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THE JAPANESE EMPIRE. The subjoined extracts, which we make from a long article in the ? ChruUum Remembrancer," a British publication, will be interesting at this mo ment to most of our readers, whether they way con < ur or not in the views which ure presented : J "pan ; a,i Account, Geographical and Historical, ><?. l?y < haui.ks UaoFaiukk. London, I8f?2. In defiance of Mr. MacFarlank's assertion to the con trary, we maintain that even educated persons know little or nothing about Japan. And yet it is called an empire, j and Mr. McCulloch assures us thai it contains 60,000,000 inhabitants; its population, we believe, actually reaches to half this amount. As far as general impressions go, the i ordinary floating feeling?we cannot call it knowledge? I about Japan is, that it seems to realize a good deal the notions conveyed by Swift's Flyinfr Island. We get to think <*f it as of some Atlantis of tlieEast; a mystery and ' marvel seldom or very partially revealed to the sons of men. He hear of it as a place surrounded by prejudice as l>y a wall oi brass; a polity complete and total in it self; a great exception to the family of mankind: like the fabled river of antiquity, it is n people which flows through the ocean of society but never mingles with the common stream of humanity: And then the whole world takes offence at this. While we are writing, the Government of the United States is meditating an expedition to compel Japan to be neighborly and civil, and to observe the conventional law of nations; that is to say, western civilization isresolved to open out Japan, not for the sake of Japan, but for the necessities of western civilization. It is argued that no nativn has a right to occupy an exceptional position; ' lat commerce is like ihe air, a chartered libertine; that no people has a right to say, I will not trade with others ! except upon my own terras. If the Japanese systemati- i cally refused food and water, and the means of repairs to ships, we should say that the American claim was not unreasonable. No nation has a right to block up the highway nnd to prevent legitimate traffic with others. If jt does not choose to trade itself, it must not present a hindrance to trading with others. It is very well to sav that Japan must be treated as though it did not exist an 1 that our proper course is to take it upon its own ' grounds, and simply avoid it. But common sense revolts 1 at this theorizing: the Japanese Empire lies right across ! some fifteen degrees of latitude; it is a physical obstruc- ! 1 tion if n does not conform to the natural laws of man " Navigation involves certain abstract rights which are not so much a matter of common consent as of ante cedent natural mstice. A ship in distre?s has claims for water, wood, and lresh provision*, and for means of re fitting and repairing accidents. These claims are not a matter of political agreement, but are physical results from the mere constitution of the planet. And in this sense, and for fundamental elementary necessities the earth and sea are common property. But, as a fact ? apan does not refuse these elementary rights To take only our own vessels: in 17S#1 the ?? Argonaut'" received S1,'' the ''Providence'' landed its crew for the ?pi ?erV.atA?nS ?.U tl,e c"a'"t of Yc9S0? and refitted ? ' Phaeton, ( aptain Pellew, in the early part of the 1 ; present (.,,.tury took in water; the "Samara,* "was > m .Mo supplied with stores by the Japanese authorities ' and magnet: nervations were, though very relucUn lv' > v"' " fn lS4U -Markinon^of it MS ' i'lamlers.1"' Ve?eUbles aud ?ter from the J U ,iat tlie J:'P*nese decline is, to tra<le with anv other 1 country except on their own terms. Acutely enough i 1 p'^Jeich,aSmgtIthC n1'^1- Jt violati(>11 of *l>eir prind- ! Fi , , In il!1 which we have men- 1 tijntd pavmrrt for supplies sent on board was refused 1 r Jer irrSum t?ne?f "atUrftHharitJ< n0t c??rce. < n Jtr toese circumstance*the question is simnlv whether f can' <>?Sht to, force such a people tMraie whl ul ' ^ether they like it or not. The vague s?n^f couJen ' < w ZSr'j, of nations has certainly never en accepted by Japan, \atfel is not a tcxt-book.it ?tj.o.norevenm Bundom, which Peter Heylyn affirmed to be on university bigger than Paris." We hardiv ' -lun.l. that it is lair to quote PuffonBorf and Grotius to 'a cot^amty of this sort. And it is difficult Yo pick I I rrel ? ith Japan. If the Japanese refused assistance r',' , .1'w.r*cked vessel. '''is might be the pretext for forcing their ports. \s it stands' all that the American ' re-1 ,ent can say i? "Japan is within twenty dav-' -ail I ?i -ruia; Japan has coal, and it would be verv usorul for"; an , ut!V n l Mt,on" of tLe ?rth collectively, to JuSSl aS*iE2?iJ? therm* ceMarv to the existence of mcfety. *Mt if any'fndtvidu'i' we d utt ti" t?? decline conversation talk nght ln his ueiShbor t0 make him Nor are onr doubts lessened when we survey the ano maloui and extraordinary history of Japan i} was un to recent search, till the noble Venetian. Marco The first flirt'it tl"rteenth noticed it. ?.?. \? European who sterns to have visited it was Fer nam Mendet p.nto, the Portuguese adventurer whose weTiort T\ Tins vis,t was in 1542; the Portuguese were most hospitably received and allowed free traffic -v en years after a fugitive Japanese fled to Goa and Tnawurlllv ?!? hri"g?nilr- The Portug.u -e, combin- J a" nee ? i Th 2. *, J?P *et,W Ritual duties, j *hi!T i ~ T?,n? ,M)tk f"r ,r*'|p and the Go-cel h Japan afforded: and as early as 15.r?l tho ?t>lendi 1 ' and .uecpfnl mi-ion of Xavier it, Japan M bet ter ??*i hy th" apostle', death. Fifty ehnrehe clurT'f . ttun,">"h <>f conreru composed the Japane" church of twenty years later. During the whole of this tim*? " The Portuguese?mariner*. merchants, padres, and all?were received with open arms, not only at llnngo, but at whatsoever other part of the empire they chose to repair unto. The locwl governments and the tniuor princ.s, who then enjoyed a considerable degree of independence, Tie 1 with each other in inviting them to.their ports and towri?. They went wherever they pleased, from one ex tremity < f the ?mp?re to the other, and by land a? well as by sea. The merehants found a ready and a nv>>it profit able market for their goods ; 'be missionaries, an intellec tual, tolerant people, very willing tu listen to the lesions which they had to teach them. There was no on* eatab li"he?l. dominant Tfligion in the country; the most an cient taith whs split into sects; and there were at least three other religions imported from foreign countries, arid tolerated in the most perfect manner. Moreover, a faith said to *>e of Bruminieal origin, aud which had been im- , ported from India, wa^ at the time widely spread among j thp people. This ftith bore so near a resemblance to the doctrines introduced by the Portuguese that it must have greatly favore-1 their reception. It appears to have com prised the fxi*Unrt, ilr tih, a*ri rt*urr*riumof a Saritur born of a rtrgvt, with almost every other essential dogma of Christianity, including the belief in the Trinity. If this W a true statement and correct description, and if we then add to It the tradition that thi? form of religion was introduced under the reign of the Chinese Kmperor Mimti, who ascended the throne in about the fiftieth year of the Christian era, can we avoid admitting the conclusion that some early apostle reached the eastern extremity of Asia, if not the islands themselves of Japan* Then the pomp and impressive ceremonials of the Roman Church, an I 1 the frequency of its services, delighted theimpre?sioual>le Japanese, who, in all probability, would have paid far le?s attention to a simpler form of worship. The first mis sionaries, moreover, were men of exemplary Uvea?mo dest, virtuous, disinterested, and most tender and chari table to the poor and afflicted. They sought out cases 0f dtetrcsa; they attended the sick': and some knowledge they possessed of the superior science of medicine, a* practised by th? most advanced nations of Europe, w.i ? frequently of great benefit to the natives, and another means of facilitating their conversion. Xavier quitted Japan for China in and died on the second of De cember of the following year, at .Shan-Hhan, on the Can ton river, not far from Macao ; but he left able and en thusiastic missionat^cs behind him, and others soon re paired to the country."