Newspaper Page Text
JANUARY 15, 1853.
THE WEEKLY MATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. f The subscription frioe of this paper for a year it Three Dollars, payable in advance. For the long Sessions of Congress, (Averaging eight months,) the price will be Two Dollars; for the short Sessions One Dcllar per copy. A reduction of 20 per cent, (one-fifth of the full charge) will be made tc any one who shall order and pay for, at one time, five copies of the Weekly paper; ami a like re< duetion of 25 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who will order and pay for, at one time, ten or more copies. No accounts being kept for this paper, it will not be for warded to any one uuless paid for in advance, nor sent any longer than the time for which it is so paid. NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. ?r:11.! _ ? r LETTER OF MR. RUSH ON THE NAVAL EVENTS OP TIIE WAR OF 1812. Sydenham, near Philadelphia, Mat 8, 1851. My Deah Sir : I have received your letter of. the 26th of April, and will reply to it at once, as 1 am looking for ward to engagements shortly that may m?k? 1nrg*r drafts than usual upon my time. ~ r In a review of diplomatic history, should you undertake buch a task, a division into the three periods you Indi cate?1st, from the peace of Westphalia to the peace of Utrecht; 2d, from the peace of Utrecht to the peace of Paris in 1703 ; tfd, from the peace of Paris to the present times?would unfold a large plan, full of matter in the highest degree interesting in international affairs. The third period would be the most important and stirring. Parts of it fall within the persona) knowledge of many still living, and tli^ easy researches of all. It comprises the most startling revolutions among nations, revolutions in which Goddesses of Reason were enthroned in place of other gods, and kings toppled down; the most formidable operations of war, with results the most mo mentous by land and sea; and the most wide-sweeping transactions in diplomacy of the last century and early part of the one in which we live. Under this period, op portunity would open of doing justice to our country for the part it took in the cause of neutrality; and alio of recalling an outline of our achievements in naval arms, that ultimate negotiator to which we were finally obliged to have recourse. Without recalling these achievements the spirit and compass of our diplomacy ceuld not be ade quately illustrated. The two, together, give us a marked place in history, had we done nothing else. Tin subject is ample and inviting. It is known in all its aspects only partially among ourselves ; and I confess that I am tempt ed by the opportunity your letter affords to say some thing moro of it than would otherwise be necessary, in the possible hope of being able to create in your mind Bomo little inducement to go into it all yourself. I mast do this at the risk of perhaps not always sayiug what you may concur in, a risk I had to run in my former letter; but my errors may start tiwtlxito you, and I will knowingly fall into none of fact. It is by reaalling facts in their connexion with principles that I would desire to let it be seen that the greatness of this Republic did not begin yesterday, in spheres the very highest on the broad theatre of the world, prefiguring the commanding destiny before it if we are true to ourselves. From the commencement of the wars of the old French Revolution, and earlier, the State papers of the United States, which aimed at upholding the fair rights of the neutral Mul thna maintaining the domain of CblD- . merce and civilization, would probably form, were all col-! lected and arranged, the best international code under * this head to be found in any one volume extant. The in- j crease of our tonnage during these wars was very great. ? In addition to our large exports and imports, for we tlu*n manufactured but little, we took the lead of all nations in an immen&e carrying trade. This greatly exposed our merchant vessels in all seas to high-handed molestation in all ways. Besides the heavy outrage? we received from the first French Republic, outrages within our territory j and ports as well as at sea, there was the British " pro- j vision order" of June, 1798 : the French consular and im perial decrees of "Berlin, Milan. Rayonne, Rambouillet; the British ordfers in council, issued and re-issued; the ap plication of their old rule of '50 ; va&tnomiual blockades, half,the world over, by England ; and the enforcement by ; France of the " continental system," so called, of Napo- I leon ; both alike desolating to legitimate commerce ; the impressment of our men by Euglaud, with her dueply-ag-' grav&ted attack upon our frigi*e Chesapeake in time of: peace, e-ich nation striving, ns if in the rivalry of bellige-, rent furv, which could wrong us the most?#11 these, and ' more thnn these, made up the violations, indignities, and 1 losses to which we were exposed. To settle, as between J these two giant nations, the proportion of belligerent j enormity against us would be extremely difficult. Alto-1 gether, they brought us into a position to stand np for the neutral cause, and we became foremost in that champion ship for not much leas than a quarter of a century while the world was in arms. It was a most eventful epoch. Many of the liberal principles which had been gaining head under m%xtms inculcated l>y a long list of pure and able publicists, and the consent of nations, were beaten back by the fearful height to which the war passions of Europe weir roused. These swept away all rea?on and justice. A ruthless lnw, the law of force, or " retaliating force" as it was often terme 1, usurped their place, seem ing to portend the entire prostration of reason and jus tice in the governing powers of the world. Yet, in 1814, when Napoleon was first struck down, the great Allies took no notice of us in their treaties of peacc and settlement at Vienna, multitudinous as those docu ments were, and comprehending almost all other subjects between nations, as they did. Not one word of interces sion had we from any one of them. Not even a breath of pood will did tuey waft over to us. In regard to onr Hit lation they all became as if a congress of mutes. We had gone to war *ingle?hnnded against England. The war was still raging between u?. Nevertheless, tliey left us to he crushed by her enormous power ; for her undivided strength by sea and land was now free to be used exclu sively against us. Such was the condition of tiling*. Events flowed from them among the most striking that have ever occurred between nations. To portray them fitly would call for the pen of a Tacitus or Thucydides. The calm retrospect of them, now that the passions and partisanships of the day are over, seems little short of stiraeulous. In after times they will rank among the marveis of history. The EuropeaA Alliance left us, I say, to be crushed. This