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" ?"<' fulou, now and forever, oue and Inseparable." THURSDAY, JANUARY 0, 185^. DEATH OF COMMODORE MORGAN. It ia with painful regret that we have to an nounce the death of the gallant and veteran Com modore Charles W. Morgan, of the United States Navy. He expired at his official residence, in command of the Washington Navy Yard, yester day morning, after a lingering and painful illness, aged sixty-three years. Commodore Morgan entered the Navy in 1808 and was excelled in courage and activity by no one of the brave young spirits who bore a part in the glorious naval actions of tho war of 1812-'15. Though very young, he distinguished himself in the action between the United States frigate (Jon Kitution and his Britannic Majesty's frigate Guer riere, the most important naval engagement during the war. Twice appointed to command the United States naval forces in the Mediterranean, he dis charged his duty in these important trusts with honor to himself and advantage to his country. He governed those under his orders not by operating on their fears, but by well-directed efforts to elevate them in their own estimation, by reasonable indul gences, and the dispensation of equal justice. Commodore Morgan was a native of Virginia, a nephew of his illustrious namesake, the brave Gen. Morgan, of the Revolutionary army; and in all the qualities of a gallant and noble officer and gentleman, he was worthy of his blood and of his chivalric profession. He has left a devoted wife and two sons to mourn his loss, and, as he was esteemed and respected by all who knew him, his death will be lamented by all with whom he ever served, from the highest to the humblest. 1 The Funeral of tie late Commodore Morgan will take place this afternoon from the Navy Yard, at half-past 3 o'clock precisely. The following officers will act as pall bearers : Com. Shubrick, Gen. Henderson, M. C. Com. Skinner, (,'apt. Terrett, M. C. I Com. Smith, Gen. Totten, Capt. Montgomery, Col. Abert. Officers of the Army and Navy and the friends of the family are respectfully invited to attend the funeral. We are far from claiming for this journal, or re quiring from its contemporaries, entire exemption from error. But we look for something like con sistency in their treatment of high public matters; and we have some right to expect it from that cen tral journal in this city which is considered the organ of the dominant party in our country. In a ; leading article in ? the Union" of yesterday, com mending the measure proposed in the Senate, (re affirming the Monroe doctrine,) the following argu ments are put forth in favor of that measure : "Theftcent occurrences in Sonora, whether un ' dertaken with or without the knowledge and con ' Dlvan?e of the French Kmperor, are but the pre cursors of other similar events of a still more start ling character, which may be expected soon to oc cur if our Government is seen shrinking from its ' true policy or slumbering at its post. The late I < movements of the French naval forces at Samana I ' unquestionably under the orders of their lovernment, give a strong emphasis to the 1 warning. Now, in " the Union" of the very day preceding, (Tuesday,) we read, in reference to Sonora, the fol lowing evidence of the absence of any connexion of j the French Government with " the movement in j Sonora, confirming, it will be seen, the previous I impression of " the Union" of its " futility." Th* French in 6onora.?The reader has doubtless ' observed that recent intelligence from Mexico confirms ?our suspicion of the futility of the French movement in ?Sonora. The affair was precisely such as we supposed ' it?? mtrt ptrtonal adoentur* of a handful of daring tpe ' culators, with whom the French Government was in no man ner implicated. After a partial success over the Govern 4 ment force9 under Blanco, they posted themselves at ' Hermosillo, where they were subsequently assailed and ?completely routed by the federal troops. They have taken ? refuge in California. It will be well if the Samana affair ' gives the same denouement."?Union. And as for " tho Samana affair," to which " the Union" wishes no better than "the same denoue ment, ' it is even of less consequence than that of Sonora, for it appears to have been altogether with-1 out foundation in fact. Such, at least, is the tenor of all the reports from that quarter; the latest of j which is brought by the captain of the brig Sutliff, arrived at Boston from the city of St. Domingo, whence he sailed on the 11th of December, who reports that during the month or more that he was in port at St. Domingo, he heard nothing of the. occupation of the penit^fula oj Samana by the French, and thinks that the story must be incorrect. These two arguments, therefore, in favor of " the warning," as the Union terms it, count for lc*s than The Leoislaturr of Maryland met in annual session at Annapolis yesterday, and, without doing any business of consequence, adjourned till to-day, when the Governor's Message will be sent in. It in said to be a very long document, extending to the length of forty octavo pages ! Among distinguished visiters at present in the city, we have boen glad to meet the Hon. Richard Hush, of Pennsylvania, who is here in his capacity of Hegentof the Smithsonian Institution, the annual meeting of which commenced yesterday; and the Hon. James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania. The for mer gentleman lodged at Brown's Ilotel, the latter at Gadsby's. THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. We observed recently, in a New Orleans paper, while criticizing a work of Mr. FIeadley, the re mark that we possess no authentic account of the military operations at New Orleans during the in road of the British in 1814-'15. This is a mistake. In the American Quarterly Review for October, 1835, is an article describing the progress and re sult of that inroad, written, as is w?'ll known, under the eye of Gen. Jackson, and examined by him from day to day as the work went on. When com pleted, the manuscript was carefully revised by him and corrected by his own khand, so that the account is in fact his own. It is well understood that the author was Gen. Cash, then Secretary of War. f Washington Union. In Albany, New York, a young lady ha* atarted a " Ragged School," in wbioh ahe now baa forty or fifty children, pieked np in the street*. May ah? b? rewarded with a doten of her own, ouch ef tbem good and virtuous and a bleaaing to her ! The permanent debt of New York oity, redeemable at dif ferent periods from 1806 to 1 889, amounts to $ 18,885,869; j from wbieh $4,176,846 is to be deducted for amount in sinking fond. THE UNITED STATES AND NICARAGUA. As might be expected in regard to any matter repairing exactness, which is forwarded by Tele g'.