?Macf'arlenei Japan, pp. 4- 7. Without discussing Mr. MacFarlane's assumption of an apostolic jt>orney to Japan, it is unquestionable that Nes torian missionaries had penetrated into China at a very early period. The celebrated inscription proves this. Whether Buddhism, which is not the original religion of Japan, Is, according to a singular conjecture, a diabolic an ticipation of Christianity, or whether raueh of its present rites and doctrines are not rather corruptions of the (Jo? pel, it w enough to feel convinced that Buddhism does present in itself a singular caricature and distortion of the Gospel. It does not quite appear whether the Japa nese Christians were converts from Rud'ltiism, or from the older and national religion of the J*intoo?, whi< h seems to differ little from the common Indian sj*tem?. The question would be important whether such ?.r< < m blance a* Buddhism offers of Christianity would be an aid or an obstacle to conversion' The fact however, re mains, that in less thaw half a century from its re-dis covery, Japan was at free commercial intercourse with the whole western world, and was the seat of a flourishing I and promising church. Before, therefore, we are so es pecially angry with the Japanese for their seclusion from the world\ the inquiry is of immense interest, how the pre sent state of things came about, and who is responsible : for it. It is plain that two hundred and fifty years ago the Japanese ports were open to all ordinary commercial in tercourse. The Portuguese had a monopoly ot it, chiefly because they had no competitors. Such, however, present ed themselves with the seventeeth century. One William 1 Adams, an Englishman, sailed as pilot to a " fleet of IIol j landers," equipped for the Indian trade in 1598. During this voyage a storm brought him to the Japanese coast. 1 Jut strange vessels had at that period become suspicious. It is undeniable that Dutch and English ships, if not avowedly buccaneers, acted very piratically. The obli gation of treaties ceased at the line. On the Spanish main it was simply Hob Roy's law. We can quite, there fore, account for and admit " the evil report made by the Portuguese of the English and Dutch." The Portuguese could not esteem them as other than pirates. The con sequence was that William Adams was detained in Japan until the day of his death. Hut he did his work ; he opened the trade to his Dutch friends, who, in 1609, "came to the court of the Emperor, where they were in great friendship received, conditioning with the Emperor to send yearly a ship or two ; the first of which, arriving irf 1611, was well received, and with great kindness en tertained." When we say that the Japanese ports ami commerce were open to all traders, it must not be understood that, two hundred and fifty years ago, either in Japan or any where else was trade carried on with that freedom from local restraints which now generally prevails. What we mean is, that, under regulations, any European community ?night have got a commercial footing in Japan. Trade was then generally conducted by corporations and fac tories rather than by individual enterprise. Even iu our own East India trade, up to a comparatively recent pe riod, the quantity of exports and imports was fixed. It was at that time considered necessary to keep up prices by restricting trade. To throw tea ami spices overboard is u practice not yet forgotten. It is quite conceivable, therefore, how early in the seventeenth century commer cial intercourse with Japan might be free; and yet with a restriction on the number of vessels and amount of commodities permitted to enter its ports. Before the year 1620, then, the Portuguese and Dutch factories were established side by side on a small island, called Firando, looking over the Coreau straits. They were not likely to prove themselves pleasant neighbors or agreeable guests. Of course in those days the Dutch in Portuguese eyes appeared only as heretics, if not athe ists; while the Dutch returned the compliment by stig matizing their brother Christians as mere idolaters. The mutual hatred and suspicious existing between Holland and Portugal were not likely to impress the calm and in quiring Japanese with exalted notions either of Christians in general or Europeans in particular. Nor were the na tive Christians such as had kindled under Xavier's words of fire, or had melted before his glow of love. Persecu tion .had commenced on the part of the heathen; the Christian orders were divided against each other: Do minican and Franciscan were mutually misrepresented, and stumblingblocks innumerable were thrown in the Ja panese path to the Gospel, and this we fear by Christian hands. The sad history of the proscription of the Gospel iu Japan may be told in few words. The Christians may have become rapacious : but it is certain that old power ful heathenism at last found out that toleration of Chris tianity was in the end treason to Buddhism and Sintooism. No religions could co-exist with the cross. Christianity must be accepted or destroyed. The Japanese national ists preferred the latter part of the alternative. The ar rival of more missionaries was first forbidden; then con-, versions were prohibited; :rt last, a persecution terrible as that ol Decius commenced. In 114 the native con verts who would not recant were crucified and tortured ; the ciiurches were destroyed ; the schools closed, and the profession of Christianity in a Japanese declared illegal Hitherto the foreign Christians had not been persecuted; but Portuguese missionaries were constantly evading the | iaw. The commercial result was the restriction of foreign irade to the little island of Desima. . 1 But worse remained. A real or suspected plot against : the Japanese Government, said to have been entered into by the Japanese Christians, implicated the Portuguese. ; It is curious, to say the least, that the documentary evi dtnee ol this plot was found in "a Portuguese ship cap tured by the Hutch. Whether the Dutch invented the plot or only took advantage of it we cannot pronounce. It u indisputable that they denounced it to thw Japanese Government; and the result was that the Portuguese were banished forever from Japan and its dependencies. Nor was this all. From lfi37 commenced the exclusive policy of the Japanese of which Europeans complain. The proclamation which decreed that " the whole race ot, the Portuguese, with their mothers, nurses, and whatever belongs to them, shall be banished forever," goes on to set forth? " That no Japanese ship or boat, or any native of Ja pan, should henceforth presume to quit the country under pain of forfeiture and death: that any Japauese return ing from a foreign country -should be put to death ; that no nobleman or soldier should be suffered to purchase any thing of a foreigner; that any person presuming to bring a letter from abroad, or to return to Japan after he had been banished, should die, with all his family ; and that whosoever presumed to intercede for such offenders should be put to death, &c.; that all persons who propa gate*] the doctrines of the Christians, or bore that scan dalous name, should be seized and immured in the com mon jail, kc. A reward was offered for the discovery of every padre or priest, and a smaller reward for the disco very of every native christian."