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The Works or William H. Seward, in 8 vols. Rjcufuld, 110 und 112 Nassau street, New York, 1853. Edited by Gxokuk E. Baker. The works of William 11. Sxwasd are able works. No reader of the National Intelligencer needs to be told, however, that in his general views upon certain public questious the author of these productions entertains opinions differing widely from our own. As u statesman, a scholar, a man of refined cultivation, and a liberal promoter of the public welfare, according to hit peculiar opinion*, Wm. H. Seward stands deservedly high before his oountryuien. llis public papers give evi dence of great intellect?of study, taste, and generous feelings?and the warmth of his temperament appears in all that he says and does. In his prsfuco the Editor informs us that in this collec tion of Mr. Soward'B works it is intended " lo present the public, not only with his more elabo rate speeches and writings, but also with his occasional and unstudied efforts. The principles and measures of public policy which he has maintained receive as clear an illustration from the latter class of his productions as from his inoro systematic and finished performances. They are accordingly important, at a time when the political views of Mr. Seward have become the subject of discus sion in every quarter of the Union." The Editor ol these volumes, though by no means unconscious of his slight qualifications for so important a task, has attempted to collect and prepare for publication the folk wing works of William II. Seward. A desire to aid in disseminating the doctrines and principles they contain, as well as to preserve them in a permanent form, must plead his apology. For a number of years it has been his wish to bring these works beforthe public. He has only waited for the time when they could be pro duced without exciting a suspicion of personal or parti Ban objects. That time, iu his opinion, has now arrived. " It is, however, perhaps too much to expect, even now, a candid hearing from all parties. ? Nothing,' says Mr. Seward, in one of his letters, ? that I can do or say, or that can be said or doue by my friends, is Buffered to pass without exciting alarms lest it may have an ambi tious design that I almost despise.' "To the friends of republican principles and of the claims of justice and freedom everywhere the Editor be lieves these volumes will be welcome, and to such they are respectfully dedicated. To the friends of Mr. Seward, also, they will be acceptable, as a complete refutation of the various misrepresentations of his acts and opinions, current in the community, supplying a want long felt and frequently expressed. To many of these friends the Edi tor is already indebted for assistance and encouragement in his undertaking, for which he avails himself of this place to express his acknowledgments." ^ " The Speeches and Dlhates in the Senate of the United States form a complete record of Mr. Seward's efforts iu that body down to the closeof the thirty-second Congress. Several speeches delivered after the first volume of these works had gone to press will be found in the third volume. "The Forensic Arguments in this volume include Mr. Seward s pleas in the case of J. Fenimore Cooper vs. (ireely & McElrath ; in deicnce of \\illiam Freeman ; in the case of Jones vs. Van Zandt, under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1703 ; in the case of Many vs. Tread well, a patent cdse; and in defence of Abel F. Fitch and others, in the celebrated Railroad Trial at Detroit. Several others, possessing almost equal interest, had been selected for a place in the works, but the Liaits already prescribed made it necessary to omit them. Among these may be named an argument in the case of Wilson vs. Romseau,* involv ing the merits of the Woodworth Patent, und an Opinion delivered by Mr. Seward while a member of the Court of Errors, in the case of Parks vs. Jackson.f " Three Engravings accompany these volumes?a Por trait of Mr. Seward, his Birth-P'lace, and his Residence at Auburn." The Biographical Memoir iu the first volume is well written, and full of interest. Its closing paragraphs arc worthy of consideration by every independent, thinking man. Among the Forensic Arguments of Mr. Seward may be found matters of even thrilling interest to the general reader. 1 he trial of William Freeman, (an idiot,) for murder, and other cases in which he was engaged as coun sel, will be read with deep feeling. On the ?!'Jth July, 1852, Mr. Seward addressed the Senate of the United. States upon the "Survet of the Arctic and Pacific Oceans." Near the close of his re marks may be found the following eloquent passages : "Sir, have yon lotfked recently at the China trade ? It rcachcs already sewn millions in value annually. Have you watched the California trade T Its export of bullion alone ?-ie,nJy exceeds fifty millions of dollars annually, and as yet the mineral development of that State has only be gun. Tue settlement of the Pacific coast is in a state of sheer infancy. Tiicrc is, speaking relatively, neither capital nor labor there a lequate to exhibit the forces of industry that might be employed in that wonderful region. Nor is California yet conveniently accessible. The rail way across Panama is not yet completed. The passage through Nicaragua is not perfect; that which leads through Tehuantepec is not begun ; nor have we yet extended, even so far as to the Mississippi, the most important and necessary one of them all, the railroad across our own country to San Francisco. The emigrant to the Atlantic coast arrives speedily and cheaply from whatever quarter of the world ; while he who would seek the Pacific shore en counters charges and delays which f?w can sustain. Nev ertheless, the commcrcial, social, political movements of the world are now in the direction of California. Sepa rated as it is from us by foreign lands, or more impassable mountains, we are establishing there a custom-house, a mint, a dry dock, Indian agencies, nnd ordinary and ex traordinary tribunals of justice. Without waiting for perfect or safe channels, a strong and steady stream of emigration flows thither from every State and every dis trict eastward of the Rocky Mountains. Similar torrents of emigration are pouring intp California and Australia from ttie South American States, from Europe, ar d from Asia. This