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<? ' ? -j 1- :s '1 i. tXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES AMONG TIIE HEAD-WATERS OF KED RIVER. At a recent special meeting of the American Statistical and Geographical Society of New York, held at the University, (the lion. Gkorcie Ban croft in the chair,) after the transaction of the ordinary business of the Society, it adjourned to the chapel of the University, where the President introduced to a large and brilliant dudienee Oapt. K. B. Marcy, of the U. S. Army, who proceeded to read the following interesting paper on his recent important exploration of the Red River Country, ind his disoovery of the head-waters of that stream, vhich was received with close attention and much applause: CAPT. MARCY'8 ADDRESS. Gentlemen of the Geographical Society: In submitting a paper to u society composed of gentle men so distinguished for intelligence as those of the Ame rican Geographical and Statistical Society, a feeling of diffidenci comes over me, from a want of confidence in my own abilities, such as I have seldom before ex perienced. Situitol as I have been for tho greater portion of the last twiuty years, upon our extreme western borders, and subjected to the privations iucident to the life of a sol dier, with but few facilities for intellectual cultivation, I have rat the vanity to suppose, neither, I trust, will it be expected, that any production of mine will be of a char acter w impress the imagination or please the fancy of an audieace such as 1 now see before me. I shall there fore cuifine myself to a .concise and unpretending narra tion oftnets that have come under my own observation; and ifftny efforts of mine can, in the smallest degree, add to thefund of information already possesned by the so Cifcty, I t-hall feel most abundantly rewarded. Peanit me to remark, in the first place, that much of n)f ti|ne during the past four years has been spent on our southwestern prairies, far beyond the limits of civilization, aad in the couutry occupied by those erratic aud migra tor] people, the " natives of the plains." While among thett 1 endeavored to observe their habits closely, and liavi attentively studied their character, and shall take occasion, in the courso of what I have to say, to lay be fbrflyoo some of the results of my observations aud re fleclons. lfevious to the past summer I had been occupied in exporing the country on the Canadian river of the Ar kaifas, and upou the headwaters of the Trinity, Brasos, anq Colorado rivers of Texas, and my reconnoissances hat extended as far west as the Rio Grande, in New Aletico. During this time my attention had frequently keax called to the remarkable fact that a portion of one of;he largest and most important rivers in the United States, lying directly within the limits of the district I had been examining, remained up to that late period wholly unexplored and unknown. All the information we had in regard to its sources was derived from Indians, and, of course, was very unreliable, indefinite, and unsa tisfactory. In a word, the country embraced within the ^asin o< upper Red river had always been to us a terra incognita. Several enterprising and experienced travel lers had, at different periods, attempted th^ examination ?Ol this river ; but, as yet, none hnd succeeded in reaching its sources. At a very early period officers were sent out by the French Government to explore Red river, but their examinations reached no further than the couutry of the Caddoes and Natchitoches, in the vicinity of the present town of Natchitoches, Louisiana. Three years after the cession to the United States, by the First. Consul of the French republic, of that vast ter ritory then known as Louisiana, a small party, called the |Explonng Expedition of Red river," under charge of t'apt. Sparks, embarked from St. Catharine's landing, tear Natchez, Mississippi, with instructions to ascend Sea river to its head. This party descended the Missis ?fpi, and on the 3d of May, 1800, entered Red river, in Uiding to ascend in their boats as high as the "l'uwnee 1 ijua ' Indian villages, where they were to leave their txats purchase horses sufficient to pack their provisions, aul theu proceed (as was expressed in their orders) to thf "top of the mountains," the distance being, as they caijectured, about three hundred miles. From this it is mini feat that Red river was supposed to issue from a lutuntainous couutry, and all the arrangements for this were made accordingly. This party encouutered many difficulties and obstruc ts in the navigation of the river, among the numerous bayous below the Great Raft, but finally overcame them nil, and reached a point above this formidable obstacle. Jliey were, however, soon met by a larga force of Span ish troops, the oommander of which ordered them to pro ved no further; and, as their numbers were too small lor a thought of resistance, they were forced to turn back ind annudon the enterprise. . Another expedition was fitted out by our Government nil 800, and placed under command of that enterprising y\ing traveller, Lieut. Pike, who was ordered to ascend th? Arkansas river to its sources, and thence to strike ?ci>s3 the country to the head of Red river, and to de scend that stream to Natchitoches. After encountering taanY privations aud intense sufferings ip the deep snows of tie lofty mountains about the headwaters of the Ar kausn, Lieut Pike finally arrived upon a stream running to the East, which he took to be Red river, but which fubseq^ntly proved to be the Rio del Norte. Here he was tak?j by the Governor of New Mexico, and sent home way of Chihuahua and San Antonio, and thus this ex pedition failed. Gen. Wilkinson, under whose orders Lieut. Tike was serving at the time, in a letter to him, after his return, aiys: " The principal object of your expedition up the Arkansas wis to discover the true position of the sources a Red river. This was not accomplished." Lieut. Pike, from the most accurate information he could obtain, gives . . ^graphical position of the sources of Red river as u latitude 33 N. and longitude 104 W., which was far flora correot. Again, in 1819-20, Cel. Long, of the United States To ?nftoeers, on his return from an exploration iTif ?a8?uri "Ter aQd the oountry lying between it #5. ? Arkansas, undertook to descend Red rrer from its sources. In his interesting report he speaks otiie subject as follows : " We arrived at a creek having a westerly course, which we took to be a tributary of ?d river. Having travelled down its valley about two indred miles, we fell in with a party of Indians, of the .TL A**1"!"' or Hearts,' who gave us to ierstand that the stream along which we were travel ? mer W? accordingly continued our march n,!?T. ""e?1 kindred miles further, when, to arao small disappointment, we discovered that it was te Canadian of the Arkansas instead of the Red river UC we had been exploring. Our horses being nearly mm I.?' * the fatigue of the long journey, and the R,,T"nce'1 t0 ^mit of oar returning El. ,eK0re H Re<1 riYer- with the possibility JEK f0rt Wmter' !t Wa9 (,ee,ne'1 advisable to !4lenterPnse for the present, and make our wpto the settlements upon the Arkansas. We were led to thommissionofthis mistake in consequence of not be rble to procure a good guide acquainted with that I>?u',P,rjr" 0,,r onl>' dependence in this respect w? pon Pike s map, which assigns to the hendwaters of f ,t?VppRrfnt ,oc?Uty of those of the Canadian." Wll'. that * ?? the expeditions which tk" exploration of the Red river, none seeded in reaching its sources. I Mexicans and the Indians contiguous to their ter ?tbC h jbit 0f cal,in8 an7 "tream, the waters o wth h.re a red appearance, ? Rio Colorado," or Red rtei and iiii reglou of red clay, like that upon the Ca iL ? ? to the water a crimson cast, it is n t tpnsing that this river should have received from tj*e appellation of "Rio Colorado;" and this fact J the mi8tlk# int0 which Baron Humboldt rfeHm. JH MSted that tb? ^d river of Nachitoches Sit llaUl m , 9ft* of SRnU Fe? (which ^formation for tkl ? Ted,roin the Mexicans;) and it will also rthe%!h^t^V,0f??1- Long and Lieut. Pike. frtie War Iter ,rt ^c',? 