?Ihid,p. J8. Here it is obvious to remark that whichever version of tbi? incident is true, whether the Portuguese did enter into a political plot against the Japanese Government, or whether the Dutch", out of mere jealousy to Porta pal, in vented the conspiracy, and the Portuguese complicity with it, the result is the same. The .Japanese expelled Europeans, and restricted their intereour?e with the whole world, on account of European intrigue. They acted in self-defence. Their policy might be short-sight ed and bigoted; but the European* compelled it. We are only witnessing and suffering under the untoward re Milts of the duplicity and intrigues, or the treachery and bigotry, of the seventeenth century. Thi? was the hour of temptation to the Dutch, and they wero not proof against it. Bitter rivals both in commerce and religion to the Portuguese, they did all they coubl to exasperate the contest between the Portuguese and Ja panese. If they did not cause the Portuguese expulsion, they mainly contributed to it: and this under the most discreditable and degrading circumstance*. Though nominally a dispute between Japan and Portugal, it was. in fact, a controversy between Heathenism and Christi anity. The Dti^b took their side and kept it. They ranged themselvec ?vu;. ;"-secution and apostacy. We avail ourselves of Mr. Mack'urlane's judgment in the case, and he is not a prejudiced witness: " Though deprived of their pa 1r?s or European teach ers, and though menaced, not only with imprisonment, but also with torture and death, the converts persevered ir* their faith. Oppression drove th^m into opon rebel: lion ; and they took refuge, and made a heroical stand against the troops of the Emperor in the province of Simabara. The Imperial Government called upon the i>ut?li to assist them in their war against theee Chris tians ; and the Dutch promptly gave the aid required of them. The fact is admitted by all their own country men who have written about Japan, from their first wri ter* in the (middle of the seventeenth century down to the year 1H83. M. Fischer, the very last on the list, says that the Dutch were cunptllvl to join in the perse cution against the stubborn remnant of that Christian ho?t. Others would soften the matter by sajing that the Itatch Wv Mipplied the heathen Japanese with gunpow der and guris, taught them a little artillery practice, and sent ammunition, arms, and troops in their "hip* to the scene of action. Hut Kampfer, who was only a G< rrnan in the Initch service, most distinctly ami positively as sures us that the Christian trailers acted as auxiliaries and belligerents. The stronghold of the native Chris tians was an old fortified place, which the Emperor's troop* could not take. ?' The Dutch, upon this, as friends and allies of the Emperor, were requested to assist the Japanese in the Mege. ... M. Kockcbeckcr, who was then director of the lJutch trade and nation, having received the Emper or s orders to this purpose, repaired thither without de lay on board a Dutch ship lying at anchor in the harbor of Firando, (all the other ships, perhaps upon some inti mation given that some such request was like to be made 1 to them from court, set sail but ihe day before,) and within a fortnight's time he battered the old town with \'2h cannon balls, both from on board his ship and from a battery which was rii?ed on ?hore, and planted with som* of his own guns. This compliance of the Dutch, and their conduct daring the siege, was entirely to the satisfaction of the Japanese, and although the besieged ?eemed in no manner of forwardness to surrender, yet, as by this cannonading they had been \ery much reduc ed in number, ami their strength grsxtly broken, M. Kockebecker had leave m )n?t to depart, after they had obliged him to land six more of his guns for the use of the Emperor." A recent writer, a right-hcArtell and right-minded American, says: " The walls of Mimnbara were unf|iies tionab'y battered by the Dutch cannon, and its brave de fenders were slaughtered. Home apology might be made f?r thia co-opt ration at the -iege of Simabara. h?d its de fenders beeii the couiitrjmeri of Alva, or Kequftfens, or Jibn of Austria. 'T A,< xand^r Earnese JJuf truth re quire# that the mwnres of K?ck <vV>r lotiM be re garded as the alternative, which he deliberately preferred tp the interruptiou of tho Dutch trade. " It appears that the riegc was coverted into a long and close blockade, and that when the indomitable con verts of Xavier were reduced, and in good part extermi nated by famine, a storm and an atrocious massacre ensued, none being spared, because none .would recant and beg <|uarter; but men, women, and children being all butchered in heaps. In this war of religion, accord ing to the most moderate estimate, there fell on both sides 40,000 men. According to the papists, the num ber of native Christians alone was far greater thau this, and all4he atrocities and horrors of the Diocletian perse cution were repeated, exaggerated, and prolonged. The magnitude of the holocaust does indeed ufTord some mea sure of the depth and tenacity with which Christianity, in its Homan form, had struck its roots into the soil. "Over the vast common grave of the martyrs was set up this impious inscription : "So long as the sun shall warm the earth, let no Christian be so bold as to come to Japan: and let nil know that the King of Spain himself, or the Christians' God, or the great tiod of all, if he vio late this command, shall pay for it with his head."?Ibid. pp. 49, 52. The Dutch, however, were disappointed in their hopes; : they derived less benefit from their intrigues and apo? tacy than they expected. One of themselves, Kiimpfer, admits this: "By this submissive readiness to assist the Emperor in the execution of his designs, with regard to the final de struction of Christianity in his dominions, it is true, in deed, that we stood our ground so far as to maintain our selves in the country, and to be permitted to carry on our trade, although the court had then some thoughts of a total exclusion ol' all foreigners whatsoever. But many generous and noble persons, at court and in the country, judged unfavorably of our conduct. It seemed to them inconsistent with reason that the Dutch should ever be expected to be faithful to a foreigu monarch, and one, too, whom they looked upon as a heathen, whilst they showed so much forwardness to assist him in the destruc tion of a people with whom they agreed in the most es sential parts of their faith, (as the Japanese had been well informed by the Portuguese monks,) aud to sacrifice to their own worldly interests those who followed Christ In the very same way, and hoped to enter the kingdom of heaven through the same gate. These are expressions which I have often heard from the natives, when the conversation | happeued to turn upan this mournful subject. In short, , by our humble complaisance aud connivance, we were so far from bringing this proud and jealous nation to any greater confidence or more intimate friendship, thut, on the contrary, their jealousy and mistrust seemed to in crease from that time. They both hated and despised us for what we had done. In the year Dill, soon after the ! total expulsion of the Portuguese, and the suppression of I Christianity among the natives, we were ordered to quit | our comfortable factory at Firando, and to confine our selves, under a very rigid inspection, to the small islet of | Desima, which is more like a prison than a factory. So ' great was the covetousness of the Dutch, aud so strong the alluring power of the Japanese gold, that rather than ; quit the prospe'et of a trade (indeed most advantageous) they willingVy underwent an almost perpetual imprison ment, fbr such in fact is our residence at Desima, and chose to suffer many hardships in a foreign and heathen country, to be remiss in performing divine service on Sun days and solemn festivals, to leave off praying aud sing ing of psalms, entirely to avoid the sign of the cross, the calling upon the name of Christ in presence of the natives, and all the outer signsof Christianity; and, lastly, patient ly and submissively to bear the abusive and injurious be havior ef these proud infidels towards us, than which nothing can be offered more shocking to a generous and noble mind."