movement is not a sudden, or accidental, or irregular, or convulsive one ; but it is one for which men and nature have been preparing through near four hun dred years. Baring all that time merchants and princes have been seeking how they could reach cheaply and ex peditiously 'Cathay,' 'China,' the 'East,' that inter course and commerce might be established between its ancient nations and the newer ones of the West. To these objects Da Qama, Columbus, Americus, Cabot, Hudson, and other navigators devoted their talents, their labors, and their lives. Even the discovery of this continent and tt<< islands, and the organization of society and govern mentupon them, grand and important as these events have been, were but conditional, preliminary, and ancil lary to the more suhlim^result, now in the act of consum mation the reunion of the two civilizations, which, hav tng parted on the plains of Asia four thousand years ago and having travelled ever afterward in opposite directions j around the world, now meet again on the ooasts and islands of the Pacific ocean. Certainly, no mere human , event of equal dignity and importance has erer occurred upon the ?"rth- It will be followed by the equalization or th^ondition of society and the restoration of the unity of the human family, see plainly enough why this event could not have come before, and why it has come now. A certain amount of human freedom, a certain amount of human intelligence, a certain extent of human control over the physical obstacles to such a reunion were necessary. All the conditions have happened and con- i curred. Liberty has developed under improved forms of government, and science has subjected nature in Western Europe and in America. Navigation, improved by steam, I tnables men to outstrip the winds, and intelligence con veyed by electricfy excels in velocity the light. With these favoring circumstances there has come also a sud den abundance of gold, that largely relieves labor from its long subjection to realized capital. Sir, this move ment is no delusion. It will no more stop than the emi- i gration froin Europe to our own Atlantic shores has stopped, or can stop, while labor is worth there twenty cents and here fifty cents a day. Emigration from China cannot stop while labor is worth in California five dollars a day, and in the \Vest Indies ten dollars a month, and yet is worth in China only five dollars for that period. Accordingly we have seen sixty-seven ships filled, in three months of the present year, with seventeen thousand emi grants in the ports of Hong Kong, Macao, and Whampoa, and afterward discharge them on the shores of California, and of Cuba, and other islands of the West Indies. "Sir, have you considered the basis of this movement, that this con inent and Australia are capable of sustain ing and need for their development, five hundred millions, while their population is confined to filly millions, and yet that Asia has two hundred millions of excess? As for those who doubt that tins great movement will quicken activity and crcate wealth and power in California and Oregon, I leave U?em to consider what changes the move ments, similar in nature but inferior in force and slower in effect, have proceed already on the Atlantic coast of America. As to those who cannot see bow this mova. ment will improve the condition of Asia, 1 leave them to reflect upon the improvement* in the condition of Europe since the discovery and colonization of America. Who does not see, then, that every /ear hereafter European commerce, European politics, European thoughts, and ? Blatehfonl'i Circuit Court Reports, Vol. 1, page 8. f Wendell's Reports, Vol. 9, page 4(6. European activity, although actually gaining greater force?and European connexions, although actually be coming more intimate?will, nevertheless, relatively sink in importance; while the Pacific ocean, its shores, its islands, and the vast region# beyond, will become the obujf theatre of events in the world's great hereafter? Who does not see that this movement must effect our own complete emancipation from what remains of European influence and prejudice, and in turn develop the Anieri oau opinion on J influence which shall remould constitu tions, laws, and customs, in the land that it) first greeted bj the rising sun ? Sir, although I am no socialist, no dreamer of a suddenly-coming millennium, I nevertheless cannot reject the hope that peace is now to have her sway, ?"d that, as war has hitherto defaced aud saddened the Atlantic world, the better passions of mankind will soon j have their development iu the new theatre of human ac tivity. Commerce is the great agjent of this movement. \\ hatever nation shall put that co.mmerce into full em ployment, and shall conduct it steadily with adequate ex pansion, will become necessarily the greatest of existing States; greater than any that has ever existed. Sir, you will claim that responsibility aud that high destiny for our own country. Are you so sure that by assuming the one she will gain the other ? They imply nothing less than universal commerce aud the supremacy of the seas. We are second to England indeed, but nevertheless how far are we not behind her iu commerce and in extent of em pire! I pray to know where you will go that you will uot meet the flag of Eugland fixed, planted, rooted into the very earth ? It you go northward, it waves over half of this Continent of North America, which we call our own. If you go southward, it greets you on the Bermu das, the Bahamas, and the Caribbce Islands. On the Falkland Islands it guards the Straits of Magellan; on the South Shetlaud Island it watches the passage round the Horn ; and at Adelaide Island it warns you that you have reached the Antarctic Circle. VVlien you ascend along the southwestern coast of America, it is seen at Galopa gos, overlooking the Isthmus of Panama ; and having sa luted it there, and-at Vancouver, you only take leave of it in the far northwest when you are entering the Arctic ocean. If you visit Africa, you find the same victorious cross guarding the coast of Gambia and Sierra Leone and St. Helena. ^ It watches you at Cape Town as you pass into the Indian ocean; while on the northern passage to that vast sea it .demands your recognition from Gibraltar, as you enter the Mediterranean ; from Malta, when you pass through the Sicilian Straits; on the Ionian Islands it waves