they must have believed. This inference was forced upon them, when tboy looked only to the overwhelming preponderance of B :t?sh naval power. Consider what it was ! Not only did it preponderate to an extent making all numerical comparison absurd, over any we had in a state of equipment, but over that of all Europe combined. Still, it was absence of wisdom, glaring absence of wis dom, in those continental Towers, either through fear of offending England or dislike to the principle of our Gov ernment, coldly to stand aloof from us. Most especially was it so in Franoe and Russia. Never did great nations err more in maxims of 8tate. We were fighting for the just freedom of the seas, We were fighting their battles as well as oor own, Wo were fighting them with a more sterling and well-directed oourage, and, as it turned out, with more c fleet, than ever marked any the greatest of Napoleon's battles or most splendid of his campaigns? even when fresh from the fields of Mar. ngo, Austerlita, or Jena, l.et not this be called American boast. Rather let facts be recalled. Let these show if i say toomuoh. The very act of our going to war was heroic. Mo lan guage could be too strong in describing it. We were to fight against incalculably more odds than ever Napoleon did, almost inconceivably more. We went out upon the deep with ouly a sling in our hands. We went aguinst a foe that it might have been thought would at once consign all our ships to its dark caverns. That foe had vanquish ed French Fhips wherever to he found, brave as the French ever are, until all their ships were captured, sunk, or had to seek shelter from destruction by running into their ports. This was their sole refuge. Not one of them could venture any more upon the ocean, Hingly or in fleets. Not another gun could the Emperor mount at sea. A similar doom had $ waited the navies of Holland, Spain, and all other nations. The idea of our coping with Eng land elicited sarcasms in the House of Commoiy. Not only did we begin our battle after Napoleon had exhaust ed to no purpose but ditasters to himself his resources and rage against England, but there was uiore to appal us, had that feeling been in us. He had drawn upon the whole maritime border of the Mediterranean and Atlan tic, among European nations conquered api tributary to him^ (and which among them were not^J to aid him in akipt and aeameu to go against Eaglaad on the abas, or Invade her in her island. All these were scattered or demolished. England had driven them all back to'pert, or made wrecks of them. Duncan at Camperdown, Hbwe oh the 1st of June, '94, Nelson at the Nile, Cochran in liasque Koads, Parker at Copenhagen, Nelson again at Trafalgar?these names recall vividly, but only in part re call, the awful destruction which the naval thunders of England dealt among her foes wherever it was possible for her to assail them. Never before was there such havoc on the sea by one nation against all the rest. All had yielded in hopeless submission to that one. For war like purposes, it is not too much to say that Europe was annihilated upon the seas. The banner of the United States alone lloated in solitary fearlessness. Lastly, we began the fight with a navy which was as nothing in size ? to the French navy, when Napoleon first had the direc tion of it against England. When, then, in all time, were such odds seen as we had against us ? I remember no- 1 thing like it. I can recall at present but one partial re- j semblance. That was up'in land, when the great Frede- ! ric fought against Austria, Russia, and France, gaining splendid victories over them, and baffling all, until finally encompassed by their countless legions, but consolidating the Prussian monarchy in spite of tneni all. And what was the progress, what the issue, of the con-1 test upon the great highway of nations, as we maintain it, 1 after the daring manner in which we went into it ? In-1 stead of our ships being driven from the soas as Napo-' leou's were, they increased in number as the war went on. j They increased in the activity of their service and bril- j liancy of their victories. They were in all seas. They ran down to Cape Horn. They scoured the Pacific. They were all over the Atlantic. They went into the West In dies aud the East Indies. Skilfully avoiding the enemy's fleets, they hunted up his single ships. They watched in their paths. They entered the British channel. In all latitudes they sought this gigantic foe on his own ele- ? meut. They strove to be foremost in the attack." They encountered him, ship to ship, with a chivalry, with a perfection of discipline, with a constant superiority in gunnery,* and with a success utterly without example by auy other nation iu the world before, la Tain did lie plead that our ships were heavier than his. la tome in stances this was the fact; in others the reverse; and in all the fight* hi* ships vera not .merely subdued, but shot to pieces or sunk in an almost incredibly short time. Glory, then, to this young and dauntless nation, which, relying upon itself alone to vindicate neutral rights, while Europe with folded arms was waiting to see it sacri ficed, speedily and triumphantly broke the terrific spell of English invincibility upon the of an. What a result! It riveted universal attention, Britain had ruled the waves. 80 her poets sang. So nations felt, all but tin*. Her trident had laid them all prostrate; and how fond was she of considering thit emblem n- identified with the aceptre of the world ! Behold, then, the tlag which had every wbere reigned in triumph supreme sending forth terror from iu folds, which for " a thousand years had j braved the battle and the breeze behold it again, and again, and again, lowered to the stars and stripes which had risen in the new hemisphere. The spectacle was magnificent. It nuliated to the skies. Both hemispheres stood at gaze. The European expectation that we were to be crushed was turned into a feeling of admiration un- \ bounded. Some gave themselves to wild joy, as the | Danes, whose exasperated feelings under the seizure of their navy at Copenhagen had scarcely subsided. Our j victories had a moral effect far tran?cending the number or site of their ships vanquished. For such n blow npon the mighty name of England, after many idle excuses, she had at last ih> Wim so effectual as that it was inflicted, and could only have been inflicted, by a race sprung from herself. Here let me say that ne one in our whole nation did j more towards infusing into Congress the lofty tone that led to these nu merable results than your Mr. Calhoun. Congress was backward at declaring war, from the terri ble odds again*t us, and the out-door belief was almost universal, except in the navy itself, that we could not face England. Calhoun went with the very foremost of those patriotic and high-spirit*) men in both houses who were fpr throwing the nation upon its courage and its