?Ibid, pp. 52, 54. To this miserable islet, Desima, the Dutch are confined; till island is only six hundred feet long, and is joined to the Japanese city, Nagasaki, by a bridge, strongly guard ed. The most rigid watch is held on the Dutch ; no fe males arc allowed in their community. Their vessels are searched, the guns and ammunition removed, and the crews tire only allowed " to refresh themselves"' in this filthy prison, Desima; a fit punishment for their treason to the faith and their brethren. They have the gold for which they bartered the gospel duties, but it is poured moulten down their throats. With respect to their prac tical renunciation of Christianity, we follow Mr. Mac Farlane: ?' au wno serve tlie Dutch, or have any cl<>-e lealiugs with them, are bound to take a solemn outli of renuncia tion and hatred of the Christian religion once, twice, or even three times a year; and, at least at one of these ceremonies, they are made to trample under foot crosses and crucifixes, with the image of the Redeemer upon them. The ill-meant, mocking, impiou-i jests of Voltaire, as to the Dutch going through the same cercmony, may not have been, at every period, quite destitute of truth. As Lutherans or Presbyterians they may have entertained no more reverence for croBses and crucifixes and images of saints than was felt by our English Puritans, who, in the days of their preputency, found a rudo delight in destroy ing such articles, and treating them with every imaginable disrespect. The Portuguese, when driven to despair through their hated rvals, nenrly involved the Dutch in their own ruin by announcing to the Imperial Government that they were christians like themselves. It behooved the Dutch to convince the Japanese that there was the widest difference between them; tliut they belonged to a sect quite hostile to that of the Portuguese; that they hated Pope, Jesuits, Franciscans Dominicans, and all manner of uiouks and priests. We can, therefore, easily credit that, if put by the Japanese Government to that test, the Dutchmen would not much scruple to trample upon the cross in the manner described by Voltaire. A bigoted Presbyterian would even find a pleasure in so j doing. An old Nangasakian joke is, that a Dutchman, at the time of the great persecution, being surprised in some place by the Japanese police, and being asked whether he were a Christian, replied, ' No ! I am a Dutchman.' We fear, indeed, that, after any lengthened residence in tha country, such religion as these Dutchmen carried with them was almost wholly evaporated. The life led in their prison at Nagasaki was little calculated to foster devo tional feelings. Klimpfer says that in his time they lived like a set of heathens; that the principles of Christianity were so little conspicuous in their lives and actions that the Japane^ were absurd in fearing that they would at tempt the conversion of the heathens.''?Ibid. pp. 57, 58. After this Mr. MacFarlane must have ventured upon a geutle jest, when he goes on to observe: " But good and religious men have gone through this ordeal without any 1 detriment to their faith or morals; so let not these re marks be taken as uncharitable, or as disrespectful to the | Dutch." It is. perhaps, fortunate for us that we were never sub jected to the like temptations. The history of the English ; commercial intercourse with Japan doeB not admit of abridgment. and it is curious as au almost solitary in stance of English failure in trade : " Through the help and admirable diplomacy of Adams, a commercial treaty, or a series of privileges, more fa vorable than any ever enjoyed by Portuguese or by Dutch, was granted to the Knglish. and apparently withou; any ?inr or delay on the part of the imperial court. ?? iiio f.r-t article in these original privileges of 1013 runs thus : ' We give free license to the King of England's subjects. Sir Thomas Smith, Governor, and Company of the East India Merchant*, forever, safely to come into any of our port* or empire of Japan, with their shipsnnd mer chandise, without hindrance to them or their goods; and to abide, buy, sell, and barter, according to their own manner, with all nations; and to tarry so long as they will, and depart at their pleasure.' " The second article exempted English goods from all manner of customs' or duties; the third granted to the English full freedom of building houses in any part of the empire, which houses, at their departure, they might freely sell; the fourth article placed the property of any English subject that might die in the empire under the sole control of the captain, merchant, or English resilient, and exempted entirely all English subjects, whatever , their offences, from the somewhat summary process of Japanese law; and the three remaining articles were all in the same liberal and most friendly spirit. " These privileges were, however. ?omewhat modified in 1010, when the English, wherever they miight arrive on the coast, were ordered to repair immediately to the port ;ind town Firandn, there to sell their merchandise, and not to stay at or trade in any port whatsoever. But it was ordered at the same time, that, in case of contrary winds or bad weather, the English ships might abide in any other port without paying anchorage duties; and the people were enjoined to treat such ships in a friendly manner, and to sell them whatsoever they might require. At the same time all the other valuable privilegesof 1013 were confirmed. Captain Cook, who established himself at Pirando, and remained in the country long after the departure of Baris, paid more than one visit to the impe rial court at Jeddo. "Our factory at Pirando, or rather, perhaps, those who managed their shipments in England, made an injudicious ! selection of merchandise, sending out commodities which were not in request In that country. In this manner the trade was conducted rather at a loss than profit; and this, with some other circumstances of discouragement, induced the East India Company prematurely to abandon the experiment. ??' Of the English,' says a recent English writer, (Run dall,) t it is simply to be observed that in their commer I cial project they failed, and that they retired with honor and regretted from the scene of their misadventure.' In the year J'ttS, after upwards of ?40,(KX) had been use . lessly expended, they entirely withdrew from that country and trade."