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WASHINGTON: SATURDAY, MAY 28, 1853.
THE WEEKLY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCEK. The subscription price of this paper for a year is Turns* Dwllams, payable in advance. Jonfl>8essions of Congress, (averaging eight months,) the price will be Two Dollars; for the short Sessions Oni Dollar per copy. A redaction of 20 per cent, (one-fifth of the full charge) will be made to any one who shall order and pay for, at ?f ol C0p,e8 0f ,the Woek1^ P^er; and a like re duction of 26 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who will order and pay for, at one time, ten or more oopies. No account, being kept for this paper, it will not be for s DEFERRED DEBATE IN SENATE. RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC. Wednesday, December 22, 1853. [CONTINUED FttOM LAST SATURDAY.J Mr. BELL. I do not rise to enter into any argument in regard to the details of the bill, nor for the purpose of urging any general considerations upon the subject. I presume there is scarcely a member of this body who has not turned his attention to the importance and necessity of some such communication as the one proposed by this bill, the importance of the ooattraction of a railroad con necting the States on the Atlantic with the Pacific coast at thei earliest practicable period. The mode in which it shall be done; the route that shall be adopted ; whether it should have one or more branches; what should be its terminus on this sido of the Rocky Mountains, and what on the other Bide, are questions rather of detail. The main object and features of the proposition, however are such that every gentleman of the 8enate must have set tled upon in his own mind; and that is, that the road must I say must, and not ought to?be built at almost any cost that the resources of this country can bear: that the route ought to be ascertained and fixed upon and the work executed at the earliest date; and that the expendi ture shall be considered at once as being likely to be very large, and yet necessary to be incurred. Although the expense may seem excessive even for the resources of this country yet whatever it may be, if, in addition to the land proposed to be set apart for the road, there shall be fifty millions of money, or one hundred millions of money re quired from the Treasury, such is my estimate of the ne cessity of this work, in order to hold the two extremes of the country together, that I think even that amount would be economical in view of many of the contingencies that may arise. ? Contemplate the contingency of this country being pre cipitated into a war by the passions of the people being either rightfully or wrongfully, roused on account of inju ries or aggressions, actual or supposed, on the part of any strong maritime foreign Power. I believe every member 1 have heard speak on these questions has said that the honor of the country was always to be maintained at every caxard. Suppose that in order to preserve the honor of the country we should be precipitated into a war with either France or England, to say nothing of both combin ed, in the present condition of this country. Why a hun dred millions expended now, before such a contingency may chance to arise, may save us two, three, four, or perhaps Ave hundred millions of expenditure which would be ne cessary to regain our foothold on the Pacific. Has any^gentleman ever reflected for a moment on what would be the cost to this country of maintaining a con nict with any of the powerful maritime States of Europe for the purpose of defending our territorial rights as they exist on the Paoific?with a coast of six hundred miles in extent?with not a fort, not a gun for its defence, with no lines or channels of communication except by way of the isthmus and around1 the cape, and that in the face of a vastly superior maritime Power t Sir, I have thought a great deal upon the subject, and in my opinion it would require an expenditure probably of from three to five hundred millions of dollars to pre serve our honor in those territories, and maintain our rights of sovereignty and jurisdiction, if we should be precipitated into a war, without some overland communi cation by railroad with California, either within our own territory or through the northern States of Mexico with her consent. I do not, however, mean to enlarge upon this; but I will repeat that in addition to giving all of the public lands adjacent to the route which may be selected for this road?for there is but one in which the country at large is deeply interested, and to them it is not of much consequence where the terminus east or west shall be?I 7 would be eoonomy, in addition to giving all the Public domain which lies within the limits prescribed in additional sum of money, $10,000,000, *50,000,000, or if need be even $100,000,000, from time to time as the work may progress. I did not rise for the purpose of saying even as much as I have^said. My object was simply to express my view of the importance of the subject. In my opinion there is no question which can come before this Senate or before Congress at the present session, and there was none at the last session, or at any session since the acquisition of these territories, so important?considering the position in which this country had placed itself?considering its rapid growth and extension of dominion, thus exciting the jealousy of foreign Powers?and considering the change in the passions of the people of this country, liable at any moment to be precipitated into a war with the most powerful nation in Europe, with a maritime Power tan times as great as our own. 8uch a state of things has arisen out of these circumstances that I consider there is no subject of more importance which can engross our attention than the present. I go further, and say, that if we do no other business during the present session of Congress except pass the appropriation bills, the whole time would be well spent in maturing this measure. I repeat, I rose for the purpose of expressing my earnest ^ desire that the particular friends of this proposition?the gentlemen from the more western 8tata?, who have a local interest in it, and without whose oo-operation i perceive that nothing is likely to be done?will follow it up until tbe Senate shall oome to a vote upon it; and if they had been agreed before, we could have had something decided upon three years ago, but they were not agreed as to the termini of the road. I hope they will lose no occasion of pressing the bill to the full consideration and decision of the Senate, so that, if possible, it may reach the House, and receive the approbation of that body during the pre sent Congress. Mr HAMLIN. Mr. President, I concur in all that the senator from Tennessee has said in relati6n to the impor. tance of this measure. In my judgment, it is equalled y no question which has been or will be presented to us ror our consideration at this session of Congress; and I s la co-operate with great cheerfulness in urging this measure forward in connexion with the Senator who has brought it before the Senate. Still I do not believe it is expedient or proper that we should now proceed to vote upon a measure which embraces in its details so many questions as are connected with the bill now before us. it will not he forgotten that there was a bill reported at d-aI"?