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~ WASHINGTON. ?
" Liberty and Uniou, now and forever, one and inseparable." TUESDAY, APRIL 5,1853. THE AFFAIR AT 8AN JUAN. The annexed statement in the Union of Saturday doubtless embodies the information received by the Government of the late trouble ut San .J'uau de Ni caragua, and may therefore be regarded aw authen tic. It turfts out to be pretty much as we intimated in our last paper : , " In the month of February the Municipal Council of San Juan, in consequence of Home dispute with the Nica ragua Transit Company, parsed nn orJer for the demoli tion of the depot and buildings of the company, situated on Punta Arenas, opposite the city. This order was par tially carried into etToct on the 21st of February. Mean while, on the 10th of March, the United States sloop-of wur Cyane, Captain George N. Hollins commanding, ar rived at Sau Juan, under orders to cruise iu that \iciuity. Immediately Captain Hollins was served with a protest from the agent wf the Transit Company against the order of the Council of San Juan, and with a request to pro tect its property from further depredation. Accordingly, he dispatched Lieutenant Green with a remonstrance to the Council against any additional outrage on the pro perty of the Transit Company; but the Council replied that they would complete the destruction of the buildings at eleven o'clock on the next day, 11th of March. Capt. Hollins then made a protest in person to the Council against their threats, but with no better result. Learn ing that the people of Nicaragua were proceeding to the destruction of the buildings of the company, he dispatched a detachment of niariues for their protection. Being for bidden by the guard to disturb the buildings, the Nicara guans desisted from their purpose and dispersed. In con sequence of their repulse, the Council of San Juan abdi cated their functions. Captain Hollins deemed it neces sary to continue the protection of th? company's proper ty ; 'and on the application of an American citizen who had suffered some'outmpes from the Nicarnguans, he is- ' sued a j>rocli">mtion warning them in uo manner to mo- | lest the persons or property of foreigners resident in i San Juan. " This is a corrcct version of the affair, from which it will be seen that the conduct of Captain Hollins was cha- 1 racterized by commendable promptness, energy, and pru- I dence." The New York Commercial Advertiser gives the subjoined explanation'of the difficulty : San Ju iu del Norte has been the scene or the occasion of some disputes and jealousies between the United Slates and Great Britain, mainly growing out ot the actions of their respective representatives in those localities. It , was formerly a sort of adjunct to the Mosquito territory, 1 whose lar-fanted 44 king" held it under the protectorate of Great Britain. In April of 1802 the government was formally transferred to the inhabitants. A local govern- j ment was immediately formed, consisting of a Mayor, ! President of Council, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Captain ol the Port. We believe there is a fifth ofli- ; cer, but the alwve four only appear in this controversy, j All of these are reputed to be American citizens. The government was constitutionally chosen by the people. Prior to this change of government, as early as June, 1851, the Accessory Transit Company of Nicaragua oc cupied a site on the north side of the bay of San Juan as a coal depot, under a lease from the agent of the Mosquito King, paying on!y the nominal rent of sixpence sterling per month, but stipulating to vacate at any time when the land should be required for other purposes. It is i perhaps worthy of passing notice, however, that this per mission to occupy temporarily?for it was rather such a permission than a lease?was gr .nted to the " Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal Company." Recently, on the plea that the site was required for a powder magaxiue and other purposes, the agent of the Mosquito King called upon the company to vacate it, ac cording to the terms of their occupancy. The company, it is alleged, paid no attention to t!ie request. It is not improbable that the demand wax made because of dissat isfaction with the proceedings of the company, rather than from any real need of tne land for the purpose as signed. lie that as it may, Uie request wu? perfectly legal, and the Mosquito King's agent had a perfect right to insist upon compliance with it. The city government then took up the matter, and " made several propositions to the Transit Company, tendering large grants of land on the south aide of the bay and on the lagoon in the sim ple gratis, and to pay the expenses of removal, to con struct a rail track fr^m the bay to the lagoon, and to transport the company's supplies from one to the other free; all of which proportions having been repeatedly tendered, were as frequently unnoticed." The Common Council thereupon passed an ordinance requiring the company to remove within thirty days; and at the same time '? a number of the most responsible citizens of the town proposed in writing, over their own signatures, to give to the company gratis the property known as the Be schor estate, situated in.the heart of the city, which has been valued at thirty thousand dollars." The commercial agent of the United State* was ap- , pealed to by the company, and he is represented to have decided that the question was a local one, and must be de cided by the local authorities. The company claim that they occupy the land under a charter from the State of Nicaragua, granted prior to the lease from Mosquito. The Unite*' Suites agent, however, held that Nicaragua never possessed the land in question, and that the company acknowledged the Mosquitian jurisdiction by applying for and accepting a lease from the Mosquito King's agent. Passing over some minor matters and disputes, we come to the time when the city ordinance was to take ef fect. TLe company's agent, it is represented, had resolv ed to obey the ordinanoe, and had made preparations "for the removal of the company's office to a dismantled barque lying in the harbor, and the horses, stores, kc. to the south side of the bay, in the town proper." The formal ejection was to take place on the 12th of