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FR OM OUR L OND ON CORRESPONDENT. London, March 17, 1858. In looking over an auuount of the debate* in the Hritiah House of Commons upon the " Petition of Right" in the reign of Charles 1, we hud the fol lowing curious passage: '* Here the speaker started up from the chair, and, ap prehending Sir Juhn Elliot iatended to fall upon the Duke," (to attack him in speech,) said, with tears in hit eyes, 41 There is a couiuiaud laid upon me to interrupt any one 'that should go about to lay an aspersion on the Ministers of State.'" ?'Sir Robert Phillips spoke, and mint/ted hit words with weeping." "Sir Ehwabd Coke, overcome with paasiou, was forced to sit down, when he btjgan to speak, through the abundance of tears." " Yen the speaker, iu his speech, could not refrain from weeping and shedding of tears; besides a great many tchose great griefs made them dumb and silent." " The Speuker weet> inglg implored them," <xc. What would the people of the present day think if they found the J mien or the Daily News report ing that? Here Sir James (iraham was obliged to sit down for some minutes, while his sobs and tears showed how deeply he was moved." "Here the Si'kakkb. was so affected by Mr. Hume's statements as to cry audibly." " As Mr. Cobden continued to address the house, large tears were seen by many members silently steuling down Sir Riokbt Inulih's cheeks. " Mr. D'Israeli's heart-rending tones oaused Lord J. Russell to throw himself back upon the bench, and to cover his face with a handkerchief, giving way to a hearty cry." "Lord Palmeiiston's glowing eloquence caused Col. Sibtuobi-e to go off in a strong tit of hyste rics, and Major Bebeskobd wept like a child whilst lis tening to the pathetic language of Mr. Rbioht." This would be all truly and most preposterously ridiculous, but not a bit inore than what is recorded as having taken place in the House of Commons about 230 years ngo. Our Parliamentary report will certainly be of u very different character- The extreme views which honorable members of the present day sometimes express are apt to excite louder bursts of merriment than becomc a grave delibe rative body; but we have not, in our experience, had to record any excitemeut to weeping or lamentation. The only business of importance was, on Friday, the second reading of the bill for doing away the existing Jewish disabilities, which was carried by a vote of 2C3 against 212. On Monday Lord Aberdeen stated, in the House of Lords, that it was the intention of the Govern ment to appoint a committeo to inquire into the mercan tile law of the country. The Loan Chancellor said, in answer to Lord Lyxd hurst'b inquiry, that a measure for a revision of the statutes would be introduced after Easter. In the time of Lord Chancellor Habdwick (110 years ago) complaints were made that the statute books were increased to such an enormous extent that tliey confounded every man who was obliged to look into them; they then consisted of seven vols. 4to.; they now reach to forty-eight, which the present Lord Chancellor thinks may be comprised into six or seven. His Lordship said " when that was done, the Government would consider how to effect reform for the future." We find the following statements in the daily jour nals: There are now botwecn 19,000 and 20,000 sta tutes, more than half of which have become law since the commencement of the present century. From Edward III. to Anne there were 3,25G statutes enacted; from Anne to 1800 the number passed was 5,962; and from 1800 to March, 1853, at least 10,000, or about 190 a yoar. These are exclusive of Irish and Scotch statutes and of private bills. Lord Cranwortu is sanguine enough to believe that " this mighty maze, but all without a plan," may be reduced to coherency and system ; and competent judges say it may be done in three years, at an expense of about ?10,000 per annum. We cannot imagine how the money or twice the amount could be better spent. The Crystal Palace company bill passed through com mittee of the House, and Lord J. Russell gave notice that he should proceed with the Clergy reserves bill on Friday, and on the same evening move the third reading of the Jews' disabilities bill. Sir R. H. Inolis and lus friends seemed quite tuken aback by these announced rapid movements of the Government. The proceedings in Parliament on Tuesday had very littlq general interest. More disclosures of bribery and corruption at the last general election have been brought to light, and more members of Parliament unseated. So general, it appears, have been the practices now proclaimed by act of Parlia ment to be illegal, that a very experienced Parliamentary agent lately Btated, as the result of his practice, that there was hardly a member of the present House of Com mons who might not be unseated on a petition, if it were worth while to present and support one. We do not see with what face any person can deny the necessity of some great measure of reform after disclosures and declarations like these. Several prosecutions for peijury, by wit nesses before the various Election Committees, have been ordered by the House of Commons. Some of our ultra Democratic journals arc finding great fault with the following sentiments expressed by Lord ?Cbanworth and the Earl of Aberdeen in a late debate in the House of Lords. Speaking ?f the prosecution against Peltier for a libel on the first Consul Bonaparte, and the indictment preferred against a native subject for a libel on the Eipperor Pai l of Russia? " Lord Cranwortli observed that it was held in those oases by Lord Ellenborough and Lord Kenyon that any Sublication in this country which so reviled a foreign overnment as to be calculated to excite that Government to hostility with us was punishable by the common law of this land. Then, if the publishing of such a libel could be made the subject of prosecution, a multo fortiori the meeting and assembling of persons who were guilty of many such acts must be the subject of prosecution. Therefore, supposing the case to exist, no doubt the actual law was amply sufficient to meet it. The law was not ap plicable to foreign refugee* only; it is a law as applica ble to native-born subjects as to foreign refugees and upon this ground : The reason parties were prose cuted was not merely because they libelled foreign Sove reigns, but because such libels were calculated to create a hostile feeling in foreign States, and to cause a breach of the peace between this couutry and those foreign Powers ; and it was therefore proper and just, when such cases arose, that the prosecutions should be conducted, not by the foreign Governments, who were only inciden tally involved, but by the law officers of the British Crown ; the laws and peace of this country having, in truth, been attempted to be violated, and such probable 'iso lation being the real ground of prosecution." Lord Aberdeen said: "My noble and learned friend" (Lord Lvndhubst) "has alluded to the