in protection of Turkey; and at Aden it guards the pa-sage from the Red Sea into the Indian ocean. Wherever western commerce 1ms gained nn entrance to the Continent of Asia, there that flag is seen waving over subjugated millions?at Bombay, at Ceylon, at Singapore, at Calcutta, at Lahore, and at Hong Kong ; while Austra lia and nearly all the islands of Polynesia acknowledge it8 protection. " Sir, I need not tell you that wherever that flng waves it is supported and cheered by the martial airs of England* But I care not for that. The sword is not the most win ning messenger that can be sent abroad ; and commerce, like power, upheld by armies and navies, may in time be found to cost too much. But what is to be regarded with more concern is, that England employs the steam engine even more vigorously and more universally than her mi litary force. Steam engines, punctually departing and arriving between every one of her various possessions and her island seat of power, bring in the raw material for ?very manufacture and supplies for every want. The 8team engine plies incessantly there, day aud night, cou a ei ting these materials into fabrics of every variety for the use of man. And again the steam engine, forever and without rest, moves over the face of the deep, not only distributing these fabrics to every part of the globe, but disseminating also the thoughts, the principles, the lan guage and religion of England. Sir, we are bold indeed to dare competition with such a Power. Nevertheless the resources for it are adequate. We have coal and iron no less than she, while corn, timber, cattle, hemp, wool, cotton, silk, oil, sugar, and the gfape, quicksilver, lead, copper, silver, and gold, are allfound within ourown broad domain in inexhaustible profusion. What energies we have already expended prove that we have in reserve all that are needful. What inventions we have made prove our equality to any exigency. Our capital increases, while labor scarcely knows the burden of taxation. Our Panama route to China has a decided advantage over that of the Isthmus of Suez, and at the same time vessels leav ing that country and coming round the Horn will reach New lork always at least five days sooner than vessels of equal speed can double the Cape ol Good Hope, and make the port of Liverpool. . "Mr* President, we now see how conspicuous a part in the great movement of the age California and Oregon are to sustain, and that, as yet, they are separated from us and isolated. They will adhere to us only so long as our Government over them shall be conducted, not for our benefit, but for their own. Their loyalty is great, but it cannot exceed that of the thirteen ancient American colonies to Great Britain; and yet the neglect and oppres sion of their commerce uudermiued that loyalty, and re cited in their independence. 1 hear often of d"aug?rs to the Union, and see lines of threatened separation drawn by passionate men or alarmists, on parallels of latitude ; but, in my judgment, there is only one danger of sever ance and that is involved in the possibility of criminal neglect of the new communities on the Pacific coast, while the summits of the Rocky Mountains, and of the Snowv Mountains, mark the only possible line of dismember ment. Against that danger I would guard as against the worst calamity that could befall, not only my country, ot her most auspicious stage of progress, but mankind also, in the hour of their brightest hopes. I would guard against it by practicing impartial justice toward the new j and remote States and Territories, whose political power is small, while their wants are great, and by pursuing at the same time, with liberality and constancy, the lofty course which they indicate, of au aspiring yet generous and humane national ambition." August 14, 1852, the message of the President'of the United States, transmitting information in regard to the fisheries on the coast of the British Possessions in North America, being under consideration, Mr. Seward address ed the Senate in a speech so ably exposing the subject, ond so triumphantly vindicating the Administration, that it was made the occasion for a warm note of acknowledg ment nnd congratulation from Mr. Webster, the Secre tary of 8tate. He shall only trouble the reader with the following passage, and leave him to consult Mr. Seward's works at his leisure. A proposition being before the Senate to grant ten thousand dollars to defray the expenses of Amin Bey, a c< mmissioner from the Sultan of Turkey, and the first diplomatic agent from that Power, Mr. Se ward spoke as follows: " 1 thank the honorable Senator who has recalled the incident of the visit of the ambassador who came with a present from the Imaum of Muscat. If I remember well, the ambassador was not in the roll of common men. He was a minister at home?a Secretary of State. I passed through the navy yard, at Brooklyn, with him. Among the objects of curiosity and interest there, I pointed his notice to an exquisite bust of Washington. He looked up on it thoughtfully, and inquired ' who was Washington ?' Shall we not instruct the Oriental nations in our arts and civilisation ? How shall we instruct them if we do not first win tliem to visit our shores ? I think that the quali ty of hospitality, like the ? quality of mercy,' " ' i* twice blessed : It blewcth him that gives, and him that takes : 'Tis mightiest in the mightiest/ "If we were seeking how such a nation as this might employ the small sum indicated in the most beneficial manner, I think we should find it in disseminating among the nations and the people of the East knowledge of the institutions, the arts, and the history of the West know ledge of the progress of human society. The Turk is a willing learner. Let us receive bim with the rites of his own native hospitality." SILVER AT THE MINT. The following circular has been issued from the United States Mint, under the late act of Congress: Mist or thk Ukitid Statics, Philadelphia, March 81, 1868. By virtue of the third section of the act of Congress, approved February 21, 1858, the Treasurer of the Mint] with the approval of the Director, gives notice that he is prepared to purchase silver coin and bullion, delivered at the Mint, on the following terms, vii: For dollars of Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Chili, Bratil, (re-stamped,) and Spain, for francs, for silver coins of the