-npfe from this city and retransmitted to us through the newspaper press, the late letter of the Seckkt.vhy of Statu to Mr. Maucolkta, as copied iufo our y^tcriLiy's tidily paper, huj oue or two errors somewhat aiiectiug the sen-se, and the rea sons assigned for it are also imperfectly Mated, if at all accurately. We republish the Letter of the Secretary of State, from a copy which we tind in the " Union" of yesterday,"in a more correct form than that in which, through some other channel, it has reached the Public through the New York press: Department or State, Wasuimoton, December 30, 1862. Sib: You are probably aware that, souie months ago, Mr. Kerr, United States Charge d'Affaires to the Govern ment of Nicaragua, was instructed to request that you might be recalled, and that some other person might be appointed as the representative of Nicaragua near this Government. A despatch was yesterday received from Mr. Kerr, transmitting a copy of a letter to him from Mr. Castel lan, Minister for Foreign Affairs, in which he deolines, on the part of the Nicaraguan Government, to comply with the President's request, and expresses a wish that the reasons on which it was founded should be set forth, in order to their being submitted to the Nicaraguan Chamber. It cannot be necessary to say that this course would be followed by discussions of the most disagreeable and unprofitable character; besides that the President can not consent that any condition whatever should be attach ed to the compliance of the Nicaraguan Government with a request warranted by the most familiar principles of the public law and the practice of civilized States. He has therefore directed Mr. Kerr to rerew the request for your recall and the appointment of another Minister ; and in the mean time 1 am instructed to inform you that no communications can hereafter be received from you as the Nicaraguan Envoy. With much personal regret that it has become my duty to address you a letter of this character, I remain your obedient servant, EDWARD EVERETT. To Senor Don Josb dk Mabcolhta, &c. HON. JOHN DAVIS. FBOM THK BOSTON ATLAS. The following letter from our distinguished Se nator in Congress will be read with interest, and by a vast many of his constituents with profound regret: Washington, December 31, 1852. Sir : My object in addressing you, as the conductor of a public press, is to make known a purpose, which has long been avowed by me, of withdrawing from public life. While I acquaint such members of the Legislature as have not been apprized of the fact that I am not a candi date for re-election, I cannot permit the opportunity to pass without expressing, in a sincere thankful spirit, my great obligations to my fellow-citizens of Massachusetts for the honors which they have voluntarilyconferred upon me, and for their reiterated testimonials of confidence in my fidelity. , The only suitable requital for such expressions of opinion is an earnest, assiduous, faithful discharge of public duty; and my greatest regret is that my health has too often proved inadequate to sustain my unceasing desire to be behind no one in constancy and zeal for the interests of my constituents, and for those of the whole country. That both may go on prospering, and that the liberties and privileges which they enjoy may be perpetuated, is the sincere and earnest wish of your obedient servant, Col. Schocler, Boston. J. DAVIS. Few men have been so long in public life as Mr. Davis, and few have discharged more faithfully or with greater utility the duties of public life; and whoever may succeed him in the nigh position he now holds will find it difficult to fill the place with greater credit to himself, to the'State, and to the whole country than Mr. Davis ; and we can truly say that no one can carry with him to the shades of private life a character more free from spot or blemish. TUB TEXAS DEBT. At the instance of a citizen of the West, who in interested in the matter, we give place to the fol lowing communication : Extract* from President Houston's Mestagt to the Texan Congrett, December 12,1843. " It may be well to allude to a fact winch has greatly prejudiced the character of the nation. The charge that we had repudiated our Government liabilities has been industriously urged, not only abroad but at home, as a case of distrust and an accusation of bad faith. Other Governments of high respectability have done so : Texat never hat, and I tru*t never will. It is true that our lia bilities were increased to so large an amount during the administration of my predecessor as to render it not only expedient but indispensably necessary to defer their pay ment until the country could so far recover as to be able to comply fully with all itt obligation*. The fact that many of these liabilities were incurred for purposes not only not sanctioned by the Legislature, but entirely ille gal and impolitic, hat never toith me rmttituted a reaton for a refutal to pay them at the earliest moment within tur power. Notwithstanding the mischievous and utterly groundless j publications upon this subject, emanating from some of 'our public journals, the good faith of