1 received an order cmj, then "tat'ioned'at^ortnelk "C?rt T ?W" ti*ii Texas ?;n, ? # JT Belknap, on the Brazos infers, and hnnteij'and^^T/^Uns fts *l,i<le9> rl4om the confluence of i? eXplore Red pdfcat had been examined) to u.Cre ( Thi?he"t piwith this order r immUU:iv?"rCe8- ,In CM?m" Beh, where I arrived on the 30th l repRirf1 to Fort on'Jd day of May I left that nil?/ r APnli anJ poif my reconnoissance, whence on ajTstli meimy labors. tl,? t com Sichu^ i ws.snrtss."*? ?nnfith the Red river one hundred and ^,nc' abdr. Washita, snd one hundred miles above the K" estfment upon the river. Abont fiftv miles ah?? thiduence I found that Red river divided into ? ne,,?al branches Following the north branch fcj fo?]es, we arrived at another fork, the branches of w4.re also of about equal magnitude. We continued "Jxnortherly of these, and, after travelling itkS?. arriTe<i Bt its sources in ,atitnde 86 14 minutes nojd longitude 101 degrees 51 minutes 6 seconds ??t Orcenwich. Jobservations taken here made our present posi- | tiokboiit twenty fire miles from tbeCanadiar. river, <ujme longitude, (where I had passed in 184!? ) i ?4us to determine how these results corresponded j with those arrived at on that occasion, particularly as the Canadian had by several travellers been mistaken for Ked river. Accordingly, with a small detachment for auesoort, I m&de an excursion across the intervening country, and found the road 1 hud made in 1849, with the river, in the relative position indicated by our astronomical observa tions at the head of Red river. This was to me a matter of much gratification and interest, as it developed and confirmed the accuracy of our calculations regarding the geographical positions of both points. After having completed the examination of the north branch of lied river, we turned south, over an elevated waving prairie country, aud travelled thirty miles, when we reached the middle or sait fork of the river, which we ascended to its source, and again resumed the south course, and, marching fifty miles in this direction, it brought us to the valley of the south or principal brunch of the river. We arrived at this stream, which the Oamauches call Ke cho-ah-que-ho-no, or "Prairie-dog-town-river," souamed for the reason, I presume, that a vast number of dogs are found along its valley. Indeed, in one place, near the head of the riv#1, we passed for twenty-five miles through a continuous commuuity of these quadrupeds. Suppos ing its extent to have been the same in other directions, the town would occupy an area of 6'lo square unles, or 396,000 acres, with the burrows at the usual distances of about twenty yards apart, and each containing a family of five or six dogs, the aggregate population would. I fancy, exceed that of any city in the world. This inte resting little specimen of the mammalia of our country has often beeu described by travellers; but some facts connected with their history, which I have never seen mentioned in any published account, may not be consider ed out of place here. In selecting a position or site for their towns, they ap pear to have no regard to the distance from water, which has induced mo to believe that they do not require that element, which other animals so frequently have occasion for, and without which they inevitably perish. I have occasionally seen them upon the elevated table lands of New Mexico, where there was no water on the surface of the ground for twenty miles, and where it did not seem probable that it could be found by excavation. As there are seldom any rains or dews upon these plains during the summer months, and as the animals never wander far ftrom their burrows, I think I am warranted in the con clusion that they require no other aqueous sustenance than what they receive from their food, which is grass. I The rattlesnake is often found with the dogs, and has by some been considered a welcome guest of the proprietor i of the establishment: but this is an error, us he preys ! upon the dog, and is undoubtedly regarded by him as uu i intruder. 1 We found this branch of the stream one thou sand yards wide, and flowing over a sandy bed, through an exceedingly rough and broken country, wholly impas sable for wagons. 1 was therefore under the necessity of leaving my wagon train and proceeding from this point with a small escort of mounted men. directly along the bed of the stream; and after three days' hard riding, with the thermometer ranging from 102 to 110 degrees in the shade, and nothing but the most nauseating and bitter water to drink during the time, we at length arrived at the source of the main branch of Red river, in latitude o4 degrees 12 minutes, and longitude 102 degrees 35 min utes, about two hundred and twenty-five miles in a south east direction from Santa Fe. Three miles from the hend of the river, we found that its bed, which, from its confluence with the Mississippi to this poiut, with one exception, had been sand, suddenly changed to rock, with the water (which below here had been turbid and bitter) flowing clearly and rapidly over it; and, much to our delight, it was cool, and entirely free from salts. This was an unlooked-for luxury, as we hod everywhere before this found it exceedingly unpala table. The effect of this water upon us had been to pro duce sickness at the stomach, attended with loss of appe tite, and a raging and feverish thirst, which constantly impelled us to drink it, although it had still a contrary effect from what we desired, increasing our thirst rather than allaying it. After intense suffering from drinkiug this nauseating water, we indulged freely in the pure and delicious element, as we ascended along the narrow dell through which the stream found its way; and, following up for two miles the tortuous course of the gorge, we reached a point where it became so much obstructed with ] huge piles of rocks that we were obliged to leave our hor ! ses, and clamber over the remainder of the distance on ! foot. The gigantic walla of sandstone, rising to the enormous J height ot eight hundred feet, on each side, gradually clos j ed in. until they were only a few yards apart, and at last i united above us, leaving a long, narrow corridor beneath, : at the base of which the head spring of. the principal branch of Red river takes its rise. This spring bursts j from its cavernous reservoir, and, leaping down over the i huge masses of rock below, commences its long journey I to unite with other tributaries in the noblest river in the universe. On beholding this little rivulet, ae it winds its tortuous course down the steep descent of the canon, it is difficult to realize that it forms the wmWm to Hie hyf ; est and most important river in America, floating Bteam ! ers upon its bosom for nearly two thousand miles, and de i positing an alluvium along its borders which renders its valley perhaps the most fertile in the world. We drank copious draughts of the cool and refreshing water in the spring, and thereby considered ourselves, with the pleasure derived from the