, but as Lieut. Porter had been forbidden to come on the Maid, I he himself would not land. "Judge Shahkkt, on receiving this letter, came on ^ board, and held a long conversation with Capt. Daven port, in the coursc of which tbe former said th*t he had received permission, in his transit, to land, when a por tion of the passengers went on shore, and othersre?ain- ' ed on board. " Mr. Morales, of the firm of Drake & Co., consignees ! of the Crescent City, then made his appearance and paid, by authority, that if Purser Smith would address a Utter to the Captain-General denying the oharges which had been brought against him, the difficulty would be settled. " To this Capt. Davenport replied that he would under i no circumstances permit any of the officers under him to address any communication npon the subject to the Cuban authorities, Lieut. Porter having on two different occa- ? sions disavowed the charges. "The Crescent City then run up her flag and took her departure for New Orleaiu." She loft rinvnna in the evening of the 3d instant, aud arrived at Sew Orleans on the Oth CALIFORNIA NEWS. The datefl from California are to the lGtli Octo ber. A meeting of merchants and buMueea men was held at Sau Francisco on the Oth, to take into consideration the best means for the relief of the commercial interest of the city from the serious dilemma in which it had been placed by the refusal to receive the iogoUt of the assay office in payment of duties at the cus. tola-house. Among the speakers was the Hon. Tuomah Butleb Kino, Collector and Assistant Treasurer of the port, who made the following explanation relative to the circumstances under which the action complaiuetl of had been taken: " The act of 18.j0 authorizes the employment of as gayero, and the establishment of assay offices to convert gold into ingots, on which shall be placed the degree of fineness and actual value. The result is that the assayers stamp each piece after weighiug and assaying it, that it ooutains $60 of coin of the United States. Thus they stamp these pieces, but if you look ou their faoes you will find them of various degrees of fineness, nor are they of the fineness of coin of the Uuited States. This value, however, it stumped upon them, and, as far as that goes, tliey are of the value of fifty dollars, but not of the fine ness of coin of the United States. This act cuts oft aud prevents the receipt of ingots stamped under the luw of LK50. It declares that the gold issued under the new act s^all be of the fineness of coin of the United States." I A committee of live was finally appointed to confer with the officers of the United States Government to make me arrangement of the matter. This committee report el at tn adjourned meeting that Mr. Kisu had consented conditionally to assume the responsibility of receiving the ii^jots inpayment of duties. Five trustees were then ap pointed to execute a bond to the Collector, securing the payment at his retirement from office of a sum of Ameri can, or other legal coin, equal to the amount of ingots re ceived by ldu. A memorial on the subject was then adopted, aiid ordered to be forwarded to the Treasury Department. MEETINO OF POSTMASTERS. A meeting of Postmasters of California was held at San Francisco on the 14th of October, at which about forty offices were represented. A memorial was adopted | which sets forth the expenses incident on conducting the post office department in California, and, after stating that no adequate provision has been made for meeting those expenses, concluded us follows : 44 Your memorialists, therefore, trusting to the justice of Congress, ask that provision be made bylaw for such increase of the salaries and allowances of Postmasters in California and Oregon as the exigencies of the public ser 1 vice and the peculiur state of affairs on the l'ucitic render indispensable. We are satisfied that your honorable body need only to be truly informed of the state of things here to be satisfied of the necessity of providing an adequate remedy for existing evils." THE MINES. The Savannah Union makes the following statement i relative to mining operations on American river: 44 There is no doubt of the utter failure already of | many, very many, of the tluming operations upou the | forks of the American river, which have been commenc ed the present season. In a few instances these failures ure attributable to bad management; ns, for example, j the incapability of flumes to contain the entire water of ' the stream, the insecure manner in which they have been constructed, and the reckless and uuwurrautable expen- , diture of money, &c. But from personal observation, as well as careful inquiry, we are compelled to chronicle