the nation will finally be Tnoaot'oniT vindicated, by the redemption of evert dollar for which it stands pledged. That we have not been' able to do so before this time has perhaps been a fault, as well as a misfortune; but nations, like indivi duals, are sometimes compelled to yield to the force of circumstances." " From these facts it must be apparent to all, except in the eye of prejudice, that Tezat hat never entertained Till design of repudiation " The Executive has looked upon the question whether our liabilities were legally or judiciously incurred at one not proper to be made, but simply whether the national faith is involved in their redemption. lie has heretofore and will ever continue to let hit face againtl every mrature which has the appearance of sullying the national charac ter. lie sees neither reason nor necessity for deviatitag from this course. He is clearly of opinion that our public faith should be and will he held tacred, and that all obligation* will be redeemed to the uttermost cent, at the earliest period our means will justify." Success of the Caloric Stea* Enoine.?The New I York Post of Tuesday says: " The new Caloric ship, the 1 Ericsson, went down the bay thia morning in fine style. ?She was going, at the time our informant saw her, at ' the rate of eight or ten knots an hour, and was a bcauti 'ful sight This was the Engineer's trial trip, and in a ' few days, we learn, a trial trip, to whioh the press and ? others will be invited, ia to be made. There is now, it 1 is said, no doubt of the complete success of this impor ? tant enterprise. It will be the grandest triumph in prac ' tical art which the age has known." P. W. Alexander, Esq., for many years associated in the Editorial Department of the Savannah Republican, has become sole Proprietor of that respectable Whig journal. Mr. J. T. Pajton, Esq. has become associated in the Editorial department of the Rtchmond Whig. Mr. P. hae for several year* had charge of the Lexington (Va.) Ga zette, and in that position acquired high and deserved re putation as a writer. Johh Foretth, Esq., for ten years past Editor of the folambua <Qa.) Tim**, haa juat ceased hi* connexion with that paper. THE ORDINANCE OP 1787. The present lull of thti political elements is not unfavorable to the publication of the disquisition, which has a place in the preceding columns, from a source of the^ highest respectability, on a point of' public history upon which there seems not to be as general au agreement as we had supposed. The writer of the article having kindly allowed us to publish, in connexion with the dissertation his private note which accompanied it, the opportu nity is afforded us of stating, for the information of those of our readers who have not been as familiar as we have with his name and character, that he is of a highly respectable connexion in Virginia, and was, during nearly if not quite the whole of the Ad ministration of Mr. Madison, the Private Secretary and confidential friend of that distinguished States man, and doubtless enjoyed as well the confidence of President Jefferson, to whom, indeed, his elder brother, Col. Isaac Coles, had been Private Secre tary during his Administration. No one could have had better opportunities than he of knowing every important fact connected with the early history of this Government. After Mr. Madison's retirement from the Presi dency, Mr. Coles migrated to the then new State of Illinois, and, during his residence there, served one term as Governor of the State. Some timo after which he removed to the city of Phila delphia, and has since resided there in the enjoy ment of private and domestic life. FIRST RAILROAD TRAIN TO WHEELING. A Telegraph dospatch dated at Wheeling on Sa turday says: " Lewis M. Colk, Esq., the Super intendent of Transportation of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, arrived here last night, in charge of the first train with the United States mail from Baltimore. This train left Baltimore at seven o'clock on Friday morning, and arrived here at fifteen min utes past 10 o'clock the same evening, making the entire passage, including stoppages, in fifteen hours and fifteen minutes; thus verifying the prediction of President SWANN, made at the Fairmount opening, that by the 1st day of January, 1853, the traveller would be able to eat his breakfast in Baltimore and take supper at Wheeling." NORTH CAROLINA LEGISLATURE. We obtain from the Fayetteville Observer the following summary of leading business done by the Legislature of North Carolina at its late session: The only appropriations for internal improvements are, $80,000 to complete the Cape Fear and Deep river work?, $-1,000 for surveying a route for a rail route from Golds borough to Beaufort, and $12,000 for a similar survey from Salisbury to Tennessee. The Legislature has granted many charters to allow individuals to do what the State itself was unwilling to do?make further improvements in our facilities of travel and transportation. The most important of these is the charter for a railroad from this place to the coal mines. The several bills districting the State were finally pass ed, and, thanks to the Whig majority in the House of Commons, we believe they are fair bills. Thrj;e new Banks were incorporated?at Yanceyville, with a capital of $200,000; at Elizabeth city, with a branch at Greensborough, capital '$500,000 ; at Char ljtte, capital $300,000. The capital of the Bank of Wadesborough was increased $200,000. All the other various Bank bills appear to have failed. No less than twenty-nine Plauk Road charters were passed, a gratifying testimony to the usefulness and popu larity of a system of improvement which originated, so far as North Carolina is concerned, in Fayetteville. Judge Nasii has been appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the btate of North Carolina, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the late resigna tion of the Hon. Thomas Ruffin. Tiie Missouri Legislature has