*81? of Co"!?"1" from the Committee on the PojrtOfflc. and Post Roads. It will be remembered that ?nri Territories reported another proposition, ?? L' I.aPPrehen(*, within the knowledge of Sena t>i? information which has been obtained from ?"??.? Pre,s' and ^"om Individuals who feel an inter nrnnnM 1'k that there are still other plans to be is a ?rBn( 7 ^is work shall be consummated. It Which r>r ^e best mode of proceeding? itself to thr>'n yar\?U" "kernes that which commends est decree ' ,2"?,deration of the Government in the great must before ..re"? <,t,f8tions which are practical, and mind's. intelligently, be settled in our own would*be ^opeT'th^IlUhel! we. Tote uPon this bill it fairly considered by the Senate tor?th Pr?JCCU "V"''1 ** taining. first, which offers oonstruction ; which offers thZ ZrllL . 7 f?T r*pld construction within any ^* * offers tho greatest amount of economy to theO wh,ch These are questions which the Senator from cOuF'V' has not discussed ; nor was it proper that helo^lH K discussed them. He has looked at this as a na!i??Ji tion?one connected with our social relations anATth onr commerce. But, before we vote upon the bill I cur most fully with the Senator from Tennessee that should examine all its details. And while I am w Senator who would interpose any objection to it, and while I am amongst those who will be foremorf in urging this matter to a consummation, I trust that no vote will be pressed upon the Senate to-day. I hope there are gentl. men who will examine these details, and who will be pre pared to present to tho 8enate their views at length and jf not, reluctant as I always am to address the Sen' ?W, I may be ootnpelled to perform that task myself. Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, I am in faror of the great objeot of this bill, and I think it should be made the leading measure of this session. I desire, as far as 1 hate anything to do, during this session, with the proceedings of the Senate, that we should recall, if possible, the pub lic mind from certain outside questions which have agita ted us during the last few sessious?I mean foreign rela tions?and direct the attention of Congress to our inter nal affairs?to the great improvements, and to the great progress of the age at home. I shall, therefore, on all occasions, aid the Senator from California in pressing this measure on the consideration of the Senate; but I think, 1 he were to urge it at this time, we should be proceeding without that information which is necessary even to Tote upon the details of the bill with any thing like an intelli gent view of the subjeot. The Senator himself has made a speech to -day contain ing a great many interesting facts; and I have no doubt it will be the desire of the Senate to look into and inform themselves in regard to them. He has also presented a map, showing the location and situation of the great lead ing railroad thoroughfares of the country, in connexion, I suppose, with this great route to the Pacific. As one great question, and perhaps the most difficult question to settle in connexion with this subject, will be in regard to the location of the route, we want information upon that subject; and before we can take one step with re gard to t}>e details of the bill, we ought to be informed in reference to the proposed points. I hope, therefore, that the Senator Will consent to postponethe bill to some fu ture day, and if he will name any d?y that will be agreea ble to him, I shall m?v? Uiat it be postponed until that time. Mr. GWIN. Mr. President, I will move that the fur ther consideration of the subject be postponed until to morrow. I wish to koep this measure before the Senate. It is now the first in order, and I am determined to press it to a vote. I have no very determined opinion in regard to the measure I have presented. I am in favor of any practicable plan of building a railroad to the 1 acific. I have brought this bill forward, because I have examined the subject with a great deal of attention and care, and I thought this was a practical and practicable measure. I believe the road can be built on the route which I have indicated in the bill; I have no doubt of it. 1 have in my port-folio evidence which cannot be controverted, uliowing the practicability of the route: evidence trom those who have travelled over it, from officers of the ar my, from trappers, men who have been for twenty or thir ty years examining that section of country. We have got on this route those passes through the mountains which we want. We have all the advantages for the mam trunk of the road, which is the great object at least. I have evi dence, which I shall at a proper time submit to the Senate, which proves unquestionably that the road can be on that route. All I want is to have action on the bill, and early action, by the Senate. I am not for pressing it to a vote to-day; but if gentlemen are prepared for the vote, I am, and I always have been prepared. 1 hope the Senate will act speedily. I am willing, however, to let the subject go over till to-morrow. Mr. DAVIS. I suppose no member of the Senate will view this in any other light than as a measure of very great importance. I rise to say, for one, that I am gra tified that it has been brought to the attention of the Senate. It seems to me that the time has come when our experience teaches us a lesson which we should not soon forget. We have been here for days discussing the terms and conditions of a treaty, and the manner in which l has been executed. Our attention has been hitherto di rected to inter-oceanic communication through a loreign territory, which at all times and under all circumstances will be hampered with conditions and difficulties that tend to the obstruction of the enterprise. I have been, in my own mind, for a long time prepared to secure by some means or other intercommunication between the Atlantio and the Pacific coast upon our own territory ; to have a highway of our own, which will be subject to no mterler ence from any quarter whatever; and I am free to say that I believe that to be one of the most effectual means which human ingenuity can devise of binding and uniting this Union together. Create a unity of interest, and you have a unity of feeling. # , . . But, sir, this is a great measure?it