beautiful and majestic scenery around us, remunerated for all our fatigue and privations. The magnificence of the views that presented themselves to our eyes as we approached the head of the I river exceeded any thing I had ever beheld. It is im possible for me to describe the sensations of intense plea sure I experienced as I gazed on these grand and novel displays of nature. The stupendous escarpments of the solid rock, rising to such a height as to exclude the rays of the ?un for a | great portion of the day, were worn away, by the lapse of time and the action of water and the weather, into the most fantastic forms, wtiich it required but little effort of the imagination to convert into works of art; all united in forming one of the most sublime and picturesque scenes that can be imagined, and we all, with one accord, stopped and gazed with wonder and admiration upon a panorama which was now for the first time exhibited to the eyes of civilized mau. Z All here wore the aspcct of nature as it sprang into ex istence, nature in its unreclaimed sublimity and wildness, and it inspired me with that veneration which one is apt to feel in contemplating the beauty and grandeur of the undisturbed creations of the Sovereign Architect, stamped apparently as with his own eternity. From the head of this branch of the river I returned to the main body of my command, and from the point they had occupied travelled down between the two south branches, reaching Fort Arbuckle, in the Chickasaw Na tion, on the 30th day of July. Here, for the first time, we heard the report that was so generally circulated in relation to our massacre by the Camanches. This report evidently originated with these Indians, who manifested no friendly disposition toward us, and always avoided us. i Although we considered ourselves fully prepared to meet any force of Indians that could be brought against us in the country through which we passed, yet I cannot forego this opportunity of acknowledging the deep gratitude I feel to my countrymen for the kind sympathy they mani fested in the fate of myself and companions.* In a hasty glance at the face of the country over which we passed, one of the most striking and anomalous fea tures that presents itself is a narrow strip of woodland, from five to thirty miles wide, called the Cross Timbers, extending from the Arkansas river, in a southwesterly : direction, to the Iirasos, some fire hundred miles. This belt divides the arable lands from the great praifles, which, for the most part, are arid and sterile. Upon the east side there are numerous spring brooks, flowing over j a very productive champaign country, with an abundance of timber and an exuberant vegetation, teeming with the delightful perfume of flowers of the most brilliant hues, here and there interspersed with verdant glades and small prairies, affording iuexhaustible grazing and the most beautiful natural meadows that can be imagined. On the 1 other side commence those barren and desolate wastes, where but few and unimportant streams greet the eye of the traveller, and but little wood is found, except on the ; immediate borders of the water courses. From the point where Red river leaves the Cross Tim bers the country suddenly changes its character. The bluffs approach nearer the river, and the bottoms, which below this are broad and exceedingly rich and productive, contract, and do not support that dense and heavy vege I tation which characterizes the lower portions of the val ley. The undergrowth of canebrakes and vines disap 1 pear, and is no more seen throughout the entire extent of tho river. The lands adjacent gradually rise and exhibit broad and elevated swells, with spacious intervening val leys. The soil continues to become more and more sterile as we ascend until we reach 101 degrees of west longi. tude; and from this point to the head of the river, with very few exceptions, there la no more arable land. Several erroneous opinions have for many years been entertained in regard to the country upon the head waters of Red river. For instance, it has generally been supposed, from the circumstance of a heavy rise occur ring in the river during the month of June, at a time when there is generally no rain in the settlements, and during the dry season upon the plains, that the sources of the river would be found in lofty mountain ranges, where the meeting of snows would acoount for the great amount of water passing through the channel at the sea son mentioned. ? Bnt such is not the fact, as all the principal tributaries have their origin in the eastern borders of the table lands of Now Mexico, where there are no mountains. We, however, passed through a chain of mountains, about two hundred miles below the head of the river, where we ?k T*'' ^r?r,ueBt ftnd copious rains during the season of the June flood, and I am of opinion that here is the souroe of '"""ch of the water in the lower portion of the stream. As the water has a very bitter and disagreeable taste, it baa been conjectured that it pawed In its course through extensive salt plains. But this 1 uUo found to be aii error, ah there is no deposit of chl-.n.le ..f sodium upou the river, the peculiar taste being communicated by some ingredient which it receives in its flowing for a hundred miles over u gypsum formation, which extends from the Arkansas river, iu a southeasterly direction, to the Rio Grande. This great belt of gypsum, which I have myself passed through at four different points, embracing a range of three hundred miles, is considered by Dr. Hitchcock to be the most extensive iu tne known world. I have every where found it characterized by the same peculiarities, with the water issuing from it invariably bitter and nau seating. The Arkansas, Cauadian, Brasos, Colorado, and I'ecos rivers also pass through this formation, and a similar taste is imparted to the waters of all. These rivers also have their sources in the borders of the same elevated table lauds, and where they make their exit fr^m this plateau their beds are confined to vast sluices or caflom the sides of which rise very abruptly to an enormous height above the surface of the water. This defile on Ked river is seventy miles in length, the escarpments from five^to eight hundred feet high on each hide, and in many places the approach so near the water's edge that there is not room for a man to pass; and occasion ally it is necessary to travel for miles in the bed of the river before a spot is found where a horse can clamber up the precipitous sides of the chasm. 1 could not determine in' my own iniud whether this remarkable defile had been formed after a lung lapse of time by the action of the cur rent, or had been produced by some great convulsion of nature. The barren mha, in which these rivers take their rise, extends from the Canadian river, iu a southerly course.' for about four hundred miles, betweeu the parallels of north latitude ^2 deg. 30 min. and 3?j deg. 