passed a bill chartering the North Missouri Railroad Company, and giving it State aid to the amount of two mil lions of dollar?. Railroad Subscription.?The Commissioners"! of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, have subscribed the sum of $750,000 to the Allegheny Valley Rail- ] road. It is said they would have subscribed around million, but $250,000 were retained to push forward the Steubenville road. Railroads in Missouri.?The Missouri Legis lature has passed and the Governor has approved the Pacific railroad bill, the Iron Mountain railroad bill, and the North Missouri loan bill. These bills lend the credit of the State to a certain extent to the proposed works. The Superintendent of the Hudson River Rail road, in reply to an article in one of the New Yoik papers, says : " Our signal men are all supplied with torpedoes, to place on the rail for a signal of danger in thick weather, when the ordinary signal cannot be seen. The explosion caused by running over one of these is loud enough to be heard throughout the entire train, communicating the alarm with absolute certainty to all on board. " I hare this day directed that no drawbridge on this road shall hereafter be opened, either by day or by night, without torpedoes being first placed upon the rails, five hundred yards distant on each side, in addition to the usual signals." This is an excellent regulation, and renders the guards against accident on that road as perfect as human agency can make them. New Hampsuiuk.?The rote in the New Hampshire House for the indefinite postponement of the liquor bill, which had provoked so much angry discussion among its members, was 147 to 128, only fifteen members being ab sent. We observe that Ioharod Bartutt, of Ports mouth, on?p*f the most distinguished lawyers of the State, and W. H. Y. Hackktt, of the same city, another eminent member of the bar, voted for the indefinite postponement of the bill. " Spiritualism."?A Convention of Spiritual Rappers has been in session at Boston during the last week, which was largely attended. Quite a discussion occurred as to whether the spirit-world should be consulted respecting the organization of the Convention, which was decided in the negative, and considerable excitement grew out of the assertion by one of the believers that the " knocking* were nothing." Explanation was made that the brother " wanted light." The Boston Courier says " the speeches were, without exception, vapid and wild. The expe riences related were repulsive in many instances. These people actually profess to hold the keys of glory in their hands. They are a most deluded and presumptuous body ?f fanatics." Am Expmsio* o? Gasworks.?The gasworks in Woon socket (R. I.) exploded on Monday morning, shockingly burning two workmen and blowing the purifying house, which was of stone, entirely to pieces. The accident was caused by the men going into the building with a lantern to search for a leak which was supposed to exist Cci.tivatioh of Suoar o* th* Sanpwich Islajihs.?It is well known that the cultivation of sugar has been in troduced in the Sandwich Islands with a good degree of success. We find in a late number of a Sandwich Island paper some statistics of the cultivation of sugar, which are of considerable interest. The number of acres culti vated on the various islands in 1845 was 1,660. In 1868 the number of acres cultivated will be 2,760. Taking the average yield at oae ton, or 2,000 lbs. per acre, we have for this year's crop 8,800,000 lbs., and for 1868, 6,480,000 lbs. At fire cents per lb., the crop of 1852 will be worth $lG5,000)SRBd that of 1868 $274,000. ? MESSAGE OP THE GOVERNOR OP NEW YORK. The New York Commercial Advertiser gives the following summary of the first Message of Governor Seymour to the Legislature of that State, which commenced its annual session at Albany on Tuesday last: The Governor refers to the general prosperity ex periouced throughout the State, hut admits that some branches of manufactures have failed to yield remune rative returns. He is silent respecting the causes of this, but hopes that the demand for their productions may re store them to a healthy condition. The charitable and benevolent institutions of the State receive pronvner* notice, and full statistics are given of their operant m rhe Governor recommends the esta blishment of n> ther lunatic asylum, to be located in the western part< t the State. Further pr> i-ion for the care of idiots is also recom mended, the i r.-iber of idiots being equal to the number of insane jier >n-? in the State. The condui or ttie institution for the deaf and dumb, and for the bl vj is commended. The comiii tuners of emigration having found the commutation ? si.50 insufficient to procure buildings for the reoej.i n. of immigrants, though enough for the support of th nick and helpless, recommend that it be raised to $52 *.*> 1 the Governor seems to approve the suggestion. The messa* ? yi?es a summary of the statistics of com mon schools. I be Governor recommends the adoption of some princip n giving pecuniary aid to colleges and academies, intend of specially legislating in favor of particular intuitions. lie reComiii.u Is the establishment of schools and col lege* for the lomotion of agricultural, mechanical, and natural scien e, and supports his recommendation by good reasoning. The Legisliture are informed that applications will be made by the houses of refuge in New York and Roches ter, for the reformation of juvenile delinquents, for addi tional pecuniary aid and for some legislative enactments. The Governor ^proves of such applications. The following appropriations for the State prisons are recommended : Auburn $14,000, Sing Sing $7,000, Clin ton $27,000; tijtal $4S,000. For valuable suggestions respecting the prisons, the terms of imprisonment and the review by the Supreme Court of the testimony and proceedings in cases of capi tal conviction, Govern* Seymour refers the Legislature to the last annual mesege of