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THE WEEKLY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. The subscription price of this paper for a year is Thres Dollars, payable in advance. For tbe long Sessions of Congress, (averaging eight months,) the price will be Two Dollars; for the short Sessions One Dollar per copy. A reduction Of 20 per cent, (one-fifth of the full charge) will be made to any one who shall order and pay for, at one time, fire copies of the Weekly paper; and a like re duction of 26 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who will order and pay for, at one time, ten or more copies. No accounts being kept for this paper, it will not be for warded to any one unless paid for in advance, nor sent any longer than the time for which it is so paid. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. THE DOCUMENTS OF THE DAY. The subjoined Documents were transmitted by tbe Executive in reply to the call of. the Senate, in relation to the British territorial rights or claims upon the coast of Central America. They will interest our political and mercantile readers, notwithstanding that the most material part of the information contained in them has been in the possession of the reading Public for the space of an entire year and a half.. Though so old, however, it is either so new to the Democratic Official Jour nal as never to have been heard of before, or so old as to have been already forgotten. Witness the followiDg from the " Union " of yesterday: " Important Public Papers.?'We publish this morn ? ing the message of President Fillmore, in reply to the ? resolution of General Cass respecting territorial acqui ? sition by Great Britain in Central America. The infor ? mation conveyed by this message is of the highest inte 4 rest and importance. Tbe country will learn uith at ' tonishment that, by a private understanding between 4 Secretary Clayton and Sir Henry Bclwer, Hondurat 1 and itt dependencies were excluded from the operation of that 1 clause of the treaty of 1850 which forbade liritith coloniza ' lion in Central America." We turn to the file of the National Intelligencer for the evidence we are about to produce, that no mystery veiled the import and effect of that Treaty at the time of its date, and that, so far from affect ing or attempting any concealment on this subject, information was contemporaneously, spontaneously, and openly given by the Administration to this journal, and by this journal imparted to the Public, of the scope and bearing of that Treaty. THE EVIDENCE. FHOM THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER 0T JULY 8, 1S50. From the official publication in the preceding columns our readers will learn that the ratifications of the Treaty between Great Britain and the United States, relative to Central America, concluded between the Secretary or State and the Right Hon. Sir Henry L. Bclweh, the ne gotiators on each side, were exchanged between the re presentatives of the two<3overnments in this city on the fourth of this month; and that the provisions of that treaty, so far as they extend, are now the law of the land for both countries. The leading object of the Treaty appears to be the es tablishment of a ship canal across the Isthmus which con nects North with South America, under the Protectorate not only of Great Britain and the United States, but of all other nations which desire the right of passage through it from ocean to ocean on the same equal terms. In reference to political advantages connected with that Treaty, it may be remarked that all the States of Central America, comprehending the immense extent of country from the Beliie, commonly called the Bay of Honduras, down to the northern boundary of New Granada', is made neutral territory. No Government entering into this treaty can occupy, colonize, fortify, or assume or exercise any dominion over any part of tbe Mosquito coast, orany part of Central America, from the boundaries of the Bay of Honduras and Mexico on the north to those of New Gra nada on the south. The British title to the Belize the treaty does not in any manner recognise ; nor doet 0deny it, or meddle with IT. That settlement remaint, in that particular, as it stood raxviorsLY to me treaty. On Tuesday last the President of the United States laid before the Senate the following Letter of the Secretary of State and accompanying Corre spondence, in answer to a resolution of the Senate of the 30th ultimo, requesting information in regard to ^be establishment of a British Colony in Central America : Department or State, Washington, Jahuary 3, 1853. The Secretary of 8tate, to whom was referred the reso lution of the Senate of the 30th ultimo, requesting the President " to communicate to the Henate, as far as may be compatible with the public interest, any information in the Department of State respecting the establishment of a new British oolony in Central America, together with the copy of a proclamation, if received at the said Department, issued by the British authorities at the Be lize, July 17, 1852, announcing that ' her most gracious Majesty our Queen has been pleased to constitute and make the islands of Roatan, Bonacca, Utilla, Barharat, Helena, and Morat to be a colony, to be known and de signated as the Colony of the Bay of Islands,' and signed * By command of her Majesty's superintendent, Augustus Fred, (tore, Colonial Secretary and also what measures, if any, have been taken by the Executive to prevent the violation of that article of the treaty of Washington of July 4, 1850, between the United States and Great Bri tain, which provides that neither party shall ? occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central America,' " has the heaor to report that no information, official or unofficial, of the character re quested by the reflation hns been received at this De partment. A consul of the United States was appointed for Belize, Hondaras, on the 8d of March, 1847, and tbe Minister of the United States at London was instructed by tin Department to apply to the British Government for his exequatur. It appears, however, from the letter of the Department to him of the 1st of Sfarch, 1850, an extract from which is hereunto annexed, that his commis sion was revoked. As no successor has since been ap pointed, there has been no officer of this Government in that quarter from whom the information asked for in the resolution could be expected by the Department. The accompanying note from Mr. Clayton to Sir Henry L. Bul wer, of the 4th of July, 