the fact that the eurth in nfany of the claims drained is either j worthless or so poor as to fail of remunerating the miner for the expense Tie has incurred, and the labor lie has en- j dured in reaching the subaqueous dirt. " The truth, then, is apparent to our minds that the j greut portion of river beds laid bare the present season has thus far proved, to' say the least, but partially sue- | cessful. The instauces of good luck have obtained very ! general publicity, but the unfortunate enterprises have j seldom been recorded. " But, while wo regret to hear of so many disastrous result*, we are encouraged in the belief tliat, if the pre- 1 sent dry season should continue a ni"nth or six weeks ! longer, a large proportion of the companies which have been compelled to suspend operations will yet retrieve their fallen fortunes, after their flumes have been repair ed. Other companies, which, owing to the high water, have not yet got into the bed of the rivers, will succeed in completing their flumes and reaping a handsome re- | turn for their labor." The same paper furnishes a favorable exhibit of the j operations of the companies engaged in the vicinity of | Big Bar, on the middle fork of the American river. The Sonora Herald of October 0 says: 44 The miners have been quite excited in this neighborhood for some time past in oomu><|uence of finding so much more gold than they expected. The Kanaka company have got into the bed of the river, and l&st week they took out about 250 ounces. The Union company took out last week 140 1 ounces. This is the fifth week's dividend of this com- I pany. One small company on the New York bar has i shared twenty ounces .per mian for six days' work. The tunnel company in this neighborhood has just struck > the earth. They have been for sonte time past blasting through the solid rock, with the intention of draining the I earth above. This company claim the large red bluff op- | positc Stevens's Bar, from which there has been a large t quantity of coarse gold obtained. The wheel companies still continue to work, and make about seven dollars per duy to the hand."' From the Shasta, Rogue river, Humboldt, and Trinity regions the reports nre favorable. Provisions, however. were scarce and high. INDIAN AFFAIRS. Tho Alta California states that the Indian Affairs of the country are in a very tranquil condition, notwithstanding the threatening aspect which they presented in some parts of the interior a few weeks previous. The San Francisco Times furnishes the following items: \ " A party of men on Clear Creek, in Shasta county, re cently went out on Rn Indian hunt, and returned with a number of squaws and children. During their absence they killed fourteen Indians. Tho bodies of throe white meu, one woman, and three children were recently found beyon.l the Rutte, twelve miles from the immigrant trail leading to Yreka. They had evidently been butchered by the Indians. " Delegations from various Indian tribes have recently made their appearance at Wenverville, and atked thepri- ' vilege of making treaties with the white inhabitants. The hope is indulged that this movement will be produc tive of much good." THF. OVERLAND IMMIGRATION. The San Francisco Transcript of October 15 says: ?? For three weeks past the news received from the overland immigration has been very indefinite, giving no idea of the condition of affairs on the plains. It is pre- j sumable from this that nothing extraordinary has taken place, otherwise we should have received more complete accounts. It is generally believed that there will not be ! a great amount of distress among the emigrants this sea son, and certainly thus far this belief has been realized. We learn from a gentleman who has come through froin Salt Lake since the 20th of August, however, that l?e- 1 tween Salt Lake and the sink of the Humboldt there wore from five to aiz hundred wagons, all of which had short stocks of provisions, and unless relief was fnrni^hed j ihetn the suffering would be great. It is thought the supplies at the relief stations will be ample to prevent any very serious consequences." THE COAST SURVEY. The United States steamer Active, with the coast fur- , veying party on board, arrived at Ran Francisco on the 12th of October. The San Francisco Herald furnishes the following information relative to the progress cf the survey : ?'The astronomical and topographical party, under (iborgk Davidson, Esq., have nnished their work at Cape Flattery, and are now rn route for Cape Mendocino, where they expect to spend the winter. Good weather enabled them to make a very large series of observations. The topography, which, embraces the site for a lighthouse on Tatoosh island, hfts