March, and ou the 10th of March the Cyane arrived at the port. Here commences the trouble. After reciting the formalities that took place be tween Capt. HoLLINs and the authorities of San Juan, the Commercial adds : " There are further statements of the proceedings of Capt. Hollins, which, however, are not essential to the main issue, except as they indicaie stringent measures of surveillance, amounting almost to a blockade of the port, which could scarcely be necessary to a full protection of the Transit Company's property. One fact, however, should not be lost sight of. The British vice consul, Mr. Foote, was absent while these events took place. He re turned on the 14th instant, and on learning that the Gov ernment hnd been dissolved hoisted the flag which had been lowered, repaired on board the Cyane, and it is be ttered claimed the territory as Mosquitan. So matters stood at the last advices." Amount of Cumberland Coal received by the Alexandria (,<i,nal for the month ending March 31, 1853: Tons. Cwt To Cumberland Coal and Iron Company 4,700 16-20 To Borden Mining Company 2,374 6-20 To Alleghany Company 2,4<17 4-20 To Frostburg Company 1,?V1H 0-20 To Parker Vein Company 1,844 10-20 Total tons coal 12,.>44 2-20 Besides which there are now about 1,500 tons afloat in the basin. This is an increase of about 2" per cent, on the receipts of any previous month since the commence ment of the coal trade at Alexandria.?AUzmdria Uazrtte. The steam fire engine in Cincinnati works well, and is . highly spoken of. When the last fire occurred, about a week ago, it arrived six minutes after the alarm was given, and ponred six streams of water on the fire. The Court at Philadelphia Insfore which Arthur fyriny was tried and convicted ofthe murder of Mrs. Shaw ami Mrs. Lynch have decided to allow him a new trial, for tb? reason that one man was substituted for another on the jury which f?, mdthe verdict apiinst him. St'iciOB or a* A vtY Omo.a.?John S. Hathawat, Brevet M?ior of the First \rtillery U. S. Army, was found dead on Thursday evening, in his room at the Astor House, New fork, having cut his throat with a raxor, which was lying beside him. His room door was bolted on the inside, and had to be broken open. On his person was found $150 in gold, a check for *000, Ac. He was about thirty-eight years of age and a native of New York. He had been absent for three years in California and Ore gon, and arrived at New York on Monday in the steamer Georgia. ! UNITED STATES AND PRUSSIAN CLOSED MAIL. ]iy exist iug regulations in Prussia, letters re ceded from the United States exceeding in weight , three and a half ounces, and which contain articles I oth-rthan written mutter, or coined money, canaot bo treated as mail matter; and it is requeafced that packets of this description be withheld from the ! Uuited States and Prussian closed mail. The des patch post offices at New York and Boston are in structed to take note of < and be governed by these regulations. RELEASE OF PRISONERS. We learn through a private letter from Kurope that our Minister at Madrid, Mr. Darrinukr, has fully succeeded in his efforts, through his personal influence with the Government there, in procuring froa the Queen of Spain a pardon and release of the JIuHtjarian prisoners of the Lope/, expedition of 1851 against the inland of Cuba, who have been so long confined in the Spanish presidio at Oeuta, in ; Africa, and who were made an exception to the ' general pardon granted to the American and other i prisoners of the expedition. They are eight in number. We learn from the Baltimore American of yester day that Chief Justice Tanky, of the Supreme Court, has been seriously ill, but are gratified to learn also that he is now recovering,and is expected before long to be restored to his usual health. Import ok Dry Goods.?The New York Times i gives the aggregate value of Foreign Dry Goods imported through the New Yrtrk Custom-house for the five calendar weeks ending with Thursday, the 31st ultimo, as follows : Fabrics of Wool $2,255,043 Of Cotton 1,858,001 Of Silk 3,790,988 | OfFlM*.: 1,091,737 j Miscellaneous 700,020 Total dry goodfe, five weeks .*...$0,701,745 The Times says, in addition, that the excess of the dry goods import at New York for the thirteen weeks of the present year, since 1st January, as compared with the corresponding period last year, is $7,.689,304, or about forty per cent, increase on the values of 1852. Governor Crosby, of Maine, has been nominated for re-election by a Whig Legislative Caucus. The election does not take place till September, but this nomination is made in accordance with the usage of the party. The Hon. Zaihic Pratt, who has just returned from Havana to New York, states that the health ot Vice President King has not improved ; but, on the contrary, some of his friends feared that he might not be able to return home on tho 1st of April, as he contemplated doing. Mr. Pratt also says that a week ago last Monday he was invited by Consul Sharkey " to go out in a few days to be present at the swearing in of the Vice President." This shows that Mr. Kinu has not been sworn into office, as was stated with so much circumstantiality in a letter giving all the particulars of the ceremony, a part of which we sopied ou the *21st ultimo from the New Orleans Picayune. What a commentary does not this fact furnish upon the reliability of news from Cuba ! If fictitious and fraudulent representations, apparently made only for the purpose of supplying news of in terest, whether there be any or not, can be delibe rately made on a topic of this character, what may not be expected when a thousand fierce and evil pas sions, fed of selfishness, are excited by international differences or misunderstandings ? If any of our readers arc curious to know how correspondents will sometimes " shoot the long-bow," we refer them to the above-mentioue-1 letter. The Prf.suytkry of the Distuict or Columbia met at | Lisbon, Howard county, Maryland, on Thursday last. It was opened by a sermon from Rev. W. McLain. i Rev. S. Wasuburh, of Raltimorc, was elected Modera tor, and the stated Clerk, Re*. W. McLnin, read the minutes of the previous meeting. The Committee to organize a new Church in Washing ton reported ; this church was entered on the Presbytery roll, an<l John Douglass