1850, which has an important bearing upon the inquiries contained in the resolution, is also laid before you. Respectfully submitted. EDWARD EVERETT. To the President of the United States. Mr. (Hayton lo Mr. IIamp*ira<l. ? [Extract ] " DsrARTMiKT or Stat*, "Washington, March 1, 1850. " As it is presumed that the ippointment of a consul of the United Sutes at Belize, even if required by our trade with that port, may have *>een made without full consideration of the territorial rights of Oreat Britain in that quarter, it ia deemed advisable, under existing cir cumstances, to discontinue that consulate. ?? You will consequently consider tour functions as terminated on the receipt of this despatch, and will apprize the proper authorities at Belize to that effect. If [you should conclude to return to this country, it would be advisable to bring with you such vouchers as may be necessary to support any credits which you may claim at ths treasury. The papers, books, flag, and seal of the consulate must also be sent or brought to the United #tate*, for the purpose of being lodged in the Depart nxsnt " Department of State, Wahhinqton, July 4, 1850. Sir : I hava received the declaration you were in structed by your Government to make to me respecting Honduras ami its dependencies, a copy of which is hereto subjoined. The language of the first article of the convention con cluded on the 19tli day of April last, between the United States and Great Britain, describing the country not to be occupied, &o. by either of the parties, was, as you know, twioe approved by your Government; and it was neither understood by them, nor by either of us, (the negotiators,) to include the British settlement in Hon duras, (commonly called British Honduras, as dis tiuct from the State of Honduras,) nor the small islands in the neighborhood of that settlement, which may be known as its dependencies. To this settlement, and these islands, 'the treaty we negotiated was not intended by either of us to apply. The title to them it is now and has been my ictention, throughout the whole negotiation, to leave as the treaty leaves it, without de nying, affirming, or in any way meddling with the same, just as it stood previously. The chairman of the Com mittee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Hon. William H. King, informs me that " the Senate perfectly understood that the treaty did not include British Hondu ras/" It was understood to Apply to, and does include, all the Central American States of Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, with , their j just limits and proper dependencies. The difficulty that now arises seems to spring from the use, in our conven tion, of the term "Central America," which we adopted because Viscount Palmerstou had assented to it, and used it as the proper term?we naturally supposing that, on this account, it would be satisfactory to your Govern ment ; but if your Government now intend to delay the exchange of ratification until we shall have fixed the precise limits of Central America, we must defer further action until we have further information on both sides, to which at present we have no means of resort, and which it is certain we could not obtain before the term fixed for exchanging the ratifications would expire. It is not to b*imagined that such is the object of your Government; for not only would this course delay, but absolutely de feat the convention. Of course, no alteration could be made in the conven tion, as it now stands, without referring the same to the Senate ; and I do not understand you as having authority to propose any alteration. But, on some future occasion, a conventional article, clearly stating what are the limits of Central America, might become advisable. There is another matter still more important, which the stipulations of the convention direct that we shall settle, but which you have no instructions now to deter mine; and 1 desire you to invite the attention of your Government to it* " The distance from the two ends of the canal within which vessels of the United States or Great Britain, traversing the said canal, shall, in case of war between the 'contracting parties, be exempted from blockade, detention, or capture by either of the belliger ents." The subject is one of deep interest; and I shall be happy to receive the views of your Government in regard to it as soon as as it may be convenient for them to decide upon it I renew to you, sir, the assurances of the distinguished consideration with which I have the honor to be your obedient servant, JOHN M. CLAYTON. To the Right Hon. Sir Henry L. Bclwer, &c. DECLARATION. In proceeding to^ the exchange of the ratifications of the convention, signed at Washington on the 19th April, 1850, between her Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, relative to the establishment of a com munication by ship-canal between the Atlantic and Paci fic oceans, the undersigned her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, has received her Majesty's instructions to declare that her Majesty does not understand the en gagements of that convention to apply to her Majesty's settlement at Honduras, or to its dependencies. Her Majesty's ratification of the said convention is exchanged under th? explicit declaration above mentioned. 'bone at Washington, the U9th day of June, 18o0. H. L. BULWER. MF MO RAX I'I'M. Department of Statk. Washington, Jvlt o, 18-r?0. The within declaration of Sir H. L. Bulwer was received by me on the -9th day of June, 185U. In reply, I wrote him my note of the 4th of July, acknowledging that 1 un derstood British Honduras was not embraced in the treaty of the 19th of April last, but, at the same time, carefully declining to affirm or deny the British title in their set tlement or its alleged dependencies. After signing my note last night, I delivered it to Sir Henry, and we imme diately proceeded, without any further or other action, to exchange the ratifications of said treaty. The consent of the Senate to the declaration was not required, and the treaty was ratified as it stood when it was made. JOHN M. CLAYTON. N. B.?The rights of no Central American State have been compromised by the treaty or by any part of the negotiation. The publication of the foregoing Document, has given rise to the following explanations in the Senate of the United States. In Senate, Thursday, January 6, 1853. Mr. CASS said : Mr. President, I ask the indulgence of the Senate, at this time, to mAke what may he consid ered a personal explanation. The Senate will