been executed by James S. Lawson, Esq. On account of the hostility of the Indians, the oc cupation of the last station has been effected at very con siderable risk, and nothing but the greatest forbearance and being constantly on the alert prevented an unfortunate collision." The emigration from California to Australia appears to be on the increase, and a first-class steamer is about to be employed in the trade. It is proposed that the vessel should stop at Tahiti on the way, where coal can be pro cured and fresh supplies of provisions and water. The Alta California thinks that the passage can be made in twenty-five days, which we should think is rather an un der-estimate. In the Rhode Island Houso of Representatives, a few days since, Ho*. R B. Cranston moved the repeal of the .Maine law of that State. The proposition was quashed > by the decisive vote of forty-nvic to fourtttn. MISSISSIPPI CREDIT. The vote of the people of Mississippi recognising direct taxation for the payment of the bonds of the State issued to the Planters' Hank, will have an important bearing on the fire million loan to the Union Bank, the repudiation of which brought the first stain of discredit on the State. This transaction was made a party question in the Mis sissippi elections for several years. The anti-bond-pay ing interest predominated, nnd the validity of the negoti ation thus formally denied by the people. The times, however, were then extremely unpropitioas for a direct tux, and the semblauce of justification for the act of re pudiation was eagerly sought for, and urged by designing demagogues, in the fact that no value was received by tfie State for the bonds. Between the managers of the Union Bank and Mr. Biddlk, of the Bank of the United States of Pennsylvania, the negotiations proved a deaii loss to the State. But it is due to tho real tax-paying and large property holding people of Mississippi to say that, notwithstanding the plausible excuse thus set up, aud the prevalence of individual embarrassment aud corporate bankruptcy at the time, a majority of their number were opposed to the course which was adopted. The wealthy planting coun ties bordering on the river, cuch as Adams, (including the city of Natchez,) Jefferson, Warren, (including Vicks burg,) Hinds, (including Jackson,) Claiborne, &c., uni formly voted to recognise the bonds. Upon these coun ties the burden of taxation was heavy; but this weighed litle against the sense of credit and honor of their sub stantial planters. They were made the unwilling partici- | pants in an act of State injustice, of which they were ever a->hamed. And this was brought about by a party issue, and by the most obnoxious appeals to the necessities and prejudices of the interior counties; some of which are non-producers of cotton, nnd others then recently settled in the Indian purchase in North Mississippi. The act of repudiation, it is now quite evident, has not been tnnde final by lapse of time. It htw ceased to be a party issue, however, aud, as in the case of the Planters' Bank loan, it is not unreasonable to anticipate that jus tice will be done, State credit aud honor restored, and the semi-annual and arrearages of interest in some regular | and mutually satisfactory way provided. This is render ed probable not only by the returning sense of what is I right and proper, but by the position of wealth now en joyed by means of the largest cotton interest in the world, and of commercial progress, which the people desire to enjoy through a participation in the great railway system of the country. The State, in this regard, is already i awakened, and her people will not be slow to discover the ; vital importance of standing right before the world of I credit and finance in their negotiations fur the preserva tion of their trunk lines of communication. It is possible that the city of New Orleans, aided by direct assessment i in some of the wealthy counties of Mississippi, might 1 finish the great northern road pointing to Nashville, but 1 the people have too much feeling on the subject to suffer such an enterprise to be thus carried ?ut without the par ticipation of the general voice and credit, and we much mistake their present temper if their influence, as well as the higher law of honor, is not brought to bear on the question of the Union bonds.?Utir York Timet. BANK MOVEMENT IX NEW YORK STATE. The Superintendent of the Bank Department at Albany has furnished the New York Times with an abstract of the last quarterly statements of the Banks of the State of New York. A comparison of the lending figures of this document with the corresponding report of 18-"? 