was received as elder of the same. A call from said Church to the Rer. A. G. Carotiibr* whs presented, and found to be in order, and was put into the hands of Mr. Carothors, who signified his acceptance. The Sixth Presbyterian Church was received under care of Presbytery, and J. Knight received a9 elder. Rer. Mason Noblk was called to the Pastorate. A call from the First Presbyterian Church was put into the bauds of Rev. B. Susi?kbi.am>, who signified his ac ceptance. Rev. John C. Smith, minister, anfT Otho Maurlder, elder, principals; Rev. C. H. Noubsb, minister, and Dr. E. W. Wabfiblii, elder, alternates, were elected commis sioners to Generdl Assembly. Rev. Mr. Dahfobth, of Alexandria, asked leave to resign his charge of the 2d Charcli in that city, intending to take nn agency in the American Coloniiation Society. The case is referred to the next meeting of the Presbytery in this city. i After a sermon by the Rev. Mr. Danforth and other business, the Presbytery adjourned to meet in the First j Church, in this city, on the 18th April, noon. Tub Chesapkakb asd Ohio Caxai. during the past month has exceeded by ten per cent, the business of any previous month. At Georgetown about 40,000 barrels of flonr paid tolls, and at least three hundred boats arrived. There were tolls paid at Georgetown on eight thousand tons of coal, but that is less than one-half the coal ton nage of the canal for the month ; other produce in pro i portion. We have heard it stated as a matter of regret that so much delay has been experienced at Alexandria in un loading coal. Better accommodation at the outlet *f the canal would be gratifying to the trade. Immigration into Nbw Yobk.?The monthly report of the Commissioners of Immigration shows that during March there arrived from foreign ports 388 vessels, mea suring in the aggregate 159,460 tons. The total number of passengers was 12,940, of which 5,<101 were Irish, 2,617 German, 1,000 English, 320 Scotch, and 200 French. The statistics for the Brst three months of the present year show a large decrease when compared with the cor responding period of the two previous years, being about 12,000 less than in each year, which ia to be attributed chiefly to the diversion of European emigration to Aus tralia and the diminution of the fountain of population in , Ireland. Increased Vau:e of Propkbtt i* Maryland.?We have the following official returns of the new assessment of real and personal property in the subjoined counties of Maryland, which we compare with the old assessment: OM Assessment. New Assessment. Allegany . . . $4,133,039 $8,<180,959 Anne Arundel . . , <>,842,120 7,410,702 Carroll .... 0,004,774 8,088,940 Ck*rtes .... 8,382,082 4,1180,740 Caroline .... 1,492,102 1,907,587 Howard .... 8,854.280 4,170,848 Dorchester . . . 4,105,064 4,977,700 Frederick . . 18,007,160 20,458,801 j??1 ? 3,739,908 4,021,726 Somerset . # ?401,?20 5,379,720 St. Marys , . 3,801,597 3,690,040 Washington . , 11,886,400 14,399,490 ^ Worcester . . , 8,546,758 4,^20,927 78,677,804 93,288,792 This exhibits an increase in thirteen counties of $19, < 10,988. The remaining eight counties and the city of Baltimore will no doabt show a much larger increase. [/JaUimort Sun. % WASHINGTON GOSSIP. Iu the absence of official disclosures, we clip a few items from the most reliable Washington corre spondents, who manage to worm out many things in anticipation of formal promulgation : The Senate to-day confirmed the nomination of Col. James Polk as Surveyor of the port of Baltimore. The Colonel, however, persisting in hia declination, the presi dent afterwards sent in the nomination of l)r. J. 0. Whar ton as Surveyor of the port of Baltimore. Kobert White was confirmed Collector of Georgetown, D. C.; P. B. Hays Surveyor of the port of Philadelphia. J. Kettlewell was confirmed Naval Olfcoor at Baltimore. The treaty with San Salvador was ratified unanimously. The treaty with Uruguay was discussed, but no action taken upon it. It was postponed till the next session. The resolution declaring that the President has power to remove judges iu the Territories was adopted by a vote of twenty-five to nine. The statement of the correspond ent of the Herald that the Southern Whigs opposed the coufirinatiou of Mr. Dix is uutrue. Not one of them open ed their-lips against the confirmation. The Secretary of State and Mr. Crampton, it is under stood, are engaged iu settling mutual instructions to cruisers aud colonial authorities on the fishing grounds for the protection of American fishermen. It has been considered as doubtful here whether Mr. Dickinson aud Mr. 0 Conner would accept the offices of fered them. Mr. Dickinson was not consulted on the subject; but it is known that Gen. Dix had agreed to ac cept the Collectorship in case it should be offered to him. The intelligence of the appointment by the Mexican Government of two Commissioners to treat with Judge | Conkling on the subject of the neutrality of the Tehuan tepec transit is authentic. The result of thi? negotiation or conference will soon be known here. The debate in the Senate upon the nominadon of Gen Dix was very warm, and long-continued. Sfcme of the Senators were disposed to make a stand Qgaimt the com promise with the Freesoilers, and Gen. Dix w^s opposed as the most prominent representative of the Ercesoil party. The question before the Son?te in fact was upon an armistice between the Hunkers and Barnburners, and therefore the armistice is sanctioned, though not with en tire cordiality, as may be seen from the twelve negative votes upon the nomination, which names I sen* you by telegraph. It will bo noticed that, in the general rush foj Federal offices, the highest officers of the State Governnents, to say nothing of men prominent iu professional life, are foremost. Any subordinate office under the Feteral Gov ernment is preferred to the highest office unda* a State Government, aud the honor of a custom-hous* office or under clerkship is deemed worthy of the sacritbe of any professional occupation, however respectable or lucrative. Mr. Dobbin has rescinded the order for Comnodore Ap Catesby Jones's appoiutment to the California station. Fie has decided also against the completion of the Cali fornia dry dock, which Congress provided for ?t the late session, arid with the recommendation