duty of the Gov ernment to take an initiative in these proceedings, and to institute prosecutions at law. Now, 1 have the satisfac tion of informing my noble and learned friend that her Majesty's Government have already come to this decision, in ease of any such event occurring as to give just grounds at complaint, not to throw it upon the Foreign Minister to institute such a prosecution; but, when a case is made out sufficient properly to justify legal proceedings against any parties so implicated, the Government will take it ?ypon themselves to crry on such a prosecution, and foreign Powers have already been informed of that de termination." We do not think that there is any thing in these obser vations which need excite the apprehension of the most decidcd advocate of liberty of speech and of printing ; on the contrary, we think it is nothing more than the neigh boring Continental Governments may justly require of us, tyrannical though those Governments may be, and con trary to all English ideas of right as may be the motives jy which they are actuated. These principles and mo lves can never sway an English jury or an English bench, wd they, and not the foreign view of the case, will decide ihe issue of all proceedings here. We are glad that re fugees from other countries residing in England and English subjects are placed in the same category, and that the former have the shield of quasi naturalization iield over them in this instance. It will be no longer pos tfble, if it ever were, for Englishmen to allow any invasion >f justioe in the case of the refugee, without, at the same' ime, compromising the existence of their own liberty of ipeech and action. All systematized opposition of the Irish members of Par Bament to the Government seems, happily, to be at an >nd. A meeting of the Irish members was lately held in bondon, when the question was discussed " whether the >olioy on which they acted in 1851 should be adhered to or abandonedand It was decided by a majority of 18 to ' 9 41 that it should be left to thje discretion of each member to sit where and to tote us he might think proper." This understanding will smooth many appreheuded difficulties, and allay many irritating and exciting views of action and states of feeling. Every thiug political, commercial, and social in Englund seems Bpw in a placid and quietly progressive position, and we trust that men of all parties and all opinions will enjoy the upproaching Easter holydays in the true spirit of the season. ' ! The last returns of the Bauk of England exhibit the following statemeuts:. l'ublic deposites ?7,812,7.>1 increaso.... l'rivate deposites 12,622,801 do 2*4,768 Circulation 22,276,870 do ^au'riit Specie aud bullion....IB,894,812....>' do Discounts & advances 15,401,220 do 476,008 This must be allowed to be a good exhibit. Although there is an evident demand for money, it is wanted for the purposes of legitimate business, and the bauk lias yet more than ?8,500,000 to loan, at three per cent., for such uses. The mint coined last year ?8,740,000 in gold, yet the demand for gold coin is as great as ever, and the whole strength of the establishment has to be devoted to its coinage. Until lately the average weekly coinage ot the mint did not exceed ?250,000; at this time it reaches ?520 000 a week, and yet the pressure for more con tinues. In the month of January ?92,000 in silver was coined, which was one-half of the silver coinage of 1852, and mort than the entire coinage of 1851: but more silver is called for. The mint is entirely unable to attend to the copper coinage, and private establishments have entered into contracts to supply as much of this com as may meet the demand. . The corn market is represented as being without varia tion; the cotton market at Liverpool is said to be very animated. Colonial and foreign produce of nearly every kind is in steady demand, but without quotable altera tion in price. Science, particularly electrical science, Beems to be making fresh triumphs every day. We have now to re cord a new application of electricity by Dr. Joskimi Wat son, which is exhibiting in the neighborhood of Wands worth. The great feature of the invention is that the ma terials consumed in the production of electrical light are em ployed for a profitable purpose, independent of that of illu mination, and more than remunerating the entire expense; so that the light, whioh is rendered constant and brilliant, is produced for nothing. Thus, whilst the light is being produced by galvanic action, materials are introduced into the buttery by which pigments of the finest quality are obtained ; these are so valuable that they consider ably exceed the entire cost of the operation. Dr. Watson thus speaks of his invention in a pamphlet not yet pub lished : " Our battery we have termed the chromatic ' lattery, aud its produce is colors. It may socm difficult to ima gine how any number of galvanic arrangements can be made to yield n great variety of colors; but when it is remembered that the real number of natural colors is small and that a difference of tint and shade imparts to e'ich separate product a distinct commercial existence as a color we may then be believed when we say that by the use of not more than five substances introdoced into our batteries we are able to produce no less than one hundred valuable pigments, exceeding in value by a great per cent re the original value of the articles contributing towards their production. Our mode of producing these colors consists, not in any subsequent mixing of the products resulting from the working of our batteries, but is the re sult of the actual development of the electricity in the battery." The exact process cannot be made intelligible by a short extract from the pamphlet, but the discovery is al lowed to be most valuable, and its perfect accomplishment undoubted. We find in this pamphlet the following curious particu lars relative to the astonishing increase in the production, ar.d of course in the consumption, of that beautiful pig ment culled Prussian blue. The annual production in the United kingdom has been for the lust twenty-seven years as follows: From 1825 to 1830 about 10 tons From 1830 to 1835 about 40 tons From 1885 to 1840 about 200 tons i From 1840 to 1845 about 700 tons | From 1845 to 1850 about 1,040 tons, and the present manufacture is nearly 2,000 tons annually, worth about ?'250 per ton, or the annual produce ?500,000. Dr. Watsok's discovery will make a complete revolu tion in the color market. From paints to paintings is an easy transition. A committee of artists has been laU-.y inquiring respecting the effects produced by covering paintings with plate glass. The opinions are rather con flicting- Professor Bahsink, of Petersburg, who has had twenty-five years' experience on the subject of the pre servation of the pictures of old masters in several gal leries of Europe, says: " The care bestowed upon pictures by covering thein with glass changes them perhaps more than