United States, other than the three cents, the price paid will be $1.21 an onncc gross. For thalers of Sweden and Northern States of Germany $1.01 an ounce. For silver in bars $1.21 per each ounee, at standard fineness, | (9-10th,l determined on assay at the Mint. The pay ment will be made in gold coins, or in silver coins of new emission, at the option of the seller. Parties furnishing silver to the Mint, according to the terms of this notice, will reoeive a preference in exchanges for the new silver coin, according to the order of priority of their sales to the Mint. It is expected that an emission of new coin age will be made by the middle of April. The prices. herein fixed will continue until further notice. Approved?G. N. Eckirt, Director. E. C. Dal*, Treasurer. Give tour Son a Traix.?Solon enacted that children who did not maintain their parents in old age, when in want, should be branded with infamy, and lose the privi lege of citixens; he, however, excepted from this rule those children whom their parents had taught no trade, nor provided with other means of procuring a livelihood! WASHINGTON. liberty aud Union, uow aud forever, oue aud Inseparable." SATURDAY, APRIL 9, 1858. The brief sittings of the Senate for a day or two past lead us to suppose that but little Executive busi ness remains to be considered, aud that the body ! will soon be enabled to bring its present session to I u cioge?probably as early as Monday or Tuesday 1 next. No business of consequence, in open session, | was done yesterduy. According to rumor, the Hon. ! Pierre Soule, of Louisiana, has been nominated j and confirmed as Minister to .Spain, and the Hon. ' Solon Borland, of Arkansas, as Governor of the Territory of New Mexico. , ,?<0- T~ THE JAPAN EXPEDITION. The Government has very properly given to the public, through the Washington Union, the follow ing frank explanation of the causes which have de* layed the departure of a portion of the Japan Ex pedition, and which have compelled the Executive to reduce the force of the Expedition so materially as the withdrawal from it of the only ship-of-the-line which had formed a part of it. FROM TUB UNION Of YESTERDAY. Tub Jai'an Expedition.? A rumor baa been recently circulated by a portion of the public press to the effect that this Interesting expedition either has been, oris about to be, countermanded by the present Secretary of the Navy. We learn, from the best authority, that all such rumors are entirely unfounded in fact. On the contrary, the Ad ministration is making cTcry effort to give all proper aid in carrying out the important objects of the expedition, and in fulfilling the public expectation in regard to it It nppears to have been the intention of the late Ad ministration to place under the command of Commodore M. Q. Perry, as the commander-in-chief of the United States naval force in. the East India and China seas, and with a view to his contemplated visit to Japan, the fol lowing vessels, viz: one ship-of-the-line, the Vermont; three steam frigates, the Susquehanna, the Mississippi, and the Powhatan; one first-class steamer, the Alleghany ; and four sloops-of-war, the Macedonian, the Saratoga, the Plymouth, and the Vandalia; to be accompanied by two store-ships, the Supply and the Southampton. This force, with the exception of the Vermont, the Macedonian, and the Alleghany, is now assembling at Macao. The last-named vessel is now in the hands of mechanics, and it is uncertain when her preparation will be completed. The Vermont is ready to receive her crew; but. such is the condition of the recruiting service that it is wholly impossible to say when, if at all, a crew of 800 men for her can be collected, Besides this, the number of men, of all classes, employed in our naval service having beeu limited by law to 7,600, and Congress having failed at its last session to grant to the Navy Department the authority which it asked to enlarge that number, and no means having been appropriated for that purpose, the withdrawal of the Vermont from Commodore Perry % squadron has become unavoidable, because, in addition to the force already in commission, she cannot now be man ned without exceeding the number of seamen prescribed by law. It is probable, also, that the necessary delay in preparing the Alleghany for sea may render her services unavailable for the expedition. This, however, will not interfere with the contemplated visit of Commodore Perry to Japan, with a force amply sufficient and well provided for the successful accomplishment of the objects of his mission. It will, we are sure, occasion very general regret that this important and imposing Expedition, the announcement of which created so much interest both at home and abroad, should have to be shorn of so material an element of its power as its only line-of-battle ship. But the Government is not to blame ; there was no alternative ; the blame is laid, very descryedly ncr doubt, at the door of Congress, in not authorizing seamen enough for the demands of the public service. But are there not other causes in operation which cripple the efficiency of the navy ? Are there not sins of commission as well as omissiou which are chargcablc to Congress ? Is it certain that the men could have been got if Congress had authorized them ? Bo not seamen? good ones at least?refuse to ship in the naval ser vice ? Other public vessels have been detained in port for want of men as well as those of the Japan Expedition. Capt. Ringgold's squadron, appoint ed near six months ago for the survey of the Ma laysia or Polynesian groups, has not yet sailed, we believe, for the want of seamen to man his vessels; and one of our frigates, of the home squadron, after lying in port for several months, waiting and trying in vain to ship her complement of men, had at last, not many days ago, to put to sea with half a crew. Docs this repugnance to entering our public ships, so detrimental tothe public service, arise from inadequate wages or impaired discipline, or both combined ? It is a very important inquiry, and deserves an early and serious examination. THE TEHUANTEPEC ROUTE. Late ad vices from Mexico furnish the intelligence that on the 21st ultimo the Plenipotentiaries of the United States and of Mexico?Mr. Conklino on the part of the United States, and Messrs. Tornell and Castillo y Lanzas ou the part of Mexico? signed a Treaty between the two