of the last two Secretaries of the Navy. The act, however, left t optional with the present Secretary to goon with the w<rk or not. The Slave Trade.?Late letters 1'roiE Havana state that a large number of slaves, in addition to those previously reported, had been landed on the island, but that the Captain-General had caused the prompt arrest of the parties engaged in the business. The British squadron stationed on the coist to watch these slave-importing movements had be:n re- j inforeed by the arrival of the war steamers I)tt'asta-| tiou and Mededo. The French squadron conasts of the steamer 1' Ardent and the brig Orestes.. The Spanish squadron numbers ten or twelve vessels. The Saranac is the ouly American vcssel-of-wr on the station. New Orleans and Key West.?The Post master General has ordered a contract wilh Mr. Samuel S. Gheen for the conveyance of the mails twice a month, in steamers, between New Orleans and Key West. The contract contemplates an im mediate commencement of the service, and tic ves sels employed will be subject to the inspectioi of the Department. By an arrival at New York we have advices from Caraccas to Feb. 26. Congress is still in <*ssion. In the Chamber of Representatives the tjiwty in demnifying citizens of the United States for com mercial losses during the political disturbances of Venezuela has passed to a third reading, and, as was supposed, would be speedily ratified. Lieutenant Bebbtmab, of the United States brig Dol-! phin, has performed the most acceptable service of runuing two lines of deep sea soundings across the Atlantic. The results give plausibility, in Lieut. Maubv's opinion, to, the conjecture that the north Atlantic ocean is probably j nowhere much more than 6,000 fathoms (30,000 feet) deep. | Lieut. B. also made au extended search for the "Eight Stones" and " Juan Hammond's Rock," dangerous ob stacles to navigation, but was unable to find eitherof them. He is ccrtain that neither of them exist, and Lieut. Mau ry, concurring with him in opinion, has directed them to be erased from the Government charts. Abbival or Pobtuoukse Chbisti abs.?The brig Comet, which arrived at Baltimore a few days since, brought as passengers fifty of the persecuted Portuguese, who fled to Trinidad from Madeira about five years since. They are now on their way to join the settlement of their friends in the State of Ulinois. They are principally con nected with the Presbyterian church, a few only being Baptists. The fine Block of Granite from the Fbbe Swiss Cob rEDBRATioN was presented yesterday at noon, in the pre sence of the Board of Managers and a large concourse of citixens, in front of the City Hall, by Mr. L. Uuimkb, in the name of the Free Swiss Confederacy. An appropriate address was delivered by Mr. Hcilieb, and replied to in a very appropriate manner by Waltbb Lenox, Esq. After music by the Marine Hand, a procession was form ed, escorted by the German Yagers, accompanied hy the Board of Managers aud other citixens, the block of granite was conveyed to the monument building. The block is very beautiful, and the style of the inscription in the best taste. We shall, however, recur to the subject for a fuller account of the presentation. Commob Schools ib Ohio.?From the report of the Ohio Secretary of State on the condition of common schools for the past year, we learn that the whole number of youth in the S'ate is 838,069. The entire number of pupils en rolled, male and female, is 487,412. The average daily attendance during the year has been but 1260,208. There arc nearly 500,000 children who are entitled to attend these schools, but who do not. The difference between the number of pupils enrolled and the average attendance is a still more painful fact. Either parents or teachers are in fault when iess than five-eighths of the scholars of all the Bchools in the State are present. It is a signifi cant fact that the enrolled number of boys exceed that of the girls by more than 40,000. There are 9,916 schools, with 12,404 teachers in the State, to the latter of whom $771,145 are paid as wages. One hundred and seventy one school houses have been built during the year, at a cost of $01,837. From Texas.?We have Galveston papers to the 2oth instant. The News states that the amount subscribed to the Texas Central Railroad by the citizens of Galveston exceeds $8o0,000. The Matagorda Tribune announces the arrival of Col. Whitiko, of the U. 8. Topographical Engineers, accompanied by a surveying party, to make a thorough reconnoissance of the Colorado river, ascertain the pricticability of its improvement, and decide on the best method of applying the $20,000 appropriated there for by Congress. Rrri'BBtXO tiibComplimebt.?Mr. March, speaking of the relief sent to Madeira from Boston, say*: " Long after those who will be kept alive by it shall have gone to thoir last homes, the very name of Boston will be almost wftrahipped by Madeira." This Is only retftrning the compliment, for the name of Madeira has, for a long time, been almost worshipped by the solid men of Boston.?l'rovid*nti Journal. SANTA ANNA S RETURN TO MEXICO. The Rritish steamship Avon reached Havana oil the 27th ultimo, having on board General Santa Anna, on his return to Mexico. His wite, daugh ter, and a large number of Moxichu officials oowput'" ed his suite. He was in good heulth and spirits, and spent a day or two at Havana, receiving atten tions from old and new friends. The Avon sailed on the 28th for Vera ('ruz. The Havana Diario says : "Called again by tbe almost uuaniinous wish ot the Mexican people to control iU defltiaies, wo are gratified to be able to assert with entire confidence that General Santa Anna, taught by experience, has thoroughly real ised tbe duties of his lofty mission and tbe conditions re quired by circumstances. The question of reconstruction in all its magnitude rules in the mind of the future Uov ernor, and impresses him with the necessity of a system analagous to the tone of our own ideas in re-organiiing the Suite. A little firmness, which wo know him to pos sess, and the cordial support of all who seek the salva tion of the country, offer the only, but not desperate, , means of passing the fearful crisis now existing in Mexico. By the latest dates from Vera Cruz, being to the 19th ultimo, we learn that the