it preserves them, but insensibly. The air contained between the picture and the glass becomes heated, dries the colors, and produces cracks in the varnish, which ure transmitted afterwards to the colors." There were opinions, on the contrary, equally favorable to glazing the pictures. Nothing has yet been done in the matter, but the subject will doubtless be revived be fore the new committee of inquiry. An exhibition of spe cimens of fine cabinet work, and of furniture executed be fore the present century, is about to be made at Marl borough House. Specimens from Windsor Castle have been loaned by her Majesty, and contributions of rare work offered by many private individuals. The Literary news of the week is principally confined to the publication of works previously announced. About a year ago an English clergyman, the Rev. Charles Eyrk, announced "An improved Paradise Lost'' The editor stated in his preface that " his design wins to give more exquisite finish " to the poetry of Milton, " to draw off the excessive flow of learning, and remove the obscurity and heaviness with which the poet is sometimes justly chargeable. Poor Mr. Era*! We suppose his purpose was benevolent, and therefore his miserable performance would be treated leniently ; but we think a man profess ing to improve Milton is not a fit object of rational cen sure. Wc have now another piece of literary impiety be fore us. The Rev. Charles Nkalk has published an " improved" edition of the "Pilgrim's Progress." Ac cording to the reverend gentleman, " the work in the state In which John Bunyan left It cannot safety be pnt into the hands of children," and as he, the editor, considers that it teaches "formal heresy," "he cannot be called dishonest for making his author speak what he believes with more knowledge he would have said." We, how ever regard Mr. Neale's conduct both- as dishonest and foolish. Bunyan's work will, however, outlive Mr. Neale's charges of "vulgarity" and " colloquialism' and "over-estimated merit." Macwtlat says: "During the latter part of the seventeenth century there were only two minds in England which possessed the imaginative faculty in a very eminent degree: one of these minds produced thto Paraditt Lo$t, the other the Vilfrim't Progre**." , The British and Foreign Bible Society held its first ju bilee the other day, when the following striking report of its progress and action since the year 1804 was present ed Since its establishment upwards of eight thousand branch societies have been formed. The Scrintures have been translated into one hundred and forty-eight Ian guages and dialects, of which one hundred and twenty-one had, prior to the establishment of the society, never ap I peared in type. Upwards of forty-three millions of these translated copies have been distributed among, it is com puted, not less than six hundred millions of the human race Of the languages into which these copies have been rendered, more than twenty-five had previously existed without an alphabet, and merely in an oral form. History does not afford an example of any other private associa tion having had even nn approach to the influence which the British and Foreign Bible Society has had over the highest interests of the human race. The Theatrical news is brief but important. The Royal Dalian Opera, at Covent Garden, will open on the 2!>th instant. Report speaks very highly of the arrangements for the season, but the particulars are not yet announced. The refusal of the House of Commons to charter the com pany whioh was formed for the support of " Her Majesty s Theatre " has been fatal to that institution. It is broken up, and all its "properties" are to be dispersed by the j hammer of the auctioneer?scenery, stage machinery, furniture, wardrobe, organ, libmry of music, all are to be Bold. The effects are so numerous that the sale will oc cupy nearly a month. , There is no news from Fbahok which has any bearing whatever upon English affuirs. Lord Sthatfohd i>k lUuuurra has been Bojourning at Paris on hiB route to Constantinople, and has been most kindly received by the Emperor, and had several private and long interviews with him. It is evident that the best understanding re lative to Turkish affairs crista between England and France. The new French ambassador to Constantinople has left Paris for the latter city, after conferring with Lord 8tuat*obi>. The Emperor of Austria is said to have taken a step which may not, improbably, prevent the Pope from coming to Paris. He has caused it to be stated to his Holiness in strong terms that, as the reprvsentative of an ancient monarchy, he desires to ussert his right to precedence before Napoleon III, and that he would feel himself slighted if the Pope were to crown the French Emperor until several months al ter his own coronation by the bead or the Church at Vienna. This, if true, amounts to a veto, so far as Austria may have power to pronounce one, against the Pone's coming to Paris at all, because it id scarcely upon the cards that Louis Napoleon will con sent to postpone his coronation beyond May. There is no news from either Spain or Poetical, ex cepting what relates to squabbles in their respective Par liaments or Cortes, and these, being mere struggles for power between different political parties, have very little interest beyond the boundaries of those kingdoms. The tenor of the intelligence from Italy is painfully uniform ; it all relates to forced contributions, cenfisca tious, and executions without number. Milan continues to be treated with unparalleled severity. The semi-official Vienna journal denies at one sweep all the assertions respecting an Austrian note to the British Government with which the German and English press have lately teemed. In an article published on the 11th Instant the Correxpondenz denies in the most formal man ner that the Cabinet of Vienna had made any application whatever to that of St. James relative to the refugees. " Austria," says this authority, " had trusted in the good faith of England, the Government of which^ had given the most satisfactory assurances when Lord Gran ville directed the department of Foreign Affairs. The speech pronounced by Lord l'almerston, in the House ot Commons, has since proved the returning ascendancy of this statesman in the councils of his country, but it does not comport with the dignity of the Austrian Government to address to that of Great Britain a demand which has been in a manner answered before it is made. Thus it only remains for Austria to take all the necessary mea sures for preventing all the crimes and troubles which have their principal centres in London." It is also announced that the journey of the King of Prussia to Vienna has long been a settled intention, and the Czar is also expected in the same capital; but their interviews will have no official character distinguishing them from the ordinary meetings of crowned heads. In her recent peremptory demands upon Turkey, Aus tria seems to have been more