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NOTES ON NEW BOOKS. MeIN LkBEN ITKD WlRKEN IN UNGAEN IN DEN JaHRKN, 1848 cni> 184U. Von Autuub Uoruei. Leipzig: 1852. [My Life and Operations in Hungary, during the yearn 1848and 1849. My Aktiii kUobcki. 'J vols. Leipsic: 1852.] > Tho Hungarian rebellion has becomo a historic event ;-and, if the time has not yet fully arrived for its grave and impartial summing up by a Thucy-' dides, it at leant becomes us provisionally to group together, classify, and arrange the annals of its , prominent actors; for it is from such biographies as those, which the French call u Memoirs to serve the cause of History," that we are often enabled to ar-1 rive at the most accurate general results ; and it is thus also that we can best impart to our historic : pictures a graphic outline, borrowing as we do from j each historic character those salient features which distinguish him from his associates and contempo raries. That Arthur Gorgei ?or Goergey, as his name is commonly Anglicised) is one of the nuin ber who have indelibly inscribed their names on the page which records the recent history of Hungary is known to us all; but in what character he is to be regarded, whether as tho patriot leader of his country's arms, forced to succumb before the stronger legions of the Austriau eagle and the Russian bear, or as the traitor that deserves au infamy^is much greater than Arnold's as his treason was wore suc cessful, is still involved in controversy, and its deci sion must perhaps be left in abeyance for a remoter I and therefore more impartial period: at present the 1 whole subject has become so complicated with per sonal and extraneous issues that it is absolutely im possible, especially from a point of observation so remote u6 that which wc occupy, to pronounce defi nitively in tho premises. But in so far, however, a* thono volumes throw light on the question, and illustrate the stirring scenes in which the writer was a foremost actor, they contribute an element to the I history of the period on which they treat that de- i mands to be considered and appreciated. The military genius of Gorgei has, we believe, I never been contested by even his most embittered ! enemies and fiercest detractors; but, after reading the volumes before us, one is left in doubt whether j he wields a sharper pen or sword, and we arc not i sure that he does not display as much skill in de scribing a battle as he did in fighting it. His bat tie scenes arc well-nigh Homeric in their vividness : of representation and minuteness of individual ad venture ; but we are constrained to observe that he always describes a battle with a sort of professional; nonchalance, seeming to forget entirely in the scien tific criticism of a campaign all consideration of its bearing and influence on the political fortunes of his , country. He writes too much, perhaps, in the spirit i of one who has made war his trade, and who regards the movement*! of armies on the field of battle as j nothing more than a game of chess, played on a large scale, and with nothing more at stake than the re putation of the players. In the spring of 1848, while Gorgei was living I in rustic retirement on the lauded estate of a rela-; tive, he was roused from his inactivity by the pro clamation of the Batthyanyi ministry declaring " the fatherland to be in danger." Throwing aside the retort and the crucible, with which, in the study of chemistry, he had beguiled the " piping times of peace," he at once resumed his sword and enrolled himself iu the ranks of the first Honvld battalion that was enlisted for the approaching war, and, hav ing already served as a lieutenant in the " imperial army of Austria," he was at his entrance advanced to the post of captain, from which he was soon pro moted to the rank of major. But, before proceed- j ing to a narrative of his military operations, it be-, comes us to state the relations which the young sol-1 dier then held to the political questions of the day.! The month of March brought for the whole of Hungary, according to the principles of the old con- j stitution, an independent responsible Ministry. This i Ministry was constituted an Executive authority no j more for Hungary proper than for all the provinces j united under the Hungarian crown, without distinc tion of nationality in their inhabitants. This Minis-' moreover, had the sanction of his Majesty the 1 Emperor of Austria, King Ferdinand V. of Hun gary, and it was at its summons that be entered the ranks of the newly-appointed Hungarian troops. To the support of this constitution, whose maintenance was the first duty of the Ministry, all the imperial troops in Hungary had been sworn, and the newly-, organised army took the same oath. The object proposed by the constitution of this new military force was to quell an insurrection of certain Hunga rian provinces peopled by other than the Magyar nw-c. The leader of this revolt, supposed to have , been instigated by the Austrian court, was the Baa Jellachich. The special function assigned to Giirgei by the Hungarian Premier was to prevent the union of Jellachich with the Austrian General Roth ; for which purpose he was further invested with the chief command of the southern division of the Hun garian militia. While conducting the operations in this quarter he arrests, as suspected of treasonable confederacy witlt the enemy, the Counts Paul and Eugene Zichy. In the memoirs before us we arc favored with a most circumstantial account of the trial by court-martial, which, as is well known, re sulted in the capital sentence of the latter. Giirgei avows that he was condemned through his agency in part, and that he entirely approved the finding of the court; and, if his ex parte statement of the case be true, the execution of the unfortunate Count was certainly justifiable on higher grounds than as a victim sacrificed to appease the popular clamor for his death. His complicity with the enemy seems to have been clearly aud undeniably established, while, by his faltering course before his judges, his manifest falsifications and self-contradictions, he forfeits in a great degree the sympathy that other wise attaches to his untimely and ignoble end. The martial valor and military appointments of the Hungarian militia seem to have b?