is very grave in its character; and what I should desire, if I am called upon to vote, is to vote for the best means of intercommunica tion between the Atlantic and Pacific. If a ?utel"^1' selected, I wish it to be the best route for commercial^pur poses, for trade and intercourse ; and I regret that the Senator from California should have thought it expedient in his bill to indicate any route whatever. I wish to see this whole question entirely open for further investiga tion, exploiition, and examination. Why, sir, the honorable gentleman proposes to make some ten thousand miles of railroad, and, so far as I un derstand, not one foot of it has been explored by engi neers for that purpose. This does not detract from its merits or its importance. It only shows the propne j of leaving this question to future investigation, bet us leave the question in some form, so that that location ot a highway may be taken which shall best subserve the great interest* of the country. For myself, 1 can have no feeling on this subject influenced by any local considera tions I have no motive but to go for the very best route which can be obtained. While up, I will make another suggestion to the honor able member from California. I do not know that I heard the bill read correctly, and I watched his remarks to see if there was any notice of one point there ; but the bill only provides, as I understood it, for the construction o a road, and nothing else. Let me tell my honorable friend that this does not begin to get a communication tnroug the country. You want the equipments of a road ; you want stations; you want watering places; you want loco motives; you want all the means of intercommunication ; and they will cost you one-third of the whole expense, they are not provided for in the bill, you will simply have a track ; and when you get it, you will have nothing to put upon it in order to move. If that be so, it.isi a great defect in the bill, and one that must be remedied, for there should be some provision to secure the means of moving on the road when you obtain it. I do not throw ont these suggestions by way of objec tion. I merely wish to bring the attention of gentlemen to the subjoct, to show them that it is one of great mag^ nitude; one of many details, and requiring very great and very careful consideration to secure it properly. I am ready to co-operate with the honorable Senator from a lifornia in doing that; but it is not to be done in a day. It requires care, and attention, and examination to ma ture a subject of this kind. , , . Mr. SEWARD. Mr. President, although 1 have not been anxious to be heard early on this question, I am quite unwilling that the 8tate from which 1 come,. and the commercial emporium which is located within it, shall suffer a day's debate to pass without giving utterance of a hearty concurrence in the solicitude which has been manifested from all parts of the House for ^ construc tion, and the speediest possible construction, of the Paci fic railroad. I rise with that view, as well as for the pur pose of expressing the thanks which are eminently due to The honorable Senator from California, who has brought the subject before us in a bill which whatever ma, be its defects, is, considering the magnitude and the noveltyof the case, so admirably digested; and for'having presented the merits and importance of this great work of internal improvement in a manner so just, and m g responding to the magnificence of the work itseir. Sir, 1 have observed, in the proseoution of works of internal improvement, that there is much less difficulty in bringing the public nund and the minds of legislative bodies to the adoption of a favorable view of an enter prise than there is in fixing the plan and the route forthe prosecution of the improvement; and I see at once that these are to be the great difficulties which the present^en terprise is to encounter in this body and in the other I,ranch of Congress. Those difficulties will probably dl^ close themselves in a more formidable shape than 1 have supposed, or than any of us have supposed With refe rence to that point I wish to be distinctly "nderstood noir I think that the estimate of the honorable Htnat or from California of the cost of the construction of the road is perhaps too light He to\ $17 ()00 possibly, and certainly for $-7,000, per m . hope so; but when I consider that it is to be made, throughout its entire length, through a region at.present uninhabited, it strikes me the requisite amount will be ""'Mr g?WlN I did not state that as the positive expense. , ,"'d ,L ?bU ..ill .pp-pruM provided the land donated would bring $l.2.? an acre. ,hMr"sFVAr?RD8i0ni ?i?i X iron for such a railroad JS L ?? p? ph.-. this for the purpose of saying that *h*^?r *27,000 or $47,000 a mile, or whether it ia to be paidI for in land or in monn/, 1 am in 'ftTor ?. " f _ through and through, right out and gtraightforw.H frorn beginning to end. And I know no other way in which we oan properly approach it exeept by coming to its con sideration with the fixed purpose of going through with it successfully to the end. I hope I may be allowed to say that I believe the great drfScuUy consists ^beginning. If nobody el8e shall offer a better plan than this, or another plan for our conside ration, 1 am prepared to Tote for this now. I am pre pared to hear others propose their plans. I have no pre possessions in favor of this; but it strikes me to be ? very ood one to begin upon; and when we once begin with a etermination to go through, we shall go through. ... h?Pe> therefore, that the honorable Senator from Ca lforaia will maist upon calling up the bill to-uprrow, that other plans, if there be any, will be offered, aid that he will not suffer foreign relations, or political relation*, or party relations, or any thing else to interfere with this United States 8?ne through tLe Sen,iU) of th? I confess, sir, that this is the proudest day exctot one that 1 have ever seen in the Senate of the UnitedItates The proudest day that I over saw in the Senate *ts the day when that honorable Senator aud another came into tins body, representatives of an American State 4n the shores of the Pacific ocean. It was the proudest dc f that I have ever seen in political life. Next after it, I think, is this day, on which a Sfcator from the 1 acific ooean does what we all then fo Maw would be done by Senators from those regions, call m up to the work of extending our communications to theriand our defence ami protection around them and over thiT Mr. CASS. Mr. President, i thin* the exprdM? these general views will be useful, at any rate rhWfcS course the measure may take. I have already taken oc | casion to say that no man estimates the value of this roa<J I higher than I do; and, within the constitutional power* or this Government, all our