'JO min. It is in some places nearly 200 miles in width, and is embraced within the meridians of 101 and 104 deg. west longitude. The approximate elevation of this plain above the sea. as determined with the barometer, is three thousand six hundred and fifty feet; it is also much elevated above the aurrouuding country, very level, and extends otl in every direction as far as the eye can reach without a tree, shrub, or any other Tegeta'tion to intercept the vision. The traveller, in passing over it. sees nothing but one vast, barren, and monotonous waste and dreary solitude. It is an ocean of pathless, trackless, desert prairie, where the voice of man is seldom heard, and where no livivg being permanently resides. It may with propriety be termed the Great Zahara of North Ame rica. 1 he almost total absence of water causes all ani mals to shun it?even the Indians do not venture to cross it, except at two points, where they find a few small ponds. Many years since the Mexicans marked out a | route across the plain with stakes, and hence the name i bJ' wbicb ^ is known throughout Mexico of el Llano cutu cad<j, or the " Staked Plain." The geological features of the country along the valley of the upper Ked river are generally characterized by rocks of the secondary formation. The Witchita moun | tains, however, are composed of granite rocks, with veins of'quarti running through them, similar to the gold-bear ing rocks of California. Ores of copper, of a very rich quality, are found in many places throughout the valley, and we also discovered a few small particles of gold in the detritus from the mountains. The country embraced within the basin of the upper Red river is much frequented hy several tribes of Indians, all having similar habits, but speakingdifferent languages. The most numerous and warlike of these are the Ca manches, who are separated into three distinct local grand divisions, namely, the northern, middle, and southern. Each of these is subdivided into several bands, command ed hy separate chiefs. The northern and middle Camanches subsist almost entirely on the flesh of the buffalo, and arc generally found at their heels, migrating with them from place to place, on those vast and inhospitable plains, which cannot, in the nature of things, be made available for agriculture; and they seem to he destined in future, as they have been iu former ages, to be the empire of the erratic savage. And it is a fact worthy of remark, that man, in what ever situation he may be placed, is influenced in his modes of existence, his physical and moral condition, by the na i tural resources of climate, soil, and other circumstances around him, over the operations of which he has no con trol. Fortunately, such is the flexibility of his nature, that he soon adapts himself to the hardest and most unto ward circumstances, and indeed ultimately becomes not only reconciled to his lot, but fancies his condition far preferable to that of most others. The exaniple of our border settlers is illustrative of this fact, since they continue to remove further and fur ther west as the settlements encroach upon them, prefer ring a life of dangerous adventure and solitude to personal security and the comforts and enjoyments of society; and what was at first necessity to them, becomes in "time a source of excitement and pleasure. The -nomadic Indian of the pruirie demonstrates the position Still more forci bly. 1 ree as the boundless plains over which he roams, he kuows nor wants any luxuries beyond what he finds in the buffalo or the deer at his door. These serve him for food, clothing, and a covering for his lodge, and he sigh? not for the distinctions which occupy the thoughts and engage the energies pf civilized man. His only ambition is that he may cope successfully with his enemy in war, and manage his steed with unfailing adroitness. He is in the saddle from boyhood to old age, and his favorite horse is his constant companion. It is when mounted that the Camanche exhibits himself to the best advantage; he is then at home, and bis skitl in the various manoeuvres which he makes available in battle, such as throwing himself entirely upon one side of his horse, and discharg ing his arrows with great rapidity in the opposite direc tion, lrom beneath the animal's neck, while he is at full speed, is truly astonishing. Every warrior has his war horse, which is the fleetest that can be obtained. He prizes him more highly than any thing else in his posses Hion, and it is seldom that he can be induced to part with him at any price. He never mounts him except when going into battle, for the buffalo chase, or upon state oc casions. On his return from an excursion, he is met at the door of his lodge by one of his wives, who takes his steed and attends to its wants with the utmost care The praine warrior performs no menial labor; his wives, who are but little dearer to him than his horse, perform all the drudgery. He follows the chase, he smokes his pipe he eats and sleeps, and thus passing his time, in his own estimation, he is the most lordly and independent of sovereigns. Such arc some of the characteristics of the prairie In dians; and I cannot dismiss the subject witheut remarking that, in addition to the physical similitude between the deserts of Arabia and the steppes of Central Asia to the elevated prairie ritsa* of our own country, a striking re liance also exists between their respective inhabitants. The Arabs of the desert, the Tartar tribes, and the abo nginal occupants of the prairies are alike wanderers having no permanent abiding places, still living in their the^r homes'" these Are pitched making They acknowledge no other rule than the patriarchal, and no other alliance but that of fraternity ; and they are Tk ,1D8fn!,,b,? [0 the WHnt? an,l comforts of civilization They know neither poverty nor riches, vice nor virtue and they are alike exempt from the deplorable vicissitudes of fortune. Theirs is a happy state of equality, which knows not the perplexities of ambition, nor the crimes of avarice. They never cultivate the soil, but subsist ulto T gftme' IUn,<,e^? RTl pill,ge- Thc* *re the most expert horsemen in the world, and cherish the same fond attachment for the animal. In their political and domestic relations there is also a similarity. They are governed by chiefs, whose office is ?? 27 8f ?n? a! .!i,eir "dministration meets the ap probation of their followers. The chief leads them to war and presides at their deliberations in council ? but should he disgrace himself by any act of cowardice or nl "Hi" * thvy 'l0 ?0t ^ depose him and place a more competent man In his stead Their laws are such as are ndapted to their peculiar situation and are sanctioned hy the general v?ic?. TheTxecuS of them is vested in the subordinate chiefs, or captain^ as they are called, and are promptly and rigidly enforced' The only property of these people, with the exception cLti pertaining to their domestic economy consists entirely in horses and mules, of which thev pos sess great numbers. These are mostly pillaged from the Mexicans, and the man who has been very successful in In ???Mtyto?tlteU ?Tn* V m""y ?ne llun,,rei1 Animals TheJ ^re nilh r'ght8of P^P^ty their code is Spartan. on the face nf thS ** ni7nBtJrcebootc? ?? can be found on the lace of the earth. They reirard stenlimr strangers as perfectly legitimate and honorable JndT hii?tribe lnr?9fUl in this i8 most hi?h'y Snored by his tribe Indeed, a young man who has not made ono o'r 1 more robbing excursions into Mexico is held in but little I repute. In evidence of this, an old chief of the northern .Thn. in St" : As these forays are often attended with much toil and danger, hey are called "war expeditions." It not un frequently happens that but six oI eight young Zl Z out upon one of them nnd the only oStflt Aey^n a horse with suitable war equipments, consisting'of [he bow and arrows, lance and shield. *n,I occasionally a gun Thus prepared they ,Urt on a journey of a thousand SlSJUSt ^ " PWfWtl> wi,<! a?" <<???'? coun to fiifd^or a "ubTistence.