?pp. 00, 09. Prom that time to the present the Japanese have main tained their policy, not, as we have said, without justifi cation. And we have been thus minute in our historical statement because we doubt whether, here or in the Uni ted States, much is known of the antecedents of the pre sent bUte oi' thinga in Japan. We were attracted to the name of Japan chiefly on ac count of tht commercial interests involved in the propos ed Americas expedition to these islands: proposed, we say, for we have not heard much of it lately. * * * But, having reached Japan, we may as well survey the mysterious region to which an isolated circumstance has transferred some shurc of public curiosity. The islands furmiiig the combined Japanese and Kurile archipelago are of considerable length and very scanty width. Adopt ing Humboldt's parallel view of the original conformation of the AtUntic islands as the summits of a submerged chain of nnuutaius, it seems not improbable that a simi lar origin nay be given to the Japanese group, which is only a single member of a prolonged chain of volcanic peaks, rangng from Khamtschatka through the Aleutian, Japanese, ivid Philippine Islands, down to the southern tropic. Thjy are all volcanic; indeed, some are active volcanoes; and they present an axis more or less parallel with that of the coast. This gives a great diversity of climate; aid, as is well known, by the variation in the isothermal lines, the cold region oomes down very far on the eastern coast of Asia. The Japaneso possessions, therefore, range from a semi-tropical climate to one ap proaching to that of Kamtschatka. We read of the bam boo as indigenous to Japan, and most extensively used; the camphor-tree and tea-tree urc grown in the most south ern islands, but the Kurile islands, to which the empire extends, have no better climate than that of Norway. This accounts for the very different terms in which tra vellers describe Japan?at one time as the chosen seat of fog and frost and storm, at another as equal to the gar deu of the Hcsperides. Mr. MacFurlane, in what lie says of the physical geo graphy of Japan, is neither scientific nor consecutive. Indeed, in the absence of any detailed account, we are left to pick up such information from the most scanty and scattered intimations of various writers. At Nagasaki, the southern port, the thermometer is said to range be tween 35? and 98? Fahrenheit. At Jedilo, the capital, snow falls every year. The population of this place was once reckoned at 2,000,000. It is doubtless a large place, and larger because it is built after the old Oriental type, in which, as in the interior cities of China, as we learn from Mr. Fortune, vast open spaces are enclosed within the walls. There is a largeness and roundness in the older orien tal descriptions, which certainly satisfies the mind uud fills it with a composing sense of breadth ami magnitude. Japan, as described, is no exception. Eve^y thing seems to be on the most imposing stfale. Miaco, the ecclesias tical capital, contains precisely, we are assured, six thou sand temples. Marco Polo, speaking of Japan, which he dignifies with the sonorous name of Zipangu, assures us that the great "palace was roofed with gold considerably thick?covered with it as we cover churches with lead." The palace of the Kobo with its garden is, we are assured, eight miles in circumference : this palace must be of the same aspect as that which? In Xauudu did Kublai Khan A stately pluariure-hous? decreo, Where Alph, the sacred river, ran. Cut there are no rivers of any size in Japan ; the narrow ness of the islands and the general bearing of the eleva tion preventing it. The Funsi Jarama, compared to the Pico in Teneritfe, is the highest volcanic peak, aud is said to be twelve thousand foet high; the height indeed of the Pico?which is only three thousand feet short of that of Mount'Blanc. It cannot be so high as this, for the Dutch speak of "the snow seldom melting on it." We conceive that in such a climate as that of Jeddo, near which the mountain is laid down in the maps, the line of perpetual snow must be below twelve thousand feet. The largest island, Niplion, is in length nine hundred miles ; the greatest width of any of the group is about one hun dred miles. The government of Japan is remarkable ; it recalls the double kings of Sparta?dare we say of Brentford ? There is a Secular Emperor, the Kobo, and an Ecclesiastical Emperor, the Mikado or Dairi, who reign co-ordinately. | Such at least is the common account; but one which we cannot assent to put in this vague wny. The government was a sort of theocracy, because an especial sanctity was attached to the person who reigned. In all early states of society the sacerdotal and kingly offices were consider ed identical. The Emperor ruled by divine right and by inheritance, and was the representative descendant of the gods; we do not find,,as in the later developments of Buddhism, that he was an incarnation of the Divinity. In fact, this latter view (the Thibetan) may only have arisen from the literal translation of a metaphor. But as in Thibet so in Japan, the theocraoy was a convenient theory for the aristocracy of the sacerdotal caste. The Emperor in Japan, or the Dalai Lama in Thibet, seems to lead the life of the Luoretian gods. Tac Mikado lives shut up in his palace, " with one wife and twelve concu bines, plenty of paper, books, and music." But the dig nity is dreary enough. " Even to this day (says Kampfer) the princes descend ed from the family, more particularly those who sit on the throne, arc looked upon as persons most holy in them selves, and as Popes by birth. And in order to preserve these advantageous notions in the minds of their sub jects, they are obliged to take an uncommon care of their sacred persons, and to do such things, which, examined according to the customs of other nations, would be thought ridiculous and impertinent. It will not be im proper to give a few instances. Tbo ecclesiastical Em peror thinks that it would be very prejudicial to his dig nity and holiness to touch the ground with his feet; for this reason, when he intends to go any where, he must be carried thither on men's shoulders. Much less will they suffer that he should expose his sacred person to the open air; and the sun is not thought worthy to shine on Ins head. There is such a holiness ascribed to all parts of the body that he dares to cut off neither his hair, nor his beard, nor his nails. However, lest he should grow too dirty, they may clean him in the night when he is asleep; because they say that what is taken from his body at that time hath been stolen from him, and that such a theft doth not prejudice his holiness or dignity. In Ancient times he was obliged to sit on the throne for some hours every morning with the imperial crown on head, but to sit altogether likq a statue, without stirring cither hands or feet, head or eyes, nor indeed any part of his Vody, because by this means it was thought that he could preserve peace and tranquillity in his empire ; for if, unfortunately, he turned himself on one side or the other, or if lie looked a good while towards any part of his dominions it was apprehended that war, famine, fire, or qome other gTeat misfortune was near at hand to deso late the country. But it having been afterwards disco vered that the imperial crown was the palladium which, by its immobility, could preserve peace in the empire, it was thought expedient to deliver his imperial person, consecrated only to idleness and pleasure, from this bur densome duty, and therefore the crown alone is at pre sent placed on the throne for several hours every morn ing. His victuals must l>e dressed every time in new pots, and served at table in new dishes; both are very clean and neat, hut made only of common clay, that, without any considerable expense, they may be laid aside or broken after they have served once. They are gene rally broken, for tear they should come into the hands of laymen; for they believe religiously that if any laymnn should presume to eat his food out of these sacred dishee it would swell and inflame his mouth and throat. The like ill effect is dreaded from the Dairi's sacred habit*; for they believe that if a layman should wear thom with out the Kmperor's express leave or command, they would occasion pains in all parts of hia bo*ly." \ Ibid. t>n. 171 17?. But what u really an exceptional caae is, this theocracy descends occasionally to females, and that the spiritual emperor may he, in short, an empresa. The throne, when vacant, is filled by a nominee of the Council; that Is, the Pope is elected hy the Cardinals. Elected we say, for though the succession is nominally in a right line, yet