Governments guar antying the neutrality and protection of the Sloo transit way across the isthmus of Tehuantepec, and the entire security of the capital invested there in; and that the Treaty was ratified the next day by the Supreme Executive power of Mexico. Tho Freesoilers in and about Boston are about U> give the Hon. John P. Hale a public dinner. It will come off on the 5th of May. Canadian RKCiraociTT.?In the Canadian Assembly, on the night of the 1st instant, the Inspector General moved that the House go into Committee of the Whole on a series of commercial resolutions. Mr. IIincrs, in the conrse of bis speech on the resolutions, alluded to the failure of the United States Government to establish re ciprocal trade with theCanndaa, and said that Mr. Cramp ton, the British Minister, was, still of the opinion that a satisfactory arrangement would yet be made, and recom mended that no step be taken to carry ont the contem plated retaliatory policy. Under these changed circum stances, Government did not propose to adhere to the po licy announced in the fall, but at the same time had n<?t ehanged their views as to what wonld be necessary if the American Government should decline to come to terms. The resolutions of Mr. Hincks recommend important mo difications in the colonial tariff. Hon. Linn Botd, Speaker of the last House of Repre. sentatives, is a oandidate for re-election to Congress. He is, however, likely to bo opposed by a candidate of the same party to which he belongs. The district is the de mocratic Gibraltar of Kentucky. There was great rejoicing in the town of Fort Smith, (Ark.) a few days ago, on the reception of the news that Congress had made a magnificent donation of lands for the building of railroads throughout the State. At night the town was illuminated, the bells were ringing, the military band from the fort enlivened the place with jo> ous and spirit-stirring music, and a public meeting was , held, at which appropriate notice was taken of the chcer I ing intelligence. USEFUL DISCOVERIES. Numerous instances, in the history of iuventious, would seem' to prove that great diaciA'eriws are ofteu the fruits of coincident conceptions in divers iuind* and of successive efforts made at different times and different places. This suggestion has been prompt ed by the perusal of the annexed articles?the first from Galignani's l'aris u Messenger" of February 16; the second an extract from Arthur Young's well known Travels in France. ? UOM OALIOXANI. The Caloric Invention not Nkw.?We have no wish to say a word against the new method of propulsion that ia about to bo tested in its application to the Ericc?on, which vessel in the course of a short period may be ex pected to arrive in this country from America. All that we wish to draw attention to, without disparagement to any successful modification that Capt. Ericcsou may put in operation connected with heated air as a motive power, is the fact that the invention, said to be his, is not new. About thirty years ago a vessel named the Highland Lad, that many of our readers will remember as a pas sage-boat on the Clyde, was fitted up by Messrs. Claud, Girdwood & Co., of Glasgow, with a caloric engine, the invention, we believe, of the Rev. Mr. Stirling, now min ister of a parish?Galston, we think?near Kilmarnock. This engine propelled the vessel at the moderate rate that gave satisfaction in those days, being estimated a? working to twenty horses power, it was subsequently removed from the vessel in consequence of the working ports yielding to the enormous heat, and thereby becom ing soft anil giving way, and its place was supplied by au ordinary steam eugine. We fear that Captain Ericcson's engine will labor under a like disadvantage ; but, be that as it mny, he must content himself as ranking in this country as the mere modifier of the invention of Mr. Stir ling, whose caloric engine we saw working regularly in Dundee, in 1844, iu a factory.?(Jlatgow AdvcrlUer. Our Minister in Kugland, Mr. Inoersoll, in his speech at Birmingham, made an allusion similar to the above, and in reference to the discovery of the magnetic telegraph, pxpressed an opiniou substan tially the same as tl)e one contained in our intro ductory remark. For the utterance of that opin ion some of our papers hastily censured the worthy Minister; but we think the quotation which we subjoin from Arthur Youn?j will show that his remark was well coniidercd aud sustained by the fact. Arthur Young's u Travels in France were pub lished in 1702. He records that he spent the even ing of the lGth of September, 1787, in the com pany of M. Lomond, whom he describes as a very ingenious and inventive mechanic, who had made improvements in machinery for spinning cotton. He then proceeds: "In electricity he has made a remarkable discovery. You wTite two or three words on a paper, he takes it with him into a room and turns a machine enclosed in a cylindrical case, at the top of which an electrometer, a small fine pitlie ball; a wire connects with a similar cylinder and electrometer in a distant apartment, and his wife, by remarking the corresponding motions of the ball, writes down the words they indicate, from which it appears he has formed an alphabet of motions. As the length of the wire makes no difference in the effect, a correspondence might be carried on at any distance within and witbout'a besieged towu for instance, or for a purpose much more worthy and a thousand times more harmless, between two lovers prohibited or prevented from any better connexion. Whatever the use may be, the invention is beautiful." loung adds that " M. Lo mond has made many other curious machines, all the en tire work of his owu hand. Mechanical invention seems to be in him a natural propensity." The above may be found in the London Athe ncum, No. 1147, page 1008, head "Electric Tele graph." THE SMITHSOX INSTITUTION., "We translate from a Brussels paper of January, the " Indepeiulance Beige," the annexed notice of our Rmithson Institution: ??Th^mithsonian Institute of Washington lia6 lately forwarded to our Royal Library literary presents of Rreal value and of deep interest. This Institute, e?tablUhe< for the purpose of laboring for the diffusion of knowledge is composed of three classes, which comprehend: 1st natural, physical, and chemical sciences; 2d, moral ami political sciences ; 3d, literature and fine arts. Though jts foundation