^011 ? M ** -V cb?cc They thus make their way to the northern provinces of untn l%? T) i ****,0m* hacienda, VZJ ?PPOrtrUty ?ffm * ""?p down upon j ?Uh the m?st terrific and un-1 ?Mthly jcil'r drive before them the animals they select; and woe to the panic-stricken ranchero who fails to make a precipitate retreat, an they invariably kill such men as offer the slightest impediment to their operations, and take prisoners the women and children, whom they hold ^ in bondage of the most servile character. They are some- | times absent from their tribes for two years, before their | success is sufficient to justify their creditable return. Some few of them, who have visited their Great Father ut Washington, have gone home strongly impressed with j the numerical power and prosperity of the whites; but the great majority of the nation, being entirely ignorant of every thing that relates to us, and many of them haviug ; never even seen a white man, believe the Camanche* to be the most powerful nation in existence; and the relation j of facts which conflict with this notion by their own , people to the masses of the tribe, at their prairie firesides, j ouly subjects the narrator to ridicule, aud he is set down ' as ?ne whose brain has been turned by the necromancy of the pale-faces, and is henceforth regarded as wholly unworthy of oonfidence. Having upon one occasion a Delaware and a Camanche with me, iu the capacity of guides, 1 was much diverted at a conversation which passed between theiu, in my preseuce, and which was interpreted to me by the Delaware. It appeared that the latter had stated to the other the fact of the sphericity of the earth's surface. This idea, I being altogether new and incomprehensible to the Ca uianche. was received with much incredulity, and, alter i gazing for a moment at the Delaware, to ascertain if he i was sincere, he asked if that person took him for a child, J or if he looked likeau idiot '.' The Delaware said'no, but the white people, who knew all about these matters, had ascertained such to be the fact, aud he added that the world was uot only rouud, but that it revolved round the sun. The Camanche very indignantly replied that any man of sense could, by looking off upon the prairies, see j at a glance that the earth was level; and, moreover, that | ' his grandfather had been west to the eud of it, where the sun passed down behind a vertical wall. The Delaware continued in his simple but impressive manner to des cribe to the Camanche the operations of the steam-engine, and other objects of interest that he had seen, all of which the C'ainanche regarded as an effort of a fertile imagination, ?icpreisaly designed to deceive him ; and the only reply he deigned to make was an occasional excla mation in his own language, the interpretation ot which I the other pronounced to be " Hush, you fool. I then endeavored to explain to the Delaware the opera tion of the magnetic telegraph ; and, in illustrating its practical utility, told him that a message could be trans mitted a thousand miles, and an answer returned, in the short period of ten minutes. He seemed much interested in this, and listened attentively to my remarks, but made no comments until I requested him to explain it to the Camanche, when he smilingly said, " I don't think I 11 tell him that, captain; for the truth is, I don't believe it myself." The mode of life among the prairie tubes, owing to their unsettled and wandering habits, is such as to ren der their condition one of constant danger aud apprehen sion. The security of their numerous animals from the encroachments of their enemies, and their constant lia bility to attack, makes it imperatively necessary for them to be at all times on the alert. I'heir herdsmen are stationed with as much regularity is the sentinels of a military post; and even in times of the most profound peace they guard their animals both night and'lay, while mounted scouts are patrolling on the neighboring heights to give notice of the approach of strangers when their horses are hurried to a place of security, and every thing rnadfe ready for defence. The manner in which they salute a stranger is some what peculiar, as my own reception at one of their en campments will show. Their chief was a very corpulent old man, with exceedingly scanty attire, who, immediate ly on our approach, declared himself a great friend of the Americans, and persisted in giving me evidence ot his sincerity by an embrace, which, to please him, 1 forced myself to submit to, although it was far from agreeable to my own feelings. Seizing me in his brawny arms, while we were yet in the saddle, and laying his greasj head upon my shoulder, he inflicted upon me a most bruiu like squeeze, which I endured with a degree of patient fortitude worthy of the occasion: and 1 was consoling myself on the completion of the salutation, when the savage again seized me in his arms, and I was doomed to aaother similar torture, with his head on my other shoul der while at the same time he rubbed his greasy face 1 ngainst mine in the most affectionate manner, all ot which proceeding, he gave me to understand, was to be regarded as a most distinguished and signal mark of affection foi the American people in general, whom, as he expressed it, he loved so much that it almost broke his heart, and iu particular for myself, who, as their representative, can bear testimony to the strength ol his attachment. On leaving "his camp the chief shook me heartily by the hand, telling me at the same time that he was not a Ca I manche, but an American : and as I did not feel disposed to be outdeme in t>oliten?ss by an In Iian, I replied, in the same spirit, that there was not a drop of Anglo-, axon blood in my veins, but that 1 was wholly and absolutely a Camanche, at which he seemed delighted, duly under standing and appreciating the compliment. These people are hospitable and kind to ail with whom they are not at war, and on the arrival of a stranger at their camps a lodge is prepared for him, and he is enter tained as long as he' chooses to remain among them. Thev are also kind and affectionate to each other, and as long as any thing contestable remains in the camp all are permitted to share alike : but, with tlies? exceptions, they are pos?essed of but few virtues. Polygamy is sanc tioned, and is very common among them, ever> man be ing allowed as many wives as he can support. Their women are of low stature, ill-shaped, and filthy and ugl v in the extreme, while the men are toll, well formed, aud fine looking. ., Many of their children, owing to unavoidable exposure, die young. The boys, however, are treated with great care and kindness, while the girls are frequently beaten and abused unmercifully. Of all the Indians 1 had before encountered. I know of none who had not an extreme fondness for spirituous li quors, which, unfortunately, has every where, from the advent of the European on this continent been their worst enemy. Those of the prairie tribes I hare seen say the taste of such liquor is not pleasant, that it makes fools of them, and that they do not desire it. If there are ?