sword. Happen what would, they knew we should not be dishonored ; wbil&t ignoble submitsion was unking us as a great people. We began to build ships of the line as the contest drew to a clow, our energies rising with the contest. <">n the lakes we had only fleet* of ?mall size. England, to meet us there in like fleets, aent over through the Canada* the frames of vessels, and her naval officers and men. There, also, our victories iu each instance where the fleets met were alike decisive and resplendent, though won with great loss of Wood on both sides.f But the matchless deeds of our frigates and sloops-of-war on the oc<an did more than was ever done before for the neutral cause ; more than wim done by the famous " arm ed neutrality" of 17HO. Turn to the account of that maritime league, otic of in eft word*, which England dis regarded, and see h'.w little it achieved, compared to American ships of war. As to the "armed neutrality'' of lbOO, England shivered that to pieoee in a day with her nuval cannon. Equally trne is it that Napoleon was blind to our naval efficiency and capnbHities. It was the greatest of bis mistakes. Tic jndged of them from our having no ships of the line when the war began, though even then we had a larger commerce and tonnage than any nation but Eng land, perhaps double of all that France had. He ought to have remembered this, and, in connexion with our es tablished aptitudes for the aea, to have drawn the proper conclusions. , Napoleon seemed ignorant that to keep up a large navy in peacc was no part of our system. Our co-operation with him, had he sought it in time and on terms to which a spirited nation could have assented, would have been of more consequence to him than any one of hlfl European alliances. We were the only nation to make head against England upon the water; and England was the nation ? This is fully admitted bv Major General Sir Howard Douglass, in his " Treatise on Naval (la?nery,"a book of high authority, published with the aafrnfeatio* of tho lords e?m inimioners of the admiralty in England, soon after the con elusion of our war. t In the engagement'an Lake Erie, Barclay, tSe British commodore, a gallant 1 Seer who had served under Lord Nel ?oo, having the wind kt flfit, bore down on onr fleet with the hands of asasio on board his ships playing " liule Britannia." that?by ber exhaustlesu resources for war by herself, for sometimes she was left alone; her subsidies to other Powers; Iter indomitable courage; her leadership of the combinations against him, and perpetual defiance of him, while Russia, Austria, and Prussia, each in turn cowered or rushed into his embraces; England, by never giving np, but alwayn fighting on and inciting other Powers to go on with the fight?caused his empire to come down with a crash. He never did any thing for neutral rights. He never cared any thing for them. His iron grasp was at ubiquity of dominion. England stood in his way. England was the barrier againBt which all his hatred, all his array of power, his ostentatious column at Boulogne, all his bulletins, all his threats, were in vain. His efforts for her dowufall, under plea of restoring the liberty of the seas?for this tcat his plea?efforts that overleaped and put to soorn all international law in his treatment of us upon the seas, ended in his own downfall, leaving Eng land at the head of Europe. So ended the great war drama of those days. It closed like a mighty epic, full of bloody grandeur?nations, kings, and principalities its ohuruoters, the globe its theatre. But we bad no downfall. No, ire rose. In looking back upon our shore in the battles, they seem like the ro mance of real wur, the consummation of its triumphs upon the waves. Nor can I quit this part of the glow ing theiuo without adding (bat the martial beauty it has fore ver' I'm printed on onr shield enhanced liy fho sig nal courtesy with which our viators invariably treated the foe when the battle wee over. Call to mind also, I beg of you, what our diplomacj bss always been striving-to do in other fields, new until entered them, for the interests of humanity and the r?ht kind of progress among nations. Besides our early treaty with Prussia for the abolition of privateering, y/u will find, page 676 of the book sent to you, the proposals this nation has made to all maritime nations for abolishing all I'Kivate wae rro.v the ocean. This gr?s beyond the abolition of privateering. It aims at tying up the hands of Governments from becoming plunderers of pri vate property on the high seas. The effcct of adopting the principle would be, that national ships could no long er capture merchant vessels engaged in lawful trade, though belonging to one of the belligerent parties. Bear in mind also that the nation making these propo sals to all othei^uitions had been able, with her national ships and lette^K" marque, to capture twelve or thirteen hundred British merchant vessels during our short war of 1812. Hence we were not likely, in the long run, to be the losing party among nations, had we stood upon the base calculations ot rapacity fostered by privateering and the ! capturiug of merchantmen by national ships. It is a vi- j cious old principle, the relic of a barbarous age. It has not for a long time been acted upon by armies on land, j These do not make war on private property; but the bar-; barity has been kept up at sea in a spirit little better than ' that of the buccaneers; no better, tarte, considering the ! intermediate advances iu civilization and refinement. Nei ther England, nor France, nor, as far as I ntn informed, I any other nation, lias yet acceded to these our beneficent' proposals. They originated in Mr. Monroe's time, while Mr. Adams was Secretary of State. On page 4Go of the same volume you will also find, briefly mentioned, the manly homage which that eminent English statesman, Mr. Canning, when Foreign Secretary, and who was not thought to have been over friendly to us at earlier periods of his life, ultimately paid in Parliament, when the war was past and gone, to some of our neutral doctrines. These doctriues were first essentially laid down by Mr. Jefferson in his able and rich compositions, prepared when Secretary of State to Gen. Washington, uud under his sanction, in regard to our foreign relations. They were afterwards more fully maintained and extend ed in the numerous State papers, and always masterly as , numerous, from the pen of Mr. Madison, during the eight years he filled the Department of State under Mr. Jetfer- i son. They are doctrines that will probably receive more ' and more approbation from all nations, as time goes on and continues to bring with it, as we nmy reasonably nope,1 further meliorations to the code of war. They are as re plete with international wisdom as with American dignity Miid spirit. It was the persevering resistance pf these su 1 cient State papers to t+ie encroachments of Enc'.and and ; Fruuce; above all, it was their immovable st.in I against i impressment; tliofr nobTe reiterations thatcur flo.g should sacredly protect all who sailed under It: it was these great Suite papers which finally opened our path of glory upou the ocean; a glory the purer as it blazed up only in defending ourselves aguinst long-continued aud enor mous wrongs. Come what may in tlje future, we can ne i ver be deprived of this inheritance. It is a proud and Hplendid inheritance. We owe eternal gratitude to the , illustrious men of that early day of the Republic, Jeffer son and Malison, who (after Washington) were the pri mary sources of it. It has been my lot to have known 1 them both, bat chiefly the latter, of whose Cabinet, after j he became President, I was the youngest, humblest, and now am the only surviving member; and I fulfil a grate-1 ful duty in here recalling their exalted merits, linked, as , they ever must be, to the lasting fume of this great nation. | Their couuaels refounded the natidb. Until the war of; 1812 we were still hait'-oolonial. Its issue conferred upon us a new and commanding position. Until then, we were in danger of losing the glories we had gained in the Revo lution. It was even alleged that the absorbing spirit of | commercial gain had at length broken in upon our mar- , tial and other high-toned characteristics of that era. The ; war corrected the mistake. Mr. Jefferson took upon him- ? self to reject, without even submitting it to the Senate, 1 J the treaty negotiated by Mr. Monroe ami Mr. Pinkney in | 1800, tolely breatut it contained no itipulatkm ogitinrt im prrtment, although sufficiently satisfactory at that time , in other respects. Furthermore: our ministers first sent; to England after the war were fully instructed to let her ! ! Government know that any attempt in future to renew it, i although the question was not brought into the treaty of ; j Ghent?the practice having ceased bv the general peace?r , . would immediately be resisted. But who can suppose, ? 1 after the events of that war, that so unspeakable an out rage upon us would bo repeated ? It was that very out-; rage, combined with the special remembrance of the at I tack on the Chesapeake in perpetration of it, that turned | the war scale against England rather than Franee. The latter had done enough to justify our going to war with her. According to her means, she had captured more of our vessels than the English. She wonld even consume : them by fire upon the ocean, cargoes and all, fearing that, as her ill-gotten prises, British cruisers would intercept them if she attempted to send them into her ports. But i who, 1 again a*k, who in his senses, can dream of Eng land ever renewing the transcendant outrage of impress- i ment on American decks T It is impossible. In this age, Britons themselves would not think oT it. They would no j longer practise it among themselves if war came on. The horrors of the press-gang are gone forever: and this Re- ] | public, in 1812, played ita Ail) part in helping to destroy them forever. in fine, if you view this whole fertile subject at all in the lights that I do. and oan make np your mind to take ! it in hand, a chapter of surpassing interest might be writ ten upon it. It is therefore that I would presume to com mend it to your investigations, under a?pect? I touch upon and others that would fully ocenr to you. 1 do not at this moment remember any biography of M. | de Vergennes. There is a good deal said of him in one of the volumes of Flassan's History of French Diplomacy. (Iratefullwappreciating, as we all do, the services we had from Franoe of that day ami age, 1 nevertheless do not incline to extol M. de Vergennes extravagantly. It has always appeared to me that the accomplished Col. John ' Laurens, of South Csrolina, accelerated his stops in our cause There is a book, published in 1801, mentioned in the i preface to De Pradt's "Congress of Vienna," en'itied " The Three Ages of Colonies." I have not read and do | not know the book: but from its title possibly something might be obtained from it bearing upon the review into which 1 wonld draw you. I dare say you know the work entitled " Diplomacy of the Uaited States," published in Boston in 18~G. It is a well-written octavo of three or four hundred pages, embodying useful facts and docu 1 ments belonging to our diplomatic history. The author's name is not *iven in my edition of H. I'do not happen ' to own Wheaton't '? History of the Law of Nations in E?i | rope nnd America from the earliest times to the treaty of Washington in 1842;" but his first work on the " Ele ment* of International Law" t regard as one of the most valuable books under that head in my library. I often consult it, and always with advantage ' If, as you ifitintate, you should be disposed in the oour*e of the summer to .ask information on any point contained in the book sent to you, 1 will always be ready to afiorJ it if in my power. - , Apologising for the length of this letter, into which I have been somewhat imperceptibly enticed by the intrinsic national interest of ita topics, 1 renew to yon, ay dear sir, sssurances of the cordiali ty and respect with ahioh I am your sincere and faithful servant, RICHARD RUSH ORATION or THK HO> STKPHEN A. DOUGLAS, On fk> 1- x juration of the Jackson Statue. All nation* hn 'i marked the period of their highest civilization unn re.?test development by monuments to their illuutr u-1 en. The hero, the statesman, the bene factor of tli i t iiis passes on to succeeding genera tions, and c ?rith hiin the glories of his time aud the memory people associated with his achieve ments. Tr.t his historic column illustrated to suc cessive goner j.the brilliant achievements in the field find wise act n ,ouncil which imparted lustre and im mortality to reign. Constantino, from his storied arch, for oen ir ,s has proclaimed religious toleration to the humble ir stian, and proudly rocouuted the glorious deeds ?f hi- ft and times. The sculptured marble above the urns ti: c hold their sacred ashes delineate the animated v ues in which their fame was won, aud command tie admiration, if not the homage, of the world. Th, best of Emperors, Marcus Aureliua, looks [ from ?ry on the realm he exolteu?a grouf | in sp0mait?nial uronzo the noblest in till antiquity. It y?t ??rvivs? the ruin of his country, in subitum jiKi'l>ptuau?L the glories or tue man aud -the gratitude of the P.omaa poojle, amidst a degradation to which it u.ow imparts a hope of regeneration. The statde before yott is the work of a man exalted by his enthusiasm for the glorious deeds and wise acts of a hero and statesman. It is the work of a young untaught American. I cunuot call him an artist. He never studied nor copied. He never saw an equestrian statue, nor even a model. It is the work of .inborn genius, aroused to energy by the tri umphant spirit of liberty which throbs in the great henrt of uir