Governor Hunt. The survey of the S%te, and the establishment, of per manent monuments, wiich will serve for the determina tion of magnetic variaions, so as to determine bounda ries with accuracy, ar? strongly recommended, as requir ing the early attention of the State Government. In regard to the oiti-rent difficulties, the Governor thinks that the tenanti had secured the sympathy of the public so far as their proceedings originated in a desire to test the validity of titles in the courts of law, but the outrages against lift and property have excited a deep feeling against the pirpetrators. ' The suits instituted by the State have been decided in favor of the landlords, except in one instanoe, when the State reserved some vacant lands, and that case has been carried to the Cour of Appeals. The message adds that: " The decision o.' the Courts having established the va lidity of their title.', and their legal riguts, it is believed that the land ownjrs will recognise the importance of selling their lands upon favorable terms, and of extin guishing tenures injurious to the interests of the commu nity, and inconsistent with our political institutions. 44 If any action is had by the Legislature upon the sub ject, it should no; be of a character to excite unfounded expectations, and in the end injure those it is apparently designed to serve. When the titles of the landlords are established, any assistance given to the tenants must be at the expense of the State, and not of the legal rights of any of its citizers." The number of enrolled militia of the State is 289,306, and the various uniformed companies number 18,000 men, of whom 6,800 are in the city of New York. The message advocates the establishment of a system of reciprocal trale with Canada, as likely to " increase the business of our canals, add to the prosperity of the towns in the northern and western sections of our State, and increase the commercial importance of the city of New York." Th? enterprise of the New York World's Fair Association la also highly commended. The number of banks, banking associations, and indivi dual banks doing business in the State on the 1st of De cember, 1851 and 1852, was as follows:. 184^ 1852. Chartered Banks 7V 70 Banking Associations 95 118 Individual Banks 77 89 Total 244 277 The notes issued to the free banks amount to $19,159,056, being $S,48rt,0o2 more than on December 1, 1851, and an increase of $7,978,881 in three years. The circulation of the banks on the 1st December was $38,790,985, against $27,25-1,458 in September, 1851. The annual report of the superintendent of the banking department will call the attention of the Legislature to the evils attending the establishment of banks merely for the purpise of getting notes into circulation, and Will re commend further legislative restraints on the subject. Returns have been received from twenty-seven of the thirty railroads which reported last year. Forty-one ad ditional corporations have filed articles of ass<&iation. Home of them are known to be completed, and upon oth ers large expenditures have been mode, but none of them have transmitted their annual reports as required by law. The number of miles in use on the twenty-seven roads which have reported is 1,797. Add the length of the three roads not reported, as given last year, and it makes a total of 2,027 miles: being an increase of 297 miles on the number included in the previous annual report. The total cost of the twenty-seven roads up to the 1st of Janu ary last is $82,812,160. The total expenditure on all the roads constructed and commenced in the State is proba bly about one hundred million dollars. The number of passengers earned on twenty-one roads were 7,061,900; miles travelled with passengers 382,847, 667. The increase on eighteen roads was: Passengers 1,487,087; miles travelled 92,858,800. Tons of freight carried on twenty-one roads 2,060,879. Increase on Heventeen/roads 821,100 tons. Persons injured in life and limb, by accident, on twenty-six roads, *256 ; of whom were killed 158. Increase on last year on twenty-five roads, 59 killed, 44 injured. The Governor then goes into a long review of the em barrassed condition of the public works of the State, con sequent upon the constitutional restrictions relative to expenditures upon them, the decision that the nine mil lions enlargement loan law was unconstitutional, and the decrease in the revenues of the canals from the reductions of tolls last year. Nearly one-half of the message is de voted to these subjects. We have not time to-day to prepare an analysis of this portion of the document. The policy which the Governor advocates is the gradual completion of the canals, by an additional expenditure of about one million of dollars, a portion of which he proposes to raise by the imposition of a State tax, which, with that now imposed for the sup port of Government, shall be equal to about one mill on the dollar on the assessed valuations of 1851. The repayment of the $1,500,000 borrowed under the canal enlargement law, and the payment for work per formed on contracts under it, are recommended, the ne cessary amount to be raised by tax, or under a law sub mitted to the people to authorixe the contraction of a debt for the purpose. It is recommended thAt immediate provision be also made for the payment of the $825,000 due to contractors for work done, relative to which we have previously had a report from the canAl auditor. The finances of the State are not in a satisfactory con dition. In 1814 the State bad a fund for the support of its Government of $4,896,943. This has been spent, and on the 1st of June, 1846, a debt was owing of $5,992,840.82, and the debt is now increasing by the accumulation of interest. The expenses of the 8tate Government for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1852, exceeded its revenues by about two hundred thousand dollars. It is believed that many charges upon the treasury can be cut off or dimii ished. If they eannot, the State must withhold its benefactions from institutions of learning and asylums, or it must increase the amount of taxes imposed for the sup port of Government. Private letter* from Bogota of October 25 state that the British Consul there had received information that the British Government had instructed the admiral on the Jamaica station to blockade the ports of New Grenada, and to use sueh coercive measures as he may oonsider neceesary to compel the settlement of a claim pending upward of twenty years on the part of a Mr. Mcintosh. Much excitement prevailed on the sutyect COIN AG B AT THB MINT. The Report of the Assistant Treasurer of thejj United States Mint, at Philadelphia, states the fol lowing to have been the coinage of the Mint for the mouth of December: Gold?265,816 Double Eagles . . |5,3lti,820 11,240 Eagles .... 