efforts should be directed to its construction. But I foresaw then, and so stated md it is still more apparent now, and will be yet more appa rent from day to day?that there is danger of frittering away our strength on mere local questions as to the ter mination of the road. With respect to the general idea of a railroad to the fa cific, I am in favor of it, and I shall vote for it mostcbeir : v but 1 think I cannot vote for this bill as it is. It is entirely too magnificent for me. I want a road, aid for the present I waut one road, and only one road fa one is all we can get now. The great object is to get v direct steam communication between the Mississippi am the Pacific. I do not care where you touch the Missis sippi, because, when you get there, wherever you are you will be in the centre of the country, and you can eo " * day? or two or three days to almost any part I n ^ object, therefore, is to get a direct road from I the Pacific to some practicable point on the Mississippi wherever it may be best. I do not know where the route should be. I have not the slightest idea in the world up on that point; at least I have not such an idea of the to pography of the country as would justify me in voting in favor of a particular route. My own impression is this* that general provision should be made in the bill, in gen eral terms, for the means by which the road is to be con structed, and then the details should be put upon the Ex ecutive, and the Executive, by a proper commission, to be appointed by the authority of law, should ascertain where the route ought to be, and the whole circumstances connected with it. That is my view. I am totally unprepared to vote upon i any particular route; and most assuredly it requires no ' spirit of prophecy to foretell that if you undertake to make now, what the honorable Senator from Massachu setts says are ten thousand miles of railroad, instead of making a airect route from the Mississippi to the Pacific you will have an utter failure. It cannot be done. It is a great mistake to suppose that any such project can be accomplished now. Mr. OWIN. The Senator will permit me to say that I only propose five thousand miles of railroad. There will however, be ten thousand miles of travel. Mr. CASS. If we can get a direct line from St. Louis or Memphis to the Pacific, at a distance of two thousand miles, let us select that. Do not let us send off branches then, in other directions, with no other apparent object ! than to gain strength. The bill has strength enough now ; in the hearts of the people; and such a course will, in my opinion, weaken the project; for many men would ' like to vote for the principle of the measure who would ! not desire to see the public means diverted to favor a par ticular place. What the honoratye gentleman from Cali- 1 foruia wants, and what we all want, is to unite the Pacific with this part of the country. We do not want to diverge from one point to another, simply with a view of gaining favor for the route, or answering any local or temporary purpose. All we want is a great road to bind us together; I and no gentleman can express himself more strongly upon that subject than I feel. There are some constitutional questions connected with the construction of this road which will come up in the course of discussion, and they will require consideration ; but the main object upon which we are nearly all agreed is the establishment of a road by means within the con stitutional powers of this Government. And we should do it practically ; that is, in such a manner that we can ascertain the proper direction, and the proper termini and the proper mode. These are points, some of them! which must be regulated by statutory provision, and some, in my opinion, by Executive administration. Mr. BUTLER. Mr. President, the great danger of this project, it seoms to me, is its magnificence and gran dear. The idea of having a communication from the At lantic to the Pacific ocean has its fascinations, no doubt; but I must be permitted to say that it also has its delu sions. 1 have no idea that one generation should antici pate posterity. The project of the honorable Senator from California is a project which perhaps posterity, ten or twenty years from this time, may accomplish; but I must say that 1 cannot vote blindfolded upon such a pro position without some knowledge of ray own. I have every confidence that he has given us in the bill the best route, because it has the sanction of his judgment and investiga tion. The admirable speech which he has delivered has convinced me that he has bestowed more attention upon this subject than any of us; certainly far more than I have been able to bestow upon it. But suppose, as has been intimated by the 8enator*from Massachusetts, it should turn out, when you build the road, that you have nothing but the iron and rails laid down; you would be like the man who built a mill, and when he went J to turn it had no water. I want something like a re connoissance or survey; I want the opinion of respon sible agents or commissioners, who may go out from this Government; and I want such information before me as will enable me to see how far we can embark in an enter prise of this kind. My motto, as I have often repeated it in this body, so far as regards this progressive age, is ml rito ?i tulo. I should like to know, in the first place,' whether wo can embark into this enterprise with the cer tainty of accomplishing it But 1 do not mean to intimate that I shall vote for the bill, even if its practicability be established, because I have constitutional objections upon this point, which are well known to the Senate. I have, however, been in this body long enough to know that we have survived the Constitu tion, and that all projects of this kind are to be effected independent of the Constitution. If it is to be effected independent of the obligations of the Constitution, it re solves itself into a question of legislative discretion. Then let us have all the wisdom upon the subject-I mean the wisdom which the light of experience can shed upon it, and the light which intelligent men who may be em ployed to survey this route can give us. It is possible that I may exert some influence over this subject by my vote, because if there be a difference be tween routes, or a difference as to one project over ano ther, I may cast my influence one way or the other. I may do so, and many of those who are situated in the same predicament with me may be compelled to do so. I have not the least idea of embarking in this discussion, but I think this is a measure which requires attentive consideration. If projects are to commend themselves to us by their magnificence, this is a very great and gran J one, and will immortali*e the gentleman. I do not kn?w, as I said before on several occasions, whether, after awhile, we shall not have a bill introduced here to hasten the millennium, because that might be rather a grander pro r.t ,v c*"not unfl*rt?ke to commit myself to the one or the other, but I have no idea of taking a vote upon the bill at this time. Mr. HUSK. I hope the honorable Senator from Q?ifc (/arolina will reconsider his notion that this railroad will not haafen the millennium. 