recollect that I some time 9ince introduced a resolution, which was adopted, calling for some information from the proper Department respecting the establishment of a new colony in the Bay of Honduras, called " the Colony of the Bay of Island*," which was established in July last. We hav'e received the answer of the Pre?ident and Department of State; and they state, what is altogether correct, that tlity know nothing about it. This Administration knows nothing upon the subject. But in the correspondence which has been transmitted to us there is a very extra ordinary fact disclosed ; and I, for one, as one of the Sen ators who voted for the ratification of the treaty of 1850, desire, at the same time that this correspondence goes out to the world, to let it be distinctly understood that I am not amongst those who at that time entertained the construction which seems to have been put upon that treaty. If I had been of opinion that any such construc tion would hare been put upon it, I should never hare voted for its ratification. Mr. Everett transmits with his own report letters to and from Mr. Clayton and Sir Henry Bulwer, who were the joint negotiators of the treaty; and to them is ap pended the t/uiui, and conditional, if you please so to call it, ratification of the treaty by the British Government. It will be recollected that the treaty provided that there should be no settlement, occupation, colonization, or do miuion exercised by either party over Central America. The ratification transmitted by the British Government is in these words: " In proceeding to the exchange of the ratification* of the convention, signed at Washington, on the lV?th of April, 1850, between her Britannic Majesty and the United States of Ame rica, relative to the establishment of a communication by ship eanal between tho Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the undersign ed, her Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary, has received her Majesty's instructions to declare that her Majesty does not un derstand the engagements of that convention to apply to her Majesty's settlement at Honduras or to its dependencies. Her Majesty's ratification of the said convention is exchanged un der the explicit declaration above mentioned. " Done at Washington, the 29th day of June, 1850. "H. L. Bulwmu" Now, it is obvious that the word "dependencies" gives as ample sphere of operations to any diplomatic ambidex terity as can possibly be required. In answer to that, Mr. Clayton says that the negotiators on the part of the Governments understood the matter alike ; that is, that neither of them understood Central America to be Central America at all, but that both of them understood that upon tha face of the treaty, though Central America was included, yet the British claims thereon were excluded. Instead of putting that fact in the treaty itself, as should have been done, or even sending that understanding to the Senate at the time of the ratification of the treaty, nothing of the sort was done. The treaty embraced Central Ame rica; and irwas voted upon by the Senate under that impression. But now it seems that both negotiators said they did not mean Central America, but only a portion of it. Mr. Clayton says?and the reason I introduce tie sabject now is, because I desire to disavow for myself the fact here stated : " The ohairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, Hon. Wm. R. King, Informs me tnat 'the Senate perfeotly understood th?t the treaty did not include British Honduras.' It was understood to apply to,'and does include, all the Central Amerioan States of Guatemala, Bond eras, San Salvador, Niearagua, sad Costa Rica, with their just limits and proper dependencies." The treaty does not make any mention of the Honduras at all, either of Britiah or American Honduras; but uo man denies?the British Government concedes, indeed? that is purt of Central America. Mr. President, for my self when I voted for the ratification of that treaty, 1 had not the slightest doubt that it prevented the British Gov ernment from establishing any colonial dependency in that part of the country. My friend from Indiana, (Mr. Bright,) and I think ray friend from Ohio, (Mr. Chase,) and I know my colleague (Mr. Felch) will recollect that 1 distinctly stated thaUmy object in voting for that treaty was to sweep away all British claim to Central America. I must confess that my honorable friend from Indiana warned me against voting for the treaty. Whether that warning was the effect of instinct or of judgment I know not; but he certainly anticipated no good from the treaty, and voted against it. In reference to the statement mentioned in the para graph which I last read, I have called this morning to eee our late respected presiding officer, whose absence we all so much lament, but who 1 hope will soon be restored to us, for I am happy to inlorm the Senate that I found him better. I conversed with Col. King, and he authorized me to say that there If an entire mistake upon this point. He told me that after this q*u*i ratification omm fjom England on the 29th of June, he had an Interviewih Mr. Clayton, who derfred *? know l'the lre* 7 sent back to the 8enate for its action upon this condition al ratification. He told Mr. Clayton that if it came there for that purpose, it would not get a vote in the bennte. And that till this day he supposed the project #f accept ing this declaration had been abandoned, and that tiie treaty stood upon its own provisions. Col. King further said he had some goueral idea of a claim of England to cut logwood in Honduras, but he never thought of its being set up as the foundation of a pretension to establish a co lony there. ? It will be observed that the very terms of the treaty seem framed to exclude such an effect ; for not only does it provide that neither party shall fortify or colonize, but that they shall not occupy any part of the country; and now we have the authentic claim to establish colonies in Central America, but to what extent we are not yet told. Now, I am free to say that this course on our part fur nishes a far better excuse for the conduct of Englaud than I had the least idea she possessed. Our negotiator and the Executive Department have committed a great error, unprecedented, I do believe, in the history of diplomacy; and regardless of the constitutional duties of the Senate, I have proclaimed the ratification of the treaty, with an un derstanding changing its construction and vital point, i without the knowledge of that body. My object, as 