is of recent date, it has already published considerable works upon the several subjects,comprised in its programme, and it avails itself of these works to or ^ani;.e with the Governments of Europe, as well as with public repositories and private individuals, avast system of Exchange, by means of which it has succeeded in form ing rich collections of books, objects in natural history, fcc. The publications which it has just sent to the Royal Library of Brussels will be consulted with interest by j tho8e curious to follow the intellectual development of ! the United States. Among the most important is found ! a magnificent work upon the American Indians, con | taining details concerning the distinctive marks of the different races, their origin and history, their creeds and customs; upon the geography and natural history of the countries which they inhabit, Ac. This work, in two large I quarto volumes, printed with a splendor not practised on the European continent, is embellished with plates engraved i and lithographed, which make them a sumptuous album, and at the same time a document of the liveliest interest.^ To this greeting, which alone would constitute a rioh pre sent, the Smithsonian Institute has added the collection of its transactions, likewise remarkable for its lithographic ' luxury; reports upon the state of science in the new world : upon the organiiation of railways and post routes, ! &c. Of course it is in expectation of a return that it has made a* these presents, and that the Belgian Government 1 is morally engaged, on its part, to send to the Institution at Washington the official publications made under its auspices. Such relations are too useful to the people, and serve too directly the cause of civilisation. for them not to be encouraged by all possible means. SANTA ANNA DECLARED PRESIDENT OF MEXICO. A Telegraphic despatch from New Orleans in forms us of the formal proclamation of the election of (?en. Santa AMHA to the Presidency of Mexico. President Lomk.VR.DINI, with his Secretary and (ions. VRAOA and Carrera, assembled on the 11 th ultimo and opened the ballots cast at the reccnt I election for President of the Republic. Each State east but one vote, and the result was that eighteen States voted for Santa Anna and five for other candidates. Gen. Santa Anna was then formally declared President of the Republic of Mexico, amid the greatest manifestations of enthusiasm. On reach ing the capital he is to be immediately inaugurated, for which the greatest preparations were making. The New Orleans Courier says that the contractors for the transportation of the mail between Vera rux Acapulco have made arrangements to ren< er ?e rou e convenient for passengers, and are building a iun> ie< pns coaches for that purpose. After the first of May U is expected that passengers and the mails will pass ?***??? New Orleans and San Francisco in fourteen or fifteen days. Tnr. Woe*msn.-Thirteen of the wounded by the late railroad accident, including the families o . r. u r and Mr. Geise, have left for their respective destinations during the past week. Six now remain at the Kevere House, vi.: Col. C. Sanders, of Shelhyv,lie, Kentucky George A. Tavenner, editor of the Alexandria g Telegraph, C. F Clice, formerly of Berkeley eounty. J ir ginia, but now of Wisconsin; George Calvert, of Fau quier county, Virginia; Dr. Cadwaladero . ew j, Indiana, and Levi Gardiner, brakesman, of Frederick city, Maryland They are all doing well UD<lfr/),c treatment of Dri Healey and Bruce.?UnmHrMlmVtw, j APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT, lit/ anif with the advice and content of the Senate. Willis A. Gorman, 0/ Indiana', to be Governor of Min nesota, iu place of Alexander Ramsey, removed. I ^'HN A. Dix, to bo assistant treasurer at New Vork, iu place of L. Bradish, removed. Lewis A. Birdsall, to be superintendent of the branch of the mint ia California. Robert Ewinu, of Pennsylvania, to be treasurer of the mint at Philadelphia, iu place of E. C. Dale, resigned. c amuilCamt, to be Treasurer of the United States, in place of J. Sloan, removed. li.-C. Pressly, to be Assistant Treasurer of the United State, at Charleston, South Carolina, in place of William M. Martin, removed. it 1 ?*' to be ile8ister of the Treasury of the United States, in place of Nathan Sargent, removed. H,.? /h of Mississippi, to be Chief Jus 5Tk? rcmoTed! ' Ne" M"'C?' iu nfK/h?l,TB**.B,>ICT,#0LIllinoi8' tobe IUI Associate Justice L 11 aiilks 8. Rumley, to be Marshal of the Territory of New Mexico, in place of John Jones, removed ci t^of' Philadelphia''' "" " "*? M1?' *' ?'? P?lr!Ti M: PfTTIT' t0 ** Dircctor of the Mint at 1 hiladelphia, in place of George N. Eckert, resigned. Mobdkcai P. Dkadv and Cybps Olnkv, to be Associate Justices of Oregon, in the places of Charles R. Train, re- I signed, and William Strong, removed. TaAV;,uKoSMKK' ?.f VirK'n'ai to be Secretary of j the Territory of Minnesota, in place of Alexander Wilkin removed. / ' William II. Welch, Chief Justice for the Territory of Minnesota, in place of Ilenry Z. Hayncr, removed Awdbew G. Ch atfield, Associate Justice for the Ter ritory of Minnesota in place of David Cooper, whose com mission has expired. Moskh Shebbubne, Associate Justice for the Territory of Minnesota m place of Bradly B. Meeker, removed. Charms R. Johdon, Marshal for the northern district of MiMisslppi m place of William McQuiston, resigned, to take eflect from the 16th ?f Juue next. Majdisvillis Mabigny, Marshal for the eastern district haS ?piraeda' ? ?f Wm-. 8' Scott- whose commission Thomas F.