-en about on a par : the new recruits never stood their ground against the enemy unless they had been marched un til they were too tired to run away, while their arms consisted of scythes, interspersed with a very few rusty old firelocks, which " went off" about as often vial affection, says Giirgei, for cannons ; they would tug the " big guns" most enthusiastically until they had almost come up with the enemy: on the first sight of the enemy, however, he adds, yon might safely reckon that, in ninety-nine ca*e? out of a hun dred, the artillerists, somewhat exhausted, it is true, but otherwise in good condition, would start straight way for their homes?without the cannon-*. Tbc first military movements of Giirgei were di rected by Gen. Percxel, who seems to have been a singular compound of ignorance, ineffi< iency, and presumption. As inijrht have been expected, th< imp ttient an<l aspiring spirit of Giirgei soon grew restive under the control of such a commander, and accordingly we find iiim complaining of his superior officer in a letter to the " National Safety Commit tee," charging him with the grossest dereliction of military duty, and severely animadverting on his military dispositions. "Our eaase is too holy," he add?, " to admit of etiquette in assorting the truth, even when its assertion may expos* me to the impu tation of a sneaking jealousy." This letter very naturally gave ri?<; to a pcr.-oua! altercation between the parties, in which Percasel sunk at oaoc his digr nity, discretion, ami reputation for p rsoual valor. Giirgei was removed by the Government from any farther connexion with Peftwl's division, and ad vanced to the rank of Honvld Major At this pe riod he seems to hate enjoyed the unlimited conft* dcncc of Kossuth and his associates; for after his recall from Perczol's army wc find l?im dispatched by tho Government as a confidential emissary to souud the opinions ami intentions of (icu. Uoga, whose bluudering management hail exposed him o the suspicion of incompetency, or even of a treason able eoufedo racy with the enemy. On arriving a Moga's headquarter., the General immediately ap-1 pointed him to the command of the adyanoe-guard of the army, and in this capacity he participated in the battle of Sell wee tat, which ensued soon after- I wards. Kpssuth was present during the engage ment. After stating the various orders and disposi- , tions of the commander-in-chief, Gorgei comments with severity upon their inexpediency: his cnti cisms, it seems, were not reserved until the issue had converted them into a useless after-wisdom; tor, | during the heat of the engagement, he pointed out , to his commander the impolicy of the combinations which had been ordered, lie was uisnnssed with j the words, " do and do in silence what I bid you. The result was a total defeat of the Hungarians; and, of the live thousand volunteers whose valor and enthusiasm had been so highly raised by Kossuth s ; eloquent appeal before battle, " only one remained j at his post after a short cannonade of the eneni)i, j and all his [my] staff forsook him [mc] and fled except his [my] young brother, a Lieutenant ot Hussars." . , Moga, being disabled by a fall from his horse, re commended Gorgei as his successor in the command of the defeated army. The nomination was con firmed by Kossuth. In this connexion Gorgei says: " Tho Constitution of Hungary was worth a bloody struggle: this fact the nation hail acknowledged, and re solved unanimously to maintain. Its leader was the con fidence-man,' Kossuth. Himself no soldier, he under valued the worth of the soldier, and believed that the thunder of the enemy's batteries could be silenced fort i with by the simple war-cry of a noisy rabble. Soldiers? and 1 among them?had warned him against any such self-deception, but the warning was disregarded. At Schwectat, however, he paid dear for his experience ; ani in giving to me the command of the army, 1 received it s a token and pledge that he had forever sacrificed his anti military reveries to the welfare of his country: but 1 soon found I had been mistaken in se interpreting it. On the 11th of November, 1848, just eleven days since Gorgei had assumed tho chief command, he sketched and submitted to the Government a plan of general operations, both military aud civil, which seems to have been judiciously devised ; but, as it included a regular and disciplined army as an indispensable auxiliary to the successful prosecution of the war, it was not accepted by Kossuth, who seems to have had a horror of " standing armies," which, however commendable in times of peace, was not quite so timely or rational in the midst of a war which could be successful only on the condition ot being protracted. No trait of Gen. Giirgei's was, from the first, more often exhibited than the out spoken plainness with which he never failed to ex press his disapprobation of men and measures, and especially the men composing the National Safety Committee, of which Kossuth was the leader, anil the programme of measures which they from time to time adopted. 1 he question naturally arises at once, why was he not displaced from the supreme command ot the principal division of the national army ? To this querv Gorgei answers that all the skilful and experienced officers renounced the dan gerous honor, while the others who coveted it pos sessed the confidence of the Government to a less degree than even himself. A still more pertinent question he thinks would be, why did he, despite so many controversies with the civil authorities, still remain at the head of the army ? To this he re plies that "great as were the hindrances piled up in his way by the head, body, aud tail ot the Safety-Committee, they were not enough to dispirit him." At this time he knew nothing of Kossuth's republican tendencies; neither, he suspects, did Kossuth at this period contemplate the measures which five months later he pronounced indispensa ble to the salvation of the country. Gorgei was fighting for the old constitution of Hungary, which Croats, and Sclave?, and \V allachiaus, aud Austria itself had combined to overthrow; and, it nothing else were gained by the war than a weakening of that servile spirit ot subjection which ages of tyranny had wrought in the national character of the manse#, he considered an end would have been gained quite sufficient to compensate for all the losses and blood shed incident to the struggle for their constitutional rights. That Ac ever aspired to the dictatorship, he denies, aud shows the impossibility of such an ambition. In the autobiography before us we find, at this stage of the narrative, the following letter, which, though it has no necessary connexion with our sketch, we translate, as being, in our opinion, quite characteristic of the man with his epaulets off : My Dia* Fauvn: When once I am gathered to the fathers, if your hand is not yet in the mould, you must sit down and write the History of Don Quixote Junior ; in me you will find a hero of the