continent?which creates the power of great con ceptions, the aspiration and the will, the mental fhculty and the manual skill, to eternize the actors who ennoble the country, by giving their forms and expressions to im perishable materials. l'wudly may we compare to the equestrian statues of Europe that noble Roman figure which preserves the form and fiature6 of our hero, and that colossal war-horse in bronz? which will bear him in glory through future ages! 1 havs seen delineations of the equestrian statues of Peter the Great, of Frederick tlie Great, and ol the Duke of Wellington, which are esteemed, 1 believe, the best specinens of that description of sculpture that modem Eui-opi has been able to contribute to her collection of works of art. The horse of the great Caar is supported iu its rampant position by renting on the hind feet with the ail of the unsightly contrivance of extending between its lc$ a serpent, which, by a bend in the bojv, connects with tic tail of the steed and is fastened to the pedestal. That ?f the great l'russian monarch, designed to appear iu moion, has one foot before and an.ther behind fixed to the pedestal, a third lifted and supported by a prop to assist in sustaining the waight, and hat one left free to give tie semblance of life antl movement. The rearing steed of the Duke of Wellington, like that of l'eter the Great, maintains its rampant position by the hind legs and tail Ixing riveted to the massive palestal. W hat a won derful triumph has our untaught countryuiau achieved over these renowned trophies of European art in the hot and fi?ry charger before you, leaping "so proudly as if he disdained tie grouud," self-poised aiil self-sustained ou thi siugle poiut whence he derives his motion! No prop^ no MTfcits, no unnatural contrivances, are here. Nature, which has taught the impetuous steed to poise his veight and gather hU strength to spring into the air, has given the genius which fashioned this group the po^vr to iiuimrt grace and energy to the fincly-balauceJ attitude, which makes the weight that others prop and h?ld up by rivets furnish to the work its strength aud stability. liut tue real power or the notileit monument cousiste in the moral grmdeur of the rec Sections it req^ils. The esuuisite beauty of the statue of Xero, by its contrast with the monster it brings to mind, ma'iee the heart re coil as from the shining lolds of a polished aerpcut. liow j different tho, ^holder in the gfrMenc* of the augujLfbrni 1 bvt'ai^' us? The image oJ' the resistlev hero, who %ove ! the list invadev^pm ouf shore*, tarn- tftck ?U* thought* I to tbe eagerwho shed Lis stripling blood in the Re volution, and to the resolute sag* wm> withstood the cor ruption and pLreniy uf his time.-, an 1 ui the patriot states man whose life! and deeds mark a tnoe! eventful era in our ' national history. Lei me gUuee at tume of the events in his glorious career, and close with a view of him in hi* retirement at the Hermitage. In the year j"o5 a small vcgst-l arrived in the harbor cf Charleston with a number of Irish emigrants on bvard, who Lad fled from tyranny and persecution in the Old World to find peace and freedom in the new. Among them wo* a family by the name of Jackson, consisting of Andrew and hie wife, and their two sosa, Hugh and Robert Ihey immediately proceeded to the upper <*>un try, and selected for tbeir new Lome a lonely spot in the secluded valley of the Waxhaw. Two years after Andrea Jackson, whose illustrious deeds have filled the world with his reno*n, was born. The father died * few months after the birth of the son, who was to inherit his name and render it immortal. Nobly did the widowed mother perform her duty to those fatherless children. The earlier years of our hero's boyhood were spent in the peaceful abode of Waxhaw Academy. He was there when the Re volution buret upon the world. The war-cry from the bloody fields of Lexington, aud Concord, and Hunker Hill arouse ! the people of all the colonies to a just seuse of their wrong*, and inspired them with the firm resolve to assert and vindicate their rights. The disastrous cam paign wl.ich succeeded the first brilliant achievements; the heroic movements of Washington at Trenton: the sufferings of the army at Valley Forge; the glorious vic tory at Haratoga, excited, in aftemation, the fear? and hopes of the people, and roused their patriotism to the highest joint. When the tide of desolation rolled over the scattered ?ettlements of the Carolina*, the whole poi pulation. old and young, proved themselves worthy of freedom bv the spirit in which they met the ruthless op pressor Hugh, the elder brother of Andrew Jackson, I fell In his first battle at Stono. Robert became a martyr to liberty, and lost his life from wounds received while in captivity. The mother descended to the grave, a vic tim to griel' and suffering in ceaseless efforts to rescue and | save her sons. Andrew was thns left alone in the world i at a tender age, without father or mother, brother or sis ter, friend or fortune, to assist him. Ali was irone save the high qualities with which <io I had endowed him, an i the noMe precepts which a pious and sainted mother had infused into his young heart. He bad already, at the sg** of fourt'-en, become a soldier of the Revolution: had borne the fatigues and privations of the march with his musket on hie shoulder; hsd displayed the coolne??, in trepidity, and fortitude of the veteran in his first engage ment* with tli* enemy : liui endured the suffering- of a cruel captivity, and for his manly refusal to perform me nial services while a prisoner he had received a wonnd from the sword of a British officer, the scar of which he carried with him to his grave. The < nemy repulsed, the young hero returned to his ttudies to prepare himself for the practice of the law, which he had selected as a profession. In the mean time the noble work of political regenera I tion was pressed forward?the union of the c?ionie? eon lirroed by the Artielesof Confederation?the independence ofth?* American fetates acknowledged bv the Powers of j Europe?the laws and institution.* <4 the several States i revised and moulded in conformity with the inalienable rights of man?the fundamental principles of civil and , u-iigious liberty established in the 8tatr constitutions? | snd growing out of and resting upon these tho or- | sanitation of the Federal Government tinder that wonder ful instrument, the CoMtitution of the Inited States. 