authorities of that placc, in view of the approaching arrival of Santa Anna, had decreed that the day of his landing on the soil of Mexico should be celebrated and enjoyed as a public festival. The people in other parts of the Republic were awaiting his arrival with impatience. Til the mean time the ad interim Government of Gen. Lomuardini was proceeding with passable tranquillity. Being but temporary, it was expected to surrender the reins of government to Santa Anna as soon as he reached the capital. CONNECTICUT ELECTION. The returns from the election held in Connecti cut on Monday last for Governor and other State officers, and for Representatives in Congress and Members of the State Legislature, indicate that the Democrats have Bwept tho State by increased ma jorities. If these reports may be relied upon, the election has resulted in the choice of the entire Democratic ticket, as follows : Thomas II. Seymour is re-elected Governor. Chabi.es H. Pond, Lieutenant Governor. Jonx P. C. Mather, Seoretary of State. Edwin Stearns, Treasurer. Rufub 0. Pinney, Comptroller. Messrs. James T. Pratt, Colin M. Inoersoll, Nathan Belcher, and Origen S. Seymour are elected to Congress. Colonization.?The Philadelphia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at their lute session at Har risburg, passed sundry resolutions in reference to the colonization cause : first, that they regard with increased favor tfic cause of African colonization ; second and third, that they approve the course of the Pennsylvania society ; fourth, that they commend the missionary aspect of colo nization in Liberia; fifth, that they recommend the agent of the Colonization Society to the several congregations within the bounds of tho Conference ; and sixth, that they recommend a public meeting in behalf of the coloni zation cause. Legal Binding of Railroad Subscriptions.?The Su preme Court of the State of New York has decided that nil subscriptions to tbe capital stock ot railroad compa nies are binding. Tbe Troy and Boston.Railroad Com pany brought a Buit against G. E. Tibbits tor the recove ry of an unpaid balance of a subscription of $20,00$, up on which $1,000 had been paid. Various technical ob jections were raised as to the binding of the subscription, but the court decided in favor of the company, and order ed a verdict for the plaintiff of $18,500, and interest from the time the calls were made. Accident on tub Richmond and Petebsbcrg Rail road.?On Sunday one of the passenger cars between Richmond and Petersburg (Va.) was thrown from the track, dangerously injuring four or five persons. It ap pears that some eight or teu miles from Petersburg, when the cars were going very swiftly, a " snake-bead turned up and went through the bottom of one of the cars, in which were seated many passengers. The violence of the collision was so great that the part of the car penetrated by the iron was literally knocked out and the passengers thrown down on the bed of tbe road. Mrs. Pitrnell (daughter of ex-Governor Di'DLky, of North Carolina) sustained an injury in her ankl*, nnd her child, an inter esting boy of 8 or 10 years, was severely injured in the head. Her servant girl had her leg crushed, rendering amputation necessary, which she survived only thirty minutes. Some other persons were slightly injured. The Tahlequah Advocate, with much apparent satisfac tion, denies the truth of a late report of the discovery of gbld in the Cherokee Nation. It admits that tho Horse Creek Mines have a renl existence, but says there is a dif ference of opinion as to the nature of their products. Numbers have dug, numbers are digging, and in all pro bability numbers will dig, until they find out by expe rience that it is vastly better and mere profitable to stay at home and dig for corn than go abroad and dig for gold. These " diggings" are of that peculiar kind denominated "dry." Mrs. Fillmore.?Mrs. Abigail Fillmore, who died at Washington, March 30tb, at the A?;e of fifty-five years, was the daughter of the Rev. Lemuel Powers, late pastor of the Baptist church in Stillwater, Saratoga county, (N. Y.) and previously a resident of Croydon, (N. H.) She was the youngest of seven children. After the death of her father, in 1800, she removed with her mother to Sempronius, Cayuga county, (N. Y.) until her marriage in February, 1820, when sbe went with her husband, the lion. Millard Fillmore, to Aurora, Erie county, where she resided until 1830, when they removed to Buffalo. She was a descendant of llenry Leland, who came to this country more than two centuries ago, and settled in Sher burne, Massachusetts, and ?he partook largely of the I characteristics which have distinguished so many of his 1 numerous posterity. 8he was a lady of great strength ! of mind, dignified manners, genteel deportment, and of I much energy of character. She was a member of the ! Unitarian Congregational Church in Buffalo, whither her J body is now on its way to be laid among the friends to whom, by her many virtues, she had become endeared. ; She has left two children, Millard P. and Mary Abigail, who, with her bereaved husband, have suffered a loss never in this life to be repaired. ? Hotlon Journal. Dirkct Railroad.?'We learn that the surveyors of the contemplated new railroad between Baltimore and Phila delphia have completed the survey of one of the routes, ! which is represented as highly satisfactory, and it is es timated will cost between two and three millions. They will immediately commence on a more northern line, in order to obtain the shortest and most practicable route. [1'hilmdelphia A'eiri. Australia.?The intelligence from the Australian gold fields, by the latest files from that quarter, is chiefly im portant as indicating both a continued large supply from the old sources and the discovery of news ones. Great distress was prevalent in consequence of the great and I constant influx of new-comers. The average of arrivals at Melbourne alone was over two thousand per week. At Forest Creek, near Mount Alexander, the arrivals during tho reek preceding October 5th amounted to nearly thirty thousand. Three-fourths of these were from Bendigo and its neighborhood, attraeted by the reported discovery of very rich diggings on Moonlight Flats, near Forest Creek. At Daisy Hill, thirty inileB from the