romance ready made to your hand. Whoever hasn't seen a ?' Revolutionary Army," let him make a pilgrimage to my camp. Here's a General in-Chief for you, with staff and suite?not a man of them over forty. Here are soldiers for you, too ; but the true soldier among them blushes for his comrades. To command, means here to make one's self ridiculous. A censure is decried as a presumption; a punishment, as a tyranny. Therefore, thought I, in my simplicity, better do"something than nothing: and accordingly I run my ragamuffins to the devil, that If, when I don't have em shot. The cholera helps me some, and if the enemy would only do his duty, we would soon play the farce out. But 1 don't understand the chap. He is at least as 1 strong again as I am; his troops are well-armed and well dressed ; and yet he won't fight. I wonder if this is mother-wit in him, and he has got sense enough to hope to wear us out by inactivity 1 1 don't l>elieve it, andean smell the rat: in good Gorman, he's afraid. Ho much the better for us! All his patrols inquire only after I Hussars: my first task must be to make him inquire alao after the Honveds. These fellows won't do any thing unless they have a cannon in each pocket, and a Hussar right and left, to boot. But only have patience! The fever lasts yet; indeed the Hungarian type is generally pretty lasting?till about spring. 1 hope ; that i?, if we , live to see it. Then rejoice! thou trinity! Windisch- j graft*, Jellachich, Hurban'.* _ I I hare cannons u*qtt* ad nauseam. I wrote hossutn | only to day not to send me any more. I lon't truat the volunteers: they run good-humoredly aw-iy and leave me j sticking in the mud. But percnssion-caps 1 have none. | \ funny thing it will be! Is there then no supply of Belgian cm?s with you 1 Don't you think, after all, that stone-castle guns would be -till better than percussion cap-guns?wilhoBt percuaeion-caps ? *hen my officers apply far caps my stereotype answer is: " Glad I ve got none; that's no way to fight; charge bayonets . Lord ! what long faces! * ? ? Yours, &c. AUTHl'lt OoRliEI. A fuw day^ after the date of thin letter he fell in with an Austrian division under Lieutenant-Field ! Marshal Simuaich, who, after considerable ma nceuvring, seemed inclined to give battle, but made only a feeble rc-istance, and noon took to flight: the advantage thus gained proved highly beneficial to the month of (iiirgei's troop, and " we owed it entirely," lie add*, " to the happy circumstance ! that the enemy's commander thia time had a little too much plu< k for a simple reconnoiseance, but not quite enoupli for a serious engagement." We may say, in this connexion, that throughout the whole work < Iiir^r i feel* constrained to attribute the suc I oesses of tho Hungarians when pitted against the I Austrian*- < hitfly to the binnders of the imperial commanders, from WindiscbgTaetz to Haynau. I After reading his strictures on the " thick i^noran c" | of the Austrian ticnerals-in-Chicf, one is not sur prised that hif Majesty Francis Joacph should have prohibited the circulation in his dominions of a book which reflect?? so little honor on the Austrian service. 1 It is not our intention to follow the hintory of the 1 war, battle by lmttle. We propose rather to trace in the narn?ti\e before u* the under-current* by which the political and military movements were separately controlled and ?waycd in opposite direc tions ; for in this want of unity between the anny * Thi* Hurban *M a Calvini-t preacher, who, by hi* lt> ! oeudiarv harangues, iocited tbeCroaU against the M?g>ar?. and the civil authority is doubtless to bo found the proximate cause of the disastrous issue which was so rapidly precipitated on the nation, after their hopes had been so highly raised by the magnificent proclamations of Gov. Kossnth. To do so we must first premise a few facts in the history of Hungary. The Magyars and the races associated with them in the Hungarian kingdom remained independent until I52t? A. 1)., when they put themselves under the protection of Austria, clotting Ferdinand as king, but reserving to themselves the rights of an inde pendent sovereignty in a national constitution, of which we need only say that it embodied most of the worst features of feudalism. In 1687 the succes sion, from being elective, was made hereditary in the house of llapsburg ; the monarch, however, be ing by his coronation oath and diploma of inaugura tion as kiug still bound to observe and protect the constitution of the land. Tn 1723, according t>> a provision of the Pragmatic Sanction, the succession was made hereditary in the female as well as in the male liue of the Hapsburg dynasty?a provision which enured, as our readers all remember, to the special benefit of Maria Theresa, when, an exile from the imperial throne bequeathed to her by herfatler, Charles VI, she fled to Hungary in quest of aid by which to maintain her claims against the iniquitous aggressions of Frederick II. of Prussia, the assump tions of the Elector of Bavaria, and the machina tions of France. That was a dark day for Austria, but a proud one for Hungary, when the fugitive empress, arrayed in the weeds ot mourning, and with her infant son in her arms, appeared before the as sembled Diet of Hungarian nobles to recite in the old Latin tongue the story of her wrongs and plead the justice of her cause?as it proved before men of wil ling hearts and ready hands; for scarcely had the echos of her voice died away in the hall before the whole conclave rose from their seats and shouted as with one voice, " Moriamur pro reyc nostro, Marin Th? reta"?Let us die for our king, Maria Theresa. We cite this passage in the history of Hungary for other reasons than the dramatic interest which has attracted alike the pen of the historian and the pencil of the painter. Observe the old feudal pride which breathes in the " Moriamur pro retje nostra" of that congregated chivalry ; they could not brook to be governed by a queen, unless, forsooth, they were allowed to call her " their Icing." This feudal prejudice was gratified, and Maria Theresa was re stored to the imperial throne by the swords of her Hungarian subjects. But we return from this di gression. This independent constitution was long jealously guarded by Hungary, and as industriously violated by Austria. To the attentive observer it is apparent that the centralizing influence of the Aulic Court was destined soon to absorb this dis tinct constitutional government and merge it in the category of the " hereditary States," when sudden ly the French Revolution of 1848 burst forth and *hed a spirit of giddiness and revolt over the whole of Europe. Hungary