1 stated, was to Sweep Central America clear of all foreign influence, which, by its terms, the treaty effected peace ably. If it did not effect that object, there could not have been the least motive on the part of the United States to enter into this joint arrangement. If we did not effect that, we effected nothing. >fr. Seward. What is the date of ^the ratification of ^Mr^CAss. The ratifications were mutually exchanged on*the 4th of July, 1850, and the note of Mr. Bulwer is dated on the 29th of June preceding. Between the -9th of June and the 4th of July, Mr. Clayton had this inter view with Mr. King, in which Mr. King told him that ll the treaty came back to the Senate with that qua*i ratifi cation it would not get a vote here, as we all know it would not, and he supposed it had been abandoned. He bad no idea whatever that there was any condition at i tached to it. Mr DOWNS said : I rise to express the very great as 1 tonishment which I felt when I saw, in the Union of this morning, the documents from the Secretary of State s office. 1 was surprised to see the construction winch Mr. | Clayton, the late Secretary of State, placed upon that treaty. I, sir, as well as the Senator from Michigan, certainly never understood the treaty in that form ; an l 11 think I may venture to go further, and say that no mem -1 ber of the Senate so understood it. | It will be recollected by yourself, Mr. President, and j others who were her* at that time, that the treaty was entered into with great circumspection and great caution. | Various conversations passed between members of tbe . Senate and the Secretary o# State in reference to it. There was a great object to be obtained, and I recollect, for myself, that one great point with mew to get the British out of Central America. I thought that was the whole object of the treaty. I should never have concur red in it if I had not supposed that it effected that object. The only doubt I had was, whether the expression, " ten-, tral America," was sufficient to embrace Honduras; but. I was assured by the Secretary of State that it was j well understood by both parties that that was the very object of tbe term ? Central America; and it was ( only on that assurance that I, as well as many others who were consulted, voted for tbe ratification of the treaty j Why sir if the construction of Mr. Clayton and bir Henry Bulwer wore to be allowed, it would, in my opin-, ion, exhibit this Government in the strange spectacle of making a treaty for a particular object^-to get clear of the title and claim of Great Britain in a particular sec tion?and then, by an explanation, rendering nu.. and void the object which was in view. Mr. President, it seems to me that this exposition ex plains a mystery which has hitherto bothered me a good deal. It explains why it is that, notwithstanding this treaty was made for the express purpose of g?">n8 ? of the title of Great Britain to any part of Central Ame rica, she has been setting up that title and acting upon it ever since. That I have never heretofore been able to understand, but I understand it now, because we have the authority of a former Secretary of State, (Mr. Clay ton,) which does not seem to have been controverted[ by subsequent Secretaries of State, justifying the construc tion of the British Minister that British Honduras, with its dependencies, was not included within the OP*?1'? of the treaty. By this construction the whole question is opened,^ind the Jhole of Central America is left a prey to the operations of Great Britain; for '' <J*Pendtncie8 is so vague a term that it may be extended so ? "> ? elude not only all the islands in the neighborhood of Hon duras, but the whole of Central America. I do not intend to discuss the subject now, though may do so hereafter; but, sir, fortunately for the coun try. I suppose that it will be taken for granted *>j this body that a treaty solemnly agreed to, solemnly ratified, and the ratifications of it exchanged, lsthe law yf the land which binds the nation, and that the construction given to it by a Secretary of State in an unauthorized manner when the ratifications were about to be exchanged will not be binding law. And what a wide door shallwe open for future controversies if we admit the pnnctple that a paper of such a character as the note of the Secre tary of State is to bind the Government Vwould ask Senators to look at the date of the letter appended to this document, written by Mr. Clayton, and addressed to Sir Henry Bulwer. By "^i.n.ng it they will see that there is a very great probability that Mr. Clayton acted in this matter on his own authority, with out consulting even the President or the Cabinet ^ ou will recollect, Mr. President, that on the 4th of July, the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the treaty, the then President of the United States was taken sick, and died a few days afterwards. He was certainly confined to his bed on the fifth of that month, and I infer from this circumstance that Mr. Clayton exchanged the ratifications of the treaty without the authority of the Cabinet or the President: and without consulting the. Senate, although thejr had been consulted in every prior , stage of the proceeding. Why did he not consult with the President, or the Cabinet, or the Senate, before adopting a construction which he ought to have known would not be approved of As a proof of this. I would ask any impartial man, on every side of the Chamber, whether he would have voted for the confirmation of the treaty if such a construction had been given to it at the time T There are many .. ena tors here now who were then members of the body. Is there any one of them who would have voted for the treaty with that construction! 