successful than the first ac counts indicated. There is a pretty general conviction tha,t the concessions of the Porte, iustcul of preserving the independence aud integrity of the Ottoman Empire, have pnved the way for further aggressions and ultimate dis memberment. Russia is said to be already gathering vast forces on the frontiers oftheDanubian provinces. The Austrian negotiations at Constantinople are no sooner terminated than a Pkussiau mission makes its appearance in that city. The object is said to be exclusively*he ques tion of the shrines in the Holy Land, which bear upon the rival influences of the two Christian confessions in Eastern Europe, the Romish and the Greek Churches. France is said to have already obtained from the Turkish Government concessions to the Latin or Roman Church, to which the Russian head of the Greek Church opposes counter claims. Montenegro has been completely evacu ated by the Turkish army. Dr. La yard has published nn address to his constituents at Aylesbury, stating that he does not expect his services will be long required in Constantinople, and therefore does not resign his seat in Parliament, feeling that their interests will not suffer in his temporary absence. The Egyptian railway progresses satisfactorily. In a few months it will be completed from Alexandria to the Nile, when the passage to Cairo will be effected in nine or ten hours instead of twenty-four as rtow required, and I the passengers to and from India will no longer have to ' pass a night on the canal or Nile. The news from the I Cape of Good Hope is far from being satisfactory. There is much insubordination among the Kaffirs. The Indian I mail brought no intelligence of any importance ; the King of Ava is dead. The last arrivals from Australia repre sent the yield of the gold-diggings as being larger than ever. More than one hundred thousand persons are now at work in the various gold-fields, and the average earn ings are estimated at an ounce per man per week. The total amount of gold produced to the 30th December, 1852, was 8,998,321 ounces, say 4,000,000, which at ?3 10s. per oz. is ?14,000,000 ; but the intrinsic value is nearly ?16,000,000. This astouiahing amount has been obtained chiefly by human labor, almost unassisted by machinery. The quantity of gold received in Melbourne by escort during the five weeks which preceded the 1st January, 1853, was 238,826 ounces, or an average of 47,766 ounces weekly. There seems to be a strange fa tality attending the steamships to Australia. The Mel bourne and the Adelaide both broke down on their respec tive first trips, and the Australia has now returned to port three times on her attempt to start on her second outward beund voyage. More disappointment and injury have already been occasioned to the passengers by those vessels than have occurred in the steamers to New York, whether British or American, during the several years of their existence. March 18.?The Parliamentary proceedings yesterday were of very limited and local interest; and there is no home news of the least importance. The steamer Sydney has arrived from Adelaide in ninety days, with, 175,700 ounces of gold on board, worth ?713,000. The news from the Cape is more pacific. There is not any news from the Continent. There has been an active business in American securi ties this week, there being a fair demand both on English and continental account. Prices remain steadily sup ported. _ FROM OUR PARIS CORRESPONDENT Paris, March 17,1853. Marshal Saint Arnaud, the Minister of War, pleading ill health, ha.s abandoned his post and re tired to the south of Franco, at the instance of his physicians. It is not believed that he will ever re sume in Paris the active discharge of his functions as Minister. He is still, however, titular Minister, his colleague, M. Pucon, of th? navy, temporarily supplying his place in the war department. M. de Saint Arnaud enj<tys less moral consideration than perhaps any member of the Cabinet.. Ho entered public life at the date of the covv rfctal, in 1851, with a ruined character, and the honors and wealth which have been heaped upon him since by way of re ward for his co-operntion in the violent overthrow of the republic have only gilded the outer man, but have nut caused the past to He forgotten. His conduct since he has held the portfolio of Minister of War is not, reason ably or unreasonably, without suspicion and reproach. H was he about whom dishonoring reports were so rifo a month or two ago, touching transactions at the Bourse? reports which provoked a formal denial from Government, but which continued nevertheless to be generally credited. The state of his health, therefore, is believed to be only the pretext for an honorable removal from office. His services in the establishment of the actual regime hare been so great that the Etnpcror would make his retire ment from public life to be as free as possible from all hu miliation. But no one believes he will ever return to Paris Minister of War. Several names are spokrn of ^as likely to succeed him ; nothing, however, is certainly known upon this point. The Emperor knows perfectly well how to keep his secrets. It is not believed that any change J of Ministry will be announoed prior to the coronation, j This is now the chief topic of conversation, and the chief | concern at present of the Emperor himself. The corona tion la desired by the chief of tLe Slate not only for the gratification it will afford to his personal vanity iu the pomp, and oircumstuuoe, and flattery that will of course attend the ceremony, but lie believes that the coronation will Contribute powerfully to the tirin and secure estab lishment of his throne. ' It will give a consecration to his power that will vividly impress the popular mind throughout Frauce, and will tend to produce the dissolu tion of parties by showing them the Empire triumphant, and authenticated us it were by this last Btamp of royally, but not only must Naj'olkom III. be crowned at Notre Dame, but he must be crowned by a l'ope. There are good reatsons of State, too, which cause the Emperor to insist with unyielding tenacity that the chief of the church 011 earth shall himself place the crown upon his head and pronounce a benediction upon the new Empire. There are large bodies of the rural population in France, and precisely those portions which at present are most mark edly characterized by their Legitimist predilections, that would be deeply impressed in favor of the Empire were they to see the Pope, the Holy Father himself, officiating at the coronation, and giving his solemn blessing to the new monarch. Not only so: the presence on this occa sion of the Pope at Paris is counted on by Napoleon III. as likely to determine in his favor the clergy of France, whose predilections are notoriously, notwithstanding the persisting efforts to conciliate them which have been made by the Emperor, on the side of the Bourbon rulers of Frauce. Added to these considerations in favor of a Pupal consecration are others more personal to Napoleon III. himself. Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope; Napoleon I. was crooned by the Pope ; Napoleon 111, the refounder of the Empire upon the model offered by these predecessors, must also be, or his empire will waut the prestige which can less be dispensed with upon this occa sion, from the fact thiit the Eiuperor of 18W is not, like those of 1804 and 800, an imposing individuality, illus trated b} great actions, distinct from and overtopping all the men of his day ; ot whose career empire would seem an incident and not the consummation. It is therefore hardly doubted that Pius IX. will soon visit Paris. He is said to be personally very well disposed to the project, desirous to be the hero of a triumphal tour, and to be come the object of popular acclaim, as be assured he positively would be wert he to visit France. The Pope acquired a taste for excitement of this sort during the first year of his reign, which he has not lost with his po pularity. I have never doubted that the Emperor would insist upon his presence iu Paris, and have never believed that the Pope would be able to resist the instances of the new court, founded as ihey are upon the substantial benefits rendered in 1849 by the restoration of the 1 apal throne, and upon the influence necessarily at tendant upon the actual military, occupation of Rome by the French forces. It remains to be seen what amount of opposite influence Austria and Russia can bring to bear upon the ultimate deqsi(jpof the Pope. They are known to be unfavorable to the project, as arc also a majorify of the cardinals. Rut Napoleon III. will, I predict, carry the day. The ceremony of the corona-1 tion will, it is believed, take place early in May, hut nothing upon this subject has yet been officially announc | ed. The semi-ofticials, however, report that the Arch bishop of Paris has been notified that immediately after . the religious sen-ices of the season are over, the catlic dral of Notre Dame must be placed at the disposition of the imperial upholsterers, that they may fit it up with 1 suitable decorations for the interesting occasion. Before dismissing this subject of the Pope's visit to Paris, let me say a word upon the conditions in favor of the supre macy of the Holy See, and derogatory to the pretensions of the 80-callcd Gallican church, which his Holiness is said to insist upon. The Pope insists that the law of marriage be altered in France, and that the religious ceremonies that accompany marriage be made henceforth obligatory, and not, as at present, the mere dictate of custom. The Pope insists that Rome shall have the ex clusive right of designating and nominating the French Bishops. The Pope insists, also, upon the abandonment by the Emperor of those organio articles of the Concordat which were dictated by Napoleon I, and which were never matter of regular negotiation and acceptance as were the other articles of the Concordat. The articles now objected to, supplementary to the Concordat, articles arbitrarily imposed by the Emperor, objected to at the time by the Pope, and objected to by all subsequent Popes, attribute to the Emperor the right of surveillance and almost of police over the whole Gallican church. It is believed that his Holiness will not put foot in France but upon condi tion that these Articles be withdrawn. The Pone is said also to insist that, touching marriages, the religions cere monies, made obligatory, shall prccede the civil ceremo niee, instead of following them as now. If the Pope comes to Paris to crown Napoleon III, ^ he will, on leaving the French capital, it is believed, proceed to Vienna in order to perform the same favor for the young Emperor Frax qis Justi n, who has not yet been crowned. On this con dition, it is rumored, the latter promises to withdraw his political objections to the papal visit to Paris. Letters from Rome, just received in Paris, apprise us that in a secret consistory, held on the 7th instant, the Holy Father completed the Sacred College by the creation" of eight ntto cardinal*, one of whom is a French prelate, the Archbishop of Tours. These letters contain some in teresting information relative to the Roman cardlnalate On the 1st of January last the number of vacancies in the corps of cardinals was seven. The recent death of Car dinal Dikpkxbeock left an eighth. By virtue of the pro motions of the 7th, all these vacancies are filled. A ful 8acred College has not been witnessed before for a great many years. The very advanced age of some of the actual cardinals make it probable that there will soon be other vacancies; but these, when they occur, will not give rise to speedy nominations, for custom requires that the col lege should not be full. There should be a few cardinals' hats always held iu reserve, to be disposed of as urgent circumstances may require. According to the pontifical constitution, the Sacred College is composed of seventy cardinals, divided unequally between the three orders, thus: six of the order of bishops, fifty of the order of priests, and fourteen of the order of deacons. Of the seventy cardinals now living, there are six upwards of eighty years of age, thirteen between seventy and eighty, nine teen between sixty and seventy, twenty-four between fifty and sixty, and eight between forty and fifty. The youngest is Cardinal Ani.rxa, born in 1812; the oldest Cardinal Ofpizosi, who is eighty-four years old, and who has worn the hat fifty years. Of the lining cardinals, two date their promotion from the reign of Pius VII, who reigned from 1800 to 1823 ; three from that of Leo Nil, who succeeded Pius VII; thirty-five received their hats from Gregory XVI, who reigned from f881 to 1840, and thirty from "the reigning Pope, Pius IX. Fifty-four of the actual cardinals are Italians : sixteen are foriigners. Of the fifty-four Italians, thirty-three j are Fuinans by birth or adoption, seven are Piedmontese, seven Neapolitan, two Tuscan, and five belong to the Lomh.irdo-Venetian kingdom. Of the sixteen foreign | cardinals, six are of France, three of Austria, two of Spain, two of Portugal, one of Belgium, one of England, I and one of Prussia. Twenty-seven cardinals (all Italians) reside in the city of Rome, and participate under the Pope in the spiritual government of the Roman Catholic church and in the temporal government of the Pontifical States. The belief is gaining ground in Paris that, by the in fluence of the new French Empress, boll-fights, which during all preceding reigns have been strictly interdicted in France, are to be permitted at the Hippodrome of Paris this summer. It is asserted that a complete per tonncl of real Spanish bulls and real Spanish bull-fighters have been sent for from Spain. The cruel amusement, however, is civilised upon its introduction into France to the extent of positive interdiction of all manslaughter. 