-Bayabd, Attorney of the United States for removed" Deluware. ? P^ce of P. Sheward Johnson, Isaak: S. K. OfiiER, Attorney of the Unfted States for the southern district of California, in place of Alfred heeler, removed. IbancibBcbt, of South Carolina, Third^Vuditor of the Treasury in j,lace of John S. Gallnher, removed. i. D. Kohler United States Assayer in California, in pursuance of the provisions of the act of the 30th rnoved in PIace of Augustus Humbert, re Jo?? D. Fulu, jr., Assayer of the branch mint at Dahionega, Georgia, in place of M. F. Stephenson, re moved. r ' A. J. Gpibot, Coiner of the branch mint at New Or leans, Louisiana, in place of A. Devall, removed. Charles Bienvkm e, Superintendent of the branch mint at New Orleans, Louisiana, in place of Robert M ?ucAlpin, removed. Jcui s N. Gbanger, of New York, to be Recorder of the General Land Office, in place of E. S. Terry, removed. Lysander W. Babbitt, Register of the land office at tvanesville, Iowa, in place of Joseph II. D. Street re moved, ' J. E. War bin, of Minnesota, to be Secretary of Lega tion of the United States to Central America Geo roe W. Lin-ETT, of Rhode Island, Consul of the tinted States at Vienna, Austria, in place of J. G. Schwarz removed. Alexander Barclay, Consul of the United States at jotteuburg, Sweden, in place of C. A. Murray, deceased. CUSTOM-HOUSE OFFICERS. Adams Treat, Belfast, Maine, vice Maurice C. Blake removed. ' Geor<;e P. Sewall, Bangor, Maine, vice Wm.C. Ham matt. removed. Jo us Cora ens, Kennebunk, Maine, vice Daniel Remick removed. Bion Bradbury, Passamaquoddy, Maine, vice Daniel Kilby, removed. John Babson, Wiscasset, Maine, vice Jeremiah Bailv removed. Cbabi.es N. Bodfish, Bath, Maine, vice David Bron son, removed. Daniel W. Dorman, Machias, Maine, vice William B. Smith, removed. Ezra < arter, Jr., Portland and Falmouth, Maine, vice Luther Jewett, removed. Edmund Wilson, Waldoborough, Maine, vice Bela B. Haskell, removed. I'liiLir F. Thomas, Baltimore, Maryland, vice George P. Kane, removed. Edmund Wright, Edenton, North Carolina, viceJame, r,. rsortleet, whose Commission has expired. JvM?- A.Jones, Sandusky, Ohio, vice Harlow Case, remoted. 1 1 Daniel S. Dickinson, New York, vice Hugh Maxwell removed. ? Charles Brown, Philadelphia, vice Wm. D. Lewis re ' I moved. ' ' ? ^'WA"D T" lf,L"-Y.R, Newark, New Jersey, vice Frede rick S. Thomas, removed. William E. Bowc*. Bridgetown, New Jersey, vic< Ephraim Buck, removed. Alexander Somerville, Saluria, Texas, rice Levi Jones, removed. R. B. Willis, Oxford, Md.f rice John H. Allen re moved. James G. Dell, St. John's, Florida, vice Isaiah D Hart removed. ' . H"?T?A- ?*"?0WRaft, Sacramento, California, vice Jesse S. Hambleton, removed. John Kettlewell, Naval Officer for the district of Bal timore Maryland, vice Thomas K. Carrall, resigned ; to take effect on the ll'th of May, J863. Luther Junkins, Collector for the district of York Maine, vice Nathaniel G. Marshall, removed. Zenas Clement, Collector for the district of Ports mouth. New Hampshire, vice Lory Odell, removed, vr L'. ,Sy.ABKC' Collector for the district of Camden. North Carolina, vice George W. Charles, resigned. John White, Collector for the district of Milwaukie Wisconsin, vice Allen W. Hatch, removed. ? S? 0 m *urreJ?r Baltimore, Maryland, vice Llias T. Griffin, removed. Reuben C. Hale, at Philadelphia, vice Wm. B. Norris whose commission has expired. ' Charles Parker, at Snow Hill, Md., vice George W. P. Smith, removed. 6 William H. BmowN.at Llcwellensburgh, Md., vice John Blackistone, removed. I Andrew J. Pannell, at Wheeling, Virginia, vice Eli B. I Swearingen, removed. Piter W.JUndli, at Alton, Illinois. John Cochran, New York, vice Zebedee Ring, whose commission has expired. J. Or*.", *' "" rkilll' Heman J. REDrmn, New York, vice David A. Bokce , removed. ' Nathaniel B. Eldrep, Philadelphia, vice Peter E Ell maker, removed. LAND OFFICEEH. ,tIHA?.^l ? ?"""?? ,:<*is,er at Montgomerv, Ala., vise Albert B. Herbert, removed. w n ""nH nWm- Register at Huntsville, Alabama, vice ; Wilham B. Figures, removed. | John S. Nanse, Receiver at Huntsville, Alabama, vice j Samuel Cruse, removed. i !?xu Wm. M.'"CW"K AUb""'' K. A'"--. ^wB,ar-fTALLWO'TH: Regi",ter at Sp***' Alabama, ' vice Win. Judge, removed. *ZTy.TZ j"*'"'1 An AUb?? '?*?? -?? *?->?< k >.* "tint,, ?t Washington, At kansat, vice W illmm H. Etter, removed. ArkT^/'vL n"?11 m""' 10 b* receiTer Washington, A i kausas, vice B. F. Hempstead, resigned InlWW P.TVr nt Michigan. geles ( al^olnia ' ?f C4,'f0rnU' l? ^ ^ An" Illinois 'AM A J' SPA*"' to r?ceiver at Edwardsville, Sut??Tf HA|,M|?N' ?"fcyor general for the ble. removed. 0' ' a?U Michi8?'?. Charles No james H. Birch, of Missouri, to be register at I'latts burg. Missouri, v.ce Thomas E. Birch, removed. j illiam Brown, of Missouri, to be receiver at Platta burg. Missouri, vtfe John T. Hughes, removed. Uaniel J^ Camprau, to be Register of the Land Office at Detroit, Michigan, vies Lansing B. Miner, removed. fcLisHA Taylor, to be Receiver of Public Moneys at De- i 0 ' Tice Eira Rood, removed. UNITED STATKd ATTORNEYS. 0 r.i.** ?^MTOW,? Otieo, for New Mexico, In place of L. I. Hmi, resigned. Geoboe F. Shipley, Maine, in place of Thomas A. De blow, removed. removed* 1'ECK' Vermont'in P^ce of Abel Underwood, Nathaniel 8. 1'iiiCE, for the northern district of Mis sissippi, in place of Woodson L Ligon, removed. uiaAapkceofcllkol LenUut^l^1 * v^VL^r"-M*rj,uHio ?f z- c?' UNITED 8TATE8 MAH8HAL8. Abraham T. Hilltf.r, for the southern district ef New York, in place of Henry F. Talltnadge, removed. Elias E. Bi.ackuourn, for the northern district of Flo rida, in place of John T. Myrick, removed. \Vk0Lky Jones, for North Caroliua, in place of George Little, removed. B Charles Chamn, for Vermont, in place of John Pettes whose commission has expired. John W. Watki.ns, for Maryland, in nlace of Thomas H. Kent, removed. Richard Griffith, to be Marshal of the United States for the southern district of Mississippi, in place of Field ing Davis, removed. POSTMASTERS. Daniel Watbops, at Lyons, New York. William L. Tucker, at Palmyra, New Vork. Jons Miller, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. C. R. Dixon, at Jackson, Mississippi. William Harrison Siuolbnev, ut Watertown, New York. . W u.iK B. Dobtcii, at Clnrksville, Tennessee. A. P. Mouerwbll, at Columbia, Pennsylvania. Charles L. Cocke, at Portsmouth, Virginia. Thomas Perry, at Home, Georgia. Jacob G. Da vies, at Baltimore, Maryland. Joseph C. Snow, at Bath, Maine. N. L. Woodbury, at Portland, Maine. Warren Hatha way, at Kastport, Maine. .Joseph S. Noyks, at Belfast, Maine. liioMAS K. Lane, at Saco, Maine. Edoab Whidden, at Calais, Maine. T. P. Theoualo, at Gardiner, Maine. Isaac V. Fowler, nt New Vork city, New York. J.J. W. Grey, at Cleveland, Ohio. Achtin Brooks, Quiiicy, Illinois. Peter Sweat, Peoria, Illinois. Isaac R. Diller, Springfield, Illinois. James B. Allen, Last Boston, Massachusetts. John M. Brown, Sandusky, Ohio. F. J. Zimmerman, Mount Vernon, Ohio. W illiam H. Dk I oe, Kalamazoo, Michigan. Robert II, Glass, Lynchburg, Virginia. Iiiomas P. Goodhue, Lowell, Massachusetts. George Bowers, Nashua, New Hampshire. David Small, Yoik, Pennsylvania. Auuijstus