same place, another new gold field had been discovered, ltallarat, the origi nal gold field, was receiving a return of diggers, and had yielded gold to tbe value of more than $86,000 during the first week of October. The total yield of gold at Port Phillip, from the first discoveries up to the last of Octo ber, is estimated at upwards of ten tons, valued at more than forty millions of dollars ! Favorable reports of large yields are also ?poken of fr'>m seyeral other new localities. Faneuil Hall, Boston, i# proposed to be enlarged by the erection of an additional gallery, giving an increased accommodation of ovct nine knndred seats. FOUR DAYS LATER FROM EUROPE. The American mail steamer Arctic arrived at. New \ ork last evening, bringing dates from Liver pool to the 23d ol March, being four days later than broiqght by the Niagara. We have the sub joined report of the new* bjf Telegraph : Being Latter week, the British Parliament was not iu ression. The Prince of Wales Tower of Windsor Castle is burut. v # Mr. Rivjcs, our Minister to France, will return home in May. Spain has concluded a loan of five million reals with the Darings, to pay off her floating debt. The Federal Council of ttwitxerland was to meet on the l'Jth ultimo to conaid&r the demauds of Austria. Austria has revised her passport laws, and made them very rigorous against English travellers. Austria has abandoned the high treason prosecutions, causing great enthusiasm at Milan. The unexampled haughtiness of the Sultan towards the Russian Envoy bad cuused much excitement, and the English Charge sent a steamer to Malta for the English squadron to hasten to the Dardanelles. Admiral Dundas refused to obey the summons without orders from England. The Frcnch fleet from Toulon was im mediately dispatched. The French Bourse fell alarm ingly, and the English funds were depressed, but are now rooovering. It is supposed that the aifair will blow over, but it is still regarded as critical. The latest des patch received by the French Government leads to the belief that the difficulty will be amicably settled. NEWS FROM CENTRAL AMERICA. The Havana Diario dt la Mariana furnishes news from Izabal to the 5th of March, by which it appears that the state of hostilities between Guatemala and Honduras have assumed no more violent type than it has borne for four years past. Gen. Carrkra, the President of Guatemala, has occupied the frontier department of Chiquimula with a large body of troops, in preparation for un invasion, which the Diario thinks Honduras quite unable to make, so embarrassed are her domestic concerns. On the other side, the Guatemalese pretensions to the Mexican province of Chiapas have led the Government to invade that terri tory, as our advices from Mexico have stated; but not to seize the capital. The maritime province ofSoconusco has been occupied; and in anticipation of the prompt action of the new dictator of Mexico, in reference to the question, as soon as he is invested with office, the Guata malese Government is obliged to strengthen itself in that direction. It is obviously out of the question to contend with an active foe on either flank. Peace must be made either with Mexico or Honduras. The district of Soco nusco stretches away from the frontier of Guatemala along tlie Pacifio ; forming a long, mountainous strip of no great value. Its population is of the least desirable sort, resembling in all respects those furioi^ mountain eers, whose incursions from the hills are the terror of the Guatemalese, and who have defied all the efforts of Gov ernment to prevent or repress them. The Gaceta Official has accounts of several such murderous forays. To add such a nest of hornets to the brood it already possesses, and to hazard a war with Mexico to secure it, is an act of policy worthy of a Spanish American republic. The Diario discovers reasons to believe that the claim will be abandoned. The Chambers had just closed their annual session. Among their other acts was the abrogation of the conces sions made to the Belgian company of St. Thomas for the encouragement of emigration. These grants were made in 1842 and 1843 to a corporation located at Brus sels. The port and district of St. Thomas, embodying the most valuable portion of the Atlantic shore of the State, were conveyed to it under certain restrictions, and were to be peopled with as many Flemings and Walloons as the company could ship thither. The speculation has proved a failure. Europeans do not find the climate healthful or favorable to industrial enterprise. Those who have , tried it have hastened to return. The State has realized i none of the profits it anticipated, and at last thosconces- ! sion has been revoked. It will probably be left lor Yan- J kee enterprise to undertake and accomplish the task. During the month of February several severe shocks of earthquake had been experienced in Guatemala. From San Salvador we learn that* every thing had be come quiet. The failure of the liberal movement had j discouraged renewed attempts. The President, Diknab, j was daily receiving proofs of increased confidence from the people, which the moderate use he has made of his ' dictatorial functions fully justifies. The famous Eilatut, issued by the Democrats of Honduras, has met with no response. The prospect of a great Central American re public may now be regarded as at an end. Costa Rica has issued a solemn and final declaration against the uni tarian projeot. The finances of San Salvador, for the year 1852, exhibit a highly flattering condition. The revenues reached $454,118. being a gain of $100,000 over those of the preceding year/ The expenditures were $415,207, nearly one half of whieh were devoted to the . payment of the national debt. It is reported*-oin Honduras that the decided course of the dominant party has had its effect. The President, Gen. i Cabanas, has, it appears, withdrawn to the capital, Cu- j mayagua, disbanding the small body of troops stationed along the frontier of Guatemala. The constituent legis- ' lators of Tegucigalpa, which hat been debating another ! federal project to replace the old one, has suspended its | sessions, rnota propria. It is understood that, without i the aid of San Salvador, the war with Guatemala will not . be resumed; and, as we have already stated, San Salva