the council determines who Is the nearest heir, which, in a country where polygamy is permitted, opens a large door to external interest. The rise of the secular emperor seems to have been this: Japan was a strictly feudal State; the separate dukes and counts, as we should call them, only paid a nominal obedience to the spiritural Rmperor* Then arose, as in Europe, the great struggle between the Suic- ' rain and the independent holders of fiefs. We all know how it terminated in Europe, by the king calling into ex istence a burgher, or middle class, anil throwing himself I on the municipalities. The kings of France and England i dissolved the powerful confederacies of the nobles; in Japan matters took the opposite course. In feudal coun- , tries there will always be some prominent baron, some Warwick or the like, who holds the real sway. He com mands the army in the West?in the East he is Vizier. It requires but a single step to make the office of Mayor of the Palace hereditary; this process was effected in Japan, and the Ziogun, the officer who held this dignity, though he did not at first assume the imperial name, soon acquired all the real power of the empire. The first Ziogun assumed office about the middle of the twelfth century, so that some strange political affinity and change in social relations was working on the Heine and in Nip hon at the same time, lie was not then, nor is he now. theoretically joint emperor with the Dairi; he is only the secular king. He held all the real power, but a certain theoretical supremacy is reserved to the Dai'ri or Mikado, the ece.lesiastical emperor. It was not till ir>W> that the title Ziogun. (Jeneral-in-Ohief, was expanded into that of Kobo, which is the present appellation of the (so-called) secular emperor. It is only in this sense that Japan has two emperors; that Church and State both bear imperial sway, and that a cotyoint yet separate dynasty, celestial and terrestrial, roles without collision or interference. Curiously enough, the fate which overtook the I)alri has pursued the Kobo; the lay and spiritual emperors are both reduced to shadows; the sovereignty either of Church or State js merely ideal and fictitious; the DaVri sleeps away his torpid existence at Miaco, the ?elf-torturing shallow of departed greatness, while the Kobo is immersed in dignified bat unauthoritative seclusion in his palace at Juddo. The charmed slumbers of the famous king in the ?? Bleeping Beauty" are the only parallel for the im perial State of Japan. We must, however, remark that the political history of Japans, since the expulsion of the Portuguese, is very scan ty. This principle of dualism, which the lay and clerical empires present, is said, with what truth we know not, to pervade other Japanese institutions. It remains to give some account of the religion of Ja pan, which, from the extremely perplexed aud conflicting statements on the subjeot, is far from easy. The recog nised religion, as we said, is Sintooism, though it would be hard to say what Sintooism is. The Japanese, how ever, seem to have solved the problem which causes so much trouble to European States. There is an established religion, and there is the most perfect toleration, pur chased, as such a system only can be purchased, by an eutire surrender of principle on every side. The Kobo seuds an embassy, or goes on a pilgrimage to his ecclesi astical elder brother, the Sintoo Emperor, and at the same time builds a Buddhist temple; while the Dairi, the prince and priest of Sintooism, allows the easy im portation of strange gods into the sacred temples ?of his own faith. In fact, it is the height of politeness for dif ferent religious professors to atteud the worship of the gods of their friends. The only thing, as of old, which is proscribed is Christianity. Neither the Japanese nor the Homan empire would refuse the Cross its intercommunion in rites. It is the exclusiveuess of the gospel which is its scaudal. Sintooism was perhaps originally a form of Sabujan ism ; its chief divinity is the Goddess of the Sun. She is worshipped through the mediation of inferior gods and deitied mortals. Some dootrine of a future state, and of rewards and punishments, is retained; but the actual du ties of religion consist in, 1. Preservation of pure fire: 2. Purity of the heart and body; 8. The observance of festival days; 4. Pilgrimage; and, 5. The public and private callus of the inferior gods and saiuts?the Kami. These last seem to be the ordinary Teraphim of the east cm, and Penates of classical worship. The temple ami domestic worship is thus described : " The religious observances on festival days appear to be very simple and very short. The worshipper, clad in his best clothes, appruMhax the temple, performs his ab lutions at a tank, kneels in the veranda opposite a grated window, through which he cau fix his eyes on the mirror; he tli<jn offers up his prayers, and a sacrifice of rice, fruit, tea, sackee, or the like ; deposites a little money in a box, and takes his departure, to 9pend the rest of the day in sports and pastimes, or in the manner he thinks best. According to Kiimpfer, they conclude their ceremonies at the temple by striking three times upon a bell, which is hung over the door, believing the goile to be highly de lighted with the sounds of musical instruments. * All this being done, they retire, to divert themselves the re maining part of the day with walking, exercises, sports, eating and drinking, and treating one another to good things.' The temple must uot be approached with a downcast spirit or a sorrowful countenance, for that might1 disturb the placid beatitude of the Kami."?Ibid, pp. 209, 210. The domestic rites of the undent and dominant Ja panese religion are not well known. If Siebold, from whom the account is taken, is to be trusted, the last sen tence, apart from its awkward phraseology, in the follow ing extract is very curious: " At home, in every Sintoo house, each meal is preceded by a short prayer, and in nearly every garden or court yard attached to such houso there is a miniature mya, or temple. The Sintoo priests are called Kami-Ausi, or the hosts or landlords of the godsT; they dwell in houses built within the grounds attached to the temples. The money deposited by the worshippers goes into their purse, and the oblations of rice, fruit, tea, and the rest go to their kitchen and table. They have thus the means of j hospitality, and are said to exercise it liberally to stran gers. The Dutch, however, always found that in their j case a return in solid cash was expected, aud that these j temple-visits were very expensive. Celibacy ia no tenet j of the Sintoos; the Kami-Nusi marry, and their wives are j priestesses, to whom specific rites ami duties are allotted. , It appears that they act as godmothers general to all the female childrcu of their sect that are born in Japan, giv- ' ing them their names, sprinkling them with water, and | performing other ceremonies."