1 he bulls may be killed in the ring, but the police is still hesitating whether or not to allow the killing of horses. It seems not to be doubted that the Catalan bull, if M. de Maupas positively requires it, will abstain fr:m goring the horses, and from tossing on his horns the taureaJor* who are tormenting and piercing him. It must be a bold bull that don't fear and obey M. de Maupas in Paris. W p learn from Frankfort that the Germanic Diet voted, upon the proposition of the military commission, an auj mentation of 5fty thousand men to the army of the Con- J federation. On the 14th instant the Chamber of Deputies of Bel gium voted u credit of five millions to the War Depart ment. The bill authorising the Emperor to call out 80,000 men of the clans of 1863 has pnssed the Legislative (.. orps in the form proposed. I explained the character of this bill iu my last letter. We have had in Paris, two or three days ago, what may be called a political and democratic demonstration among the lower orders in l'aris. This i9 so out ol keeping with the times, with the actual institutions and babiis t?l Frauce, that it id worth while to mention it. Madame Raspail, the wife of the famous Montugnard who played so notorious a rule iu Paris iu 1848, and who has been for several years and is still in prison, died u lew days since. Her body was brought to Paris for interment. The funeral was attended by an immense number of late democrats, mostly of the laboring class, who desired thus to express their sympathy for one of the apostles of their cause, who will in all probability die one of its martyrs. The number present is variously estimated at from twelve to twenty thousand. On the way to the cemetery the pro cession, at least a mile in length, passed by the famous column on the Place de la Bublile. " Ilats off!" was the cry as the funeral cortege entered upon the place and ap proached the monument so rife with republican associa tions. Hats were taken off instantly; the procession moved reverently and silently once entirely around the column, and then proceeded on to the cemetery. The po lice looked on, but did not interfere with this curious de monstration. T11E NEW AMERICAN ADMINISTRATION. FROM TUB LONDON TIMES OH MARCH 4. The President of the United States assumed this day the supreme power in that great Commonwealth, and en ters upon the duties of the office to which ho was elected December last by a large majority of his fellow-citizens in almost every State of the Union. No man has ever commenced his high political career under oircumstances more favorable than Gen. Tierce. He finds his country in a state of universal pence and unexampled prosperity. No question of immediate interest or urgent gravity de mands a prompt solution or threatens the integrity of the Union. The majority which has suddenly borne him from a comparatively obscuro position to be the tempo rary head of a powerful nation seems at once to prescribe his policy and to regulate his course of action. .We may anticipate that the policy of the United States will hence forward be more openly directed to the nnrestrioted free dom of commercial intercourse, both with the contiguous ]>rovinces of the British Empire and with foreign coun tries. And even On those territorial questions which nre apt to excite the pnssions of the American people, and sometimes threaten to embroil them with their neighbors, Gen. Pierce takes the Government in an interval of re pose, when the relations of the Union wit* every part of the world are tranquil, and we hope pacific. In com menting upon the discussions which have lately occurred in the public assemblies of the United States, it is well to bear in mind that much more is said than is meant or will be doue. Mr. Cass's declamatory orations on the Mon roe doctrine were qualified by his own stunly opposition to the schemes of the buccaneers on Cuba ; and we have reason to hope that the fervid appeals ma-le to the pas sions of the nation on some delicate points of international law will have no serious effect on the policy of the Union towards the rest of the world. General Pierce has observed a most discreet and states- j manlike reserve during the whole period which has elapsed between his election and his induction to office. He has j carefully avoided all those demonstrations which popular ; enthusiasm and curiosity would readily have awarded to . a successful candidate. He has not allowed a pledge to I pass his lips in public, or a written declaration to proceed ! from his pen. So little is known of his past life beyond the boundaries of New Hampshire, that lie is unfettered by any thing he may have said or done in any former j capacity ; and though it must be confessed that the credit he has hitherto obtained Is in a great measure hypothe tical, no one ever succeeded better in preserving the mys tery of undisclosed greatness or in avoiding the embar rassments that precede office. Even the selection of his confidential advisers has been kept a profound secret, and iif a country where every tiling is bruited about, nnd every scheme discussed beforehand by a million voices, I the real character and policy of the new Government at j Washington is as little to be guessed at as the name of a I Pope in a newly assembled Conclave, or the policy of an ' absolute Sovereign who has just ascended the throne. Probably the reason of the apparent indifference of the American people to these considerations, which would seem to be <>f essential consequence under an elective government, is that they are well assured that under any men whatsoever the course of public affairs will be very I nearly the same. They regard the first officers of State . as the servant? rather than the rulers of the people, and they are satisfied with the conviction that whoever may be iutrusted with the management of public affairs will aspire only to do their bidding. It is due, however, to the statesmen of the Whig party in the United States?of whom in au official capacity we now take leave for some time?to acknowledge the ability and prudence with which they have on many occasions I found means to control and direct the popular will, often -uuinstructed or misguided, especially on questions affect ing the relations of the Union with foreign Powers. That is the lasting glory of Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and more recently of Mr. Everett; and, although they have certain 1 ly never sacrificed one jot of what could be considered their national rights in the widest interpretation, they have wisely aud honorably endeavored, sometimes at the risk of obloquy and censure, to remove by negotiation difficulties which afforded grounds of agitation to the more factious portion of the community, net only against the Government, but against its foreign allies. In the very last communication addressed by Mr. EVerett to the Senate we have a striking example of the results of this srood feeling and forbearance, and it may possibly teach even Gen. Cass a lesson to find that at the very time when he was laboring to extract a