1 America then stood forth a Power on ear'h. with the ,m- ; mortal Washington at it* head. At peace with the na- I lions of the Old World?with a wise foreign policy admi rably adapted to our condition and relative position? with a wide-spread and rapidly-increasing commerce, what mors nat -al than that the energies ol the people ?hou1(Tbe ?lir ?d to the settlement and development of | that V:?st Oil .? . tile wilderness in tho valley of the Mis- j - -sippi, an lli.u the Father of his Country should e\ert ?!l rightful authority for their protection in so laudable ,in enterprise! Tho several States claiming title to those expansive region*, animated by a patriotic .ied ?elf -lacrifl* <ng spirit, had voluntarily executed deeds of cee sion and relinquishment, in order to orcate a com.niu fund It; the hands of the Federal Oovornment with which to discharge the debts of the revolution The ordinance of 1787, establishing territorial government*, and pro viding for the erection of not less than three nor more than five Jl'atw, Lad opened to Immigration and settle ment the country northwest of the river Ohio ; white the extension of the main provisions of that act to the couu try south of that river had created a civil government for the people of the Southwest Territory. The tide of immi gration had commenced roiling westward, and was rush ing across (he Alleghauies through every pass and gorge in the mountains. The bold adventurer, rejoicing in dan ger and novelty?the unfortunate, who hoped to regain nil lost position?the poor emigrant, with his wife and children, ull that he could claim as his own on earth? could be seen winding their way, by the buffalo paths and Indian trails, to what seemed to them a promised land. The Carolinians had descended the French Broad, had stretched alcng the Holston, and penetrated the valley of the Cumberland. These early pioneers were a peculiar people?hardy, daring, impatient of restraint, and simple in their habits of iii'e. Imbued with au exalted sentiment of personal liberty and a keen perception of individual rights, they were ever ready with their lives to repel ag gression or redress wrongs. Beneath these qualities were ! clearly discernible all the elements of political organiza tion, of social development, and of a pure, unadulterated religious reverence. Foremost among these people, giving tone to their oounsels, and taking the lead in all. important movements, was Andrew Jackson. If Indian ravages upon the scattered settlements were to be arrested?if the savage perpetrators were to be punished?if daring out laws were to be brought to justice?if the lonely Trnmi >;rai)t in the wilderness wan to be rescued from the toma hawk or starvatif u?Jackson wlways ledthe gallant band. Attorney-Gems***! jkf.ihe Tei ritory by the appointment of w? member of the Convention winch laid foundations uf the State Government ? Major^fciMrnl of the militia entfflRtwJ ?itl, the deface of inhabitants against the tomahawk and u~<tlping-knii'o?a member vf the House of Representatives and a Senator in the Con gress of the United States?Judge of the Supreme Court of his State?the genius of Jackson was every where in delibly impressed on the charuoter of the people and the laws and institutions of his own beloved Tennessee. Amicubie relatiobs being established with the Indian tribes, and symmetry end consistency imparted to their political and social organizations, the people of Tennessee naturally turned their attention to the development and enjoyment of all those advantages with which soil, climate, and nature in its loxuriauce and magnificence had sur j rounded them. Now Jackson felt himetif at liberty to gratify an inclination he had long cherished of withdraw ing from the cares and toils of official position, and retir ing to his farm, rvjoicing in the society of his devoted and beloved wife, and surrounded by all the comforts and en joyment< iiis tastes could suggestor his heart desire. He earned into retirement, and displayed in the manage ment of his farm and his intercourse with his fellow-citi zens, the same high qualities which had stamped invinci bility upon his character and success upon his movement*. Iiis hospitable mansion was a home to the stranger and the pioneer?his name was upon every tongue, and his praises were heard wherever his influence was felt. Be coming a silent partner in a mercantile establishment, he soon discovered the misfortune of his associate, by which the firm was reduced to bankruptcy. Instantly recog nising the moral obligation to discharge the last farthing of indebtedness, he disposed of his lauds, his stock, his home?all tke proceeds of his toils?and became the humble tenant of a rude log-cabin, in preference to the humiliation of pecuniary vassalage. Such a man can always rise above misfortune. By the force of his character, aud the judicious application oi his , vast mental resources, he soon recovered from his pecu- 1 niary embarrassments, and became a flourishing and even . wealthy firmer. From his retirement he viewed with ( indignation the long series of British aggressions on the , commerce aud flag of his native country. He was an j ardent supporter of the principles of Jefferaou and Madi- j sou, aud especially of all those measures calculated to mnintaiii the right* of his country and redress the wrongs [ .of his countrymen oa the high seas. Had he succeeded, in his aspirations to the command which was unfortu- j natcly assigned to Winchester, who can doubt, at this day, j that the series cf disasters on the northern frontier, which : filled the country with humiliation and clothed so many | families in mourning, would have been averted ? The ter-1 rible massacre ut tbo River Raisin, succeeding the dis graceful surrender of Detroit by Hull, encouraged Tecum seh and the Prophet to almost superhuman eft >rts for the accomplishment of their graud design of an alliance be t*t?n the British and all the savage tribes, from the Onlf Of Mexico to the Northern Lnlce*. for tho p*irrwise of ex terminating with the sword uud the tomahawk the white race in the Mississippi valley, and of resuuiug ?n iu.? vast anl fertile region?the heart of the American conti nent?to itc aboriginal proprietor?, and of consecrating *t to j erpetual burbari?m ttinr the protection of the Bri tish Government. The arrangements were already per fected so far as the Northwestern country was concerned. Immediately after the massacre, Tecumseh, who possess ed genius eoual to any conception, and a lorce of charac ter commensurate with the magnitude of bis plans, start ed south, in fulfilment of bis mission, going from tribe to tribe electrifying t! em by the power of his eloquence, and driving thein to madness by horrible pictures of monstrous wrong.