1 think not; I take it for granted that no one would have assented to such a con struction ; I certainly would not have voted for the treaty if I thought there would be any attempt so to construe it. I did not rise to diecuss the subject; I merely wished to make this explanation, and to express my utter astonish ment at this portion of our diplomatic correspondence: and I think that when the country see it, it will 9tri?e them with as much astonishment as it struck me this morning, when I saw it for the first time. Mr. DAVIS. Mr. President, I have not read the letter which has been referred to, but I have some impressions in regard to this treaty, and I am not prepared at this time to go into the discussion, because it is necessary to understand certain Metorical fhcts before doing so. Be fore the right of Grett Britain to what is called the " B? lise" oan be discussed under standingly, it is necessary t? have a knowledge of Btany facts. But, sir, I wish to say, in this premature stage of this business, that it is known to such Senators as have inveetlgeted the history of this subject, that Great Britain, a long period ago-1 cannot ?ccui ..y >s to tbe dute, but I think as far back ide -re , ty with Spain by which she acauired t:i t<> cut logwood, and other privileges , in he territory of Honduras; and she t:.ne exercised jurisdiction over cer B ft that territory, although, according to my thi v mid not be strictly authorized by the then^t was limited to the privilege of cut " ?r: I jier woods of that description. This H r Hijideratiou, and somewhat discussed, iot *us raised upon an application made id .ad assistance to Yucatan, in a revolution ?p " that State were carrying on. t e?e -uggestions to the consideration of >>r the purpose of getting them to reflect ?f indicating any opinion which 1 enter ay that tbe question upon my own mind Mb treaty with Spain, to which I referred, idc ?J, in the absence of all reference to it Great Britain, to be abrogated. That ] < faculties about the treaty of 1850 which iiv mind, because I knew these historical many other gentlemen knew them too. PWfJjposet, then, that the question would arise whe ther 4^"W^fc#)t*nnH of this new treaty abrogated the treaty its*4e bettwen Spain Mid England. But, sir, I vW not enter upon that ^uesuon. I liavo thought that s9 much as I ha?e si id ought to go out with the suggestions made by the gentlemen who have bronght this topic be fore the Senate. I leave it far the present; but I shall be quite willing, so far ae I am concerncd, to have it dis cussed, for I frtelf admit that 1 have not been without some anxiety iu regard to it. Mr. CHASE. Sir. Pmident, I remember very well the J great embarrastmeut which was felt by many Senators in voting for thU treaty when it was originally presented ; and I recollect, also, with perfect distinctness, that my friend freill Michigan (Mi. Cass) said at the time he voted for its rotificatioi upon tie sole ground that it excluded all pretence for future English interference in Central America. The oovenant." a*' the treaty are indeed ex pressed in the broadest lai-guage possible. Neither party is to " occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume any do minion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Musquito coast, or any part of Central America." Now, for the purpose of showing what the Brit sh authorities at that time con ceived to be included wit dn the limits of Central Ameri ca, I wish to read an extract from a work which I have before me. It is JohnMt't Gazetteer, published in Lon don in 1851, a work ofviry high authority. Its descrip tion of Central America is in these words: " Central America ic th; long and comparatively narrow region between latitude V and 22? north and longitude 78? and 94? west, connecting .he continents of North and South America, and comprising besides the Central American Con federation, Yucatan, pa ts of Mexico and New Granada, Poyait. the Mosquito co:st, and British Honduras." That is the descripti >n which an eminent British au thority furnishes to *f of Central America. That is the description which we jad a right to believe was intended by this treaty when it was presented to the Senate Now, sir, I am perfectly fee to say, for one, that doubting greatly, as I did at tie time, the expediency of the ratifi cation, I should never have voted for it had I supposed that any secret consanction was put upon it, irreconcil able with the obviovc import of its language. It would have been impossible, in my judgment, to have secured its ratification had its language conveyed the sense which the private interpretation of Mr. Clayton's letter puts upon it. Indeed, I doubt whether any Senator would have voted for the ratification had it been supposed that, at the very time th? treaty was under consideration here, a correspondence was in progress, of which the Senate was j not apprized, with the view of fixing in advance the con- ] struction of the treaty, by imposing upon its terms a | sense quite different from their natural and obvious im-, port. I am quite content, however, to acquiesce in the suggestion of the Senator from Massachusetts, (Mr. Davis,) and permit the subject to go over for the present. Mr. WELLER. I suppose that this debate will be con tinued ; I desire myself to say a few word* upon this sub ject, and I-do unt propose to any them now. I b*ve bear. 1 astonished at the remarks made by my friend from Lou isiana, (M*. Downs,) wno seems to be very much surpris- 1 ed at the course pursued by Mr. Clayton upon this sub ject. I am astonished to hear him s?y he was surprised at any thing, however stupid, that might be done by the late Secretary of State, (Mr. Clayton. ) for I never knew him to have any connexion with any public affair in which he did net show himself to be excessively stupid, to say the least Mr. CASS. The honorable Senator will allow me to say one word with reepect to myself, which is this, (and it is confirmatory of the statement made by the honora ble Senator from Louisiana:) the Senate are aware per haps that a great majority of both parties were consulted in the progress of the treaty. So far as my understand-1 ing goes, Mr. Clayton spoke to me on the subject. I do not know but that I saw the rough draft of it. My un derstanding certainly was that the treaty put an end to I all questions of jurisdiction on the part of Great Britain > to Central America. I agree fully with the Senator as to ' that. We were consulted, and that was our view. [Here the conversation dropped ] A Ma* AocideITALLY Shot.?On Christmas day, at a ?booting match at Palmertown, in Baltimore county, (about two miles east of Parkton,) Mr. Kinsey Frederick was accidentally shot by a man named William Hannon, and died immediately afterwards. It appears that at the time Mr. Frederick was under the influence of liquor, and inadvertently placed himself about eight or ten feet from the muzzle of Mr. Hannon's gun, who intended at the time to shoot at a mark, and at that moment it was dis charged, its contents entering the unfortunate man's head near his right aye, killing him instantly. Hannon gave himself up. but was 'subsequently discharged. Maikk Law ?r Horse Powul?A story is told of a trick played in a neighboring town, [of Massachusetts,] by lome ex tremely thirsty individuals, for securing a drink. The object of the