Gassaway, Annapolis, Maryland. Hichard Elward, Natchez, Mississippi. William B. Pkyob, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Twyman Walyt, at Charlottesville, Virginia. Wm. McNulty, at Georgetown, South Carolina. G. H. Runiilett, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. P. Allen, jr., at l'ittslield, Massachusetts. Douglas A. Danfortu, at Burlington, Vermont. Thornton F. Br<JBhead, at Detroit, Michigan. Josiah A. Noonan, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin. John J. Heistkb, at Easton, Pennsylvania. Henry M. Reigart, at L.inc:ister, Pennsylvania. Daniel Stevens, at Elmira, New York. Lewis P. Close, at Suratoga Springs, New York. ( harles T. Gray, at Newark, New Jersey. Samuel M. Chambers, at Jeroey City, New. Jersey. William A. Benjamin, at Trenton, New Jersey. Robert L. Clow, at Princeton, New Jersey. William D. Quin, at Paterson, New Jersey. John E. Hunt, at Toledo, Ohio. William P. Morrison, ftt Newark, Ohio. James Kelley, at Covington, Kentucky. William S. Pickett, at Mavsville, Kentucky. Joseph McCormick, at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. George Paul, ut Iowa City, Iowa. J HEOPiiiLus L. Tollmin, at Mobile, Alabama. James Dick, at Vincennes, Indiana. Elihu H. Strong, at Juuesville, Wisconsin. 1 hos. J. Henley, at San Francisco, California. James Tizzabd, at Burlington, Iowa. Chari.es Corkery, at Dubuque, Iowa. Isaac C. Haines, at Bangor, Maine. Jons Marsuall, at Piqua, Ohio. Wm. Kerr, at Kingston, New York. Twos. Sparrow, at Columbus, Ohio. Mabcellus Clark, at New Britain, Connecticut. John L. Tlthill, at Lancaster, Ohio. Wm. Bow, at Fayetteville, North Carolina. MR. KING IN CUBA. CORRESPONDENCE Or THE NORTH AMERICA*. I , Havana, March 26, 1853. Having just returned from seeing the inauguration of the \ ice 1 resident, 1 thought perhaps your readers might be gratified by a brief description of the ceremony. Mr. King has been spending some time at the hospita ble mansion of Col. Chartrand, on his sugar estate, Ariadne, ne ar the village of Lcmonar, op ti>o Collesee | Railroad, about fifteen miles from Matanzas, and has de rived some benefit from inhaling the fumes of the sugar house. He is very much attenuated, and so feeble and reduced that I doubt his ever reaching home again. During his stay he has received the utmost attention Irom I ol. Chartrand and his family, and speaks of it in the warmest terms. The Colonel is the bean ideal of a W est India piauter, a fine looking man, generous, kind* hearted, ufluble, and the very soul of hospitality. His estate is in admirable order, and, though not so great in extent as some, is remarkable for its high cuJUration and the superior quality of its sugars. Our party, consisting of Judge Sharkey, T. M. Rodney, Consul at Matanxas, G. W. Jones, M. C. and Special Messenger, and several others, arrived nt the plantation to breakfast, and after being presented to Mr. King wore conducted over the sugar works by Col. Chartrand and his sons, who ex plained every thing, from the cutting of the cane to the final process of purifying. At 12 M. on the 24th of March we were summoned to witness the inauguration. The \ ice President, being too feeble to staad without assistance, was supported on the right by G. W. Jones M. C., and on the left by T. M. Rodney, Esq., Consul' The oath was administered by Mr. Sharkey, Consul at Havana, and was afterwards signed by the Vice President, certified by Mr. Sharkey, and witnessed by the following ladies and gentlemen : Margaret King, of Ala.; Catharine Ellis, do.; Mary A Stebbins, La.; J no. C. Caulfield, Ala.; 8. W. Woolcot, | \t.; A. Mackwilliam, 8. C.; Jno. Chartrand, 8. C. ; 0. W. Jones, Tenn. ; T. M. Rodney, U. 8. Consul; Chas Stebbins, La. ; Alex. H. Day, Mich.; Edmund Marcy, N. Y.f and Samuel If. Jones, Pa. The ceremony, although simple, was very sad and im pressive, and will never be forgotten by any who were present. To see an old man, on the very verge of the grave, clothed with honors which he cared not for, and in tested with authority which he could never exercise, was ? truly touching. It was only by persuasion that Mr. Kiog would go through the ceremony, as he looked on it j as an idle form, lor he said he was conscious he could not live many weeks. After the ceremony was over, Mr. King conversed with the gentlemen present lor a short time, and then retired to his couch. We amused ourselves in walking through the orange and coffee groves until dinner time, when we sat down to a sumptuous repast, and in the evening took j the cars and relumed to Matanzas. BALTIMORE MARKET. Baltimore, April 8.?Business in all departments is quite active. Our merchants are doing a very fine trade. 1 lie Southern and W estern merchants have come in freely, and are purchasing largely. I he financial condition of the entire mercantile com munity of Baltimore is known to be very sound. Money is beooraing easier. Indeed the pressure spoken of in New York and other Northern cities has scarcely been felt here. Capital is abundant and seeking investing at moderate rates. The banks are doing a liberal and active business. Sales to-day of 800 barrels Howard street floor at $4.7-5?a decline since yesterday of CJ cents per barrel; City Mills held st >}>4.87. Small sales rye tlour at $3.'.*4 to $4 ; corn meal $3.121 per barrel. The supply and receipts of grain are light. Sales of red wheat at 105 to 108 cents, white do. 1<>9 to 112 and 118 cents; while corn 61 to 63, yellow do. 67 ? "oats 3 'nd H' 1? ' >7* 75 to 80; cloverseed to ; timothy do. $3 to #:? 25 Provisions unchanged ; mM8 pork'$15.50; beef do. ?fir,, bacon shoulder,, OJ ; sides f\ ; hams lQJ* 1* cents; lard . 1 to 10J; m barrels and kegs; cheese 9 to 10; butter 16 to 1/. ' < "ffee firm; sales 2,000 bags Rio at 91 to 93 and 10 cents ; stock on hand 30,000 bags. The supply'of sugar vtrv large. Imports of the past week over 1,300 hogs heads ; prices declining ; molasses dull; whiskey 221 lo 281 cents per gallon. 7 The tobacco market is firm, with an active demand ; sales are making as fast as inspected at full price* of last wee . There is a good inquiry for shipment; the re ceipts continue light; verv little on hand; sales since last Saturday, in all, 0f about KOO hogsheads. The in spections of the week amount to 387 hogsheads Mary land ; 121 Ohio; 91 Kentucky; and 2 Virginia. Total o01 hhda. The stock market is firm, and.prices favoring holders.