2r JJUTLBE. I do not think it will. Mr. RIJ8K. I think it is perfectly practicable to be accomplished, and I think also that it is a duty which we owe to the citiiens of California to construct such a road, and think it is proper as a precautionary measure in case we should have trouble with foreign Powers. It is eminently practicable. I have no idea but that upon the abstraot question of the construction of a railroad from the Atlantic to the Paciflo there is a majority of both Houses of Congress in favor of it. I believe that there has been for the last fonr or five years a majority, when ever a practicable project should come before as, who would in favor of it. But we split upon the route. Here is the difficulty which we must surmount As a matter of course, the representatives of each State will look to the locality which will most benefit their partieu lar soction of country ; and hence divisions of oounsels arise upon that point. I do not see that that difficulty will he obviated by the suggestion of the Senator from Michigan, (Mr. Cass,) that the selection of the route be left to the Executive. The very same influences which are brought to bear upon Congress will be brought to bear upon him, and will embarrass him in the seleotioa of a route, so that it will be a very difficult matter for him to decide upon the proper route for the construction of the road. In reflecting upon this subject, one thing has suggested itself to my mind as most important. The Government cannot build this road, because it would require an im mense expenditure, and perhaps no practical result would come from it. It must be left, then, to private enterprise. It will require a vast amount of capital. I think the Senator from California (Mr. Gwm) has put his estimates entirely too low. I shall be satisfied to see such a road built at a cost of thirty-five thousand dollars per mile from the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean. It will take an immense amount of capital, and if you will throw open a* far aa possible the choice of the route to those who will conatinMt (he road and invest their money in the work, Mauirlac suitable guarant*-*"' ' *?*t it shall not operate an a injuriously, that will be the best place vguch tkJMHMrieot; because they, as a matter of eonara?, will s'elfc* the point where they can make their inveetmen most profitable by the transportation of passengers and freight. That will be the point where injustice will not be done, and if/particular local interests are not to be re garded, that will be the most suitable location for the route. Another difficulty which presents itself is the want of means to construct the road. There are vast differences of opinion among honorable Senators upon this subject. The honorable Senator from California and myself believe that the lnnd upon the route will pay for it. I am not sure that our anxiety to have the road constructed does not furnish us with some facta upon the subject. 1 feel very anxious to have a road constructed, and the Senator from California is, perhaps, still more anxious, because he is more directly interested in it. These are things that ought to be considered. It is before the Sentte, and it is a very important measure, and we cannot move until we agree on some means by which we can get over the diffi culties connected with the looation of the road. There must be something done upon that subject so as to avoid the difficulty which will arise on acoount of the differences if opinion as to the particular locality of the road. Then, In the next place, we must look to the means ne cessary fer the purpose of constructing the road; and tken it is important that we should look to guarding the road against becoming a great monopoly which may be injurious in its effects. These things require mature re flection. Some persons believe we had better have the road tonstruoted by a company. The proposition of the honorable Senator from California is, that the different States shall construct it. I can see difficulties in that. They will have particular locations or points to which they will wish to have the road tend, and many difficul 1 ties will grow out of that. I hope, therefore, that the Senate?and that was my principal object in rising?will take up all these different projects and examine them, with a view to practical action, and that we will keep this matter before us from day to day, together with the sug gestions as to amendments to or substitutes for the bill, until we shall agree upon something which promises to accomplish the great object. Mr. DAVIS. I would ask the Senator from Texas if he did not intimate his intention, a few days ago, to pro pose an amendment? Mr. BUSK. Yes, sir. ? Mr. DAVIS. I would be glad to have that brought for ward, so that we may see it. Mr. GWIN. lfthebUl is postponed until to-morrow, ( to-morrow being private bill day, it will come up on Mon- j day as the regular order, and in the mean time the va- i rious propositions can be looked into. I am not tenacious ? about my particular bill. I want to have the object ac- j complished. I stated that the value of the land, at $1 an acre, would be $27,700 a mile; but I think that it will' be worth more than that. The road will make the land ' more valuable. That was my statement. 1 hope that the proposition which 1 made to print two thousand extra oopies of my bill will be agreed to, so that ' we can have it as the basis of our action on the subject. That is what I wish ; and 1 hope the Senator from Texas and other Senators will bring forward propositions to amend it. I do not pretend that mine is the best one. It is the best in my judgment, but I may be mistaken. I know the route is practicable, and 1 have given my views on the subject, with no wish to deceive the Senate. My object is to keep the measure before the Senate until it is acted upon?until we mature a plan, and adopt some one of the propositions which may be submitted, as I believe the majority of the body are for establishing a road be tween the Atlantic and Pacific. I now move that the fur ther consideration of the subject be postponed until^to morrow, and that two thousand extra copies of the bill be printed for the use of the Senate. ^ Mr. RUSK. I desire, with the permission of the se nate,'to lay on the table an amendment which I propose to offer, and ask that it may be printed. The PRESIDING OFFICER, (Mr.NoRais in the chair.) If there be no objection the