trick was to get some liquor out of the town agent, and it was highly successful. They procured an old horse and "stood nim" in a barn, "ne of the number went to the town agent's premise*, and. he being absent, " a pint of gin Ibr a tick horse' was procured of his wife. This amount was soon exhausted, and the horse grew worse. Another pint was pro cured, the horse being "very sick" indeed. The horse grew worse again, and a quart was wanted. When this was gone after, the agent had returned. He dealt out the quart, and went to see it administered. The thirsty individuals saw him ooming, or learned of his approach, and fell to rubbing the poor horse most powerfully. Finally, it was derided to take the liquor to an apothecary, to have some drugs put into it, as it had not dune much good thus far, and the individual con veying the tres?ure made his way to another barn, to which, one after another, the company followed him, the agent at last being left nearly alone. After that gentleman had been led through various adventures, the consciousness dawned upon him that he had been humbugged, and he made his way home. The horse recovered, and the doctors all had the head-arhe the next day.?SpritigfltU HtpuUimn. ALMA MAC.?1HA3. i 2 -J j ? r = j Months, &? f. f. s if I! H W January 2 3 4 5 910111112 1017118192012122 2.", 24|26i26 3031:... Febr'ary'.J... 1 6 7 8 March. 1314 20 21 ff! |20 11 April. 3 10 17 24 May. 26 26 27 11 |8 16 122 <2* June. 16 Months. 1 7 8 1415 July 2&2?Jj J.J 4. 6 11 12 1819 2426 26 August. 2| 8 4 6 9|10,11 12 KV171819 22 28(2412626 29 30>31. J. J .. ...U II 2 6, 6i 71 8j 9 12 13141616 Sept'ber 4 11 18119 2! 8 9 10 2021 18 24 26 *!? 18 19(20 20 2122 26 27 28'29 80. 22'23 2^80 ? 6 7 1814 27 4 11 17)18 24 26 m I 14 21 28 2 H ?' F at s- 5 V i i 4 5 6 7 8 11 12181415 1819 2021 22 2512627 2829 1 2 8 4 6 8 91011 1 151617 181'* 22 23 24 2626)27 39X081 ... 1 2 6 6 7 8 9 12 13141616 18:19 20 21 22 28 2AM 27 October.!...I..J... 21 8, 4 91011 161718 1282436 18031 28(2980 R. A T Novem'r 910 16 23 202122 Deoem'r ..I 1 7 8 14 15 2829 I6RV 12 1314 19 2021 26'27tl8 ? I ?? 2 3 4 9.1011 181 26 26 16!17 23 24 53 5! 61 7, 8 1218.1416: ... 192021 2223 24 26126 27'28 29 80 31 2 8 9 10 1617 COMMUNICATION. THE VALLEY OF THE SAN JOACHIN. The extensive plaint* which lie between the foot hills of the Sierra Nevada and the coast range of the mountains of California, commencing at the Tulare Lake, and ex tending for near two hundred miles, with an average breadth of about fifty miles, form what is known as the Valley of the San Joachin. No portion of the Qolden State is so rich in mineral | wealth, and none offers greater inducements to the pur ? suits of agrioulture. Alreadylt has attracted a consider able population ; and scattered over a domain which was but recently the lair of the wild beast, or the haunt of the roving savage, are now seen village*, towns, and cities, which begin to rival those of the Atlantic States in all the refinement* and luxuries which enterprise and successful comtneroe produce. Hare are already marts of commerce, halls legislation, courts of justice, templeMf worship, ?prosperity is fore&adffWed by fast coming ev?ttt?. As it is to and through this rich and beautiful region th%t &e great national railroad proposed by the**ble and distin guished Senators of Californiu is to lead, and which, be ing the most direct and practicable route of intercommu nication between the Atlantic and Pacific, would at the I same time conduce more than any other to the general benefit of the whole Union, a brief description of the coun try, and a few reminiscences of the wild sports partaken, of therein, may not be uninteresting. The Valley of the San Joachin, throughout its whole extent, is nearly equally divided by the noble river whose name it bears, which, from its source to its confluence with the ocean tide in the Bay o? Suisun, has worn for it self a deep bed in the alluvial soil. The San Joachin receives all its tributaries from the mountain range on the east, there being no streams flowing into it fVom the west. The prircipal of these tributaries are the Maripo sa, Mercedes-Tuolomne, Stanislaus, and Calavaras, in whose canons have been discovered the richest deposites of gold, and whose valleys are of great fertility. In these streams were found salmon, trout, and various other fish, while the bordering woodlands abounded in game of all kinds. This made the whole region a favorite resort of the Indians, and many warlike tribes had their rude huts or rancheries in the dense forests of the neighboring moun tains. These tribes are rapidly disappearing; for, if they are not indeed the progeny of Ishmael, they certainly may be spoken of " as having their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them." The eastern side of the great valley rises by a succession of slopes of a gradual and easy ascent, and its undulating hills and fer tile plains are well adapted to cultivation, aud may be ir rigated to a considerable extent from most of the streams already mentioned. The western side, having no running wuters, is for the most part sterile, and very soon after the rains cease suffers all the effects of drought and exces sive heat; for, shut in from the ocean by the coast range, it derives little or no benefit from the sea breeze, whose moisture is condensed and absorbed as it rolls up against the mountain barrier; and, even when it breaks through some of the few gorges and depressions of the range, sweeps over the arid plains with the foroe and withering breath of the sirocco of the desert. During the rainy season, which commences in November and ends in April, so vast is the volume o( water gathered on the plains and brought down by the tributary mountain streams, that I the natural banks of the San Joachin, high and bold i though they be, cannot hold ths swollen current, and the ' wild waters overspread a great extent of country. These I overflowed lands, when the dry season or summer sets in, I being cut up by great bayous and sloughs, are gradually i drained, leaving here and there vast pools or ponds, and the whole surface is soon covered with a rank growth of i coarse grass, reeds, flags, and fula. The plains and drier portions of the land which border the tula are covered with various kinds of nutritious grass, and on the slopes of the hills, and throughout all the smaller valleys on both sides the river, wild oats grow in great luxuriance. On the banks of the main river, and along the margins of the lesser streams, willow, sycamore, birch, maple, larch, and