1 may not be uninteresting, as skowing the progress of the Bank movement of the State, viz : Ordinary luang . . . To Directors . . . Ti> Broker* .... Slock* iiornw Hu<i Mortgage* Kcni .... Total Invcdtnu nt* . Ca*h iuw .... (lold and Silver . . llebtor liuik.^ . . . Other Bank fiotes. . Mi-cvllaneou.s . . . CqitMnlnT. "I Hf^ti-inlx-r. '5S. . $lOU.4rti.lXXt $1^4,146,000 6,:soj,ooo 1.074 000 4.267,ooo 3.858,0< 10 5,71??,ood rs583.fwH) 10,1 ?1,000 4,823,000 4.202,000 In-rcaM'. $11,084,000 4.019.000 794,000 671.000 404.01 >0 $132,188,000 *101,7*6,000 12,018,000 1J,?" 13,000 7.052,000 9,0'?4.000 8.720,000 13.611,000 2,"M?,<n>o 2,774.otio 1,201,000 3,623,000 $99,647,000 1,04* ,000 2,942,000 4.791.0t?; 202,000 Total (104,028^00 $202,890/100 ; $?>,592,00c Capital . . . ItupowitM . . . Oirrulation . . Creditor Banks. Urwrvnd PntU Miwtwllatwou*. September, '61. ivfitmbtt.'K. $57,751,000 $02,207^)00 62,8*7,009 I 27,A.4,000 , i 15,9S8.??00 i 9,409.000 1,2114,000 70*470^000 2.t,9:i5.(H)0 2*.79'i.OOO , 9,r.sj).ooo | 1?MJO,000 ' I nr re HIM $4,450,OOO 1S,149,0I>? 2.6M,000 12,80H,000 2*0.0li0 212, tWO Total $104,023,000 , $202.'W,000 | $lf,5?io,000 From this summary it will be seen that the gross in crease of movement has been $88,592,000, or about thirty-fire per cent., chiefly upon the increased individual depositee and distant bank balances left with the banks, and the loans and discounts based thereon. The expan sion of capital has been less than eight per cent., and of circulation something less than ten per cent., while the increase of specie means is orer forty per cent. The pro portion of specie to the aggregate circulation and indi vidual deposites payable on demand has advanced from eight and a half to nearly ten cents on the dollar; in other words, the banka of the State now hold $9,994,000 in gold and silver against $100,411,000- circulation and de posites. and in the corresponding quarter of 1861 held $7,052,000 in gold and silver against $79,581,000 circu lation and deposites. The Methodists in France have held their first annual conference at Nismes. The system of government is to be somewhat different in its operations than elsewhere. " Each district will name two representatives, who, with the President and Secretary of the Conference, will form the stationing oommittee." It is presumed the French Methodists haYe thus organized, under the advice of the Pkritish Conference. One thousand dollars is to be sent to their aid by the Metho<nst Missionary Board of this country. Advices from the Sandwich Islands to the 11th Sep tember show that the Exchequer was at a mournfully low ebb. It was proposed to raise a loan to meet a debt amounting to about $100,000, Rigorous seizures of liquor had again taken place, un der the strict revenue laws of the kingdom. The U. S. frigate St. Lawrence, Capt. Dklant, arrived at Honolulu on the 7th of September, in twelve days from ' San Francisco. The fever of which we have bad accounts by previous arrivals was subsiding at Honolulu, and most person* who were attacked by it had recovered, and were again able to attend to their duties. Elkctio* Fratds at Pittsm'RO.?Si* persons have been arrested at Pittsburg, (Pa.) charged with uttering forged naturalization papers. Henry M. Smith, a grocer, and Thomas 8cott, a member of the police committee, were held to bail on Saturday, in the sum of $2,000, to answer two charges each; and Henry Wilson, a black smith, in $1,000, on the charge of retaining possession of one of said papers in order to screen the person who uttered it. Prospects or Minnesota next Year,?The Indian title to the Sioux country h iving been extinguished, and the money being ready to remove the Indians: te their new quarters, no obstacle remains to retard the settle ment of that extensive and fertile portion of the Territory. Next year a flood of population from the States of the East and West, and from Europe, will flow in upon it all along the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, increasing two or three-fold the number of steamboats in the Min nesota trade. The margin of the Minnesota river will, before the next season oloses, become thickly settled, and its banks will show many flourishing towns, some two or three of which will soon be regarded as points of commer cial importance. The trade of that valley will centre at ' St. Paul ?St. 1'nul paprr The project of a railway in Broadway, to obviate the crowding of the street with omnibuses, continues to be the subject of warm and prolonged discussion in Sew York. A oommittee of the Board of Alderman has been appointed to consider the suhjeot, and at a lute meeting three offers were made for the privilege of laying the railroad and running the cars over it, viz: One offer of | two millions *f dollars, to be paid in ten yurly instal ments; another of a million and a half, to be paid in like ( instalments: and a third of a tax of one cent on every passenger carried, to be paid to the city. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. The Iale of Wight is to be additionally fortified. The State of Ohio was fifty years old on the day of the Presidential election. Large quantities of peach stones are imported into this I country from France. St. Paul s Cathedral, in London, stands upon two acred and sixteen perches of ground. The ice trade of the United States exceeds, in amount, the wine trade of Bordeaux. A play has been performed, lately, in Chatham street, called the " Earl of Poverty." By the best cultivation, two thousand five hundred wa | ter-melons may be produced upon one acre. Hie Odd Fellows of the United States spend more than half a million a year in aid of sick members, &c. The New York Fair, this year, yielded twenty.five thousand dollars ; number of visiters, two hundred thou jsand. The present Duke of Wellington has declined to be ad dressed by that title until after the funeral of his illustri ous parent. Lord de Blaquiere challenges all the world, " America excepted," to produce a yacht equal in speed to his famous yacht America. The armies of England, Prussia, Austria, Kussia, Ilau ' over, and Spain have been ordered to wear mourning for the Duke of Wellington. Bracket's marble group of the " Shipwrecked Mother 1 and Child" was purchased by the Boston Athenteum for the inadequate price of three thousand dollars. The Washington National Monument has attained a height Vt one hundred and eighteen feet, and may reach one hundred and thirty before the close of the season. I The editor of the Evening Post does not recollect an in > si ince of Mr. Webster's being called to order, or of his being out of order, during the whole of his parliamentary 1 life. Sir Michael Stuart, who, some years ago, presented a park to the people of (iroenock, Scotland, has recently ' given the town a plot of e!p;ht acres, us a plaee for rports j and exercises. It is computed that a Presidential electt-m. Inducing all expenditures, legitimate and Illegitimate, from the no ' initiation to the inauguration, costs not less than half a ; million of dollars per State. When Lord John Kussell was toasted at the late ban quet at Perth, the band struck up the air " Saw ye John ny Comin' ?" which caused uproarious merriment, in which Johnny himself heartily joined. In the library of the British Museum there are four hundred and seventy thousand volumes. The rate of in crease is seven thousand a year; so that in half a centu ry it will contain as many volumes as the Alexandrian. A specimen of the bread made f^>m bread fruit has been exhibited in the Boston Exchange. It is a thin, semi-transparent sheet, of a bright brown color, and in no respcct resembles any preparation of bread among us. | The idea of a statuo in honor of the Duke of Welling ton has already taken a definite shape in Manchester, where a first meeting has been held, and two thousand five hundred pounds subscribed by a few firms and in dividuals. The milkmen of Manchester, New Hampshire, have held a convention, and have decided to ask five cents per quart for milk during the ensuing winter. Of the eleven unsuccessful candidates for the Presiden cy since 1832 only two are now living, Messrs. Cass and Van Buren. Those who were voted for and never elected were, Crawford, Clay, Wirt, and Webster. Another un successful candidate may now be added to the list. Mr. Bergen, a Hoted agriculturist, says " that tuel of an excellent quality can be grown quicker, easier, and cheaper from peach stones than any other mode within his knowledge. From this source he thinks the settlers upon the Western prairies might furnish themselves with in three or four yeafi with a constant supply." The man accused of being the chief instigator of the late attempt to assassinate tlie Shah of Persia was pun ished thus: "He was seized, his body carefully drilled with a knife in p.irta which would not at the moment cause death; pieces of lighted candles were then intro duced into the holes, and, thus illuminated, carried iu procession through the bazaar, and finally conveyed to the town gates, and there cleft in twain like a fat sheep.' The Pope lias offered two premiums of three hundred dollars each tor two new masses, each accompanied by two motetts for the offertory. These masses are to be composed within ccrtnin canonical limits?one to have an integral, the other an optional organ accompaniment. The last column of the Great Exhibition building in Hyde Park has been prostrated, and the entire edifice is now demolished. The site is