caught the popular infection, and re-asserted all the rights of her old constitution, and introduced, besides, certain reforms, as well so cial as political, which were conceded by the Empe ror Ferdinand, who, having more than he could manage in the city pf Vienna, was disposed, for the nonce, to be in pliant mood to his Hungarian sub jects. The counsels of Hungary at this period were swayed by the more moderate and sagacious of her reforming politicians, by men like Louis Batthyanyi, Peak, Sz?ch^nyi,and Wesselenyi, who subsequently were driven from power by the rash measures of Kossuth and his compeers. But when Francis Joseph succeeded to the throne, the Viennese hav ing been brought to terms by Windischgraetz, he determined to revoke the franchises, in granting which his predecessor had yielded only to the pressure of external circumstances. To facilitate this end, disfwnsions were secretly stirred up by I Austrian emissaries between the various races com-1 posing the Hungarian kingdom : the Croats and i Selaves were thus arrayed against the Magyars, j which last, it mustj be admitted, had recently given ! the two former abundant cause for increasing that suspicion and dislike which had before rendered ! their union any thing but cordial. The house thus divided aguiust itself would, it was hoped, soon topple to its fall. But the Magyars were resolved ; to maintain the old Hungarian constitution, whether ' against treason at home or hostility at Vienna, and j it was for the maintenance of this constitution that | Gorgei and his compatriots drew their swords. We | let Gorgei speak : " The Hungarian struggle, though primarily occasion- , ed by the systematic instigations of Austria, sowing 'lis cord among the various nationalities, and though directly opposed to the officially proclaimed doctrine of a consoli dated Austria, was nevertheless in its aims aa<J spirit | purely constitutional and monarchical; and herein con sisted its strength. All the agitation which preceded the resort to arms had been conducted in the ' name of the King,' and eren the thought of opposing the Hapsburg dynasty was of exotic growth." He then proceeds to state that the predilections ( and prejudices of the people were all in favor of " dynastic views," and that in the army especially j the monarchical sentiment was almost universal. The bare suspicion that Kossuth might ultimately j aim at some extra-constitutional objects caused many officers to throw up their commissions at once. They ? did not want a republic until the people were re publican. To guard against all misconception on ' this point, Gnrgei issued a u proclamation of the army," distinctly stating the principles for which, and for which only, it would continue the contest; it commences a* follows : " In order to preserve its position on a strictly legal basis, amid the political fluctuations to whieh oar poor j fatherland seems about to become a prey, the army on j the upper Donau publishes the following declaration : " ' 1. The division of the army on the upper Donau re mains true to its oath to contend earnestly for the main tenance of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Hungary, sanctioned by King Ferdinand V. ?? *2. With equal decision, however, this division will ' oppose all those who, by untimely republican manwurrings in the bosom of the land, would seek to overthrow the constitutional kingdom,"' &c. Tins proclamation was issued early in the oontest, and at Mice revealed the schism between the arm and the head of the Hungarian revolt. The army distrusted the Government, and the Government could not rclv on the army. In order if ptmsiblc to neutralize this recusancy of the army, Gtirgci was superseded by Dombinski, a Pole, who ansnmed the chief command of all the Hungarian forces. Dcmbinaki was completely in the interest of the Government, but failed most signally to wiu the confidence of the array. He i seems indeed to have been a mere pretender to mili tary science, and exposed himself to the ridicule j and contempt of his subalterns. The army refused I to obey him, and Kossuth was compelled to revoke | ; hi* appointment as generalissimo. tin the 4th March, 1849, Austria threw off the mask entirely, and declared Hungary in a state of ; revolt, repealing the new constitution of 1H48, and j abolishing the old franchises of the kingdom. It was resolved to subjugate her, and hold her there after as a conquered province. On the 14th of I April, Kossuth retaliated by passing through the Hungarian l)iet a I>eclaration of Independence. (liirg'M does not contest the jutlice of this declara tion after all that had occurred during the progress of the war, but he disputed at the time its expodi j ency?first, on general grounds, because the people were not prepared for republican institutions; and, , iMWOadiy, because such a declaration, by departing from the strictly defensive and constitutional posi ?tion which the nation had thus far occupied, afforded to Kussia a pretext for her armed intervention to prevent the further progress of republican principles, and thus to crush at once the constitutional existence of the nation. Kossuth and his partisans paid no heed to theM protestations, and at a stormy session t of less than a quorum of tho IHet, held in tlM ('al ! rinistic church at Dcbreciin. he succeeded in forcing ; through the "saving measure/' as he entitled it. I Just iour months from the date of its passage, the rebellion was ended by the surrender at Vilagos, and the last spark of Hungarian liberty quenched in blood, not of the battle-held, but of the scaffold. Yet ftorgei did not forsake his standard after the " Declaration." He even accepted the office of " Secretary of War " under Governor Kossuth, but he did so only the bettor to concert measures in co operation with the "peace party" for the speedy repeal of the premature manifesto, and for the re assumption of the legal attitude iu which the nation had eutered the content. The execution of these designs, however, was frustrated by the " barbarities and military murders" of Haynau, which, by ex I asperating the people, precluded the active and pro ! minent labors of the " peace party " in behalf of a 1 return to wiser counsels and more feasible projects, i On the 22d of June intelligence was received of | the irruption of the Russians. The indignant in ! tervention of France, England, Turkey, and Ame ; rica, which Kossuth had promised the nation in ! case Russia should interfere in the struggle between J Hungary and Austria, did not become un fait accom pli ; and it was discovered, when too late, that the proclamation of April 14th had conjured up the