many beautiful flowering trees and shrubs abound. Seve ral species of acorn-bearing oaks are found in the gorges of the hills, and huge trees, the growth of centuries, are scattered in groups throughout the valleys, or stand apart in solitary grandeur, like giant wardens of the sterile plains ; while, towering over the highest ridges, the ma jestic red-wood tree courts the breeze and wrestles with the storm. The grasses and wild oat* mature and ripen early in the dry season, and soon cease to protect the earth from the scorching rays of the sun. This is parti cularly the case on the western side of the valley ; and as the summer advances the moisture of the earth is exhaust ed, and the radiation of heat from the extensive plains and hill-sides is very great. Few and far between are springs to be found. Seldom, if ever, is water seen trick ling from the rock or gushing from the hills, and for months it can only be got from the sinks of the gulches or the pools and ponds of the tula swamps. In the deep fens of the tula are gathered innumerable quantities of geese, brant, docks, curlew, snipe, herons, cranes, and almost every other kind of waterfowl; while roaming hither, in search of water, the bcrders ol the morass and adjacent plains are even yet frequented by elk, | antelope, and deer, and in bygone years were traversed j by immense herds of cattle and bands of wild hortM. Of the latter so great at one time was the number that their course could be marked at a vast distance by the clouds of dust which they raised, while the sound of their hoofs striking the hard ground could be heard for many a mile, not unlike the mattered reverberations of thunder from distant hills. Of noble size, fine proportions, and great muscular power, the wild horse of California still shows his famed Arab lineage. 8ome are milk-white, some jet black, others sorrel and bay aud cream color, many iron-grey, and not a few pied or pintoed ; while not unfrequently are still to be found steeds of indomita ble spfrit, great beauty, and matchless speed. It was a beautiful sight to see them careering over the plains in the wild gambols of their natural liberty, realiiing the scene so graphically given by IJyron in his Maxeppa: ft With flowing tail and flying mane, Wide nostrils, never stretched by pain, M?>uths bloodless to ths bit or rein, And feet that iron never shod, And flank' unsearred by spar or rod, A thousand horse?the wild, th* free, Liks waves that follow o'er the sea, Come thickly thundering on ! They stop, they start, they snuff the air ; Wallop a moment here and there : Approach, retire, wheel round and round, Then plunge away with sudden bound, And backward to ihe forest fly, By instincl, from the human eye." But bountiful *s wss such a sight, it wag terrible and almost certain destruction to encounter the rush of a nu merous band when in sodden fright, with flashing eyes and wildly-tossed manes, they took their headlong, impe tuous course to aroid langer or escape pursuit. Yet, dangerous as were these encounters, there was no sport or pastime, not eren eiccpHng the hunting of the gmily bear, in which tb? Californian more delighted than the chase of the wild horse; and it wm pursued with aridity, not merely for the sake of gain, but as affording oppor tunity to display manly prowesa and skill in horseman ship. The cnaee being also often oxer uneven and some times treacherous ground, with wide fissures and sunken holes, was daagerous in the extreme, and not unfre quently " Msny ahorse lay masterless ?? the earth, With his last gasp bursting his bloody girth." Yet a people who spent a very great portion of their lites on horseback must needs become very erpert in rrery thing that pertains to horsemanship. A Oali forui&n indeed is most at home iu bis saddle, and his cos' tume and horse equipments, though gaudy in the extreme> are yet picturesque. His "tombrero" of brown or fawn color, having a conical crown and broad rim, is held on by a ribbon, whioh passes under the chin or flutters in the wind. Hid bead is generally turbaned with a flashy bandanna, from beneath which his long black locks float out. The collar of his calico or cotton shirt rolls over that of a close-fitting jacket of blue cloth, or tanned buck skin, richly ornamented with braid, siher luce, or gold cord, aud a double row of bright buttons. His trousers, of like mateiiul, are open to the knee, showing his white cotton drawers, and are kept up by a silken or worsted sask, or " rit>o*a," wound tightly around the body. His leggins, half-boots, or shoes are of leather, and his heels are armed with heavy spurs, with rowels several inches in length, having little steel plates hanging to their shanks, which jingle and rattle with the motion of the horse. His "fautaor saddletree, has a high cantle and I still higher pommel, and is covered with several detached pie??a of leather, stamped with various figures and often elaborately and gaudily embroidered. The fctirrups, made of wood, are large and clumsy, but richly carved aud or naaumUd. The girth is formed of a number of tiugla conlq of Jftr "M**1 rings tree, ms oihjr hi# jerfcdl be?y"*rtn pinole, and oftener a pack of ewdn*Hmit ?* ?trh shirt. His bridle is of the severest kind at bit; with chain ourb, long reins, and headstall highly otanaiMteA vjfth silver. A pair of goat skins, hanging down over the horse's neck, shields the riders legs in passing through the bush, while his " turapaa kind of long woollen shawl, protects his person from the rain or cold, and is his only covering 1 in his accustomed bivouac. Unpractised in the use of the rifle, the Californian seldom carries pistol or carbine, but wields with great skill an iron-pointed lance or spear, and on horseback or afoot is never without his long-bladed knife, which he carries securely sheathed in the folds of his leggins. Hut of all weapons, there is none on which the Californian so much relies, or in the use of which he so much exoels, as the lasso. The lasso is a thong of raw hide, some fifteen or twenty yards in length, platted or braided; one end of which is made fast to the logger head or knot of the pommel, while the other end has a running noose. The lasso is gathered in a loose,coil, which is lightly held in the hand, and, being swung round a few times, is thrown with great certainty. The instant a horse trained to the service finds the oast has taken, he will suddenly stop, although at full speed, and extending his fore feet, brace himself to resist the jerk, or wheeling short round, set off in the opposite