*cep tions to this I think they may be set down as factitious rather than natural, the appetite having been coated by occasional indulgence in the use of a little at a time. The diet of these people is very simple. From infancy to old age their only food, with the exception of a few wild plants, which they find on the prairies, is fresh meat, of which, in times of plenty, they consume enormous quantities. In common with many other tribes, they tan. when necessity demands it, abstain from eating for sere ral days without inconvenience, and they are enabled to make up at one menl the deficiency. All of them are extravagantly fond of tobacco, which they use for smoking, mixed with the dried leaves of the sumac, ihhaling the smoke into their luags and giving it out through their nostrils. Their language is verbal and pantomimic. The former consists of a very limited number of words, some of are common to all the prairie tribes. The latter, which is exceedingly graceful and expressive, is the court lan guage of the plains, and is used and understood with great facility and accuracy by all the tribes from the Gila to the Columbia, the motious and signs to express ideas being common to all. ? . . In contemplating the character of the prairie Indian, and the striking similarity between him and the Arab and Tartar, we are not less astonished at the absolute dissim ilarity between them and the aboriginal inhabitant tf the Eastern States. The latter, from the time of the discovery of the coun try, living in pffB>?l>t villages, where they cultivated fields of corn, possessed strong attachment for their an cestral abodes and sepulchres; they did not use horses, always made their hunting and war expeditions on foot, and nought the cover of trees on going into battle; while the former have no permanent abiding places, never culti vate the soil, are always wiounted, aud never fight a bat tle except in the open prairie, where they charge boldly up to an enemy, discharge their arrows with great rapidi ty. and are away before their panic-stricken antagonists cn'n prepare to resist or retaliate. Indeed, they appear to have been different in almost every respect. As the prairie Indians depend almost entirely on the buffalo for a subsistence and clothing, it becomes a ques tion of much interest what will be fate of these peo ple when these animals shall have beome extinct. Kor merly buffaloes were found in countless herds over almost the entire northern continent of America, from the twen ty-eighth to the sixtieth degree of north latitude, and from ' the shores of Lake Champlain to the Rocky Mountains. They then ranged free and uninterrupted over the bound less plains of the west, only guided in their course by that faithful instinct which invariably led them to the freshest and sweetest pastures. Their only enemy then was the Indian, who suppliedhimself with food and cloth ing from the immense herds around his door, but would have looked on it as sacrilege to destroy more than barely sufficient to supply the wants of his family. Thus this monarch of the plain was allowed uninterrupted range from one end of the continent to the other; but this happy state of things for the noble beast was not destined to continue. An enemy appeared who made great havoc among them, and in short time cauaed a very sensible di minution in their numbers, and much contracted the limits of their wanderings. Thia enemy was the white man. who. in his steady march, causes the original pro prietor of the soil to recede before him. and to diminish in numbers almost as rapidly as the buffaloes. Thou sands of these animals were annually slaughtered t'or thei.* skins, and often for their tongues alone?an animal, whose flesh is sufficient to afford sustenance to a number of men, ia sacrificed to fumlah a " bon bovch' for the rich epicure. This wholesale slaughter on the part of the white man, with the number consumed by the Indians, who are constantly on their trail, migruting with them as regularly as the seatson comes round, with the ravenous wolves that are always at hand to destroy one ot them if wounded, gives the poor beast but little rest or prospect of permanent existence. It is only eight years since the western borders of Texas abounded with buf faloes; nut now they seldom go sou'h of Red river, and their range upon the east and west has also very muoh contracted within the same time, so that they are at present confined to a narrow belt of country, between the outer settlements and the base of the Kocky Mountains, j itb this rapid diminution in their numbers, they must, I in the course of a very few years, become extinct. hut will then become of the prairie Indian, who, as I ] ave already remarked, relies for subsistence, shelter, ami clothing on the iesh and hiile of this animal 1 He must either perish with them, increase his marauding de predations ou the Mexicans, or learn to cultivate the soil. As the first law of our nature is self-preservation, it is not probable that he will sit down and quietly submit to starvation. He must, therefore, resort to one of the latter alternatives; hut. as he has no knowledge of agriculture considers it the business of a slave, and very much be nentli the <lignity of a warrior, it appenrs reasonable that he will turn his attention to the Mexicans, over whom he has held the mastery for many years. Heretofore his plunder of them has been for pi.?time and for g'.ory ? but when he is obliged to resort to this as a mean< of subsist ence, wo to the poor Mexican. It will be necessary to devise some measures to do away with the inveterate pre judices which the Camanches entertain against the habits and customs of the whites, before they will he induced to remain in any fixed abodes or cultivate the soil. In common with most other Indians, thev are verv su perstitious. They believe in dreams, the wearing of amu- , lets, medicine bags. &c., and the dedication of offering to : secure the favor of invisible agents, as aUo in the efficacy i ot music and dancing for the cure of diseases. They submit with imperturbable stoicism flnd apathy to j misfortunes ot the most serious character, and in the pre sence of strangers manifest no surprise or curiosity at I . t exhibition of astounding noTelties; yet this apparent ' I indifference is assumed, and they are in reality a very in ' quisitive people. . every village may be seen small structures, consist ing of a framework of slight poles, bent into a seuii j spherical form, and covered with buffalo hides. These j are called medicine lodges, and are used ns vapor baths. I he patient is seated withiu the lodge, beside several heated stones, upon which water is thrown, producing a dense hot vapor which brings on a profuse perspiration, while at the same time the Shamans, or medicine men, who profess to have the power of communicating with the unseen world, and of propitiating the malevolence of evil spirits, are performing various incantations, accompanied by music, on the outside. Such means are resorted to ! for healing all diseases; and I am also informed that their I } oung men are obliged to undergo a regular course of steam-bathing before thev- are considered worthy of as suming the responsible duties of warriors. The knowledge they possess of their early history is . ^ery vague and limited, and does not extend further back j than a few generations. They say that their forefathers : lived precisely ns they do, and followed the buffalo; that I they came from a country towards the setting of the sun, | to which they expect to return after death. They acknowledge the existence and power of a great j supernatural agent, who directs and controls all things: J but this power they conceive to be originally iu the sun. I which they worship, and appeal to' on all occasions of ! moment. They also anticipate a future state of existence i similar to the present, and invariably bury with the ] warrior his hunting and war equipments. Thus far no efforts have ever been made to improve the i moral or physical condition of tLe people. No mission aries have to my knowledge ever visited them, and they have no more idea of Christianity than they have of the religion of Mahomet. He find dwelling almost at our doors as barbarous and heathenish a race a- exists on the face of the earth ; and while our benevolent and philan ^ thropic citizens are making such efforts to ameliorate the condition o?'savages on other continents, should we not do something' fur the benefit of these wild men of the j prairies ? j 1 hese dingy noblemen of nature?the original proprie | tors of ah that vast domain included between the shores of the Atlantic and Pacific?have been despoiled, sup : planted, and robbed of their just and legitimate heritage I by the avaricious and rapid encroachments of the white ; man. Numerous and powerful nations have already be i come exterminated by unjustifiable wars that he has waged with them, and by the effects of the vices he has introduced and inculcated : and of those that remain but i few can be found who are-not contaminated by the per nicious influences oi unprincipled and designing adven turers. I It is not, at this late day, in our power to atone for all S *^e injustice iuflicted upon the red-man;' but it seem* to me that a wi?e policy wuuld dictate almost the only re | compense it is now possible to make, that of introducing ; among them the lights of Christianity and the blessings i ot civilization, with their atteud&nt benefits of ugricul ? ture and the arts. [The thanks of the society were unanimously voted to i Captain Marcy for his paper, which was highly compli j mented by Mr. BANCROfT, Mr. Leavitt, and other gen I tlenien of the society.] ? ? A HINT TO ABOLITIONISTS. A Virginia clergyman writes to the " Journal of Com merce' suggesting the organization of some systematic j plan by which the benevolently disposed in th? Nwtbfrq States who really wish the slave proper!y liberated, as well from political and social as from personal bond age, might efficiently aid a humate cause. The clergy ' man says: " There are large numbers of masters in this nn 1 other Southern States who would gladly liberate their slave?, or particular families or individuals among them, but they are hindered by such obstacles as these : Either the own ers are not able to relinquish services which, however really valueless, they cannot in our state of society dis. penso with, and which, if not rendered by slaves, must be hired at ruinous prices, under the circumstances in which they are placed; or sometimes an owner of part of the family is ready to liberate that part, but others who own the restore not; and it often happens that humane mas ters have purchased slaves at a great sacrifioe, simply to prevent family separations otherwise inevitable in the partition or sale of estates, or by reason of the cupidity of others. "Now. in many of the farmer named cases, one-half or often less of the estimated value of the slave being pro Tided, owners wouid liberate them ; or, in the other case, when part of the family can be bought for freedom, the owners of the re?t will give them up, while those who have purchased for humane purposes will of course re linquish such purposes on being reimbursed, that the slaves may be free. " And as there are many whites who would manifestly be better off with masters to manage ami provide for thorn, so there are slaves whoean take care of themselves if placed in aright position. Now, if some plan could be devised and published by which masters could be aided in freeing slaves, I think immense benefit would result. " Could not a society lie formed, which would secure a considerable help from moderate Abolitionists, for this j purpo-e It has occurred to me *hat sTtch a scheme is | both feasible and desirable. Did Abolitionists expend in this way the fnnds used for promoting disunion and bad feeling by feeinj public slanderers of the South, I have no doubt thousands of liberated slaves would soon appear on the shores of Africa, as fruit of such benevolence." IUilwat Accidents.?The Journal of the Franklin In stitute. in an articlt on railway accidents, calls attention to the large number ot persons who lose life l>y their own carelessness. Of thirty-six persons killed in 1851, it ap pears, for example, that seventeen perished from this cause, or nearly one-half of the whole number. In addi tion to these, there were eisht killed who were servants of railway companies, and consequently in the habit of moving about on the engine? trains, from which, it may be presumed, their tragical end occurred. Thus it appears that a large proportion r( Those killed on rail ways are killed when not in theif seats. No traveller should forget this. Y'et it is a cou.rvin occurrence to see persons standing on the platform outsit!* of the car, and this notwithstanding the notice usually pot up conspicu ously warning passengers agaiast the practice. In Eng land it is the custom to lock the doors, thus prevent the possibility of this folly. Hut in this cechtry such a practice would be unpopuhr. If remains, ti*"*tfbre that the only way to cure this evil is for the press tto impress on the public the danger of a traveller leaving his seat 1 sually the person who thus imperils his life does it thoughtlessly, or with but a vague idea of the risk he runs. Could every passenger realize that he incases a hundred-fold the chances of death by standing cm the platform, thi- f ital habit would, we are sure be aInMt universally abandoned.?Philadelphia linlln,n. A new clipper ship, called the ?? King of Clinners " now building at East Boston, will be the largest vessel in the world as well as the sharpest. She Is 82f? feet long has fwl breadth of beam, 30 feet depth of hold and will register about 4^00 tons. Her rig will be on the Forbes s patent, the yards on the fore and rnnin masts alike and those on the mizzenmast the same as those on the other masts above the lower yards ; so that, except the courses, aU her sails will have duplicates on every yard, fore and aft. Among many other improvements she will have a stationary steam engine of eight-horse power on deck connected with the galley, which will be n??j for hear. work, woh as tak:ng in and out cargo, setting up rig miscellaneous. The Savannah river no longer divides the city of Au gust* from tbe seaboard. The cars from Charleston safely reached the depot at Augusta on the 7th lustaut, making the first trip between the two cities by railroad, with a large party of invited guests. Two hundred yards of the track of the Georgia railroad were burnt on the 7th instant The fire was communicat ed from the adjoining woods. The wind was high during the day, aud the fences on several plantations at different points ou the road were burnt. A reward of t.wo hundred dollars has been offered for the apprehension of a young man named Burnett, who receutfy murdered Mr. John D. Lebo, at Kuoxville, Ten nessee. Mr. .Parker, of St. Louis, has invented a patent ma chine tobacco press, which occupies a space of four by eight feet. It has a capacity to press twenty plugs per minute, or two thousand pounds per day. Its work ia precise and regular, and altogether the machine must create a thorough revolution in the mode of tobacco pressing. Six full-grown panthers were killed a few weeks ago in Elk county. Pennsylvania. The largest measured thir teen feet from the nose to the end of the- tail. A man named Vanlew, bar-keeper of the steamer Buck eye State, was >hot dead ut Cincinnati, on Saturday, by a man named Harrell. A Female Votkb.?A woman has been sent to jail at Cincinnati for twenty days, ou bread and water, for voting in one of the wards of that city at the late election, by dressing in male attire, and passing herself off as a man. It appears she attempted to vote ft second time, when her vote was challenged, a row eusued, her sex waa discovered, and she was arrested. James N- Saunders, a soldier in the United States