ghost of Hungary's last hour; and now, alas! no magic word was found by which this ghost could be laid. As a last effort, Giirgei recommended to J " strike the Austrians, blow on blow," while the Russians were yet in the distance; but, instead of following this advice, a temporizing policy was pur sued, which frittered away the time and forces of the nation in fruitless endeavors. Giirgci again placed himself at the head of the army; but it was too late to striko an effective blow against the Aus trians, and he was ordered to hold the Russians iu check, while Dembinski,Bem, and others continued hostilities with the former. But when the last hope of further prolonging the struggle was ended by the de feat of Dembinski at Temesvar, Giirgei summoned Kossuth to abdicate, accordiug to a mutual under stmding between them in case of Dembinski's defeat, iu order no longer to wage a bootless contest, and to save the unnecessary effusion of blood. Kossuth com plied, but in his farewell proclamation to the nation still spoke of the power which Giirgei had of - " sav ing the national existence, and securing the future welfare of the fatherland." How this was to be done, Giirgei observes, he was careful not to state, and the rapidity of his flight towards Turkey proved that he did not think its consummation ever proba ble. It was only designed, he argues, to make him [Giirgei] the scape-goat of his own [Kossuth's] sins, and the design has been to some extent crowncd with success. That Giirgei was a traitor can be believed by no one after reading the narrative before us. The truth of his statement is guarantied by concurrent tacts, conclusive arguments, and living references, lie is conscious of the cloud that hangs over his name, by reason of that singular favoritism which lias uxempted him from the bloody retribution visited on so many of his companions in arms; a favoritism as inexplicable to him as to others, but which cer tainly has not proceeded from Austrian generosity, for the disposition of the Austrians, from Francis Joseph to Field-Marshal Haynau, is shown to be that of implacable hatred. His exceptional treatment was most likely due to the intercession of their Russian allies, among whom his soldierly con duct appears (from some letters that passed between Count Rudiger and himself) to have elicited that admiration which one brave man entertains for another. There has been a great deal of very stomachful indignation and patriotic invective expended in our oountry on the putative treason of Gtirgei by men who allowed their zeal to get the better of their knowledge. The fulsome adulation which was si multaneously heaped upon the " illustrious exile" who has but recently left our shores employed the dark background of his "execrable treachery" as a proper foil on which to exhibit the sclf-sacrificing patriotism and sagacious statesmanship of the " great Magyar." The silence with which Giirgei rested under such aspersious both in Europe and our own country was often quoted as evidence of his guilt and as a tacit acknowledgment that the charges could not be confuted. That silence he has now broken ; and while we may not accept all his con clusions as to men and things, or draw with him all his inference*, yet no man can lay down these vol umes without feeling that their author has more than defended himself from the imputations which have been so gratuitously tacked on his character and reputation. We say he has more than defended himself: he assumes the offensive ; and wc greatly err if the nimbus in which M. Kossuth has been canonized by our political swaddlers be not consid erably rarified by the new light which these volumes throw upon him. To M. Pulszky, to certain ardent jnurnalifttfl, aixl to a few equally ardent clcrgyinen, noted for the " pulpit-drum ecclesiastic," he will of course still appear as the same impeccable statesman. We have intimated a doubt as to some of Gorgei's inferences. He supposes, for instance, the hostility of the Han Jellachich to have been secretly instigated by the Viennese Gourt, and yet admits that there were elements of discord between the various Hun Crian nationalities which would of themselves have cn enough to acoount for the outbreak. Will not the last explanation suffice, without the subsidiary one of Austrian interference, especially as this is a disputed point? It is not philosophical to allege more causes for a given effect than arc necessary to its production. Gorgei also attempts to justify his surrender to the Russians rather than to the Aus trians, hut, as wc think, unsuccessfully. By sur rendering to the Austrians he might perhaps have conciliated favor and pardon for himself and com rades, hut by contumaciously refusing to do so ho needlessly irritated Austrian jealousy, and excited a rancorous pique which avenged itself in blood. He gained nothing but a point of honor by submitting to the Russians. He might have made a better bargain with the Austrians, or at least could have avoided still more to exasperate the enemy into whose hands, in any event, he was destined ulti mately to fall. Yet it is fair to state that in all this he was but following out the advice of Kossuth. MINKS AND MILLS OP PENNSYLVANIA. Dr. Isaac A. Pkkxtpackbk *m recently invited to ad <lm? a public meeting of the citizens of Berks county. In reply he sent a letter, a passage from which we annex : <)ur mines ami mills demand, <jnd demand throw/h thr (ahorny mtrrmU ?/ th* CommtmwraUh, that manufacturers have more opportunity for persevering in business than he tariff of 184? gives them. Witness the contrast between the operations of the passing day about your f Ct?re *n<1 wben ,b? Prot?tire influence of the Government ?u felt upon them. No one cn be so Mind or so prejudiced as not to be fully sensible of the , extremes of condition Then, too, notice how Bngland labors to influence our Legislature to maintain the policy of free trade. - But enough, unless it be respectfully asked to eon aider the future influence upon our welfare when miy-dnv comes to take up the bonds now giving to England ?r bow hhall we feel about the settlements for the immense shipments of railroad and other iron to our own territory How silly to allow our own hills to retain their ores both of coal and iron, and drive the laborer to an extremity to accommodate the keen-eyed Englishman in the prosecu? tion of his enterprise and woslth ; this, too, by grinding hi. workingmen to skin and bone, to the tunc 5f n fe? W* "J with such absurdi ties . Let England manufacture her (roods m?i i.. i . market for them where they ,?ay ; onr pX^'u to sin ply our own market by our own induMry? and