quarrel out of the treaty with Great Britain for the establishment of a ship canal through Ceutral America, the British Gov ernment was, in conjunction with the American Secre tary of State, dispassionately considering the best means of securing the independence of that passage, and freely resigning some of the protecting rights which it has long exercised pver a portion of those territories. It may be in the recollection of our readers that we have more than once discussed the anomalous and inconvenient claims on the Mosquito coast, to which Lord PalmersUm appeared, when he held the office of Foreign Secretary, to attach an undue importance. He even traced the boundary line of Mosquitia across the swamps and sierras of Honduras, and invested an illiterate and half-clothed savage, with the attributes of sovereignty as King of the Mosquitoes, though the power exercised in his name really belonged either to British subjects or more lately to a committee of American citizens. Lord John Russell has very wisely put an end to this farce, which exposed us to the respon sibility of defending the independence of a territory not our own ; and he has thus given, both to the I nited States aud to Central America, the strongest proof of our respect for the Clayton and Rulwer treaty, and of our re pugnance to extend the British territories in that part of the gloHe. The only point against which it is essential both for ourselves and for the Americans to provide is the possibility of a pretension on the part of the Nicara guan Government to convert the passage of the San Juan into a monopoly. The object of the treaty with the Uni ted State", and of our whole policy, is simply to promote on the easiest terms the execution of a ship canal across the isthmus, and to secure its freedom aud neutrality. With ihis view it has been proposed to convert the city and port into a free haven : nnd in the event of the canal being executed, it can hardly fail to become one of the most important commercial positions on the globe, con necting Kurope with the Au?tralian contiueut and the islands of the Pacific and the Eastern seas. The proposal is creditable to the English Ministry, and the spirit in which it is made is that which ought to char acterize our relations with the American people. This is not the first instance in which Great Britain has shown that on the fair field of commercial competition wc seek for no exclusive advantages. We ask no more than to stand on the same public rights as other nations, and we huve net the example of the policy we profess by opening our own ports and trade as widely as possible to the rest of the world. Mr. Everett, though the organ of a Govern ment not professing the principles of free trade, has done justice to our motives in this communication ; and he has also sought to mark his Administration bv the settlement of the quostion of the fisheries and colonial trade on fair terms, and even, it is said, by the signature of a treaty for international copyright, to which his attention has no doubt been particularly directed by his own literary con nexions. It is to be feared, howeveT, that in these mat ters the thread of his official life wttl be cut before they can be completed, and he will leave th? work which he lias begnn to be concluded by his successors. Mors Gold.?Anew pold region is said to have been dis covered near Malacca, m India, which promises a consid erable increase of the precious metal, as if Australia and California we?* not enough to support t%e wants of the world. TIIE FIRE AT WINDSOR CASTLE, (Ekqiaxd.) W ? extract from a Liverpool paper the following par ticulars o4 the burning of one of the tower* of Windaor Castle in the night of the 19th ultimo : A fire, occasioning great alarm to the Sovereign, and involving a lamentable destruction of property, broke out iu the private apartment* of Winj$or Castle, at a quarter before ten o'clock, on Saturday nlgbt. The outbreak wad discovered within a very few minutes of its occurrence; but the tire hud obtained such ascendancy that its pro gress was not altogether subdued until six o'clock ou Sun day morning. The damage to the rooms in the l'rince of Wales Tower iuid adjoining apartments is very serious; all the apart ments in this tower, including the beautiful Gothio diuing room, are destroyed ; indeed the tower may be said to be completely gutted, as the tire extended to the roof, which is also destroyed. The precii-eextent of the dumuge can not at this moment be ascertained. The tower in which this misfortune commenced was a splendid piece of architecture, and nearly faced Eton Col lege, whilst the beautiful terraco and promenade stands immediately in front, and under the battlements is the tastefully laid-out tlower gardens and slopes, where her Majesty and royal children frequently etijoy walking ex ercise. On the ground floor was an apartmeut of great extent and most beautifully appointed, which was used by the Queen ns the dining room. Thi roof, or more cor rectly speaking the ceiling, was inlaid with carved oak, delicately heightened with gold. Over this magnificent apartment were a number of rooms, principally devoted for sleeping apartments for the royal children and atten dants; various other rooms adjoined those just mention ed, and the whole touched, or nearly so, the apartments in the Brunswick Tower. lier Majesty and his Iloyal Highness Prince Albert had arrived at the Castle from Buckingham Palace iu the afternoon, and dined iu private, as is their usual custom on the day of their arrival, the dinner being served up in the Gothic dining room. Her Majesty and the Prince had left this room scarcely an hour when smoke was observed issuing from the south angle of the apartment. With as little delay as possible the news was communicated to Col. Phipps, who in turn gave the necessary intelligence to the officers in command of the Castle. The soldiers behaved manfully ; some mounted the roof of the tower; some removed the valuable furniture with the utmost care Crout the royal apartments contiguous to the conflagration, whilst others were using their utmost exertions at the engines. Meanwhile the flames extend ed from the ground floor up the staircase, and having entered numerous apartments in the Prince of Wales' Tower, the whole became ignited, and in a space of time comparatively brief the destructive element forced its way into the centre of the Brunswick Tower, when the sight that presented itself was such as to terrify all who beheld the spectacle?for the flames, in huge bodies, were rushing out of the various windows in each tower, threatening to take a complete circuit round the castle. The military and others labored in a most praiseworthy manner, hoping to subdue the conflagration. The water, which fell in tons weight per minute, run down the front of the towers, and in spite of the heat became froien, and immense icicles could be seen hanging from the window sills; and as the flames continued to shoot through the