dor is unanimous for a peaceful policy. MEXICAN ITEMS. The agents of Mr. Sloo have paid into the treasury the | sum ef $50,000, being the monthly payment of March j under the contract. Messrs. Mora and Gohzalkz, com missioners on the part of the Government to make deli very of the line to the Mixed Company, have left Vera Cruz for Minatitlan. Senor Gftibrrez, the agent of the company, has passed throwgh Oajaca on his way to Te huantepeo. Much feeling was excited in Mexico against Falconnbt, the banker, in consequence of the publication by the Lon don papers of a letter from him to the Mexican bondhold ers, stating that in obtaining the exportation fre6 of duty of the $2,500,000 last paid, it had cost $00,000 in bribes to the members of Congress. A number of the accused Deputies have demanded an investigation of the charge, i Senor Falconnet denies it stoutly in a card published in j the Siylo. In Jalisco and Durango the Indians are still committing frightful outrages. In one or two villages these savages have been bravely met and repulsed, and, as a general rule, they arc suffered unresistably to commit the most horrible atrocities. At Zacatecas a large force of Indians were routed by a band of soldiers under Col. Echeverria. Tkxas Railroads.?The ludianola Bulletin complains that there are entirely too many railroads projected in Texas. "We are following," it says, "in the wake of Illinois in 1886, '7, '8. We lack a high national feeling on the subject. Too many little towns want railroads, j Nnt more than three roads should have been incorporated, I with a few branches; one from Matagorda Hay, another from Galveston Day, and a cross-road connecting with the Mississippi, by a road from New Orleans, Vicksburg, or Memphis, and crossing our two coast roads at or on a line , | with Austin. Could the combined strength of Texas be I thrown in favor of three such principal trunks, success I would be attained, and then branch roads would be added j to the necessary places. Now our strength is divided, I and will be frittered awiy. There are three charters I from Matagorda Bay, four from Galveston Bay and its ' Waters, and a number of others elsewhere." During last fall some thirty wild ducks were ensnared ami captured alive in Maine. Their wings were clipped i to prevent their escape, and thus they gradually became , domesticated. Col. Jaqurs, of Ten Mill Farm, Medford, ' Ma?s., hearing of these ducks, made a jonrnoy to Maine, j purchased them, and carticd them to his farm, where they were at liberty to roam over acres of marsh and up land ; they became acoustomed to his call, and do not . now manifest the least disposition to emigrate. If a stranger enters the yard they manifest the utmost alarm and make an attempt to fly. By their peculiar call and . the freedom they enjoy to traverse the margin of the Mys tic river and the marshes, they attract other wild ducks, which make a shy descent and remain for a time, then j take to flight, but not being alarmed, repeat their visits, | then lay their eggs, atld finally become accustomed to the call of the colonel, who will not suffer them to be molest- i ed. By these means Col. .Taqnes is constantly having ac cessions of wild ducks to his flock of decoys. A few days since he had ten at one time. A zinc ship, the first constructed in Europe, has just been launched at Nantes, in France. Its frame is of iron, and is said to be of great elegance and strength. The sheet-zinc used is 0.885 Inch thick, rivetted with a double row of iron rivets. The deek and upper works are of wood. Its burden if twenty-five tons more than that of a wooden ship of similar dimensions. It was apprehended at first that the contact of the zinc with the iron rivets would alter the iron and impair the strength of the vessel. But these fears were soon dissipated, upon its being as certained in practice that the rivets upon being driven in became promptly galvanized by contact with the zinc. NEW BOOK. Yuskf; or a Crusade in the AW, by J. Roas Baoifai. Wit, pathos, and instruction are all united in these sprightly pages. Rarely have we found iu a single vo lume so much to charm and amuse. We are grateful to the author, in the first place, for putting us at once on inte resting ground?for sparing us the history of the creation, deluge, and other events already known to the learued, with which so many find it expedient to begin their re citals. Ross Brownk is content to oonsider all these, as well as the existence of the Atlantio ocean, as so rnauy " fixed facts and, taking us up in Naples, hurries us off with him to Sioily?over Etna into Dionysius's Ear; flies to Smyrna; makes all the veiled beauties of Constantinople unoover for us as we ftass j drives better bargains in the turned bazaars of Stamboul than any stranger ever did before ; skims along the coasts of Troy, touching at those charming isles of the Archipelago W here burniug Sapho loved and sung ; ' and at lust, sad rogue that he is, lands us in the Island of Cyprus. , The churns of the Paphian queen and her handmaids stop but for a time his onward course. We are soon floated away to Beirut; and here, as in all these sketches, the real picture of Eastern life is brought before us. We hear again the wrangling of muleteers; we meet again the rivwl claims of dragomen, each anxious for a victim, each boasting how many milors he has put through the desert, and how many Bedouins he ha* shot through the heurt. Yusef at last takes our author as his prize Yusef the pearl of dragomen. "The plague, fire, and dragomen are the three curses of the East." Poor Yusef stands out from his class. Our author modestly cedes to him the first rank, and well does he deserve to stand in bold relief: for rarely, in a large experience of the gentlemen of his order, have we found one furnishing so much amusement having so few defects. He does indeed sometimes forget his name, (Joseph ;) he is, in short, given to nepotism; but for this he has high authority; he occasionally tipples, which shows that the stringent Maine liquor law of the Koran is inefficient; and he murders, when entirely alone, more Bedouins than all of Falataff's men in buckram. But let these pass. Yusef is a good cook and a great philosopher, and we congratulate our author in being in so good hands. Gladly would we again