the ele ments to enable ns to do so are at our ownhani " The largest -ingle transaction in wool ever made in the Cincinnati market was made last week ,, : .k . Current doubts whether it has often been \ ir i 1 ? r'?e city in the Unite,! States. The quantity sold wasljJo 000 pounds, amounting in the aggregate to $l2o<#)0 fh? pnoe realized shows a very large advance o? Ik ? ! which the market open J ^ rtu* th.t fort/ two otnti WELLINGTON SAVING NAPOLEON'S LIFE. The following passage from the memoirs of the late Gen. V. Mvrtuiiu, written by himself, under the title of " Aufl meinen Leben," will perhaps at this moment be reaii with some interest. Muffling was the agent of all the conmuuioatioas between the headquarters of Uluchkh and the Duke of Wkllimutum during the march of the allies on Paris, after the return of Napoleow from Elba: j " During the march (after the battle of Waterloo) Blu I cher had usee a chance of taking Napoleon prisoner which he wm very anxious to do. From the Freneh com missions who were seat to him to propose au aruiistic* he demanded the delivery of Napoleon to him au the lirsl condition of the negotiations. 1 was charged by Marshal Blacher to represent to the Duke of Wellington that the Congress of Vienna had declared Napoleon outlawed, and that tit' was determined to have him shot at the moment be fell into his bauds. Vet he wished to know from the Duke what he theught of the matter, for if he (the Duke) had the same intentions, the Marshal was willing to aot with him in carrying them Into effect. The Duke looked 1 at me rather astonished, and began to dispute the correct ness of the Marshal's interpretation of the proclamation ; of Vienna, which was notatall intended to authorized in ] cite to the murder of Napoleon. He believed, therefore, that no right to shoot him in case he should be made pri soner of war could be founded on this document, and he thought tlie position both of himself and the Marshal towards Napoleon since the victory had been won was too high to permit such an act to be committed. I had felt all the force of the Duke's argument before I delivered the message 1 had very unwillingly undertaken, and was therefore not inclined to oppose them. ' I therefore,' continued the Duke, ' wish my friend and colleague to see this matter in the light 1 do. Such an act would give our uames to history stainpd by a crime, and posterity would say of us, they were not worthy to be his conquerors ?the more so as such a deed is useless, aud can have no object.' Of these expressions 1 only used enough to dis suade Blucherfrom his intention." There are three despatches given by Muffling iu the appendix to his memoirs, in which the execution of Na routox is urged on the Duke of Wellington by Bluuukii; they are signed by Gnoisenau, and leave no doubt of the determination to revenge the bloodshed of the war on the cause of it had be fallen into the hands of the Prussian commander. Blucher's fixed idea was that the Emperor should be executed on the very spot whore the Due u'Enghkin was put to death. The last despatch yields an unwilling assent to the Duke of Wellington's remonstran ces, and calls his interference '? dramatic magnanimity," which the Prussian headquarters did not at all compre hend. Probably but few Frenchmen are aware of the existence of this correspondence, or that it is an historical fact that Napoleon's life was saved by his rival, whom it. cost no small exertion to save it.?New York Pott. CHINA. The following extract from Dr. Gutzlaff's work ?xhibite the Chinese in a somewhat new light. -Thousands are emigrating to other countries. California is thronged with them, and they are, in general, peaceful und indus trious people. Htntr ,Wh? kn?W D0thin8 about the internal state of the country, are apt to imagine that there reiirns everlasting peace. Nothing is, however, more erroneous insurrections of villages, cities, and districts nre of fre quent occurrence. The refractory spirit of the people the oppression and embezzlement of the mandariL and other causes, such as dearth and demagogues, frequent ly cause an unexpected revolt. " In these cases the destruction of property and hos tility against the rulers of the land, especially if these have been tyrants is often carried to great excess; there are instances of the infuriated mob broiling their magis trates over a slow fire. On the other hand, the cruelty of Government when victorious, knows no bounds; the treatment of political prisoners is really so shocking as SSKSS'iSr l"d bet? or "One of the most common evils is starvation. The population is very dense ; the means of subsistence are in ordinary times, frequently not above the demand : and it is therefore nothing extraordinary to witness, on the least failure of the crop, utter wretchedness and misery To provide for all the hungry mouths is impossible ; and the cruel policy of the mandarins carries their indiffer ence so far as to affirm that hunger is requisite to thin the dense masses of the people. ?V ^ henever 8Uch a judgment has come upon the land, and the people are in want of the necessaries of life dreadful disorders soon arise, and the most powerful Government would not be able to put down the rising and robbenes which are committed on the Btrength of this thTne .5 TI8?,ry" 8?ems 10 bo a tot*1 change in llw , nature of the inhabitants, and many a patient or1Z! 7' ?erce,y VP?n hU rich neiRhbor, like a wolf or a tiger, to devour his substanee. No ono can have an Lnd\w , ?Mrch3r..whi.cb ??ch occasions ensues, and the utter demoralization of the people. " Yet, as soon as relief is afforded, and a rich harvest promises fair, the spirit of order again prevails, and out PUt a,8t?P t0<, The peo',le then combine, arm ders^Hke*wilTK P? v ,B thou*and? to catch marau- I sion. ?n !*": ***** 11 shown on 8Uch occa sions, and the mandarins, on account of their weakness cannot interfere. Scenes of this description very oS occurred, without giving rise to severe reflection on the I character of Tabukwang's administration." I A PRAIRIE 8CENE. '? 1st July.?At early dawn we started on our route for! Cxpect?d J? n*ch Rock at Prophetstown, be fore sunset. Our course now lay through a prairie boundless to the*ye, and the grass nearly reaching our stirrup-irons. We had, the day previous, met straggling lo wenfS ' ? "? 7i?ence 0f any ,ar?c Pftrt^ of tbcm , so we felt no material alarm. '? The morning dawned beautifully, and there having XL "?,0We,r uriDK the night, the grass in man J P?d?