- perpetrated by the American people. The Creek*, the Chickasaws, the Choctaws, and the Semiuoles were the priueipol tribe* yet to be added to this samp' al liance. The British, through the Spaniards in the Flori-1 das, with whom they were also in alliance, had prepared , the minds of the southern tribes for the favorable recep-I tion off ecum-eh. The mission proving succes?fnl, sav age war, with all its horrors an 1 tortures, burst tipen the defenceless settlements like a thunderbolt. What tongue oen describe or pencil p?iut the revolting scene at Fort Min ms, fcr wherever else, the infuriated savage could find the objects of bis vengeance? Neither age nor sex was ?pared. All were doomed to instant destruction, or re served for a slower process, by being subjected to brutali ties and barbarities wore# than sudden death. Amid the universal alarm and consternation all eyes were turned to Jackson?every voice proclaimed him the chosen leader ' to arrest the sweeping torrent of desolation. Who can describe Uie wild and frightful scenes of that unparalleled Indian campaign ; the beroinn of the leader; the celerity of his movements; the fatigues of the march ; the privations of the men} the impetuosity of the charge; ' every skirmish a victory, every oattle a triumph; the i barbarian alliance dissolved; the savage tribes dispersed and pursued in every direction, and finally roduccd to submission in the brief period of six months! The importance of these decisive and overwhelming aobirvetuenta can hardly be realise!. TI. j British a.lies of the confederated savages, in pursuance of the plan of c impaign as agreed uj^on with TeCumseh and the Prophet, were hovering areund the Gulf const, arming and drilling the Indians in the Fieri las, meditating a descent upon I Fort Bewyer and Mobile, preparatory to the conoontra- ' tion of the confederated forces npon New Orleaos and ' Louisiana. Concurrent events in Furore were favor hie to the success of the mighty ?eheme. "Hie abdication of Napoleon and his flight to Elba had restored the heredi tary monarch* to the thrones of their ancestors, and en abled Great Britain to withdraw her veteran troops from the Continent, and hurl them upon the defenct'ess shores of the Gulf of Mexi o. in eoacert with tlietr ravage allies. , The destruction of the barbarian leigue by .luekson, and ' the submission ri the scattered tribes, had broken the i force of the itnpen Jing blow, and opened the way for a I trial of strength, single banded, between the soldiers of freedom and ths veterans in the ciuse of oppression. At the critical moment, and as If by the hand of an overruling Providence, Jacks' n was appointed a rasjft-eeaeral In. 1 the army, an i Mrlgped to tlie command of the south"rn division. T.me will not a.n>w me u? more Winn glance at tue luoat striking events ;n the campaign. The British were occupying Ine Sj an.sh fort* at I'ensac da, stira ba ting the Indian* to a r'-n^wal of hostilities, and preparing for s descent VM Fort Bowyer and Mobile, and ulti mately upon New Orleans as the chief point of attack. Jackson's rem astrai ;c* with th? Spanish Governor against hs: lor'r.g the enemy in what was professedly neutral frrrit fy ' <dng'Ilsregarded, his application to hu I own (Government for permission to vindicatu the violated ! laws ot neutrality retna rung unanswered, the nbset.ee of j ioftructii :is rtn jwrjlts of vital importance at a time when I inaction Wn< ru n. wlo does not remember with what re ; sistless energy he tl.rew his protecting arm around Mo j bile. pr vlde l f6T Lawrence's heroic d< fenee of Fort torn ver, planted bis little army in front of Pensaco'.a. and, when his messeogctr wil fired upon bv the order- o; the ! 'lovermr, stormed tie b\'teri-\ etitered the town, battled , down the British flag, drove the enemy Into the sea, and hud the Spanish Oow<Kkt at Ida fe-1, implorit.g dperiy and forgiveness for the poet, and faithfully frt>ru ?#* * religious observance of the lows of neutrality i? the fu ture? Who can describe the rapidity of his movements f"r the deftnoe Of New Orleans, the magic effoct of his pre sence in tutpreiiing re asonable ptrrpoass?iafuwng con fidence in the hearts of the desponding?hisslsepless vigi lance in watching the movemonts of the enemy w.tbin it?d Without his camp?and his capacity for cresting ele nents of defence where none hatf been provided! Who can forget his g'.orions victories on the 2-">J of D< cember add the 8th of January? Who has not admired the Self sacrificing courage of the hero, whr, to save the city and i prevent the dismemberment of the republic, assumed the awful responsibility of superseding the civil authorities in the hour of extreme danger, in order immediately after wards to lend his potent arm to the maintenance of the supremacy of the law ! Who can paint the moral grandeur of the scene where the victorious soldier, the lenefaotor of the nation and the saviour of the city, fresh from the theatre of his glory, with his triumphant army around him, stands calmly before the judge whose dignity he had recently offended in the performance of an imperative duty, and meekly submits to an ignominious sentence and a heavy pecuniary penalty! Behold him <j'ueting the murmurs of the indignant multitude and extending his protection to the trembling judge, and bidding him pro ceed with his sentence. Follow him as he leaves the court, receiving the homage, the thanks, the pra> era of a grateful people, mingled with resentments and impreca tions upon the judge! Hear him, in tones of eloquence and power, enjoining upon them strict obedieuce to the civil as the paramount authority, since the necessity which eailsed its suspension bad ceased to exist, and hi* conduct requires no other vindication. With the battle of the 8th of January the war is closed; New Orleans is saved ; Louisiana remains a part of the American Confederacy; the idea of a barbarian empire is exploded; the Mississippi valley is reserved for the abotte of civilization and Christianity; the proposition of the British commissioners at Qhmt that an unalterable boundary shuold Ue established for the ladiatw from Cleveland, through the mouth of the RLentuLkv river, to the Gulf of Mexico, is rendered impoMWle'; tm British scheme of erecting ?n impassible br,ri??ir to t <? growth ntrj ..i.. ?c-mir grent Republics ?Ha.ii'tr r?-1 Tlie-e nre some of the results or wonderful :,?,i southern campaigns, which terminated with bio glorious achievements at New Orleans. Had the Indian war re sulted adversely, the torch would hnve biased from the lakes to the gulf?New Orleans mnst evitably have fallen without a struggle, and the greater portion of the Missis sippi valley pa*sod under the dominion of the British bar barian league. Twelve States aud four organized Terri tories have since been erected out of the country which was tlms to have been dedicated forever to barbarism un der British protection! The tide of emigration, carrying with it all the elements of political progress, social de velopment, and industrial enterprise, continues to roll westward until it mingles with the waves of the Pacific. With the return of peace the business of the country re vives, credit is restored, energy and enterprise pervade every department of industry, and the country leaps forth upon the swelling tide of prosperity in iti career of great ness. Jackson was not permitted long to enjoy the social en dearments and quiet repose of the Hermitage. At the in stigation of Spanish officials and British emissaries, the tomahawk and