proposed amendment will be ordered to be printed. There was no objection. . ,, Mr MANGL'M- 1 desire to inquire of the honorable Senator from California if there have been any copies of this bill printed and laid upon the tables of Senators Mr. GWIN. V<*. sir. Mr. MANGUM. I have not one. Mr. BELL. I would suggest that there are other pro jects before the Senate which should also be printed. There is the project of Mr. Whitney, which has been pre sented te the consideration of the Senate for three years past It will be but fair to have all these measures be fore us; and if they are not printed, I move that they be ^"mi-^RUSK Mr. Whitney's bill was reported from the Committee on the Post Office and Post Road, at the last session, and the usual number of copies was printed, though I believe they are quite scarce, and it might be well to print it again. , . , Mr. BELL. It is suggested that they are not to be had. I move therefore, that the usual number of that bill, and also of the bill reported from the Committee on Territories at the last session, be reprinted for the use of the Senate. I will not move the printing of an extra number. The PRESIDING OFFICER. If there be no objection, will be so ordered. There was no objection. Mr. BORLAND. I have but a word or two to say. >o one can approve more highly than I do this object. No one can rejoice more than 1 do that it is before the Senate with a prospect of doing something for the accomplish ment of the great work of connecting the Mississippi and the Pacific ocean. There is a better prospect now than ever before that something will be done. The subject lias been before us for several years, and several projects have been presented to us, and I think it is but just to the Committee on Publio Lands of this body to make a state ment with regard to them in connexion with it. Nearly five years ago this subject was referred to them. Various propositions were before the Senate for the con struction of a road, and that committee, on three differ ent occasions, reported bills for the accomplishment of the verv object which seems now so desired by Senators, nnd so necessary to enable them to form a correct judg ment upon the question. They reported three severs I times, that, instead of adopting any particular route as proposed, our topographical engineers should be employ ed to explore and survey the country betweee the Missis sippi river and the Pacific ocean, with a view to ascertain the shortest and best route for the construction of a rail road. That matter was urged upon the Senate over and over again. Now we see the difficulties that surround us for the want of that very work which might have procured for us the knowledge without which we are unable t*> act understand! n*]y- .v.. i a* We all desire the road, and no one more than <10. The constituents of no Senator sre more directly ana deeply interested in this work than mine, and so one wi (jo further than I will for the accomplishment of it. But we shall havt to consider the subject very carefully before we adopt any one route, in order that we may have more accurate information than we now have, since we cer tainly have not enough information now to enable u* to select any one to the exclusion of all other!", and we have many routes pressing upon our ntter.tion. Mr. HAMLIN. I have been requested to present another bill in relation to this matter, in which some o onr citiiens are Interested; and I ask that it may be printed, that w?j may consider it in connexion with t e other bill. It ia prepared by some eitnens of New i <>r , and is in the foi'm of an act. I hope it may be printed with the other Mil. , The bill was orde.ed to be printed and the Senate adj d. TABLE-CHAT IN MOORE'S DIAR7. One dinner scene at Lord Holland's, a specimen of many, is worth giving entire. There was good talking that duy in Paris, July 3,1821 : A D15NEH AT LORD HOLLAND'S. " Company at the Hollands', Lambton, Lady Louisa and her sister, Lord Alvanley, Lord John, Lattin, Lord Thanet, Lord Qowef, &c. Talkiug of Delille, Lord H. said that, notwithstanding his pretty description of Ken sington Gardens, he walked with him ouce there, and he did not knoar them when he waa in them. Mad. de Stael never looked at any thing ; passed by scenery of every kind without a glance at it; which did not, however, pre vent her describing it. I aaid that Lord Byron could not describe any thing whioh he had not had actually un der his eyes, and that he did it either on the spot or imme diately after. This, Lord Holland remarked, was the sign of a true poet, to write only from imyretsums ; but where then do all the imaginary scenes of Dante, Milton, &c. go, if it ia necessary to tte what we desoribe in order to be a true poet? Lattin mentioned that Gail, the old Qreek professor here, who was a great friend of Dolille's, embalmed him after his death, and varnished him, and, after making a horrible figure of the poor poet, pnt a wreath of laurel round his head. Lord Holland men tioned hovwm once been betrayed mto a nest eu*?erated compliment, in saying that Virgil was lweky in meeting a poet aa great as himae f trauslat* kirn; to which ?? lille answered, tiavcz-rwe, milord, quevqmvm* dt(es la est >oli, ma is Iris jolt Before dinner, on my remarking to Lut trel a fine effect of sunshine in the garden, whieh very soon passed away, he said, 4 How often in life we should like to arrest our beaux moment; should be so obliged to the five minute* if they would only stay ten.' Allen, on our talking of persons who described what they had not seen, said that Adam Smith never attended to any thing that was said in conversation ; and yet (or rather perhaps because he did not attend) used to give the most delightful and amusing accounts of all that had been said, filling up the lew out lines his ear had caught from his own imagination. Talk ed of the numerous editions of Voltaire now printed. By the bye, Gallois mentioned the other day, as an instance of the great increase of printing and publishing, that in Marmontel's lifetime they did not venture to publish a com plete editiou of his works, but printed the popular thing separate from the rest, in order to facilitate the sale ; and that it took a long lapse of time, even so, to sell off the whole; whereas, within some years past, a collection of all his works, including the 4 Theatre,' which nobody ever reads, has gone off not only successfully but rapidly. He granted, however, that reading has not increased in proportion, but that books are become more an article of furniture and luxury than of study. Lord Holland-said that Lord Exeter burnt his copy of Voltaire at the begin ning of the French revolution, and that he had been told Lord Grenville had actually turned a copy out of his li brary at the same time." * . We shall meet with little better than this, (says the