112,m 25,287 Half Eagles . . . 111,43') 38,000 Quarter Eagle* ? ? * 188,850 Gold Dollars . . . 188,860 471,868 Pieces .... *5,770,706 Silvke?4,690 Half Dollars . . . $2,296 16,660 Quarter Dollars . . 4,106 280,500 Dimes . ' . . 28,060 241,600 Half Dimes . . . 12,075 3,558,900 Three-Cent Pieces . . 106,<317 4,575,008 Pieces .... -$6,924,607 Cofi,EB-S80,841 Cents .... 8,863 5,401,349 Pieces .... .$5,933,370 The amount of California gold deposited during the month was $3,206,000; gold from other sources, $05,000; and silver bullion, $19,600. The total amount of gold deposited during the year was $51,059,295, being three millions more than in 1861. The total coinage for the year is as follows, omitting fractions in several cases: Gold?2,063,020 Double Eagles. . . $41,000,520 263,100 Eagles .... 2,031,000 573,901 Half Eagles . . . 2,869,505 ! 1,159,881 Quarter Eagles . . 2,899,202 2,046,861 Gold Dollars . . . '2,045,851 0,094,705 Pieces .... $51,505,038 Silver 1,100 Dollars .... 1,100 77,180 Half Dollars . . . 88,565 177,060 Quarter Dollars . . 44,265 1,685,500 Dimes .... 153,560 1,000,600 Half Dimes . . 60,025 18,008,600 Three Cent Pieces . . 669,905 27,649,566 Pieces . ?. . $62,852,948 CopPEa6,162,094 Cents .... $51,620 32,711,649 Pieces .... $52,404,569 THE EARTHQUAKE AT ACAPULCO. The following additional particulars of the earth quake at Acapulco are communicated to the Panama Star in a letter dated the 9th ultimo: I was just leaving the bar of the United States Hotel, (late American,) on my way to bed, when I was nearly thrown off my feet by the movement of the ground un derneath me, and bewildered and stunned by the noise of the falling tiles, mortar, breaking of glasses, and the washing and rumbling of a subterraneous torrent, I got through the door and reached the " Patio" in safety. The shock came on like a clap of thunder, no warning being given by slight shocks or rumbling previously. I furnished myself with a lantern and made a tour of the city, and the scene was heartrending in the extreme; women running through the streets screaming and fran tic ; others on their knees praying; others searchig for or dragging from among the ruins their children or re lations ; processions of people with torches, shrieking to God for help and protection. One half the town is in ruins, and the loss cannot be less than $100,000; some estimate it as high as $500,000. By good fortune the calamity occnrred before people had retired to rest, or many moro lives would have been lost. I have only heard of the loss of four lives, but many were injured by the falling buildings. By daylight the city had the appearance of a town de stroyed by siege; the streets and plaza are filled with the population, living in tents and temporary shelters from the sun and dew. We have since had slight shocks almost every hour. Confidence appears to be entirely destroyed in the firmness of Mother Earth, and every body is look iug to the sea for safety. I am sure I shall not feel easy for the next six months in a .house. Among the phenomena observed was the falling of the barometer from 30 to below 28 degrees, and the rise of the water 10 feet preceding, and 17 feet after the first shock. THE MAINE LIQUOR LAW. In the United States Circuit Court for Rhode Island, on Thursday last, Judge Pitman read the opinion of Mr. Justice CUbtir, in the case of Wil liam H. Greene v*. Nathaniel M. Brigg* et al., in volving the constitutionality of the Maine Liquor Law. We find in the Providence Journal the fol lowing abstract of this decision : The action was replevin for certain spirituous liquors committed to the defendants, as constables of the city of Providence, by an order of the Court of Magistrates, to be destroyed according to the provisions of the "Act for the Suppression of Drinking Houses and Tippling Shops." The adjudication of the case involved important ques tions arising under the Constitution and laws of the State. Judge CnkTia, in giving his opinion, cited the 10th and 15th sections of articles 1st of the Constitution, which are as follows: Sec. 10. Id all criminal prosecutions the accused -hull enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impar tial jury ; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to haTe compulsory process for obtaining them in his favor, to hare the assistance of counsel In his defence, and shall be at liberty to speak for himself, nor shall he be deprived of life, liberty, or property, unless by the judg ment of his peers or the law of the land. Sec. 15. The right of trial by jury shall remain in violate. He said the meaning of these two clauses was that " in civil causes a trial by jury is to be had in those classes of cases in which it had been practised down to the time when the Constitution was framed, and such trial is to be substantially in accordance with such modes of proceed ing as had then existed, or might thereafter be devised by the Legislature, without impairing the right itself. But in all criminal cases the right to a trial by jury, accom panied by the other privileges enumerated and defined, is absolutely to exist." After stating the substance of sections 11, 