*n' "d rendered it the more difficult ?OM u . v ? had "0t Pr?ce?detl far, however, when hlJ ' be^a" 10 8ITe indications that hostile footsteps roin a?H?ng BU1Ce CP"9ed 0Ur tnck? 1 him a loose won J hi. " J?" 00 Buch occasions, down went his nose, snuffling along like an old hound. Jack ; immons at once reined up and dismounted, and, taking ?? W commenced i u long grass that had been beaten down by t and LSf,"l 40 if *n7trail hidden beneath ' b'1"1, d?,nK the expression of ? Old Hay's' throJn f * P*>nter; he stood still, his ears thrown forward, his eyes intently fixed upon the work of, lamination, and if he had had the power of speech he :;,ulh;" sj '1 c,? ~u *m-I a CtpUin Tnrtn' "ho had been riding along towii. ' ?n ?Ur hft' hailH ?'? ^d, pointing Z* \th r h' ?"ounce,J thRt he could see a smoke th?! mlrti , ? "J?, * breakfast-cooking going on in ?' . rl, S *hil?t this announcement drew all i l.hV d'rection, 'Old Hay- and .Jack Simmons re- j ma.ned intent upon the trail they were developing. It : was soon discovered that the beaten-down grass covered the footsteps of a party which must the evening before j have passed that way in the direction of the breakfast ! o e, an , as our route (with a slight detour) would carry us clear, we resumed our journey, with our rifles ros ing in front of us ; and by the time the sun was fairly the horizon we were beyond the eye and rifles of I toe innebago breakfast party, which would have made a ehatueaffe' of us but for the keen qualities of 'Old i Hays' olfactories." [ Extract of a Prairie Diary during ih? "Black Itawk" tear. | The Queen of Portugal has just carried oufc a general cropping or trimming of beards and mustaches worn by the army, her own husband not having been excepted I rrom its operation. The decree which effects this reform ordains that the forests of beard which overspread the faces of most Portuguese officers shall fall under fhe sweep of the razor, and that nothing shall henceforth be worn but mustaches and imperials, the shape and dimen sions of which are prescribed with the precision and taste or a connoisseur in such embellishments, general officers ' alone being allowed to indulge in the luxury of whiskers. which, however, are to be of a certain pattern, and not te exceed so many inches in length. Tuner. Sihdats is E<?vpt.? Friday is the Mnhomedan i Sabbath ; Saturday is the Sabbath of the Jews; and the 1 next day the Sabbath of the Christians. This is fre- i quently a source of delay and inoonvenience to the tra veller. Df- Smith, of Hoston, for example, arrived at Alexandria on Friday, a day on which no quarantine or customhouse business can be transacted with the officials of tli# country, who are Mahomedans. On Saturday he i could do nothing at the bankers, who are Jews. On Sun- j day.the consular offices were closed, the Consuls being Christians. It was not till Monday morning, therefore, that he could set about the arrangement for his tour, i We may take occasion here to remark that the Doctor's " Pilgrimage to F.gypt," from which we learn this cu rious fact, is at once the worst written and mott iuternt? ing book of oriential travel that wc have read for many a day. It is crammed with incidents and information, con veyed in a style the most slovenly. In spite, however, of its careless style, the book is full of excellent matter. Dr. Smith is one of the most observant, Inquisitive, and un-iaaginative Yankees that ever went abroad [IJomt Journal. METROPOLITAN MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. We are gratified to learn (says the Charleston Courier) that a new institute bearing the above name has been organized in Washingtou city, and that the firat Fair will be held there on the 24th of February next year. The location of this Institute, and the period chosen for its Fairs, certainly offer to exhibitors peculiar advantages, as the very fact of its being held in the political capital of the country, and during a time too when tliat capital is crowded with visiters, cannot bat secure a f?I} atten dance, and present to contributors an opportunity for ex hibiting their industrial labors such as few, if any ether, Fairs afford. We understaad lik<rwise that persons desiring to- be come contributors should forward their goods directed to 1 he Exhibition* of the Metropolitan .Mechanics' Insti' tute, Washington oity," in sufficient time for them to MV me there before the 14th of February, otherwise they will be excluded from the Judges' lists. Vfe are pleased to observe, also, that the Board of Di rectors of the Houth (Carolina luntitute ha**' suggested, as will be seen from the subjoined proceedings of that body, to the contributors to the Fair of that Institute that will shortly be held* in thie city, that (hey should avail themselves of this additional opportunity for ex hibiting their skill : SOUTH CAROLINA FN?TITUTJS. At a meeting of the BoarJ of Directors held on Tuesday afternoon, October 19, 1*52, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, viz: Nesoltwi, That the South Carolina'Institute learns with much pleasure of the formation at Washington of an auxiliary for the development of the'industrial pursuits of the oountry, under the name of the Metropolitan Me chanics' Institute, for the j romotion and encouragement of manufactures, commerce,, and the mechanic and use ful arts.. Resolved, That the best wishes of She South Carolina Institute be tendered to our sister Society for her suocess in the honorable enterprise upon which she hat* entered. Resolved, That tjie contributors to the next annual Fair of the South Carolina Institute* be urge4- to send as many specimens as possible to the Fair of the Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute, on the 144h February, 1368. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be- enclosed to the Metropolitan Mechanics' Institute by the Secreta ry, and that a eopy be sent to the daily papers of the city witlTa request? that the same be published Extract from the minutes. Wilmot G. Disaushurb, Secretary. At a meeting of the British Government ScLool of De sign, held at Sheffield on the 10th ultimo,- the Duke of Newcastle, on taking the chair, delivered an addres*y from which we take the following extract: " I rejoice in the prosperity of your town; but let ne call this to your mind, that across the water, in that mag nificent country of the United States, there is growing up a feeling for art and artistic excellence such as might well Bhame some of us in the mother country. Time was when they looked on the maker's skill in articles of utility, but the luxury of art is springing up among them, and unless you can meet the wants of the market in which art will form a successful element, that market yon will mest assuredly lose. The Americans are showing this in every instance. Of ancient books, tlorks of art, pictures, and statues, a considerable number are now flawing out of the countries of Europe into the United States. If you go into any of the great establishments of London in which the manufacture of silver is carried on?and I mention this as particularly applicable to the trade of your town? it is ten to one bat one of the most elegant pieces of de coration in the shop will be an American order." Putty Dispensed With.?Some down-east operator has got a way of Betting glass without putty. The win dow sash is made entirely of wood, the outside permanent. The inside is framed in such a manner that the pacts can be readily removed for the purpose of inserting the glass, which is placed between slips of India-rubber, which, when the parts of the sash are replaced, causes the glass to be perfectly firm. The movable parts of the sash are secured to their place by a knob screw, which makes a pretty finish. " It Cah't bk Doke."