Literary World,) though, as Moore himself does not often appear as a wit in his own Diary, it is but fair, in con cluding our notice of these most agreeable volumes, to give him one opportunity of retailing his good things at a parting dinner given to him by his friends when he left Paris in 1822: WUAT MOORE SAID. 44 The dinner took place at Robert's; about fifty sat down ; Lord Trimlestown in the chair ; among the com pany were Lord Granai'J, Sir G. Webster, Robert Adair, &c. Collinet's baod attended ; the dinner one of Robert's best; and all went off remarkably well. In returning thanks for my health 1 gave, ' Prosperity to England,' , with an eulogiuin on the moral worth of that country, which was telt more, both by myself and the company. J from its being delivered in France, and produced much effect. Douglas, in proposing Bessy's health, after prais- j ing her numerous virtues, &c. concluded thus: 4 We need not, therefore, gentlemen, be surprised that Mr. Moore is about to communicate to the world ' The Loves of the Angels,' having been so long familiar with one at home.' j In returning thanks for this, 1 mentioned the circum I stance of the village bells welcoming her arrival, as being 1 her triumph in England, while 1 had mine this day in i France, and concluded thus: 4 These, gentlemen, are re wards and atonements for every thing. No matter how poor I may steal through life?no matter how many ca lamities (even heavier than that from which I have aow been relieved) may fall upon me?as long as such friends as you hold out the hand of fellowship to me at parting, and the sound of honest English bells shall wel come me and mine at meeting, I shall consider myself a Croesus in that best wealth, happiness, and shall lay down my head grateful for the gifts God has given.' In introducing the subject to the village bells I said: 4 This is a day of vanity for me ; and you, who set the fountain running, ought not to complaid of its overflowing.' Lat tin proposed the health of my father and mother, and ' mentioned the delight he had felt in witnessing my father's triumph at the dinuer in Dublin. In returning l thanks for this, I alluded to Southey's making his Keha- j | ma enter triumphantly in through seven gates at the same moment, and said: 4 This miraculous multiplication of j one gentleman into seven has been, to a great degree, I 1 effected by the toasts into which your kindness hassubdi ' vided me this day concluding thus: 4 I have often, gentlemen, heard of sympathetic ink, but here ia a li quid which has much better claims to that epithet; and it there is a glass of such at this moment before my good old father, it must, I think, sparkle in sympathetic reply to those which you have done him the honor of filling to him.' In proposing the health of Richard Power, (who was present,) 1 spoke of him as 4 combining all that was manliest in man, with all that is gentlest in woman ; that consistency of opinion and conduct which commands re spect, with that smooth facility of intercourse which wins affection : a union, as it were, of the stem and flower of life ; of the sweetness which we love and the solidity on which we repose.' In alluding to the charitable object of the Kilkenny Theatre, I called it 4 that happy expedi ent for enlisting gaiety in the cause of benevolence, and extracting from the smiles of one part of the community a warmth with which to dry up the tears of the otherthe happiness we had enjoyed together at that time, 4 days I po?Ned in studying Shakspeare, and nights in acting or I discussing him ; the happy freedom of those suppers I (tamquam irra liber las?later enough, God knows) where, *s in the supper described by Voltaire? La liberty, convive aimaUe, Mit les deux coudes sur la table, Kntre le plaisir et l'atnour. " In proposing the health of Lord Trimlestown, spoke of his being particularly fit to take the chair at such a meet ing, not only from our old acquaintance, Ac., but his love of literature, and 4 the success with which he had prac I ticed it; his intimate knowledge of French and English, ! which placed him as a sort of Janus between the two languages, with a double fronted insight into the beauties i of each, and enabled him not only to make the wild tale of Atala resound, in language worthy of its sweetness. I on the banks of the Thames, but to occupy himseir (as I I was proud to Bay he was doing at present) in teaching the I story of ' Lai la IU*>kh ' to the lighter echoes of the Seine. I A song was sung by Orattan -luring the night, which he bad written for the occasion. Left them between one and | two, and went to Douglai's. where I supped. The last word is inimitable. The poor fellow, with all that exertion, had not supped ! A Thino which everv Parmer shovld Khow.?-If you I wish to drive a cut nail into seasoned oak timber, and I not to have it break or bend, just have a small quantity of oil near by and dip the nail before driving, and it 1 will never fail to go. In mending carts and ploughs this is of great advantage, for they are generally made most ! of oak wood. In straightening old nail* before using, let it be done on wood, and with eaay blows. If done on j iron they will be sure to break. A Poser. It is ?*>d that a gentleman from Tennessee observed to Gen. PiEtca, a few days since, that he came from a district which had never held or solicited an office from the General Government. 44 Then," said Gen. Pierce, promptly, 44 it is to be hoped that it will never break in on such a beautiful custom'.' Grnat SriEP.?The Cincinnati express train, on the New York and Erie Railroad, ran from llornellsville to Susquehanna, on Tuesday, a distance of 146 miles, in lfil minutes. The Bing'.iampton Republican believes thi* to be the greatest speed which has ever been attained, for so great a distance, on any road in the United States. j The town board of excise of Saratoga have licensed thirty two hotels and small tarerns to sell spirituous liquors which, for a " tutoring place," will do pretty well, we should say. Kiftem of the licenses, ob??rvf, ar? (rfvnt?