scalping-knite of the Seminoles were again spreading desolation and carnage over oux Southern bor ders. Jackson was ordered to repair to the scene of slaughter, with instructions to drive back and chastise the savage invaders, and with authority, if necessary for that purpose, to pursue them into the Floridas. You have not forgotten with what terrible energy he hurled lus forces upon the enemy's heudijuarters at St. Mark's, de molished their works, seized and executed the British in cendiaries who instigated the massacres, pursued the fu Sitlvi- sarr.ges, disregarded the protests and threats of the panish Governor, descended on Fensacoia, pursued the terrified Governor, with the murderers under his protec tion, to Furt Carlos, and planted the stars and ?tr!pes upnu its battlements. By the swiftness of his movements, the power of his example, and the terror of his name, he reduced the savage tribes, humbled the Spanish authori ties, and expelled the British emissaries. ? He was thus enabled to terminate the war, provide se curity and repose to our frontier settlements, and return the same year to the shades of the Hermitage. This campaign laid the foundation for the acquisition of the Floridas and the dispersion of the innumerable hordes of bandits and pirates who infested the coast, committing depredations upon our settlements and commerce, and finding shelter in the bayous and everglades-. Upon the ratification of the Florida treaty, Jackson was appointed bv the President Commissioner to receive the ceded pro ? viuces, and Governor of the new Territory, endowed with ' all the civil and judicial as well as military authority which the Spauish Governors hud wielded, Clothed with ? almost unlimited power, he exercised with a firm hand : and unyielding nerve whatever authority was necessary i ft,r *4>o rio? ?ocietv anil the snppret-Moa of vio | leuce. Exhausted by duty and exposure, nu ? , system sunk unuer the effects of the climate, uul he was borne upon a litter through the wilderness to hid beWved home on the banks'of the Cumberland. He declined the mission to Mexico, tendered by Presi dent Muaroe, and would gladly have remained in retire : went, una not tue anecuou of ienueessce placed mm m I tbe Senate of the United States, and the grateful voice of j the nation called liini to preside over the destinies of the : republic. Jsekson came into tho Presidency with his ' political principle* well matured uiid immutably fixed. I That exalted centiment of personal freedom an I sacred regard for individual rights which be had couceived in j the turbulent times of the revolution, and which had ? been so clearly discernible in all the vicissitudes of his eventful career, it was now his mission to carry into the practical administration of the Government, ani impress upon the publio policy of the ccuntry. lime will not ?permit, even were the occasion appropriate, a detailed exposition of the leading measures and great acts of his ' brilliant administration. Ni>r indeed can it be necessary. The great and striking events of that animated period re main fresh in the memory and vivid t*fore the mental vision. He met each question us it arose with a direct ness and frankness in harmony with his previous life, ife seemed to solve the most intricate problem of statesman ship by intuition. He perceived (roth in it* totality, without the tedious process of an analysis, and was able to see the remotest consequents of an act while tiic wt<?e*t around bim could only perceive its immediate results. Tbe high qualities which, on a different tteatre, had sustained him in every emergency, snd enabled him to rise superior to all resistance, never failed him in his civil administration. Calm, patient, and even deferential in counsel, when his opinion was matured and bis resolu tion farmed he threw all the fiery energy of bis nature | into Its execution. The history of his civil csreer, like ' tiiat of his military cimpaipts, consists of a rapid succes | >ton of terrific conflicts and brilliant achievement*, in which he never lost a battle or failed in a skirmish. His state papers will stand l.?rth, so long as the history of 1 this republic shall be read, as imperishable monuments to Ids sutesmsnship. While the present generation offer up the homage of grateful hearts for patriotic services to the noble spirits who were encaged in those fiery conflicts, time must determine and history frecc.d the relative me rits of tho respective sj>toms of politioal polic;. At tho expiration of Gen. Jackson's second Presidential term lie retired forever from publio life, ami repaired to the shades of the Hermitage. He eoatinued to feel an abiding interest in public affairs, without the least desire u> re-fuUr the political arena. He had tbe satisfaction of seeing the line of policy in support of which his mighty energies had been so long exerted rcceive the i-uiction of \he nation. He had the consolation of knowing that his < rttTial con iuct had been approved by the constituted | authorities of his country, in obedience to the voice of , the people, on every point in which it b.il been seriously called in question. He felt that his work was done?his mission fill filed. The remainder of bis day'S were spent in tbe *ooiety f>f his family, In Improving his farm, rnd j ternhg a generous unbounded hospitality, in tbe ' social ciruie and around the domestic hearth iie was as 'Simple as a child, remarkable for his n inability and his 1 c ipUlir for making all Mpp? ground h*1 Much of his I time wn? occupied in conversation* ant: meditations upon religions sabjert*. who never feared the face of man w*< not ashamed to vmttss his fear of M and lus faith in tho OM't'T- in ?ue f\iln?ss of hope he serenety ap ' proa chi-d tjie end ci his earthiy caret-r, and died in the triumphant consciousness of immortality beyond the grave. His death t>rodnced a profound hnj+ession upon J the bn.rt? and miads of aien. The voice of partisan strife , was nasbed. while s continent was clad in mounting and bathed il 'ears. Ail teU th.kt a great man had fallen. Vet there 5a* consolation in the coasoiousnesa that the 1 lustre of hl.? name, the f-ime of his great (foods, and the ' result* of his patriotic ?crvlc*? would be preserved J tlirsugli uli time?a rich inheritance to the devotees of ' fa-eicm. He still lives in the bright panes of history, in -he marks of hi* genius upou the inttiuitions of his coun try. tad by the impress of his character upon that of his ?<*untrymen. He lives in Ms own greet example ami by nis heroic achievement*. He live* in the spirit of the tge?the genius of prog rots whi;h is to ennoble and exalt humanity. and preserve and perpetuate liberty. One brave Utile girl, ten ye.-trs of age. whose ankle was *? 1 a*Uy l-rokon, by tbe recent R tdroad dimeter at Andovcr, at to render immediate amputafioe necessary, v-ver shed a tear, but kept spying, ?? don't cry, mother ; yfft *4I Jon*t "