?This is the cry of weakness, indecision, indifference, and indolenoe.' What caa't be done ? Something that some other man has done. Well, you can do it; or you; can do something towards doing it. At all events you caa try. Until you have tried?tried once and again?tried with resolution, application, and industry to do a thing?no one is justified in saying "it can't be done." The plea in such a case is a<mere ex cuse for not aftempting to do any thing at all. You re member the story of Robert Bruce and the spider in the cave. Trying t<? climb to a certain point, the spider fell to the ground again and again ; but still the little crea ture rose again to the task, and at the fortieth effort it suoceeded. '?Hurely," said Bruce, " if a spider can suc ceed after so many failures, so can L after my defeats and he sallied from his hiding-place with new hopes, ral lied his men, &nd ultimately oonquerad. So in all things. We must try often, aad try with increased resolution to succeed. Failure querns but to discipline the strong; only the weak are overwhelmed by it. Difficulties draw forth the best energies eL a man. They reveal to him his strength, and train him to the exercise of his noblest powers. Difficulties try his patience, his energy, and his working faculties. They test the strength of his purpose, and the force of his will. " Is there a man," says John Hunter, " whom difficulties do not dishearten, who takes them by the throat and grapples with them? That kind of man never fails." John Hunter himself, originally a working carpenter, was precisely a man of that sort; and from making chairs on weekly wages, he rose to be the first surgeon and physiologist of his time. Worth Khowjnb.?-Whenever an artisan, resident in one of the filthy places, leaves off strong drink, the usual course of proceeding is this. He begins to pay his debts; he purchases decent elothing for himself and family ; he makes his habitation clean, and provides good furniture ; he buys a few books ; takes his family to a place of wor ship ; and if not content with being clean and decent amongst surrounding dirt and wretchedness, he looks for abetter residence in some airy and salubrious locality, leaving his unimprovable residence to be oecupied by one like his former self, who prefers drinking, smoking, and gambling to the comfort and decencies of domestic life. [ Temperamct Chronicle. Arrkxt of Mail Robbkrb.?Mr. Holbrook, agent of the Post Office Department, has arrested at Philadelphia the perpetrator of several m*U robberies oommitted at Baltimore. The prisoner is John IT. Cowyyt, employed as conductor of the express train on the Baltimore and Philadelphia railroad. He cut opea the pouches at dif ferent times at Baltimore, and took possession of drafts contained in letters, which he destroyed. He acknow ledged his crime, and confesses to having destroyed many drafts that he knew could not be converted into money. Comcgys had obtained the cash upon draft* remitted by various New York banks to Southern correspondents, but payable in New York, by opening an account in a bank at Philadelphia, and depositing the drafts with forged endorsements. When arrested he had $5,770 de posited in the Bank of North Amerioa. all of which is supposed to be the fruits of these stolen drafts. There being no mail agent attached to the express train,, the prisoner had abundant opportunity to commit the robberies. A youth, aged about eighteen years, named Edward Modry, the mail-carrier between Washington and George town, in thts District, was arrested on Wednesday, charg ed with having, on the 8th or 9th instant, taken from the mail, between those points, a draft drawn by the Presi dent of the Bank of Commerce on the Union Bank of Maryland, Baltimore, for payable to the order of N. B. Hartley, and also a $20 note; bbth of which were mailed in Georgetown on the 8th instant, in a letter directed to Baker k Brown. He was, after due exami nation, committed to jail to await trial. A Si he Marksmar.?We find in the "Autobiography of W. Jordan" the following concerning Lord de Tabley's shooting: "Lord (if Tabley wa? the surest shot I ever ei>w in the Sold, lli* piece wax rarely ever raised but to kill, and twenty wipes in succession have fallen in proof of his accuracy of aim. Anil with the pistol he was still more wonderful. The head ?f a swallsw peeping over a cornice of the old tower was vuffi^ient object for a bullet aboot the site tf a pea. A wagtail hopping aad clipping on the lawn wan a gone bird if I asked for another specimen of skill, though he was not of practice since tbe fiine ho fired for a wager of a thousand guinea* laid upon him by*the Prince Regent* the evidence of the whining < f which bet was testified by a card with two holes in the eeetre, resembling the ace of clubs, and which iia<l been perforated in that way at tho duelling d is tan. e of twelve paces, lie Would have stood a poor chance In a duel who ventured to meet Lord dc Tabley. The loading of the pistol was a bit of minute science wKicb nmused me. The ganpoWtiet was carefully measured in a ramrod with a funnel end to receive It, and smoothed off a tine card j the pistol was invi>rt*d over this, and being revised, every particle was emptied into the breeeh. The rest of the loading was equally precise, and, as 1>U lordship nevet misted, I was brought to rbe conclusion that three or four of the finest grains of gun powder, more or less, ma ie all the difference in hitting or missing." . 0 " Are those pure canaries f" aakwd a gentleman of a bird I dealer with whom he was negotiating for a " gift for his fair." " Yes, sir," said the dealer, confidentially; " 1 raised them ere ' birds myself from canary seed !"