<i with the con dition "not to be drunk on the premises," hot whether the proTiio is meant to spply U> the drink or ths drinker* i? net rery distinctly stated.? HoHtm Pot. THE COPPER MINES OF EAST TENNESSEE. The Knoxville Register the 16th inatant aays: " Every day's intelligence from the Copper Mines ? " i11,6 bU8ine8S " 10 pr0Te ,OCT?ti'? *o ? trnordinary degree. We hare been informed, and that too by a gentleman in whom we can conide, that in a dingle <Uy one man took firom the mine* on, enough to dolL? THeW Y?rk ??e humdT* ftBd ? ? preparations for mining extensively are ererjr day progressing, in the-way of sinking shafts, tun ne ng, c., and if the ore should .prove to be as abun ant and rich as the indications now lead us to believe it will, these mines will certainly be more valuable than any gold or silver mines upon the globe. We are ere<HMy in formed that the ore which has been taken front these mines yields thirty and forty per centum of copper, and in some instances as much as seventy per centum. When it18 kj>own that the ore is worth in the New York market six dollars per ton for each per centum of copper, the va ue of these mu?a is no longer a matter of conjecture." same paper also bays thai " w>>w;^ w?w yean ia*d? im*. ??unvy, Mast Tennessee, have ad TUMd in value almost incredibly. It is a?w asserted, by _wio profess * know how the *? b, within that time mineral, have b,en develop i. th* county whichmakethe lands worth Lm milium, j than before." V*bi?oj?t Ljqvob Law.?At the railroad depot at St. Albans recently three casks labelled "sngnr and hams" were received, txit some of the watchers having scented totnem them, they were opened and fewnd to contain brandy and gin. The sheriff has advertised them. The Vermont Repository states that a large qaantity of liquors are advertised fw sale at auotion in its town, and thinks tbat this is a new way of getting round the law, and that there will be a plenty of sheriff and constehie sales of liquor if the practice is not stopped by law. We learn that the Secrstart or thb Natt has sus pended the distribution of the fund voted by Congress as extra compensation to those engaged in the naval service on the coast of California during the Mexican war. He had reason to believe that measures were matured for defrauding the Government by means of false affidavits and forged certificates, and his order of suspension was issued to detect and counteract these schemes of plunder. [Union. Wrouoht Iron from THB On*.?We some time ago printed a statement to the effect that a person by the name of James Renton, residing at Newark, New Jersey, had discovered a process by which to obtain wrought iron directly from the ore, and we are now gratified to add that the expectations of those familiar with the process are fuljy realized by its practical results. The Scientific American, referring to the subject, says that " the fur nace erected by the patentee and his associates in New ark works well, and is approved by all who have seen it in operation, so that all that has been said in its favor thus far proves true." Should this invention be fully brought to bear, it must have a most important effect upon the price of i ron. ?Ilarrisburg Union. ROCK OR BASS FISHING EXTRAORDINARY. We are informed that Mr. Cramptok, the British Minis ter, and Mr. Lankan, captured at the Little Falls of the Potomac yesterday morning about two hundred and fifty P*und, of this excellent fish. The total number was sixty four, the largest weighing nearly twelve pounds, and all taken with the delicate but powerful tackle manufactured by the Messrs. Conroy, of New York. But, what is still more remarkable, the fish were caught *ithia the BWM), ir tr?<-. ?u t-Und. This is said to be the best sport which has been experienced at the Little Falls for tea years past?Union. The first passenger train from Syracuse to Rochester "J tbe d^t route passed over the road on Wednesday. Thb Baptist Missionary Ujuok, lately in session 'at Albany, was attended by one thousand delegates. Amongst the communications presented from the Executive Com mittee was a correspondence between the American Minis ZT.?lD'?t PnU*M iD ng%Td Persecutions to Which the Baptists of Oermany had been subjected. The King had exhibited the kindest spirit, and declared that, if the Baptists would effect an ecclesiastical organization which could be recognised by the Government, all causes of complaint would cease. The Board recommended that it shall be by the appointment of a Board of five in Ger many, who, in co-operation with the Board here, should be authorized to license colporteurs in Germany. The Chicago Tribune says that a new Catholic Cathe dral is to be commenced some time during the season on the north side, near the Catholic College in that city.' It will probably be the largest and finest in that part of the country, and cost between $160,000 and f200,000. New Oroabiiatioi.-A call for a general religious con ference, with a view to establish a new yearly meeting of the Society of Friends in Pennsylvania, has been pub lished in some of the newspapers. The conference is to meet at Friends' Meeting House, at Kennett Square Chester county, on first day, the 22d of Fifth month next' A large number of what are called Progressive Frisnds it is said, have signed the called. Another Bonis Bark.?The '?ColumbiT Bank " one of those promissory concerns which h*ve squatted amongst us within twelve months past, and whose principal object seems to be to get their miserable notes out, without any preparation for ever seeing them again, closed its brief career last evening. We do not believe that the sum in which this community has been mulcted by this concern is large, yet many persons little able to afford to lose any thing have been made to suffer. We hear that the prin cipal "dig has been made in the West. The present scarcity and consequent high price of cattle is attributed to the numerous herds tbat are being driven over the plains to California, A recent statement "bows that from ono county in Missouri 8,000 head of cattle were about to be started for Oregon and California. There is no doubt, however, that speculators have also taken advantage of the scarcity to mise the prioe to an exorbitant rate.?Baltimore American. - Militant Movements i!* Texas?A letter dated the 8th ultimo at Fort Ewell. situated on the Nueces river, in Western Texas, about half way between its mouth at Corpus Chr sti and its head in the mountains, sayi: " The Hitle Regiment settled at Fort Ewell'about a vear since, and commenced erecting buildings of adobes were relieved from that duty last fall and ordered ^scoS for Indians over the country between the Nueces *?<* Ri? Grande rivers, south of Eagle Pass and Zt InCe ? assure you they have scouted over this country pretty thoroughly, often coming upon Indian trails, but o!\y on one occasion overtaking the savages. Charging camp the Indians fled, and the scouting party capt.uil some fifteen or more horses, mules, &c. CBP,ur?*? " Companies C and G of the Rifle* ?m tk. now at this post. Brevet-Maior J.k! a ?? B'J _ ?revei-major Jehn 8. Simonson is com - LieuJ HoiSifl V h"V: T?n John*- ('?Pl Newton, n d LTl duty here, com Mound Ra^ho ^ ,n?r; company F is at Red dered to Kmggold" Ba^ac^0 '^oTcomL R ll ^ at Fort Merrill *nd companies I and E are '' Th* fo*?? Vve committed no recent depredations, or eren shown themselves of late in this vioinity. Tho pr u stations of the different oompanies of the Rifle Kegiment are very judicious, and, if preserved, I think the Indians will hardly dare venture down the country mucn this summer.*'