12, and 18 of the Act for the Suppression of Drinking Houses and Tippling Shops, he stated that they were in conflict with the Constitution in several particulars. The conditions of appeal were an infraction of the right to trial by jury. In order to obtain a trial by jury, the party must give se curity in a sum not less than $200, with two sufficient sureties, to pay all fines and costs which might be ad judged against him, and must subject himself to the hazard of having the fine indicted by the justice of the peace increased fivofojd if the quantity of liquor seized should exceed, as in this case it did exceed, five gallons. In the constitutional provision that no person shall be deprived of "life, liberty, or property, unless by thejndg ment of his peers or the law of the land," th* phrase " the law of the land" had been construed to mean " by due pro cess of law." This provision of the act also conflicted with section 14th of the Constitution, "every man being presumed innocent until he is pronounced guilty by law, no act of security which is not necessary to secure an accused per son shall be permitted." The act also conflicted with the clause requiring that the accused should be informed of ?' the nature and cause of the accusation." This act did not require that any particular person should be charged, and in the case at bar the complaint charged no one. The process was defective also for want of certainty in specifying the liquors to be seized. It was also defective in not charging fully tie crime upon which trial was to be had. The accused had not only an absolute right to a trial by jury, but also a right to be so eharged that when that trial takes place the jury should pass upon the whole charge. But the act provided, in the case of an appeal, where tbe liquors seized shall exceed five gallons, if the final decision shall be against the appellant, he shall be adjudged a " common seller," and be sentenced as such, so that he might be convicted of this higher offence without being charged with it, and without a trial by jury of one ol the facts essential to constitute it. But even if the proceedings against the person and the property were repairable, and the only result was a forfeiture of the property, the complaint would be still so deficient in the requisite certainty as to be bad for that cause. He consequently held the order of forfeiture invalid: first, because there was no sufficient complaint; and seoondly, because the plaintiff was deprived of his pro perty by a criminal prosecution, in whwh he neither had nor could have a trial by jury, without submitting to conditions which the Legislature had no constitutional power to impose. The Court also thought the order not simply voidable, but absolutely void ; the magistrates having mo jurisdiction over the proceedings. And they gave judgment for the plaintiff on the demurrer, with nominal damages. Judge Pitman concurred in the opinion. MMARttM'LB TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE. from iu a*< vrarcisco oiu uuj or drckmbbr 1. Since the arrival of th? mag i fteeat ship Sovereign oj the Seat in this harbor^ one of i lie moat Interesting cir cumstances had transpired, connected with her late pas ?>?ge, that has ever been recordei in the aunals of voyages to this ocean. The incident ia fraught with the deepest importance to the cause of science, an l we hasten to lay the particulars before the public. The Sovereign of the Sea* left New York on the 3d day of August, and arrived in this port on the 15th day of November, her passage occupying 103 days and two hours. A few weeks previous to her departure her cap tain, L. McKay, addressed a letter to Lieut M. F. Haiit, the well-known superintended of the Washington Obser vatory, requesting copies of the fourth edition of his ^Sailing Directions," for use during the voyage. Capt. drfcKAY received shortly before sailing the annexed letter m reply. This letter furnishes one of the most remarkable In stances of scientific foresight and knowledge that hai ever come into our possession. The astronomer iu his stu dio at Washington predicts, from the observance of certain Bailing directions, which he himself has resolved and laid down, the passage of a vessel bound on a voyage over 17,000 miles in length, and does not err, in his calcula tion of the time occupied, two hours! Here is the letter: National Observatory, Washington, Jult 28, 1852. Sir : If you have not the charts and old sailing direc tions that accompany them, please call on my agent, George Manning, No. 142 Pearl street, and he will fur nish you with them. I am driving through the press the fourth edition of Sailing Directions. I hope to have the chapter on the route to California out in time for the Sovereign of the Stat. If so, I will send you them in the sheets, and yours . will be the first vessel that takes them. If you get them, stick to them, and have avemge luck, for you u passage of not over <>tie Maiircd and Oaptoln L. MoKat, " (Care of Messrs. C rinnell,,MUUir? fc Co.) N. York. P. 8. For fear the new directions should not be out in time, do this: Follow the old (third edition) as they are for doubling Cape Horn. After you get round make as much westing, where the degrees are short, as the winds will conveniently allow, aiming to cross the parallel of 40 south, between 100 and 105, the parallel of 30, about 110. Don't fight head winds to do this. Cross the line near 120 deg. west, which you will do, considering you have a clipper under your feet, on or before the 26th October. You will hardly get the northeast trades south of 10 deg. north. Make a due north course through the " doldrums," and when you get the northeast trades run along through them with topmasts studding sails full, of course going no further west than the winds drive you, taking care not to cross the parallel of 20 deg. uorth to the east of 125 dog. west. When you loBe the northeast trades, if you get a smart breeze, make eastward. But if you have " horse latitude" weather, make the best of your way due north until you get a good wind or find yourself in the variables, (wester ly winds,) between 35 and 40 degs. Then stick her away for port. Capt. McKay "c/ossed the line" fourteen hours behind the time specified above. Lieut. Maury's directions were fully observed, and with what success it may be seen. His prediction was fully verified, and a glorious triumph achieved for American Science. A young man named John Brannan was killed at Balti more on Saturday night under Uie following circum stances : He was standing on the track as the Philadel phia train came in, and stepped off upon a switch which he thought the cars would not run on. Unfortunately for him, he placed himself upon the very switch the cars had to pass over, and in a moment he was knocked down, the cars passing over him, severing both legs from his body juit above the knee, and he expired in about half an hour after the accident. The Charleston Mercury publishes a correspondence between President Polk and Mr. Francis W. Pickens, of South Carolina, by which it appears that on the 21st of April, 1845, the President tendered to Mr. Pic kins tho appointment of Minister to England as a successor to Mr. Everett, but which was declined by Mr. Pickens on the 28th of the same month, on the ground that questions then pending forbade his acceptance consistently with the feelings of allegiance which he bore to his own State. [&7>u&Zir. James K. Spalding, Esq., formerly European corre spondent of the New York Courier and Enquirer, under the signature of "Sigma," has become permanently associat ed with James Watbon Wkbb, Esq. in the editorial man agement and control of that journal. Judge Samcel C. Roank died on his plantation in Jef ferson county, Arkansas, on the 8th of December, in the fiOth year of his age. He had held various prominent official positions in that State. Fifty passengers arrived at Baltimore on Sunday who came direct from Wheeling over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, giving practical proof that the road is in travel ling order, though the formal opening does not take place till the 10th instant. L predict Florida Gulf a*i> Atlantic Railboaix?The bill to charter the Central, Atlantic, and Gulf Railroad, from St. Mary's or St John's, on the Atlantic, to Pensacol* Bay, on the Gulf, has passed the Florida House of Dele gates, and ia now awaiting the action of the Senate. It provides for a subscription on the part of the State of two-thirds of the amount of the internal improvement fund when cue hundred miles of the road shall have been completed. Monsieur Peti.i, the celebrated aeronaut from Paris, made an ascension from New Orleans on Christmas day, accompanied by three amateurs, of which the Picayune of the 20th ultimo gives the annexed account: About two thousand persons assembled yesterday to witness the excursion of M.. Petin, with thre^of his friends, in a balloon. Every thing passed off to the satisfaction and delight of the crowd. The balloon was of immense siie, but the car was the great curiosity. It was built in the shape of a large skiff, with extensive wings attached to the side, enabling M. Petin to guide the direction of his aerial craft from within. The car is built mostly of cork, line*! around with cavities containing gas. The as cension took place soon after two o'clock, amid the cheers of the crowd, the stars and stripes flying from the light vessel. M. Petin for some time could be distinctly seen walking about inliis (Vail structure, directing its move ments. The excitement of the spectators was much heightened by witnessing the balloon pass through a beau tiful white cloud, which for a time obscured the floating machine from sight. After rising to a great height, the balloon took different directions, according to the will of its pilot, but finally went off in a southeasterly direction. The Conrier of the 27th chronicles the return of M. Petin to New Orleans as follows: The balloon ascended about 18,000 feet, and was car ried by a strong wind to the eastward. By an accident in managing the valve for the escape of the gas, too much gas escaped, and the balloon rapidly sunk and fell into the water of Lake Borgne, about one mile from the land, at 18 minntes past 4 o'clock P M. The boat or car being loaded, upset when it struck the water, which was about fifteen feet deep. M. Petin and his three passengers clung to the bottom of their frail car, when, after being in the water about half an hour, they wore discovered by the Captain of the steamboat Alabama, from Montgomery (Ala.) to this city. The party were taken on board and brought to this oity The balloon was much torn and nearly ruined while taking it on board the steamboat. TuaSr^rfLor a Jok*.?It will be remembered that somo three mntiths Miu'e a family narr.e.l Kragg ene>iKe<i pas sage in the elipper l'olynr$ian for California, but by some m -take were left behind, while their baggage tm carried off in the Polynesian. At that time the clipper H iyi Arrow was on the stocks at Brigg's ship ynrtl at South Boston, but within two weeks was launched and set sail, with the family on board as passengers. By the "teamer I'ncle Sam we learn of the arrival of the Winge^ Arrow at San Francisco with the Bragg family, who, at last accounts, were waiting patiently for their baggage, the Polynesian not having arrived. A joke at both ends of the journey has surely been tho lot of Mr. Bragg and hie friends. ? I lot ton Traveller, 31*f. Sbriocs ArraAV.?On Saturday last Dr. Lewi* nines and Mr. Thomas Harrison, both of Bryan county, had a personal diflSeulty at the hons* of a Mr. Tillman in Bryan, ami dnrwjc ike quarrel liines drew a knife and out across Harrison's throat, severing the jagular vein and windpipe. Harrison lived but a short time after reoeiving the wovad. Wemder stand that Hlnes bos been arreeted and will havs legal exami nation. The parties previously had been intimate friends. [JbraaMuk Jtepmttiemn.