?Ibid. pp. 210, 211. We need hardly remark that the parallel which Mr. MacFarlane seems to suggest between what he calls the j Japanese pilgrimages and the Itomanist devotion to j shrines is singularly inaccurate. The sacred regulation ! of the law for all the males to appear at Jerusalem is a ! closer parallel. However, as the writer whom we have j hitherto followed has compiled with general accuracy, we > may take his facts apart from his inferences: "Pilgrimage is the grand and' most sanctifying act of Sintoo devotion. There are no fewer than twenty-two shrines in different parts of the empire, which are fre quented annually, or more frequently, by the devout. The most conspicuous and most honored of all?the very Lo- | rctto of the Japanese?Is Isye, with its ancient temple of \ Tan-?to-dai-zin, or the Sun (Jloddess. The principal tem ple is surrounded by nearly a hundred small ones, whichj have little else of a temple tliau the mere shape, being, for the most part, so low and narrow that a man can scarcely stand up in them. Koch of these temples, or lit- I tie chapels, iB attended by a priest. Near to them live multitudes of priests and functionaries, who call them- j selves the messengers of the gods, and who keep houses and lodging* to accommodate travellers and pilgrims. The principal temple itself is a very plain unpretending edifice, and evidently of great antiquity, though not qnite | so old as the priests and devotees pretend. According to the latter, the Sun Goddess was born in it and dwelt in it, j and on that account it has never been enlarged, improv- j ed, or in any way altered. Among the priestesses of the temple there is almost always a daughter of a spiritual ! emperor. "Orthodox Hintonists,-' say Kimpfer, "go in pilgrim age to Isye once a-ycar, or at the Tory least ouoe in their lifetime; nay, it is thought a duty incumbent on every true patriot, whatever sect or religion he otherwise ad heres to, and a public mark of respect and gratitude which every one ought to pay to the Sun Goddess, ns to the pro tectress, founder, and first parent of the Japanese nation. This pilgrimage is made at all times of the year; but the greatest concourse of people is in their three first months, March, April, and May, when the season of the year and the good weather make the journey very agreeable and pleasant. Persons of all ranks and qualities, rich and poor, old and young, men and women, resort thither; the lords only of the highest quality and the most potent princes of the empire excepted, who seldom appear there in per Hon. " An embassy from the Emperor is sent there once every year, in the first month, at which time also another with rich presents goes to Miaco with presents to the ec clesiastical hereditary monarch. Most of the princes of the empire follow the Emperor's example."?ffnd, pp. 211, 218. We cannot say, however, that when we read that the certificate of having appeared at the sacred shrine is con sidered as a plenary remission, and that in the available form of a pieoe of printed paper it Is sold, with all its vir tues, to all who ''an afford to pay for it, and who do not choose to go to the expense in time and trouble of a per sonal visit to Isye, we are forcibly reminded of the abuses connected with the System of indulgences. What the ordinary writers of Japan think proper to call religious orders and monasteries are only the Buddhist Lamacovics, which the readers of our recent paper on M. Hue's Travels are uot likely to have forgotten. A society of female devotee*, whom Kiimpfer thinks proper to com- i pare with the nuns, or at least Begulnes, of Europe, " of no particular faith, and of very doubtful morality, much j more pointedly resembles the devotees of Mylitta in the temples of Babylen. Jnpan. howevei*, like China, seems to have passed its culmination. ? In religion as well as in art these great mysterious countries are on the decline. The popular superstitions seem to have a very slight hold on the vul gar mind; Buddhism has the strongest, but perhaps, be cause it is a double system, presenting a vague Panthe iring philosophy for the initiated, and the most sordid idolatry for the lower classes. The accounts seem to combine in representing the apparently inconsistent facts, that all religious persons, priests and the like, are the objects of perpetual ridicule and contempt, and yet that the temples and shrines are well attended and supplied with pecuniary support. It is even doubtful whether in the extreme east an individual ever prays, or has any per-1 sonal belief in Ood; his religion is simply and nakedly vicarious; it is the business of the priest, or Lama, to pray for him, or to grind out prayers in the Thibetan prayer-mill. If he pays for this he thinks that he may safely despise the Instrument of his devotions; so long as be gets his religion done for him he has no further concern with it. In some sneh way as this the conflicting accounts which we rend of Chinese and Japanese religion must be understood; for it is common in popular works to describe them both as a religious people and as entire atheists. It would be quite superfluous in this place to give any details of the philosophic religion of Japan?the Suio, or " way of the philosophers"?because it is only the ab stract and mystical esoteric Buddhism, which perhaps scarcely differs fVom the Indian and kindred Pantheism. The high spiritualistic Oriental philosophers differ rather in terminology^-and not mitoh in that?than in ideas. They believe generally, or affect to believe, in a universal soul and spirit, sustaining but not creative, which is dif fused through the universe and animates all things, wnioh absorbs souls and intelligences as th* ocean re* ceives the rivers and waters. This is the philosophic faith which the educated classes in Japan, as throughout the East, affcct to hol3. They conform to the popular religious observances by way of example, and as thinking it tatter that the vulgar should profess or conform to idolatry rather than to nothing. It has been said or thought that the toleration of dif ferent sects is a promising omen for missionary > ork in Japan ; and it has actually been proposed, should an en trance ever be forced or yielded in the great barrier I against national intercourse which these siugular islands have for so many centuries maintained, that the Christian missionaries should plaoe themselves uuder thj> protection of the spiritual emperor. If, it iB said, Christianity would come down from its transcendental and exclusive position, If it would renounce the right of total independence, the cross might once more triumph over the centiinanous dei ties of buddhism. Now, we are far from saying that the Portuguese mission was without its faults, or that we should not do well, did the occasion offer, entirely to avoid that interference with secular politics, which, sooner or later, becomes the bane of all Jesuit missions; and through which, in Japan, the church plauted by ; Xavier fell. But there are two especial difficulties con | nected with any Japanese mission. In recognising the Government of the country, and in submitting to its ordi uunces, it is difficult to see how a mission could distin guish between the co-ordinate secular and ecclesiastical I authorities. While the Mikado or Da'iri claims to be t^f son and representative of Deity, so long as the spirit^l emperor is not only protector of the socts but himsul/in herits tho theocracy, so long as an innate holii/ss ascribed to his person, and so long as he claims t/exer cise the attributes of Divinity, the power of causintrfnmine and pestilence, and the like, it seems all but ii/possible for any Christian missiou to recognise the Mikado at all, or his authority. The separation of the State authority in# two (theo retically) independent functions, and the n/cessity of re cognising both, is then one especial difiwulty in the way of evangelizing Japan; und it is one tit recent growth ; for in Xuvier's days it had not taken Its present definite form. Add to this that Christianity has been tried and rejected: an apostate country is harder to reclaim than a simply heathen one. The Gospel is a savor of death unto death. It is hoped, however, that if Christianity were presented with simpler rites, and in direct antagonism to that form of it against Which the Japanese are so preju diced, " a troop of reformed missionaries might again have a chance of success;" so we are told; but we must not forget that Japan has received and rejected the Gos pel, under llomiui Catholic auspices; it has in the person of the Dutch seen something 01 Its reformed aspect. If the one has repelled, the other would not be likely to at tract, either