riflo^ regiment, has been convicted at tort Leavenworth ot i setting tire to a house, and sent to the penitentiary for ! two years. Light sing.?Bunker HUl Monument was twlcs struck by lightning on Wednesday afternoou. Peraons whowew in the mouument thought it was going over. The bottom of one of the rods, where it entered the earth, was slight ly melted, and a gentleman near the top, who was pass ing down and holding by the iron rail, received a shock from which he did not recover entirely for a couple of hours. The second shock sounded like the crash of a large quantity of glass throwu dowu the inside of the Monument.?Aurora. I. 0. O. F.?The Grand Lodge of Virginia, which held its annual session at Richmond this week, elected the following officers for the ensuing year: H. N. Gallaher, G. M.; I. Louis Kenzie, U. G. M.: J. G. Schmitt, G. W.; D. il. Bead, G. Secretary: G. W. Toler. G. Treasurer; J no. ft, Edmonds, G. ftep :* Thos. II. Lambeth, G. Chaplain. A paper was lately read before the Institute of British^ Architects, setting forth that, contrary to the opinion ot the London Board of Health, soft water, instead of hard, is injurious to auimal life. The position is sustained by numerous facts, showing the low tone of the system, and the glandular affections induced by the absence of lime, in any form, in the water, to be as decided as the exces sive development of the sanguine temperament produced by too great a proportion of these substances. Potatoes in Oregon.?The Oregonian gives as the product of one hill of potatoes growu in a field of several acres, and without any extra culture, one hundred and niuety-nine potatoes, weighing fifty-three pounds. Tae product of several hills in the field weighed over forty pounds to each hill. Maple Svgak.?A correspondent of the Manchester Mirror, writing from Wentworth, (N. H.) says that for the la;-t eight or ten days there has been a great run of sap, and from present* appearances this spring will be more prolific in the manufacture of maple sugar than any season for two or three years past. Whiskey vs. Water.?At a municipal election in Louis ville, Kentucky, last week, a majority of 205 was given in favor of licences for the sale of spirituous liquors, and a majority of 777 against establishing city water works. The Courier seems to think that this vote establishes con ! clusively the fact that whiskey is stronger thau water. j Fatal Accident.?A melancholy accident occurred at ' Augusta (Ga.) on Wednesday morning, which will pro bably result in the death of a young man by the name of Thomas Scarborough by the hands of his brother. They were handling and comparing a pair of pistols, when the brother, believing the pistol in his hand was not loaded, directed it toward him to explode a cap ; the pistol went off, and the ball entered the right breast. It was thought he could not survive through the night. Btkike.?The barkeepers of New York, it is said, will ! "strike" for a shilling a drink after May 1st. This is the best strike yet. and if the three-centers would atrika for six cents a drink we should have no objection, it would no doubt prove a very healthful kind of moral suasion."?Journal of Commerce. A telegraphic despatch from Claremont (N ft. > mea i tions that the house of Mr. Arnold Farr, of West Clare mont, was burnt down ou Monday uight, aud that three children perished in the flames. J. L. Roberts, Esq., who has beeu in Mississippi for some time past winding up the aflaira of the UuitedStates Bauk, died suddenly at Natchei a few days since. i The Hon. J. B. E. Bac?i?t, Judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, died suddenly on the l*t instant. Ho was on the beuch the day previous. Two Terso.xs Killed.?the night express train going west on Monday night, aud due at Binghampton on Tues day morning, when passing along the Delaware, *est of the bridge, .came in coutact with a large rock which bad fallen from the bauk. The whole train was thrown off the track, and the baggage car came near being precipi tated into the river. The fireman was instantly kiued, an J the engineer was mortally injured, aad died in about half an hour. Damages against the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to the amount of $8,600 have been obtained before the District Court at Pittsburgh, by an emigrant named Ben no Matthes, who alleged tint while travelling in the cars of the company, in December. 1861. he had his feet frozen, there being no fire or fuel in the cars, which were kept standing at one place on the road for twenty-two hours. A meeting of the New \ork \olunteers who served in the Mexican war was held in New ^ork on Thursday evening to provide means for their destitute confreres. Twenty of them were reported as having been almost in a state of starvation. A meteor exploded in New London (Conn.) a few evenings since, making a report like a cannon. It ex tended from the horizon to the zenith, and in form re sembled a half-closed fan, the widest part being overhead. The receipts on the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad for the month of March were $18,743, being an increase of $-1,711 over tbe corresponding month of the previous year. The aggregate increase on the first quarter of this year is $58,870. The Raleigh andtiaston Railroad will be completed in a few lays, and the citizens of Norfolk and Raleigh are making nrrangcuieuta to celebrate the event. The Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad Company has been fully organized, and Dr. Francis Mallory chosen President. The City Councils of Louisville have subscribed one million dollars to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. J. A. Dennis accidentally fell from a window of Baker's Exchange, in Charleston, on Tuesday night, an>T was in stantly killed. The New York Hou?e of Assembly has appropriated $'20,000 to build a State Asylum foT Idiots. The New York Senate has passed a bill to amend the State constitution so as to provide means to complete the canal enlargement. It appears by the census that tbe consumption of spir ituous liquors in tbe United States reaches the enormous quantity of eighty-six millions of gallwis annually, equal to six gallons for every adult person. ClftciNlATi Liberality.?There are are now thirteen thousand one hundred and forty-eight bound volumes in the Young Men's Mercantile Library Association ia Cin cinnati. Wowan Shot by iier Hisbaxu.?John Gallagher, of New York, accidentally shot his wife dead with a pistol on Tuesday sfternoon. He took two loaded pistols from a drawer in one baud ; they struck together; one went off. and the wife was shot through the wrist and abdomen A coroner s jury declared him guilty of ?' unpardonable carelessness. SivatTLAR Fke\K or the Lightning.?Wednesday after noon, about two o'clock, during the thunder shower, two wild ducks were instantly killed in South Boston by being struck by lightning. One of them had it* head sever*11 from its body, and wa? considerably mutilated. This is certainly a very remarkable instance, as the plumage of birds, being a non-conductor, is generally considered a safeguard against the lightning.? Bo?tnn C/irontelt. At tbo A*tor House, not long ago, a gentleman ?a? oae of the gue?ts give his fork to another, with "just stick that fork Into that pntatoe for me, will you?" His nnneijhborly neigh bor di'l as be was requested, and it Hiekiny th*rr ! At Philadelphia yesterday, Mr. Joskth AtwsM, binder, lost a cheek for $1.7*4 on the Mechanics' BsDk.wh.* h, being f>und. waa presented by a boy at tbe bank before it wat talfwd, and the whole vmount drawn out in $20 go!* pieces.