direction. To gratify their passion for the chase, no season passed that parties did not go forth, and they would follow up their wild Bport far days and weeks, crossing mountains, fording rivers, and even penetrating far into the wilderness homes of the Indian. These parties when going forth, as in former times from the Missions, and at a latter period I from the Pueblos, Haciendas, or larger Kancuos, were very numerous, each Padre or Patron having almost as l many attendants as a Barou of old when going to hunt I the wild boar or to make a "foray over the border." I Ench had his hunsman, baccaros, arrieros, and muchacos, j and took with him not only a large cavalaule of his best J and fleetest horses, but pack mules without number. | Hunting on every side as they progressed, during the day, some spot was sought at night, affording wood, wa i ter, and grass, nere fuel was soon collected, the fire ! lighted, the kettle set to boil, the coffee made, the game | cooked, and hot cakes or tortillas baked. The feast en I joyed, pipes and segaritas were lighted, the can sent round, j and many hours spent in revelry. At a late hour each j wrapped his sarapa around him, and laid down to rest amid the wild flowers and luxuriant grass. It is only those who hare made such a bivouac in California can appreciate its enjoyment. The sky of that deep dark blue, which is not seen on this side of the continent; the stars so bright and distinot; the perfect stillness of eTery thing ; the air redolent with the perfume of innumerable flowers ; the thick dark bush, occasionally lighted up by the flickering blase of the camp fires ; the dasky forma of ' the enjoying th?ir repose all combine to make a picture few can describe and only a Sata&tor Rosa can portray. Thus, as has been already said, days and weeks were spent. Some pursued the bounding elk, some . hunted the timid antelope or still more timid deer, I while others sought to rouse the grizzly bear in his lonely lair, or went in chase of the wild horses. It was only the I most expert and daring horsemen who could succeed in , the last mentioned sport. Arriving on the bunting . grounds, and discovering a band feeding or sporting on the plains, the hunsmen divided into small parties, and took separate stations in the direction the band would I probably run. While some stood concealed by the sides , of their horses, or crouched on the grounds, ready to j vault into the saddle, others gradually approached, until , the band became restive and broke away, when each huntsman, selecting an object of pursuit, would dash in at ' speed, and seek to lasso his prize. The capture, however, was seldom effected at the first dash; for unerring as was i the cast of the lasso from a vigorous arm and practiced hand, it was not often the fleetest horse could carry his rider at once up with the flying band. Away then would go the pursued and the pursuer; clearing many feet at every bound, and dashing wildly, mully onward. If the cha?e took off in one undeviating course, the pursuit was generally hopeless; but if the flying band was turned or headed, other horsemen relieved those who had commen ced the run ; or the first, quickly mounting fresh horses, brought to thorn from the different stations, continued the chase, and thus relieving each other would eventually run down and capture the best and fleetest of the band. When thus overtaken and c*ught by a successful cast of the lasso, the wild hor?e suddenly checked in his career, either tumbled headlong over, or choked down, lay help less for want of breath. The hunsmap then quiekly dis mounted. and, leaving his trained horse to stand, ran to the fallen one and bound his fore fe<*t, loosening at the same time the noose around the neck, and possingthe lasso un der the lower jaw, thus gaining a power sufficient to control the rearing and plunging animal as he revived. Failing in every effort to escape, covered with foam, and trembling with fesr, the captive would at last yield and ! suffer his captor to pass his lAnd over his face, breathe into his nostrils, and finally lead him away; forever after a subdued if not a willing slave. Of the number of wild horses taken, and often killed merely for their hides, the accounts would appear incredible but for evidences yet remaining : for as the bones of camels, bleached by the sun and the breezes of the desert, mark the route to the tomb of the Prophet at Mecoo, so do spots yet remain in the wild wastes of California, covered with the skeleton bones of thousands of animals slaughtered in sport or for lucre, whieh mark the progress of a people whoee boast ed mission it was to civilise and christianise the savage. SOLANO. STEAMBOATS ON THE LAKES. It appears, from the returns made to the Secretary of the Treasury, that the steamboat tonnage connected with the American Lakes exceeds that of Great Britain and all her dependencies ; and the Buffalo Commercial states that the steamers on Lake Erie alone measure more tons than all the steamboats in Europe, Asia, and Africa, leaving out those belonging to Great Britain. In the ship-yard of Bidwell, Banta & Co., Buffalo, six hundred men are now employed, and among the boats which they are building are two magnificent steamers fqr M. 0. Roberts, of New York, to run from Buffalo to Mon roe. touching at Cleveland. These boats are to be 325 feet long, and of l.WO tons. Messrs. F. N. k B. B. Jones, of the same place, are also bailding two magnificent steam ers. 830 feet in length. The holds of these latter ar* to be divided into four compartments by water-tight bulk heads. which will render their sinking almost an impossi bility in case of a collision, iA they are to be propelled by the largest and most pow^Bl steamboat engines in the world. Miti> Sextikci.?At the last court in Westmoreland county (Pa.) a ?tage driver was fined $10 for upsetting his stage while intoxicated, killing a woman and injuring other passengers. ? Cspt. Essnsit* Woot>?rtT, of Dumbarton, (Me.) died at his residence on the 22d December, aged 92 years He has voted at every Presidential election since the adop tion of the U. S. Constitution. He was at the polls on the 2d of November. An JJxnosiow or Fi*i Dawv occurred in thecolliery of Mr. P. Fogorty, near Pottsville, on Monday week, burn ing three persons so badly that one of them, named Thoe. Welsh, afterwards died. Several others were injured The explosion was caused by carelessness, a common lamp being taken into a current of foul air. collected d? ing several days, iu which the mine had not been used.