now covered with the debris of the erection, which is being rapidly removed to that of the new Crystal Palace at Sydenham. All that now re mains of the "World's Fair, which attracted upward#, of seven millions, of visiter*, the \arWorks of coal, the coal strata and gTanite columns, which were deposited outside the western extremity of the building. The con I jectures as to the vast amount of valuables deposited be neath the flooring have proved erroneous. The Vivaruit sayg; " The formation of the Avignon mil way having necessitated the removal of the mountain of Crussol, a mine was formed, and a few days ago was I charged with the enormous quantity of five anJ a half tons i of gunpowder. The explosion of this mass shook the earth for miles around, and a quantity of rock, of about twenty J five thousand square yards, was thrown down. It split in to blocks of different sizes?most of them of one hundred to three hundred cubic yards. This great engineering operation was effected without any accident." An English traveller who visited an Italian monastery gives the following account of his conversation with the Abbot: ?? The hospitable father asked a world of ques tions. and made many comments upon us and upon Eng land in general, for the benefit of his fellow-recluses. 4 England," said he, ? Is a very small place, although thick ? ly inhibited. It is altogether about the third part of the sixe of the city of Rome. The people are a sort of Chris tians, though not exactly so. Their priests and even their bishops marry, which is incomprehensible, and roost ridi ? culous. The whole place is divided into two equal parts by an arm of the sea, under which there is a great tunnel, so that it is all like one piece of dry land.?lhmt Journal. The aggregate snies of tobacco at the several ware houses at Louisville the present season has been 28.M1, hogsheads, which is more than doable the amount of last year, and for which more than a million and a quarter of dollars has been paid over to the planters. I The dwelling of Myron H. Cole, in Wellsburgh, Erie i county, (Pa.) took fire on Tuesday morning last, destroy ; ing the entire contents. Three of Mrs. Cole's children and one of James Flemming's were unable to escape, and were consumed by the devouring element. Pittsburgh seems in a bad way from the reckless use of concealed weapons. The Commercial Journal says scarce ly a day passes in which they are not called upon to re cord some case of murder or stabbing, from which preg nant source of evil the loss of life is increasing with ter rific rapidity. It ealls upon juries to allow no mawkish sensibility to stand in the way of their duty to the com munity. Col. John McRae's steam Baw-mill, at Wilmington, (N. C.) was destroyed by fire on Sunday, with a large quan tity of lumber. Lorn $10,000 on the mill, and no insu rance. Hon. Jamr* 0. Hott, one of the Justices of the Su preme Court for the Buffalo district of New York, has re signed his seat upon the beneh, and accepted the office of Secretary of the buffalo and New York City Railroad, for which he is to receive a salary of $4,000 a year. The Newburyport Herald rem irks that the carpenters of Maine are building ships so much cheaper than they do at New York and elsewhere, that the shipyards of New York and some other places have been comparatively idle, ex cept for the construction of steamships. The city register of Boston last week issued one hun dred marriage certificates, being the largest number ever given in the same period. This indicates that times are good and Thanksgiving approaching. The Catskill mountains were quite covered with snow on Saturday last, which was plainly visible from Catskill, New York. A new and dangerous counterfeit ten dollar note, pur porting to be issued by the Merchants' Bank of Boston, ha? appeared. One town in Massachusetts raised 14,000 barrels of apples this year, which sold for an average of two dol lar?, making the snug little sum of $28,000 to a few per sons, who have learned that such small business as grow ing and selling apples will produce a sure income. The ladies are becoming decidedly /cut in Muskingum and Richland counties, (Ohio.) Eight ladies at the first and five at the last county fairs entered as competitor'' in horsemanship. In Mansfield two married and three sin gle ladies contested for the premium ; two of the latter, a Miss Hale and a Miss Calbertson, on unbroken three year old colts. The Cincinnati Qaiettesu/ge-tstW premiums r?n babies would bo more appropriate at f.i >rs designed Tor the promotion of domestic manufactures. The amouut collected in New Orleans at tlie jk>Us in the recent election, towards the erection of Uie Monumctt to Washington, was $1,100.