casements,lho sight presented was one of fearful grandeur, and the reflection of the fire could be seen for miles distant. During this trying scene her Majesty and his Royal Highness Princc Albert betrajed not the least signs of fear, but appeared rejoiced at tli? willingness displayed by her loyal subjects in mounting the ladders, scattering the water over the fire, and doing all that was possible to subdue the conflagration. It appears that the fire originated from a furnace flue, situated at the basement of the Prince of Wales' Tower, for the purpose of heating the air which warms the Go thic dining room and other apartments in this tower. The plate rooms, which contained gold plate valued at between two and three millions of morey, are situated immediately under the Gothic dining room where the fire was raging, but it was not considered necessary to remove uuy portion of it, as the rooms wfcre made lire-proof. SURVEY OF WISCONSIN, IOWA, AND MINNESOTA. Messrs. Lippencott & Grambo, of Philadelphia, have just published, by order of Government, a complete and elegaut work upon the geology of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota. The document, which comprises the reports of Dr. David Dale Owns nnd his assistant scientific corps, is issued in two qnarlo volume*, one q^text and another of plates and maps. The region, a dflfription of which is here given by the geologist, is said to be the most ex | tensive hitherto reported upon by any American scientific 1 corps. The maps include au extent of territory upwards of seven hundred miles in length from north to south and about three hundred and fifty in extreme breadth. The survey takes in"the Mississippi and all its tributaries, from the source to its junction with the Missouri; the Missouri as high as Council Bluffs; the Red river of the ! North and part of the northern and southern shores of 1 Lake Michigan. The superficial extent of the wuole is judged to exceed two hundred thousand square miles, be 1 ing about two and a half times as large as the whole island of Great Britain. One-fourth of the ninety-one streams which this vast territory contains have been thoroughly explored. The 1 geological researches exhibit a considerable variety of formation. Coal has been found in abundance; but the i coal measures of Iowa art much shallower than those of Illinois, and the mineral is generally inferior to that found i in the valley of the Uhio river. Beds of nodular iron, j found in many places on the Maukato ami Lesuer rivers, are the only metallic depesites of much'promise. On | Soap creek have been discovered salt springs, affording a weak brine, the quality of which it is thought may be im proved by boring. It is stated that a large portion of the | region consists of a rich, prolific soil, well adapted for all agricultural purposes. Indeed, some of the. lands on the , Cedar and Des Moines rivers can hardly be excelled in fertility. Vet the country in the vicinity o( the sources of the Black and Chippewa rivers and the streams flowing i northward into Lake Superior are hopelessly arid an 1 unfit for cultivation. These refuse lands, however, do not amaunt to more than one-fourteenth part of the whole two hundred thousand square miles. This beaatiful country offers many powerful induce ments to the settler. But, alas ! rub rota lies the thorn, i Among the beautiful streams which so frequently inter sect the country, and upon the beautiful prairies and ta , ble lauds which extend over large portions of it, lurk the j two great torments of the Western pioneer?intermittent fevers and venemous insects. The members of the expe dition suffered from both of these annoyances, and the explorers returned from their labors with the loss of one j or two of their party.?Uotton Journal. Tut Mani-facti re of Umbrellas, Parasols, Ac.?It is interesting to observe in what maun?5r large class** of , the population in the city of New Vork obtain the means I of livelihood. The day scarcely dawns tafore Chatham and Division streets, Broadway, and other large thorough fares are moving with the human tide, setting into the lower wnrds. It is mostly of a youthful character, made up of clerks, porters, mechanics nnd artisans, also of large numbers of young females, employed in sewing hats, caps, clothing, umbrellas, &c., in connexion with various wholesale manufacturing establishments. Those houses engaged in the umbrella and parasol business employ a large proportion of them at certain seasons. It is esti mated that the umbrella and parasol trade of New York city is equal to 11,500,000 per annum?chiefly conducted by seven different firms. One of the largest is that of Isaac Smith & Co., who employ 826 persons in the various departments, including 250 girla, and facilitate the manu facturing procoases by using steam power. Machinery is principally used for sharpening the sticks and "stretch ers," or whalebones, and for drilling holes for the rivets. During a considerable part of the yenj. tyjt>m 1,200 to 1,600 umbrellas aud parasols are turned ou^ daily, and $76,000 worth of silks aud ginghams are sometimes con sumed in tho course of three months. Geuerally manu facturers have different parts of the umbrella made by different parties about the city; but in this instance the various branches are reduced to a system, and the whole is prosecuted within the walls of a siugle establishment. Umbrella handles aro principally made in Pennsylvania, nnd the rattans in Williamsburg and Philadelphia, where large manufactories are established. There are, in an umbrella, 112 different parts ; and before being perfected the umbrella passes through nearly as many different hands. Surprising celerity is acquired in putting the mparts together, so that an umbrella is easily commenced and completed within the space of two hours, nnd might be finished much sooner if the varnish dried quicker. The average price of umbrellas is $1.06 10 $1.10; of pa rasols, $1.76 to $2.00. An immense quantity of the cheaper qualities are made up. There is a large class throughout the country who require an article that costs from 12J to 26 cents, made of cotton cloth, with cane frames. The average wages received by sewers of um brellas is $4.50 per week.?N. Y. Jour. Conmerc*. Citv Railroai>8 Esjoiseo.?The Supreme Court of New York has put its veto on the Broadway and Second Avenue Railroad speculations. The grantees were en joined mi Saturday morning from proceeding under the grunts, which the Court says were evidently msde by the Corporation regardless of private rights and of their offi cial duty. P? '.otJ.??'The Province of Pegu, in the Empire of Birmah. which has been " annexed" by Great Britain to her East India possessions, is a territory of great value and im portance. It was long an independent kingdom, but became a dependency of Birmah in 1767. lis most im portant products are teak timber, ivory, beeswax, salt, petre, Iron, lead, tii*. very fine rubies aad diamonds. It# principal seaport U Rangoon.