swim with him in the Lake of Tiberius and charge with Saladin across the plain of Es draelon ; but there is a limit to all things, even to travel ling. Jerusalem, Balbek, Lebanon, Damascus, all are visited. We stand with our author on the heights of Jebel-el Mazir, gazing upon the splendid orchurd of Damascus. Pleasant it is to revisit spots which have left their life prints upon us; pleasant to follow there so gay a com panion, who, with a heart for any fate, goes boldly on, and from the great book of nature and of man's works draws lessons of courage nud of perseverance?of faith in a strong will, a kindly nature, and a hearty laugh. Vessels at New Yohk.?There were lying at the wharves of the city of New York on Friday : Steamers, 24; ships, 113; barques, 04; brigs, 146; and schooners, 180. Total, 6&7. On the same evening, about sundown, there might have been seen between tlie Battery, Staten Island, and the Jersey shore, ninety-five vessels, of all descriptions, lying at anchor. In the midst of these were about thirty other vessels, under sail, moving in various directions. The commercial steam marine of the port of New York consists of 75 ocean steamships, with an Aggregate ton nage of 129,010 tons. These steamships are owned by sixteen companies, and are employed as follows : Trans atlantic 10 steamers, Southern trade 17, California trade 41. Steamboat Li.NKToPiiiLAUKi.PHiA.?The two fine steam ers, the Gen. McDonald and the Robert fMorru, belonging to the Citizens' Union Line, are to resume their regular tripe from Baltimore for the season this day. These boats run daily to Frenchtown, (Sunday excepted,) leaving at 7 A. M., and passengers go thence by railroad via New castle and Wilmington to Philadelphia. Naval.?The steam-frigate Sunquehannah remained at Manila January 17; had been unable to make the repairs intended, and would go over to Hong Kong with one engine. The frigate Columbia, Commander Pendergrast, bear ing the broad pennant of Commodore John Thomas New ton, arrived at Pensacola on the 13th ultimo, in twenty nine days from Norfolk. She went through the Mona passage and along the south side of the Island of Santa Domingo; taking this course, it is presumed, in consc quence of being short-handed. The practice ship Prcblt Bailed from Philadelphia on Saturday for Annnpolis, preparatory to her exercising cruise in the Gulf of Mexico. The following officers are attached to her: Richard L. Tilghman, Lieut. Com manding; Marcus Duvall, Passed Assistant Surgeon; J. A. Scmple, Purser; J as. S. Waddell, Passed Midshipman ; Henry Bright, Boatswain; Leonard K. Ellis, Gunner; R. P. Leslie, Carpenter. Late Steamboat Disaster.?The Galveston Journal of the 24th ultimo has the following account of a late steam boat disaster heretofore noticed in our telegraphic column: Last night, about 11? o'clock, while the steamboats Farmer and Neptune were running within a few hundred yards of each other, just ofT Peliciwn Spit, the boilers on board of the Farmer exploded, carrying away and blow ing to atoms almost the entire boat forward of the ladies' cabin. The number of lives lost is not yet known. It is estimated that there were from thirty to fifty persons aboard, fully one-half of whom are dead or mining. Only three persons in the gentlemen's cabin and state-rooms, it is thought, escaped entirely uninjured. None of the ladies were hnrt. The boat sunk immediately in six feet water. She is an entire loss?mail, books, papers, money, cargo, and all. Thecapt&in had been expostulated with by several of the passengers during the trip for running his boat at such dangerous speed, and Msj Stack pole was remonstrat ing with him at the time of the explosion, both standing immediately over the boilers. Mr. Stackpole was blown into the air through the hurricane deck, and first came to consciousness in the water under the boat. The ex plosion was so tremendous, and the destruction of the boat so complete, that it is miraculous a -ingle life should have escaped. Amongst the killed and missing are the names of C. H. Sterns, of Galveston; James Cotton, of Houston; Mr. llubl.y and Mr. Hart, of New Orleans; IS. Webb, captain; Thos. Pritchard, clerk; Wm. Warner, 2d engi neer; Caleb Robertson, of Galveston; B. II. Gary, of Houston. Gov. Geo. T. Wood, J. W. McGown, of Hous ton, and several others stepped from the Farmer aboard the Neptune, while the boats were locked together, only a few minutes before the explosion, and tiros doubtless saved their lives. Thr Late Railroad Accident.?The Cumberland Jour nal of Friday says that all the snfTcrers by the late de plorable railroad accident are rapidly recovering, and will soon leave for their various places of destination. Dr. Cad wullader is still at Cheat river, and doing well; Mr. Gardiner, one of the brakesmen, who was severely in jured, is at the same place. Miss Isaacs, one of the killed, was of Hebrew descent, and was travelling under the care of Dr. Cadwallader, who is ignorant of her death; she was on her way to Philadelphia to visit her friends. Louis Drlije, another of the killed, was a na tive of trance, ou his way from California, and had with him a bill of exchange on the Rothschilds, of Paris, for 26,000 francs, another for a small amount of sterling ex change on the Rothschild*, of London, together with an -omanim-Di pf ope-half of It claim on the United States Government, growing ont of the seizure of a vessel called the New Bee. Cornelius Sallies, from Holly Springs, Mississippi, had on his person a large amount of South Carolina money and other valuables, which are In the safekeeping of the Railroad Company. FlavilS.Woottow, another of the killed, was a native of Rookville, Montgo mery county, Maryland, and had settled at Green Bey, Wisconsin, in the practice of the law. He was on his re turn to visit his friends for the first time slnoe leaving his native State. His body has been forwarded to his friends in Montgomery county. The Journal says the number of passengers on the rail road has suffered no diminution since the accident. The enrs now pass through instead of over the Pettibone Tunnel, and consequently make better time between Cum berland and Wheeling. Few know that In every seven minutes in the day a child is bom in London, and that erery nine minutes one of its inhabitants dies.