the philosophizing from his supersensual con templations, or the vulgar from his sensual idolatries. The Christians of Xavipr's church might provoke a popu lar tumult, by insulting the Dii minor am gentium of Sin tooism or Buddhism ; all that the Japanese know of Chris tianity, under any other form, is that presented by the Hollanders, who helped the Japanese idolaters to massa cre the Japanese Christians. These are ill omens for the evangelization of Japan : and, though we do not, and dare not, for a single moment, doubt of the ultimate success of our own Church, in the great work of Oriental missions, if fairly presented in its own principles, yet what has al ready been detailed of Japan will serve to fchow what especial hindrances it must encounter, if the work of planting the cross in Niphon should be reserved for us, or for our American brethren. * * * * However, we are venturing on subjects perplexing, if not painful; we will therefore turn to a more promising aspect of the Japanese character, and, as it is connected with our last observations, some account of Japanese learning, and of the general diffusion of education, will not be out of place; only premising that thfe Japanese language is monosyllabic,'* that paper made of bark is said to have been used as early us the seventh century, and that the art of printing from engraved wooden blocks is some centuries older than its European invention or introduction. " From tho moment the Japanese acquired a written language, their literature advanced rapidly, and it ap pears to have improved from age to age. Unfortunately, in Europe it is scarcely known; but from the few Japa nese books that have fallen into the hands of learned for eigners, and from the accounts left us by the missionaries and other travellers, it is evident that these people pos sess works of all kinds, historical compositions, geogra phical, and other scientific treatises, books on natural history, voyages and travels, moral philosophy, cyclo paedias, dramas, romances, poems, and every component part of a very polite literature. '? The wide diffusion of education, which has been more than once mentioned, is of no recent date. The first of all the missionaries who visited the country found schools established wherever they went. The sainted Xavier mentions the existence of four " academies" in the vicin ity of Miako, at each of which education was afforded to between three and four thousand pupils ; adding, that, considerable as these numbers were, they were quite in significant in comparison with tho numbers instructed at an institution near the city of Bandone; and that such institutions were universal throughout the empire. ?"Nor does it appear that these institutions have de creased In tnodem days. Speaking of the early part of the present century, M. Meylan states that children of buth saxes and of all ranks are invariably sent to rudi mentary schools, where they learn to read and write, and are initiated into some knowledge of the history of their own cfcuntry. To this extent at least it is considered neee-sary that the meanest peasant should be educated. Our officers, who visited the country as late as the year 1846, ascertained that there existed at Nagasaki a college in which, additionally to the routine of native acquire ments, forcigH languages were taught. Among the visi ters on board oar ship many spoke Dutch. Some under stood a little French. One young student understood English slightly, could pronounce & few English words, caught readily at every English expression that struck him, and wrote it down in his note-book. They all seem ed to be tolerably well acquainted with geography, and some of them appeared to have some acquaintance with guns and the science of gunnery. The eagerness of all of them to acquire information greatly delighted our officers. j "The Japanese printers keep the market well supplied with cheap, easy books, intended for the instruction of 1 children, or people of the poorer classes. The editions 1 or impressions of books of a higher order appear to.be uncommonly numerous. Most Of these books are illus trated and explained with frequent woodcuts, which are engraved on the same wood'blocks with the type. like the Chinese, they only print on one side of their thin paper. An imperial cycloptedia, printed at Miako, in the spiritual Emperor's palace, is most oopiously embel lished with cuts. " AH are agreed that reading is a favorite resource and recreation with both sexes, and that the Dairi or court of the Mikado is eminently a bookish, literary court. " It is said that few sights are more common in Japan, during the sunny seasons of the year, than that of a group of ladies and gentlemen seated by a cool running stream, or in a shady grove, each with book in hand. Whatever their literature may be, it is evident that it delights them, and that it has polished their manners." [MncFarlant'i Japan, pp. 372-375. It is added, also, that every Jnpanese, of whatever rank, is sent to school. It is said that there are more schools in Japan than in any other country in the world; and that even the peasants and poorest persons can read ; that, contrary to Oriental practice, the minds of the wo men are equally cultivated with those of the men. Many of their authors are female : and travellers are enthusias tic in praise of their courtly manners and refinement The national vice among the men is incontinence; but female chastity is in universal esteem. We conclude with an account of the national amusements, which presents very pleasing elements of a high and almost incredible civili sation : " In the great world the young ladies find delight at their sooial meetings, in every description of fine work, the fabrication of pretty boxes, artificial flowers, painting of fans, birds, and animals, pocket-books, purses, plait ing thread for the head-dress, all for the favorite use of giving as presents. Such employments serve to while away the long winter evenings. In the spring, on the other hand, they participate with eagerness in ail kinds of out door and rural amusements. Of these the choicest are afforded by the pleasure-boats, which, adorned with the ntmost cost snd beauty, cover their lakes and rivers. In the enjoyment of society and music, they glide in these vessels from noon till late in the night. " This is an enjoyment which can only be shared under the advantages of such a climate and scenery. vl?. the climate of Nice and the scenery of Lugano. Their lakes and rivers are, after sunset, one blaxe or illumination, as it were, with the brightly-colored paper lant? rns display ed in their vessels. They play meanwhile rh?t game with the fingers which has been perpetuated from classic times in Italy. A floating figure is also placed in a vase of wa ter ; as the water is Stirred by the motion of the boat, the figure moves. The guests sing to the guitar the strain ' Anataya modamada,' ' He floats, ho is not still,' till at last the puppet rests opposite some one of the party, whom it sentences to drain the saokee bowl, as the pleas . ing forfeit of the game. All this stands out in cheerful contrast to the dull debaucheries of the men, and the childish diversions of the women, among other Oriental nations. The female sex, at least, have greatly the ad vantage over the ?candal of the Turkish bath; and the man has, equally with the Turk, the resource of his pipe, in the intervals of those better enjoyments which the ad mission of the female sex into society affords him, and i which are prohibited to the Mussulman. " Assuredly these ane captivating, delicious picture* of life and manners"?ll*d, pp. 329-831. ? A Jesnit once said of It that It must have been Invented smj inv< sted with th? elmost difficulty by Jatsn himself, in ord?*r to drive poor missionaries mad, and binder the piogress of the faiti.